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An ultrashort pulse laser is a laser that emits ultrashort pulses of light, generally of the order of femtoseconds to ten picoseconds. They are also known as ultrafast lasers owing to the speed at which pulses "turn on" and "off"—not to be confused with the speed at which light propagates, which is determined by the properties of the medium (and has an upper limit), particularly its index of refraction, and can vary as a function of field intensity (i.e. self-phase modulation) and wavelength (chromatic dispersion).[1][2]

Common current ultrashort pulse laser technologies include Ti-sapphire lasers and dye lasers. High output peak power usually requires chirped pulse amplification of a seed pulse from a modelocked laser. Dealing with high optical powers also needs the nonlinear optical phenomena to be taken in account.

Use in Pathogen Inactivation

Tsen and colleagues developed a SEPHODIS (selective photonic disinfection) technology using an ultrashort pulse laser to kill viruses including HIV, influenza virus, and noroviruses.[3][4][5][6] The technique appears to damage viral capsids while preserving other proteins and biological materials, although these claims have been disputed elsewhere.[7] The ultrashort pulse laser treatment may have potential applications in the disinfection of medicines, in the production of inactivated vaccines[8], and in the possible future treatment of blood-borne viral infections from agents such as HIV and Ebola virus. [9]
See also

Optical parametric amplification
List of laser articles


Weiss, Peter (November 12, 2002). "Hot flashes, cold cuts: ultrafast lasers give power tools a new edge". Science News. Society for Science & the Public.
Paschotta, Rüdiger. "Ultrashort pulses". Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology. RP Photonics. Retrieved Oct 21, 2014.
Christensen, Bill (November 19, 2007). "Laser Zaps Viruses". Live Science.
"Laser treatment 'could kill HIV'". BBC News. November 6, 2007.
Won, Rachel (2010). "Biophotonics: Selective disinfection". Nature Photonics. 4 (3): 136. Bibcode:2010NaPho...4..136W. doi:10.1038/nphoton.2010.10.
Tsen, Shaw-Wei D; Wu, Tzyy; Kiang, Juliann G; Tsen, Kong-Thon (2012). "Prospects for a novel ultrashort pulsed laser technology for pathogen inactivation". Journal of Biomedical Science. 19: 62. doi:10.1186/1423-0127-19-62. PMC 3495397. PMID 22768792.
Wigle, Jeffrey C.; Holwitt, Eric A.; Estlack, Larry E.; Noojin, Gary D.; Saunders, Katharine E.; Yakovlev, Valdislav V.; Rockwell, Benjamin A. (2014). "No effect of femtosecond laser pulses on M13,E. coli, DNA, or protein". Journal of Biomedical Optics. 19 (1): 15008. Bibcode:2014JBO....19a5008W. doi:10.1117/1.JBO.19.1.015008. PMID 24474502. S2CID 20774027.
"Tsen Technologies". Tsen Technologies (Company).

Tsen, Shaw-Wei (2016). Selective photonic disinfection: A ray of hope in the war against pathogens. San Rafael, CA: Morgan & Claypool. ISBN 978-1681743523.



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Laser types: Solid-state
Semiconductor Dye Gas
Chemical Excimer Ion Metal Vapor

Laser physics

Active laser medium Amplified spontaneous emission Continuous wave Doppler cooling Laser ablation Laser cooling Laser linewidth Lasing threshold Magneto-optical trap Optical tweezers Population inversion Resolved sideband cooling Ultrashort pulse

Laser optics

Beam expander Beam homogenizer B Integral Chirped pulse amplification Gain-switching Gaussian beam Injection seeder Laser beam profiler M squared Mode-locking Multiple-prism grating laser oscillator Multiphoton intrapulse interference phase scan Optical amplifier Optical cavity Optical isolator Output coupler Q-switching Regenerative amplification

Laser spectroscopy

Cavity ring-down spectroscopy Confocal laser scanning microscopy Laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy Laser diffraction analysis Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy Laser-induced fluorescence Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy Raman spectroscopy Second-harmonic imaging microscopy Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy Two-photon excitation microscopy Ultrafast laser spectroscopy

Laser ionization

Above-threshold ionization Atmospheric-pressure laser ionization Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization Soft laser desorption Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization

Laser fabrication

Laser beam welding Laser bonding Laser converting Laser cutting Laser cutting bridge Laser drilling Laser engraving Laser-hybrid welding Laser peening Multiphoton lithography Pulsed laser deposition Selective laser melting Selective laser sintering

Laser medicine

Computed tomography laser mammography Laser capture microdissection Laser hair removal Laser lithotripsy Laser coagulation Laser surgery Laser thermal keratoplasty LASIK Low-level laser therapy Optical coherence tomography Photorefractive keratectomy Photorejuvenation

Laser fusion

Argus laser Cyclops laser GEKKO XII HiPER ISKRA lasers Janus laser Laboratory for Laser Energetics Laser integration line Laser Mégajoule Long path laser LULI2000 Mercury laser National Ignition Facility Nike laser Nova (laser) Novette laser Shiva laser Trident laser Vulcan laser

Civil applications

3D laser scanner CD DVD Blu-ray Laser lighting display Laser pointer Laser printer Laser tag

Military applications

Advanced Tactical Laser Boeing Laser Avenger Dazzler (weapon) Electrolaser Laser designator Laser guidance Laser-guided bomb Laser guns Laser rangefinder Laser warning receiver Laser weapon LLM01 Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System Tactical High Energy Laser Tactical light ZEUS-HLONS (HMMWV Laser Ordnance Neutralization System)

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