A charged black hole is a black hole that possesses electric charge. Since the electromagnetic repulsion in compressing an electrically charged mass is dramatically greater than the gravitational attraction (by about 40 orders of magnitude), it is not expected that black holes with a significant electric charge will be formed in nature.

Categories

The two types of charged black holes are Reissner–Nordström black holes (without spin) and Kerr–Newman black holes (with spin).

A black hole can be completely characterized by three (and only three) quantities:

M – mass

J – angular momentum

Q – electric charge

Charged black holes are two of four possible types of black holes that have been found by solving Einstein's theory of gravitation, general relativity. The mathematical solutions for the shape of space and the electric and magnetic fields near a black hole are named after the persons who first worked them out. The solutions increase in complexity depending on which of the two parameters, J and Q, are zero (or not) (the mass M of a black hole could conceivably be tiny, but not zero). The four categories of solutions are given in the table below:

Black hole type Description Constraints

Schwarzschild has no angular momentum

and no electric charge J = 0 Q = 0

Kerr does have angular momentum

but no electric charge Q = 0

Reissner–Nordström has no angular momentum but

does have an electric charge J = 0

Kerr–Newman has both angular momentum

and an electric charge

The solutions of Einstein's field equation for the gravitational field of an electrically charged point mass (with zero angular momentum) in empty space was obtained in 1918 by Hans Reissner and Gunnar Nordström, not long after Karl Schwarzschild found the Schwarzschild metric as a solution for a point mass without electric charge and angular momentum.

A mathematically-oriented article describes the Reissner–Nordström metric for a charged, non-rotating black hole. A similarly technical article on the Kerr–Newman black hole gives an overview of the most general known solution for a black hole, which has both angular momentum and charge (all the other solutions are simplified special cases of the Kerr–Newman black hole).

See also

Reissner–Nordström metric

vte

Black holes

Types

Schwarzschild Rotating Charged Virtual Kugelblitz Primordial Planck particle

Size

Micro

Extremal Electron Stellar

Microquasar Intermediate-mass Supermassive

Active galactic nucleus Quasar Blazar

Formation

Stellar evolution Gravitational collapse Neutron star

Related links Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit White dwarf

Related links Supernova

Related links Hypernova Gamma-ray burst Binary black hole

Properties

Gravitational singularity

Ring singularity Theorems Event horizon Photon sphere Innermost stable circular orbit Ergosphere

Penrose process Blandford–Znajek process Accretion disk Hawking radiation Gravitational lens Bondi accretion M–sigma relation Quasi-periodic oscillation Thermodynamics

Immirzi parameter Schwarzschild radius Spaghettification

Issues

Black hole complementarity Information paradox Cosmic censorship ER=EPR Final parsec problem Firewall (physics) Holographic principle No-hair theorem

Metrics

Schwarzschild (Derivation) Kerr Reissner–Nordström Kerr–Newman Hayward

Alternatives

Nonsingular black hole models Black star Dark star Dark-energy star Gravastar Magnetospheric eternally collapsing object Planck star Q star Fuzzball

Analogs

Optical black hole Sonic black hole

Lists

Black holes Most massive Nearest Quasars Microquasars

Related

Black Hole Initiative Black hole starship Compact star Exotic star

Quark star Preon star Gamma-ray burst progenitors Gravity well Hypercompact stellar system Membrane paradigm Naked singularity Quasi-star Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Timeline of black hole physics White hole Wormhole

Hellenica World - Scientific Library

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/"

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License