.

Constantinian dynasty

St. Constantine I the Great (Constantinus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus Pontifex Maximus Pater Patriae Proconsul) (AD 272 - 337, ruled 306 - 337) – son of Constantius I Chlorus; left the empire redivided among his heirs; canonized

Constantius II (Iulius Constantius) (317 - 361, ruled 337 - 361) – son of Constantine I

Julian the Apostate (Claudius Iulianus) (331 - 363, ruled 361 - 363) – Pagan son-in-law of Constantine I, brother-in-law and first cousin of Constantius II, grandson of Constantius I

Non-dynastic

Jovian (Iovianus) (332 - 364, ruled 363 - 364) – Soldier, restored Christianity

Valentinian-Theodosian dynasty

Valentinian I (Valentinianus) (321 - 375, ruled 364) – Soldier, redivided the empire, taking the West

Valens (Iulius Valens) (328 - 378, ruled 364 - 378) – brother of Valentinian I

Gratianus (359 - 383, ruled 378 - 379) – son of Valentinian I

Theodosius I the Great (346 - 395, ruled 379 - 395) – soldier; married to Valentinian I's daughter Galla

Arcadius (377 - 408, ruled 395 - 408) – son of Theodosius I

Theodosius II the Younger (401 - 450, ruled 408 - 450) – son of Arcadius

Ste. Pulcheria (399 – 453, ruled 408 - 441, 450) – sister of Theodosius II; canonized

St. Marcian (Marcianus) (392 - 457, ruled 450 - 457) – soldier; married Pulcheria after Theodosius's death; canonized by the Orthodox church

Leonid dynasty

Leo I the Thracian (Valerius Leo) (401-474, ruled 457 - 474) – soldier

Leo II (467 - 474, ruled 474) – grandson of Leo I, son of Zeno

Zeno (425 - 491, ruled 474 - 475) – son-in-law of Leo I; orig. Tarasicodissa, an Isaurian

Basiliscus ( ? - c. 477, ruled 475 - 476) – usurper; brother-in-law of Leo I

Zeno (ruled 476 - 491) – restored

Anastasius I (430 - 518, ruled 491 - 518) – silentiarius; son-in-law of Leo I, elevated by selection by Zeno's widow Ariadne

Justinian dynasty

Justin I (Iustinius)(450 - 527, ruled 518 - 527) – commander of the guard

Justinian orders the Compilation of the Pandects

St. Justinian I the Great (Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus)(482 - 565, ruled 527 - 565) – nephew and adoptive son of Justin I; canonized by the Orthodox church

Theodora

Justin II (Iustinius Iunior) (520 - 578, ruled 565 - 578) – nephew of Justinian I;

Tiberius II (Tiberius Constantinus) (540 - 582, ruled 574, 578 - 582) – Comes Excubitris; adopted by Justin II

Maurice (Mauricius Tiberius) (539 - 602, ruled 582 - 602) – son-in-law of Tiberius II

Non-dynastic

Phocas the Tyrant ( ? - 610, ruled 602 - 610) – usurper; betrayed by his son-in-law

Heraclian dynasty

Heraclius (or Ηράκλειος) (575 - 641, ruled 610 - 641) – usurper; son of the Armenian Exarch of Africa

Constantine III Heraclius (Κωνσταντίνος Γ' Ηράκλειος) (612 - 641, ruled 641) – son of Heraclius; coemperor with Heracleonas

Heracleonas (Heraclius II) Constantine (Ηρακλεωνάς) (626 - 641?, ruled 641) – son of Heraclius; mutilated and deposed

Constans II Heraclius (Κώνστας Β' Ηράκλειος) (630 - 668, ruled 641 - 668) – son of Constantine III; assassinated by chamberlain

Constantine IV the Bearded (Κωνσταντίνος Δ' ο Πωγώνατος ) (649 - 685, ruled 668 - 685) – son of Constans II

Justinian II the Slit-nosed (Ιουστινιανός Β' ο Ρινότμητος) (668 - 711, ruled 685 - 695) – son of Constantine IV; mutilated, deposed, & exiled

Non-dynastic

Leontius (Λεόντιος) (ruled 695 - 698) – Strategos (general); mutilated, deposed, & imprisoned - later executed

Tiberius III (Τιβέριος Γ' ο Αψίμαρος) (ruled 698 - 705) – German orig. named Apsimar; deposed & executed

Heraclian dynasty

Justinian II (ruled 705 - 711) – restored; deposed & executed

Non-dynastic

Philippicus Bardanes (Φιλιππικός Βαρδάνης) (ruled 711 - 713) – Armenian soldier; deposed & mutilated

Anastasius II (Αναστάσιος Β') ( ? - 721, ruled 713 - 715) – orig. Artemios; secretary of Philippicus; deposed & entered monastery, later revolted & was executed

Theodosius III (Θεοδόσιος Γ' ο Αδραμμυττηνός) (ruled 715 - 717) – tax-collector; abdicated & entered monastery

Isaurian dynasty

Leon the Isaurian against the Arabs

Leo III the Isaurian (Λέων Γ' ο Ίσαυρος) (675 - 741, ruled 717 - 741) – Strategos

Constantine V Copronymus (the Dung-named) (Κωνσταντίνος Ε' ο Κοπρώνυμος ή Καβαλίνος) (718 - 745, ruled 741) – son of Leo III; deposed

Artabasdus the Icon-lover (Αρτάβασδος ο Εικονόφιλος) (ruled 741 - 743) – Leo III's chamberlain and son-in-law

Constantine V (ruled 743 - 775) – restored

Leo IV the Khazar (Λέων Δ' Χάζαρος) (750 - 780, ruled 775 - 780) – son of Constantine V

Constantine VI the Blinded (Κωνσταντίνος ΣΤ') (771 - 797, ruled 780 - 797) – son of Leo IV; deposed and mutilated by mother

Ste. Irene the Athenian (Ειρήνη η Αθηναία) (755 - 803, ruled 797 - 802) – wife of Leo IV, mother of Constantine VI; canonized by the Orthodox church; deposed & exiled to Lesbos

Phocid dynasty

Nicephorus, 811 AD, Constantine Manasses Chronicle 1345 Manuscript

Nicephorus I Phocas (Νικηφόρος Α' Φωκάς) ( ? - 811, ruled 802 - 811) – Megas Logothetes; died in battle, skull used as wine cup

Stauracius (Σταυράκιος Φωκάς) ( ? - 812, ruled 811) – son of Nicephorus I; paralyzed

Michael I Rhangabes (Μιχαήλ Α' ο Ραγκαβέ) (ruled 811 - 813) – son-in-law of Nicephorus I & master of the palace; deposed & entered monastery

Not identified Person, Early Byzantine Period

Not identified Person, Early Byzantine Period

Non-dynastic

Leo V the Armenian (Λέων Ε' ο Αρμένιος) (775 - 820, ruled 813 - 820) – Strategos; assassinated

Phrygian dynasty

Michael II the Stammerer or the Amorian (Μιχαήλ Β' ο Τραυλός η Ψηλλος) (770 - 829, ruled 820 - 829) – Strategos, son-in-law of Constantine VI

Theophilus (Θεόφιλος) (813 - 842, ruled 829 - 842) – son of Michael II

Ste. Theodora (Θεοδώρα) (ruled 842 - 855) – wife of Theophilus; empress and regent for Michael III; canonized by the Orthodox church; deposed & entered monastery

Michael III the Drunkard (Μιχαήλ Γ' ο Μέθυσος) (840 - 867, ruled 842 - 867) – son of Theophilus; assassinated

Macedonian dynasty

Basil I the Macedonian (Βασίλειος Α') (811 - 886, ruled 867 - 886) - married Michael III's widow; died in hunting accident

Leo VI the Wise (Λέων ΣΤ' ο Σοφός) (866 - 912, ruled 886 - 912) – likely either son of Basil I or Michael III;

Alexander III (Αλέξανδρος Γ' του Βυζαντίου) (870 - 913, ruled 912 - 913) – son of Basil I, regent for nephew

Constantine VII the Purple-born (Κωνσταντίνος Ζ' ο Πορφυρογέννητος) (905-959, ruled 913 - 959) – son of Leo VI

Romanus I Lecapenus (Ρωμανός Α' ο Λεκαπηνός) (870 - 948, ruled 919 - 944) – father-in-law of Constantine VII; coemperor, deposed by his sons & entered monastery

Romanus II the Purple-born (Ρωμανός Β' ο Πορφυρογέννητος) (939 - 963, ruled 959 - 963) – son of Constantine VII , his wife was Theophano

Nicephorus II Phocas (Νικηφόρος Β' Φωκάς ή Νικηφόρος Β' ο Φωκάς) (912 - 969, ruled 963 - 969) – Strategos; married Romanus II's widow, regent for Basil; assassinated

John I Tzimisces (Ιωάννης Α' Κουρκούας ο Τσιμισκής) (925 - 976, ruled 969 - 976) – brother-in-law of Romanus II, lover of Nicephorus's wife but banned from marriage, regent for Basil

Basil II the Bulgar-slayer (Βασίλειος Β' ο Βουλγαροκτόνος) (958 - 1025, ruled 976 - 1025) – son of Romanus II

Constantine VIII (Κωνσταντίνος Η')(960-1028, ruled 1025 - 1028) – son of Romanus II; silent coemperor with Basil II

Zoe I (Ζωή Α') ((c. 978 - 1050, ruled 1028 - 1050) – daughter of Constantine VIII

Romanus III Argyrus (Ρωμανός Γ' ο Αργυρός) (968 - 1034, ruled 1028 - 1034) – eparch of Constantinople; Zoe's first husband, arranged by Constantine VIII; murdered

Michael IV the Paphlagonian (Μιχαήλ Δ' ο Παφλαγών) (1010 - 1041, ruled 1034 - 1041) – Zoe's second husband

Michael V the Caulker (Μιχαήλ Ε' ο Καλαφάτης) (1015 - 1042, ruled 1041 - 1042) – Michael IV's nephew, Zoe's adopted son

Theodora (Θεοδώρα) (980 - 1056, ruled 1042) – daughter of Constantine VIII, coempress with Zoe

Constantine IX Monomachus (Κωνσταντίνος Θ' ο Μονομάχος) (1000 - 1055, ruled 1042 - 1055) – Zoe's third husband

Theodora (Θεοδώρα) (ruled 1055 - 1056) – restored

Non-dynastic

Michael VI the Bellicose (Μιχαήλ ΣΤ' ο Στρατιωτικός) (ruled 1056 - 1057) – chosen by Theodora; deposed & entered monastery

Comnenid dynasty

Isaac I Comnenus (Ισαάκιος Α' ο Κομνηνός) (c. 1007 - 1060, ruled 1057 - 1059) – soldier; abdicated in a fit of illness & entered monastery

Doukid dynasty

Constantine X Ducas (Κωνσταντίνος Ι' ο Δούκας) (1006 - 1067, ruled 1059 - 1067) – selected by Michael Psellus the Younger

Michael VII Ducas Quarter-short (Μιχαήλ Ζ' Δούκας Παραπινάκης) (1050 - 1090, ruled 1067 - 1078) – son of Constantine X, originally coemperor with two brothers and Romanus; deposed & entered monastery

Romanus IV and his wife Eudocia Makrembolitissa , who was also the wife of Constantine X

Romanus IV Diogenes (Ρωμανός Δ' Διογένης) (1032 - 1072, ruled 1068 - 1071) – married Constantine X's widow; coemperor, deposed & mutilated to death

Nicephorus III Botaniates

Nicephorus III Botaniates (Νικηφόρος Γ' Βοτανειάτης) (1001 - 1081, ruled 1078 - 1081) – Strategos claiming descent from the Fabii, bigamously married Michael VII's wife; deposed & forced into monastery

Comnenid dynasty (restored)

Alexius I Comnenus (Αλέξιος Α' Κομνηνός) (1057 - 1118, ruled 1081 - 1118) – nephew of Isaac I, married Constantine X's grandniece ( Anna Dalassena , Irene Ducaena , Anna Comnena , Isaac Comnenus)

John II Comnenus the Beautiful (Ιωάννης Β' Κομνηνός o Καλος) (1087 - 1143, ruled 1118 - 1143) – son of Alexius I, died of a hunting accident

Isaakios Comnenus

Maria Comnena, Queen consort of Hungary

Theodora Comnena

Manuel I Comnenus the Great (Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός ο Μέγας) (1118 - 1180, ruled 1143 - 1180) – son of John II
( Maria Comnena , Porphyrogenita )

Alexius II Comnenus (Αλέξιος B' Κομνηνός) (1169 - 1183, ruled 1180 - 1183) – son of Manuel I; murdered with garrotte

Andronicus I Comnenus (Ανδρόνικος Α' Κομνηνός) (1118 - 1185, ruled 1183 - 1185) – nephew of John II; married Alexius II's widow; deposed, tortured & executed; font of the Komnenid line in Trapezountas

Maria Comnena, Queen consort of Jerusalem

Angelid dynasty

Isaac II Angelus (Ισαάκιος Β' Άγγελος) (1156 - 1204, ruled 1185 - 1195) – great-grandson of Alexius I, deposed & blinded

Alexius III Angelus (Αλέξιος Γ' Άγγελος) (1153 - 1211, ruled 1195 - 1203) – brother of Isaac II, deposed by IV Crusade & eventually forced into monastery,

Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamaterina

Anna Angelina

Irene Lascarina

Alexius IV Angelus (Αλέξιος Δ' Άγγελος) (1182 - 1204, ruled 1203 - 1204) – son of Isaac II, deposed & executed

Isaac II Angelus (ruled 1203 - 1204) – largely witless, restored as coemperor with Alexius IV, deposed

Alexius V Ducas the Bushy-eyebrowed (Αλέξιος Ε' Δούκας ο Μούρτζουφλος) (1140 - 1204, ruled 1204) – son-in-law of Alexius III

Seal with inscription includes the Lascarid, Comnenid and Palaiologid Dynasty (Sfragis tou Eusebestatou Oikou ton Laskareon, ....)

Laskarid dynasty (in exile in the Empire of Nicaea)

Theodore I Lascaris (Θεόδωρος Α' Λάσκαρης) (1174 - 1222, ruled 1204 - 1222) – son-in-law of Alexius III

John III Ducas Vatatzes (Ιωάννης Γ' Δούκας Βατάτζης) (1192 - 1254, ruled 1222 - 1254) – son-in-law of Theodore I; epileptic

Theodore II Lascaris (Θεόδωρος Β' Λάσκαρης) (1221 - 1258, ruled 1254 - 1258) – son of John III

John IV Lascaris (Ιωάννης Δ' Λάσκαρης) (1250 - 1305, ruled 1258 - 1261) – son of Theodore II, deposed, blinded & imprisoned by Michael VIII

Palaeologid Dynasty (restored to Constantinople)

Michael VIII Palaeologus (Μιχαήλ Η' Παλαιολόγος) (1224 - 1282, ruled 1259 - 1282) – Strategos, regent for John IV Lascaris; great-grandson of Alexius III Angelus

Andronicus II Palaeologus the Elder (Ανδρόνικος Β' ο Γέρος) (1258 - 1332, ruled 1282 - 1328) – son of Michael VIII; abdicated

Andronicus III Palaeologus the Younger (Ανδρόνικος Γ' Παλαιολόγος ο Νέος) (1297 - 1341, ruled 1328 - 1341) – grandson of Andronicus II

John V Palaeologus (Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος) (1332 - 1391, ruled 1341 - 1347) – son of Andronicus III, deposed by John VI

John VI Cantacuzenus (Ιωάννης Στ' Καντακουζηνός) (1292 - 1383, ruled outright 1347 - 1354) – father-in-law of John V; deposed & entered monastery as Ioasaph Christodoulus

John V Palaeologus (ruled 1354 - 1376) – restored, deposed by Andronicus IV

Andronicus IV Palaeologus (Ανδρόνικος Δ' Παλαιολόγος) (1348 - 1385, ruled 1376 - 1379) – son of John V, half-blinded following revolt, later succeeded & was deposed, revolted a third time

John V Palaeologus (ruled 1379 - 1390) – restored, deposed

John VII Palaeologus (Ιωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος) (1370 - 1408, ruled 1390) – son of Andronicus IV

John V Palaeologus (ruled 1390 - 1391) – restored

Manuel II Palaeologus (Μανουήλ Β' Παλαιολόγος) (1350 - 1425, ruled 1391 - 1425) – son of John V

John VII Palaeologus (ruled 1399 - 1402) – restored as coemperor

John VIII Palaeologus, bust by Antonio Averlino also known as Filarete (Greek "lover of virtue")

John VIII Palaeologus (Ιωάννης Η' Παλαιολόγος) (1392 - 1448, ruled 1425 - 1448) – son of Manuel II

Constantine XI Palaeologus Dragatses (Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ' Παλαιολόγος Δραγάτσης) (1405 - 1453, ruled 1449 - 1453) – son of Manuel II, never crowned, died on the walls

Osmanli

In 1453 Mehmed II overthrew the Byzantine Empire and claimed the title of Caesar; his successors continued this claim. See Osmanli for the complete list of Ottoman sultans.

Palaeologid Dynasty (in exile)

Thomas Palaeologus (Θωμάς Παλαιολόγος) (1409 or 10 - 1465) – brother of Constantine XI; died in exile in Rome

Andreas Palaeologus (Ανδρέας Παλαιολόγος) (1453 - 1502) – son of Thomas; created Despot by Pope Pius II, self-styled imperator Constantinopolitanus; sold titles to Charles VIII in 1494 & granted the remainder to King Ferran II of Aragon and Queen Isabel of Castille in his will.

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Eustathius of Thessalonica

George Acropolita

Hierocles (author of Synecdemus)

Johannes Cardinal Bessarion

Philaretos Brachamios

Hero of Byzantium

Georgius Choeroboscus

John the Eunuch

Michael Choniates

Nicetas Choniates

Michael I Cerularius

John Cinnamus

Saint Cyril

Chalcocondyles

Demetrius Chalcocondyles

Laonicus Chalcocondyles

Michael III Doukeianos

Patriarch Photius I of Constantinople

Patriarch Germanus II of Constantinople

John Malalas

Michael Maleinos

Bardas Mamikonian

George Maniaces

Francesco Maurolico , a Greco-Italian Postbyzantine scientist

Mazaris

Isidore of Miletus

Saint Methodius

Nicolaus Cabasilas

Theodore Metochites

Marcus Musurus

Nicholas Myrepsos

Nikephoros Ouranos

Gregory Palamas

George Phrantza

Michael Psellus image from the Monastery Pantokrator, Athos

Michael Constantine Psellus

Procopius of Caesarea , (Secret History)

Bardas Skleros

Theodore the Studite

George Syncellus

Jacob Baradaeus

Theoktistos

Loukas Notaras

Anthemius of Tralles

George of Trebizond

Nicephorus Callistus Xanthopoulos

Joannes Xiphilinus

Joannes (John) Zonaras

George Gemistos Plethon

Danielis

Georgius Chrysococces (gr. Georgios Chrysokokkis), Physician, Mathematician, Astronomer

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