A charged black hole is a black hole that possesses electric charge. Since the electromagnetic repulsion in compressing an electrically charged mass is dramatically greater than the gravitational attraction (by about 40 orders of magnitude), it is not expected that black holes with a significant electric charge will be formed in nature.

The two types of charged black holes are Reissner–Nordström black holes (without spin) and Kerr–Newman black holes (with spin).

A black hole can be completely characterized by three (and only three) quantities:

M – mass
J – angular momentum
Q – electric charge

Charged black holes are two of four possible types of black holes that have been found by solving Einstein's theory of gravitation, general relativity. The mathematical solutions for the shape of space and the electric and magnetic fields near a black hole are named after the persons who first worked them out. The solutions increase in complexity depending on which of the two parameters, J and Q, are zero (or not) (the mass M of a black hole could conceivably be tiny, but not zero). The four categories of solutions are given in the table below:
Black hole type Description Constraints
Schwarzschild has no angular momentum
and no electric charge J = 0 Q = 0
Kerr does have angular momentum
but no electric charge Q = 0
Reissner–Nordström has no angular momentum but
does have an electric charge J = 0
Kerr–Newman has both angular momentum
and an electric charge

The solutions of Einstein's field equation for the gravitational field of an electrically charged point mass (with zero angular momentum) in empty space was obtained in 1918 by Hans Reissner and Gunnar Nordström, not long after Karl Schwarzschild found the Schwarzschild metric as a solution for a point mass without electric charge and angular momentum.

A mathematically-oriented article describes the Reissner–Nordström metric for a charged, non-rotating black hole. A similarly technical article on the Kerr–Newman black hole gives an overview of the most general known solution for a black hole, which has both angular momentum and charge (all the other solutions are simplified special cases of the Kerr–Newman black hole).
See also

Reissner–Nordström metric


Black holes

Schwarzschild Rotating Charged Virtual Kugelblitz Primordial Planck particle


Extremal Electron Stellar
Microquasar Intermediate-mass Supermassive
Active galactic nucleus Quasar Blazar


Stellar evolution Gravitational collapse Neutron star
Related links Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit White dwarf
Related links Supernova
Related links Hypernova Gamma-ray burst Binary black hole


Gravitational singularity
Ring singularity Theorems Event horizon Photon sphere Innermost stable circular orbit Ergosphere
Penrose process Blandford–Znajek process Accretion disk Hawking radiation Gravitational lens Bondi accretion M–sigma relation Quasi-periodic oscillation Thermodynamics
Immirzi parameter Schwarzschild radius Spaghettification


Black hole complementarity Information paradox Cosmic censorship ER=EPR Final parsec problem Firewall (physics) Holographic principle No-hair theorem


Schwarzschild (Derivation) Kerr Reissner–Nordström Kerr–Newman Hayward


Nonsingular black hole models Black star Dark star Dark-energy star Gravastar Magnetospheric eternally collapsing object Planck star Q star Fuzzball


Optical black hole Sonic black hole


Black holes Most massive Nearest Quasars Microquasars


Black Hole Initiative Black hole starship Compact star Exotic star
Quark star Preon star Gamma-ray burst progenitors Gravity well Hypercompact stellar system Membrane paradigm Naked singularity Quasi-star Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Timeline of black hole physics White hole Wormhole

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