Quantum information science is an area of study about information science related to quantum effects in physics. It includes theoretical issues in computational models as well as more experimental topics in quantum physics including what can and cannot be done with quantum information. The term quantum information theory is also used, but it fails to encompass experimental research in the area and can be confused with a subfield of quantum information science that studies the processing of quantum information.

Scientific and engineering studies

Quantum teleportation, quantum entanglement and the manufacturing of quantum computer hardware are just physical and engineering studies. They require serious understanding of quantum physics and engineering. Compared to before the 2010s, there was some remarkable progress in manufacturing quantum computers. Google and IBM are investing heavily in quantum computer hardware research. A quantum computer with more than 100 qubits is possible today. The error occurrence is so serious that we cannot say that we have a material suitable for quantum computers yet. Majorana fermions may be one of the key materials.

Devices for quantum cryptography have been commercialized already. There is an old cipher called a one time pad, which was widely used among the spies in the Cold War era. It uses a long sequence of random keys. If two people exchanged same random keys safely, it is impossible to decrypt one time pad except by accident, but key exchanging is not easy. However, the key exchanging problems can be solved by exchanging quantum entangled particle pairs. Quantum mechanical laws such as no cloning theorem and wave function collapse provide secure exchange of random keys. So, manufacturing devices that can transport quantum entangled particles is an important scientific and engineering problem.

Programming languages for quantum computers are also needed. Q Sharp and Qiskit are popular quantum programming languages.

Related mathematical subjects

Quantum algorithm and quantum complexity theory are two of the subjects in algorithms and computational complexity theory. In 1994, mathematician Peter Shor published his prime factorization algorithm. If one has a 1,000-qubit quantum computer, one can threaten most widely used ciphers such as RSA and ECC by using Shor's algorithm. It can result in serious security problems for many countries. Therefore, his paper triggered a lot of investment in quantum computing research. Many mathematicians and cryptologists are preparing to enter the quantum computing era. See post quantum cryptography.

See also

Information theory

Quantum mechanics

Quantum computing

Quantum error correction

Quantum information theory

Quantum cryptography and its generalization, quantum communication

Quantum communication complexity

Quantum entanglement, as seen from an information-theoretic point of view

Quantum dense coding

Quantum teleportation

Entanglement-assisted classical capacity

No-communication theorem

Quantum capacity

Quantum communication channel

Quantum decision tree complexity

Timeline of quantum computing and communication

References

Nielsen, Michael A.; Chuang, Isaac L. (June 2012). Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (10th anniversary ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780511992773. OCLC 700706156.

External links

Quantiki – quantum information science portal and wiki.

ERA-Pilot QIST WP1 European roadmap on Quantum Information Processing and Communication

QIIC – Quantum Information, Imperial College London.

QIP – Quantum Information Group, University of Leeds. The quantum information group at the University of Leeds is engaged in researching a wide spectrum of aspects of quantum information. This ranges from algorithms, quantum computation, to physical implementations of information processing and fundamental issues in quantum mechanics. Also contains some basic tutorials for the lay audience.

mathQI Research Group on Mathematics and Quantum Information.

CQIST Center for Quantum Information Science & Technology at the University of Southern California

CQuIC Center for Quantum Information and Control, including theoretical and experimental groups from University of New Mexico, University of Arizona.

CQT Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore

CQC2T Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology

QST@LSU Quantum Science and Technologies Group at Louisiana State University

vte

Quantum mechanics

Background

Introduction History

timeline Glossary Classical mechanics Old quantum theory

Fundamentals

Bra–ket notation Casimir effect Coherence Coherent control Complementarity Density matrix Energy level

degenerate levels excited state ground state QED vacuum QCD vacuum Vacuum state Zero-point energy Hamiltonian Heisenberg uncertainty principle Pauli exclusion principle Measurement Observable Operator Probability distribution Quantum Qubit Qutrit Scattering theory Spin Spontaneous parametric down-conversion Symmetry Symmetry breaking

Spontaneous symmetry breaking No-go theorem No-cloning theorem Von Neumann entropy Wave interference Wave function

collapse Universal wavefunction Wave–particle duality

Matter wave Wave propagation Virtual particle

Quantum

quantum coherence annealing decoherence entanglement fluctuation foam levitation noise nonlocality number realm state superposition system tunnelling Quantum vacuum state

Mathematics

Equations

Dirac Klein–Gordon Pauli Rydberg Schrödinger

Formulations

Heisenberg Interaction Matrix mechanics Path integral formulation Phase space Schrödinger

Other

Quantum

algebra calculus

differential stochastic geometry group Q-analog

List

Interpretations

Bayesian Consistent histories Cosmological Copenhagen de Broglie–Bohm Ensemble Hidden variables Many worlds Objective collapse Quantum logic Relational Stochastic Transactional

Experiments

Afshar Bell's inequality Cold Atom Laboratory Davisson–Germer Delayed-choice quantum eraser Double-slit Elitzur–Vaidman Franck–Hertz experiment Leggett–Garg inequality Mach-Zehnder inter. Popper Quantum eraser Quantum suicide and immortality Schrödinger's cat Stern–Gerlach Wheeler's delayed choice

Science

Quantum

biology chemistry chaos cognition complexity theory computing

Timeline cosmology dynamics economics finance foundations game theory information nanoscience metrology mind optics probability social science spacetime

Technologies

Quantum technology

links Matrix isolation Phase qubit Quantum dot

cellular automaton display laser single-photon source solar cell Quantum well

laser

Extensions

Dirac sea Fractional quantum mechanics Quantum electrodynamics

links Quantum geometry Quantum field theory

links Quantum gravity

links Quantum information science

links Quantum statistical mechanics Relativistic quantum mechanics De Broglie–Bohm theory Stochastic electrodynamics

Related

Quantum mechanics of time travel Textbooks

Hellenica World - Scientific Library

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