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The Trident Laser is a high power, sub-petawatt class, solid-state laser facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL website), in Los Alamos, New Mexico, originally built in the late 1980s for Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research by KMS Fusion, founded by Kip Siegel, in Ann Arbor, Michigan, it was later moved to Los Alamos in the early 1990s[1] to be used in ICF and materials research. The system is now being decommissioned with final laser experiments being completed February 2017.

The Trident Laser consists of three main laser chains (A,B, and C) of neodymium glass amplifiers (or Nd:glass), two are identical longpulse beams lines, A&B, and a third beamline, C, that can be operated either in longpulse or in chirped pulse amplification (CPA) shortpulse mode.[2] Longpulse beams A and B, are laser chains capable of delivering up to ~500 J at 1054 nm, which are frequency doubled to 527 nm and ~200 J depending on pulse duration; the pulse duration can be varied from 100 ps to 1 µs, and is a unique capability of any large laser in the US (and possibly the world). The third laser chain, beamline C, can produce up to ~200 J at 1054 nm, or can be frequency doubled to 527 nm at ~100 J in the longpulse mode with the same pulse duration variability as beams A and B; or can be use in the recently (June 2007) completed Trident enhancement configuration allowing the ~200 J beam to be compressed via CPA to ~600 fs and ~100 J, producing powers on the scale of a quarter petawatt(~200 TW) with a host of laser and plasma diagnostics.[3] A 100 mJ 500 fs probe beamline is also available.

The 200TW shortpulse ultra high-intensity laser system is currently a world record holder in ion acceleration energy with Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism,[4] producing protons at 58.5 MeV from a flat-foil,[5] beating the record of the NOVA Petawatt laser back in 1999;[6] and 67.5 MeV protons from micro-cone targets.[7][8] Trident delivers Petawatt performance at a fifth of the power. The 200TW or C beam is capable of focusing down to less than 10 micrometers in diameter to reach laser field intensities (irradiance) of ~2x1020 W/cm2, producing protons over 50 MeV[9] as well as high quality, high energy xrays.[10] The interaction can be diagnosed with a Backscatter Focal Diagnostics [11] similar to a Full Aperture Back-scatter (FABS)[12] diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility. A new front-end for the laser employs a 2nd order cleaning technique, dubbed SPOPA (for Short-Pulse Optical Parametric Amplification) cleaning, which reduces the contrast to better than 10−9 ASE intensity ratio, making it one of the cleanest ultra high-intensity high-power laser in the world.[13]

The laser is currently being used for Fast Ignition ICF research, warm dense matter experiments, materials dynamics studies, and laser-matter interaction research, including particle acceleration, x-ray backlighting and laser-plasma instabilities (LPI).

For more information see the Trident User Facility Website: Trident User Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, see the references below and these articles using the laser:[14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]
See also

List of laser articles


Moncur, N. K.; Johnson, R. P.; Watt, R. G.; Gibson, R. B. (20 July 1995). "Trident: a versatile high-power Nd:glass laser facility for inertial confinement fusion experiments". Applied Optics. 34 (21): 4274–83. Bibcode:1995ApOpt..34.4274M. doi:10.1364/AO.34.004274. PMID 21052257.
Trident as an Ultrahigh Irradiance Laser, R.P Johnson et al., LA-UR-9541 (1995), Los Alamos National Laboratory
Batha, S. H.; Aragonez, R.; Archuleta, F. L.; Archuleta, T. N.; Benage, J. F.; Cobble, J. A.; Cowan, J. S.; Fatherley, V. E.; Flippo, K. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Gonzales, R. P.; Greenfield, S. R.; Hegelich, B. M.; Hurry, T. R.; Johnson, R. P.; Kline, J. L.; Letzring, S. A.; Loomis, E. N.; Lopez, F. E.; Luo, S. N.; Montgomery, D. S.; Oertel, J. A.; Paisley, D. L.; Reid, S. M.; Sanchez, P. G.; Seifter, A.; Shimada, T.; Workman, J. B. (1 January 2008). "TRIDENT high-energy-density facility experimental capabilities and diagnostics". Review of Scientific Instruments. 79 (10): 10F305. Bibcode:2008RScI...79jF305B. doi:10.1063/1.2972020. PMID 19044618.
Flippo, K. A.; Workman, J.; Gautier, D. C.; Letzring, S.; Johnson, R. P.; Shimada, T. (1 January 2008). "Scaling laws for energetic ions from the commissioning of the new Los Alamos National Laboratory 200 TW Trident laser". Review of Scientific Instruments. 79 (10): 10E534. Bibcode:2008RScI...79jE534F. doi:10.1063/1.2987678. PMID 19044515.
Snavely, R.; Key, M.; Hatchett, S.; Cowan, T.; Roth, M.; Phillips, T.; Stoyer, M.; Henry, E.; Sangster, T.; Singh, M.; Wilks, S.; MacKinnon, A.; Offenberger, A.; Pennington, D.; Yasuike, K.; Langdon, A.; Lasinski, B.; Johnson, J.; Perry, M.; Campbell, E. (1 October 2000). "Intense High-Energy Proton Beams from Petawatt-Laser Irradiation of Solids". Physical Review Letters. 85 (14): 2945–2948. Bibcode:2000PhRvL..85.2945S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.2945. PMID 11005974.
Flippo, K. A.; d’Humières, E.; Gaillard, S. A.; Rassuchine, J.; Gautier, D. C.; Schollmeier, M.; Nürnberg, F.; Kline, J. L.; Adams, J.; Albright, B.; Bakeman, M.; Harres, K.; Johnson, R. P.; Korgan, G.; Letzring, S.; Malekos, S.; Renard-LeGalloudec, N.; Sentoku, Y.; Shimada, T.; Roth, M.; Cowan, T. E.; Fernández, J. C.; Hegelich, B. M. (1 January 2008). "Increased efficiency of short-pulse laser-generated proton beams from novel flat-top cone targets". Physics of Plasmas. 15 (5): 056709. Bibcode:2008PhPl...15e6709F. doi:10.1063/1.2918125.
Gaillard, S. A.; Kluge, T.; Flippo, K. A.; Bussmann, M.; Gall, B.; Lockard, T.; Geissel, M.; Offermann, D. T.; Schollmeier, M.; Sentoku, Y.; Cowan, T. E. (1 January 2011). "Increased laser-accelerated proton energies via direct laser-light-pressure acceleration of electrons in microcone targets". Physics of Plasmas. 18 (5): 056710. Bibcode:2011PhPl...18e6710G. doi:10.1063/1.3575624.
Flippo, K. A.; Workman, J.; Gautier, D. C.; Letzring, S.; Johnson, R. P.; Shimada, T. (1 January 2008). "Scaling laws for energetic ions from the commissioning of the new Los Alamos National Laboratory 200 TW Trident laser". Review of Scientific Instruments. 79 (10): 10E534. Bibcode:2008RScI...79jE534F. doi:10.1063/1.2987678. PMID 19044515.
Workman, J.; Cobble, J.; Flippo, K.; Gautier, D. C.; Letzring, S. (1 January 2008). "High-energy, high-resolution x-ray imaging on the Trident short-pulse laser facility". Review of Scientific Instruments. 79 (10): 10E905. Bibcode:2008RScI...79jE905W. doi:10.1063/1.2965012. PMID 19044560.
Gautier, D. C.; Flippo, K. A.; Letzring, S. A.; Shimada, J. Workman T.; Johnson, R. P.; Hurry, T. R.; Gaillard, S. A.; Hegelich, B. M. (1 January 2008). "A novel backscatter focus diagnostic for the TRIDENT 200 TW laser". Review of Scientific Instruments. 79 (10): 10F547. Bibcode:2008RScI...79jF547G. doi:10.1063/1.2979881. PMID 19044689.
Froula, D. H.; Bower, D.; Chrisp, M.; Grace, S.; Kamperschroer, J. H.; Kelleher, T. M.; Kirkwood, R. K.; MacGowan, B.; McCarville, T.; Sewall, N.; Shimamoto, F. Y.; Shiromizu, S. J.; Young, B.; Glenzer, S. H. (1 January 2004). "Full-aperture backscatter measurements on the National Ignition Facility". Review of Scientific Instruments. 75 (10): 4168. Bibcode:2004RScI...75.4168F. doi:10.1063/1.1789592.
Shah, Rahul C.; Johnson, Randall P.; Shimada, Tsutomu; Flippo, Kirk A.; Fernandez, Juan C.; Hegelich, B. M. (1 August 2009). "High-temporal contrast using low-gain optical parametric amplification". Optics Letters. 34 (15): 2273–5. Bibcode:2009OptL...34.2273S. doi:10.1364/OL.34.002273. OSTI 960915. PMID 19649068.
Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Winske, D.; Constantin, C. G.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Morton, L. A.; Flippo, K. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Gaillard, S. A.; Niemann, C. (1 January 2012). "Generation of magnetized collisionless shocks by a novel, laser-driven magnetic piston". Physics of Plasmas. 19 (7): 070702. Bibcode:2012PhPl...19g0702S. doi:10.1063/1.4736846.
Bartal, Teresa; Foord, Mark E.; Bellei, Claudio; Key, Michael H.; Flippo, Kirk A.; Gaillard, Sandrine A.; Offermann, Dustin T.; Patel, Pravesh K.; Jarrott, Leonard C.; Higginson, Drew P.; Roth, Markus; Otten, Anke; Kraus, Dominik; Stephens, Richard B.; McLean, Harry S.; Giraldez, Emilio M.; Wei, Mingsheng S.; Gautier, Donald C.; Beg, Farhat N. (4 December 2011). "Focusing of short-pulse high-intensity laser-accelerated proton beams". Nature Physics. 8 (2): 139–142. Bibcode:2012NatPh...8..139B. doi:10.1038/NPHYS2153.
Schaeffer, D B; Montgomery, D S; Bondarenko, A S; Morton, L A; Johnson, R P; Shimada, T; Constantin, C G; Everson, E T; Letzring, S A; Gaillard, S A; Flippo, K A; Glenzer, S H; Niemann, C (7 February 2012). "Thomson Scattering Measurements of Temperature and Density in a Low-Density, Laser-Driven Magnetized Plasma". Journal of Instrumentation. 7 (2): P02002. Bibcode:2012JInst...7.2002S. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/7/02/P02002.
Bartal, T.; Flippo, K. A.; Gaillard, S. A.; Offermann, D. T.; Foord, M. E.; Bellei, C.; Patel, P. K.; Key, M. H.; Stephens, R. B.; McLean, H. S.; Jarrott, L. C.; Beg, F. N. (1 November 2011). "Proton Focusing Characteristics Relevant to Fast Ignition". IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science. 39 (11): 2818–2819. Bibcode:2011ITPS...39.2818B. doi:10.1109/TPS.2011.2155682. S2CID 38322491.
Flippo, Kirk A.; Gaillard, Sandrine A.; Cowan, Joseph S.; Gautier, D. Cort; Mucino, J. Eduardo; Lowenstern, Mariano E. (1 November 2011). "Overcritical to Underdense Plasma in Under 1 μm: 150 TW Laser-Thin-Target Interactions for Particle Acceleration". IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science. 39 (11): 2428–2429. Bibcode:2011ITPS...39.2428F. doi:10.1109/TPS.2011.2163426. S2CID 41645210.
Niemann, Christoph; Bondarenko, Anton S.; Constantin, Carmen G.; Everson, Erik T.; Flippo, Kirk A.; Gaillard, Sandrine A.; Johnson, Randall P.; Letzring, Samuel A.; Montgomery, David S.; Morton, Lucas A.; Schaeffer, Derek B.; Shimada, Tsutomu; Winske, Dan (1 November 2011). "Collisionless Shocks in a Large Magnetized Laser-Plasma Plume". IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science. 39 (11): 2406–2407. Bibcode:2011ITPS...39.2406N. doi:10.1109/TPS.2011.2162007. S2CID 28559709.
Offermann, D. T.; Flippo, K. A.; Cobble, J.; Schmitt, M. J.; Gaillard, S. A.; Bartal, T.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Geissel, M.; Schollmeier, M. (1 January 2011). "Characterization and focusing of light ion beams generated by ultra-intensely irradiated thin foils at the kilojoule scale". Physics of Plasmas. 18 (5): 056713. Bibcode:2011PhPl...18e6713O. doi:10.1063/1.3589476. OSTI 1254984.
Workman, J.; Cobble, J.; Flippo, K.; Gautier, D. C.; Montgomery, D. S.; Offermann, D. T. (1 January 2010). "Phase-contrast imaging using ultrafast x-rays in laser-shocked materials". Review of Scientific Instruments. 81 (10): 10E520. Bibcode:2010RScI...81jE520W. doi:10.1063/1.3485109. OSTI 1013598. PMID 21034048.
Offermann, D T; Flippo, K A; Gaillard, S A; Gautier, D C; Letzring, S; Cobble, J C; Wurden, G; Johnson, R P; Shimada, T; Montgomery, D S; Gonzales, R P; Hurry, T; Archuleta, F; Schmitt, M J; Reid, S-M; Bartal, T; Wei, M S; Higginson, D P; Beg, F N; Geissel, M; Schollmeier, M (1 August 2010). "Carbon ion beam focusing using laser irradiated, heated diamond hemispherical shells". Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 244 (2): 022053. Bibcode:2010JPhCS.244b2053O. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/244/2/022053.
Roth, M; Alber, I; Bagnoud, V; Brown, C R D; Clarke, R; Daido, H; Fernandez, J; Flippo, K; Gaillard, S; Gauthier, C; Geissel, M; Glenzer, S; Gregori, G; Günther, M; Harres, K; Heathcote, R; Kritcher, A; Kugland, N; LePape, S; Li, B; Makita, M; Mithen, J; Niemann, C; Nürnberg, F; Offermann, D; Otten, A; Pelka, A; Riley, D; Schaumann, G; Schollmeier, M; Schütrumpf, J; Tampo, M; Tauschwitz, A; Tauschwitz, An (1 December 2009). "Proton acceleration experiments and warm dense matter research using high power lasers". Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. 51 (12): 124039. Bibcode:2009PPCF...51l4039R. doi:10.1088/0741-3335/51/12/124039.
Henig, A.; Kiefer, D.; Markey, K.; Gautier, D.; Flippo, K.; Letzring, S.; Johnson, R.; Shimada, T.; Yin, L.; Albright, B.; Bowers, K.; Fernández, J.; Rykovanov, S.; Wu, H.-C.; Zepf, M.; Jung, D.; Liechtenstein, V.; Schreiber, J.; Habs, D.; Hegelich, B. (1 July 2009). "Enhanced Laser-Driven Ion Acceleration in the Relativistic Transparency Regime". Physical Review Letters. 103 (4): 045002. Bibcode:2009PhRvL.103d5002H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.045002. PMID 19659362.
Kline, J.L.; Montgomery, D.S.; Rousseaux, C.; Baton, S.D.; Tassin, V.; Hardin, R.A.; Flippo, K.A.; Johnson, R.P.; Shimada, T.; Yin, L.; Albright, B.J.; Rose, H.A.; Amiranoff, F. (18 February 2009). "Investigation of stimulated Raman scattering using a short-pulse diffraction limited laser beam near the instability threshold". Laser and Particle Beams. 27 (1): 185. Bibcode:2009LPB....27..185K. doi:10.1017/S0263034609000251. OSTI 960939.
Kline, J. L.; Montgomery, D. S.; Flippo, K. A.; Johnson, R. P.; Rose, H. A.; Shimada, T.; Williams, E. A. (1 January 2008). "Using a short-pulse diffraction-limited laser beam to probe filamentation of a random phase plate smoothed beam". Review of Scientific Instruments. 79 (10): 10F551. Bibcode:2008RScI...79jF551K. doi:10.1063/1.2955927. PMID 19044693.
Schollmeier, M.; Becker, S.; Geißel, M.; Flippo, K.; Blažević, A.; Gaillard, S.; Gautier, D.; Grüner, F.; Harres, K.; Kimmel, M.; Nürnberg, F.; Rambo, P.; Schramm, U.; Schreiber, J.; Schütrumpf, J.; Schwarz, J.; Tahir, N.; Atherton, B.; Habs, D.; Hegelich, B.; Roth, M. (1 August 2008). "Controlled Transport and Focusing of Laser-Accelerated Protons with Miniature Magnetic Devices". Physical Review Letters. 101 (5): 055004. Bibcode:2008PhRvL.101e5004S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.055004. PMID 18764401.
Schollmeier, M.; Harres, K.; Nürnberg, F.; Blažević, A.; Audebert, P.; Brambrink, E.; Fernández, J. C.; Flippo, K. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Geißel, M.; Hegelich, B. M.; Schreiber, J.; Roth, M. (1 January 2008). "Laser beam-profile impression and target thickness impact on laser-accelerated protons". Physics of Plasmas. 15 (5): 053101. Bibcode:2008PhPl...15e3101S. doi:10.1063/1.2912451.
Kline, J. L.; Shimada, T.; Johnson, R. P.; Montgomery, D. S.; Hegelich, B. M.; Esquibel, D. M.; Flippo, K. A.; Gonzales, R. P.; Hurry, T. R.; Reid, S. L. (1 January 2007). "Short pulse laser train for laser plasma interaction experiments". Review of Scientific Instruments. 78 (8): 083501–083501–5. Bibcode:2007RScI...78h3501K. doi:10.1063/1.2760687. PMID 17764320.
Schollmeier, Marius; Roth, M.; Blazevic, A.; Brambrink, E.; Cobble, J.A.; Fernandez, J.C.; Flippo, K.A.; Gautier, D.C.; Habs, D.; Harres, K.; Hegelich, B.M.; Heßling, T.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Letzring, S.; Nürnberg, F.; Schaumann, G.; Schreiber, J.; Witte, K. (1 July 2007). "Laser ion acceleration with micro-grooved targets". Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 577 (1–2): 186–190. Bibcode:2007NIMPA.577..186S. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2007.02.052.
Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Hegelich, B. M.; Bowers, K. J.; Flippo, K. A.; Kwan, T. J. T.; Fernández, J. C. (1 January 2007). "Monoenergetic and GeV ion acceleration from the laser breakout afterburner using ultrathin targets". Physics of Plasmas. 14 (5): 056706. Bibcode:2007PhPl...14e6706Y. doi:10.1063/1.2436857.
Hegelich, B. M.; Albright, B. J.; Cobble, J.; Flippo, K.; Letzring, S.; Paffett, M.; Ruhl, H.; Schreiber, J.; Schulze, R. K.; Fernández, J. C. (26 January 2006). "Laser acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic MeV ion beams". Nature. 439 (7075): 441–444. Bibcode:2006Natur.439..441H. doi:10.1038/nature04400. PMID 16437109. S2CID 4406238.

FERNÁNDEZ, JUAN C.; HEGELICH, B. MANUEL; COBBLE, JAMES A.; FLIPPO, KIRK A.; LETZRING, SAMUEL A.; JOHNSON, RANDALL P.; GAUTIER, D. CORT; SHIMADA, TSUTOMU; KYRALA, GEORGE A.; WANG, YONGQIANG; WETTELAND, CHRIS J.; SCHREIBER, JÖRG (30 August 2005). "Laser-ablation treatment of short-pulse laser targets: Toward an experimental program on energetic-ion interactions with dense plasmas". Laser and Particle Beams. 23 (3): 267. Bibcode:2005LPB....23..267F. doi:10.1017/S0263034605050287.


N-doped Si.svg Solid-state lasers
Distinct subtypes
Semiconductor laser
Yttrium aluminium garnet

Nd:YAG laser Er:YAG laser Nd:Cr:YAG Yb:YAG Nd:Ce:YAG Ho:YAG Dy:YAG Sm:YAG Tb:YAG Ce:YAG Ce:Gd:YAG Gd:YAG


Nd:glass Ytterbium glass 147Pm+3:Glass Er:Yb:Glass

Other gain media

Ruby laser Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) Terbium gallium garnet (TGG) Ti:sapphire laser Solid-state dye laser (SSDL/SSOL/SSDPL) Yttrium lithium fluoride (YLF)
Neodymium-doped yttrium lithium fluoride (Nd:YLF) Yttrium orthovanadate (YVO4)
Neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate (Nd:YVO4) Yttrium calcium oxoborate (YCOB)
Nd:YCOB laser Ce:LiSAF Ce:LiCAF Cr:ZnSe U:CaF2 Sm:CaF2 Yb:SFAP


Diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) Fiber laser Figure-8 laser Disk laser F-center laser

Specific lasers

Trident laser ZEUS-HLONS (HMMWV Laser Ordnance Neutralization System) Nova (laser) Cyclops laser Janus laser Argus laser Shiva laser HiPER Laboratory for Laser Energetics Laser Mégajoule LULI2000 Mercury laser ISKRA-6 Vulcan laser


Mode-locking Energy transfer upconversion Solar-pumped laser

Laser types: Solid-state
Semiconductor Dye Gas
Chemical Excimer Ion Metal Vapor



List of laser articles List of laser types List of laser applications Laser acronyms

Laser types: Solid-state
Semiconductor Dye Gas
Chemical Excimer Ion Metal Vapor

Laser physics

Active laser medium Amplified spontaneous emission Continuous wave Doppler cooling Laser ablation Laser cooling Laser linewidth Lasing threshold Magneto-optical trap Optical tweezers Population inversion Resolved sideband cooling Ultrashort pulse

Laser optics

Beam expander Beam homogenizer B Integral Chirped pulse amplification Gain-switching Gaussian beam Injection seeder Laser beam profiler M squared Mode-locking Multiple-prism grating laser oscillator Multiphoton intrapulse interference phase scan Optical amplifier Optical cavity Optical isolator Output coupler Q-switching Regenerative amplification

Laser spectroscopy

Cavity ring-down spectroscopy Confocal laser scanning microscopy Laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy Laser diffraction analysis Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy Laser-induced fluorescence Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy Raman spectroscopy Second-harmonic imaging microscopy Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy Two-photon excitation microscopy Ultrafast laser spectroscopy

Laser ionization

Above-threshold ionization Atmospheric-pressure laser ionization Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization Soft laser desorption Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization

Laser fabrication

Laser beam welding Laser bonding Laser converting Laser cutting Laser cutting bridge Laser drilling Laser engraving Laser-hybrid welding Laser peening Multiphoton lithography Pulsed laser deposition Selective laser melting Selective laser sintering

Laser medicine

Computed tomography laser mammography Laser capture microdissection Laser hair removal Laser lithotripsy Laser coagulation Laser surgery Laser thermal keratoplasty LASIK Low-level laser therapy Optical coherence tomography Photorefractive keratectomy Photorejuvenation

Laser fusion

Argus laser Cyclops laser GEKKO XII HiPER ISKRA lasers Janus laser Laboratory for Laser Energetics Laser integration line Laser Mégajoule Long path laser LULI2000 Mercury laser National Ignition Facility Nike laser Nova (laser) Novette laser Shiva laser Trident laser Vulcan laser

Civil applications

3D laser scanner CD DVD Blu-ray Laser lighting display Laser pointer Laser printer Laser tag

Military applications

Advanced Tactical Laser Boeing Laser Avenger Dazzler (weapon) Electrolaser Laser designator Laser guidance Laser-guided bomb Laser guns Laser rangefinder Laser warning receiver Laser weapon LLM01 Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System Tactical High Energy Laser Tactical light ZEUS-HLONS (HMMWV Laser Ordnance Neutralization System)

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