- Art Gallery -

An exotic star is a hypothetical compact star composed of something other than electrons, protons, neutrons, or muons, and balanced against gravitational collapse by degeneracy pressure or other quantum properties. Exotic stars include quark stars (composed of quarks) and perhaps strange stars (composed of strange quark matter, a condensate of up, down and strange quarks), as well as speculative preon stars (composed of preons, which are hypothetical particles and "building blocks" of quarks, should quarks be decomposable into component sub-particles). Of the various types of exotic star proposed, the most well evidenced and understood is the quark star.

Exotic stars are largely theoretical – partly because it is difficult to test in detail how such forms of matter may behave, and partly because prior to the fledgling technology of gravitational-wave astronomy, there was no satisfactory means of detecting cosmic objects that do not radiate electromagnetically or through known particles. So it is not yet possible to verify novel cosmic objects of this nature by distinguishing them from known objects. Candidates for such objects are occasionally identified based on indirect evidence gained from observable properties.

Quark stars and strange stars
Main articles: Quark star and Strange star

A quark star is a hypothesized object that results from the decomposition of neutrons into their constituent up and down quarks under gravitational pressure. It is expected to be smaller and denser than a neutron star, and may survive in this new state indefinitely if no extra mass is added. Effectively, it is a very large nucleon. Quark stars that contain strange matter are called strange stars.

Based on observations released by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory on 10 April 2002, two objects, designated RX J1856.5-3754 and 3C58, were suggested as quark star candidates. The former appeared to be much smaller and the latter much colder than expected for a neutron star, suggesting that they were composed of material denser than neutronium. However, these observations were met with skepticism by researchers who said the results were not conclusive. After further analysis, RX J1856.5-3754 was excluded from the list of quark star candidates.[1]
Electroweak stars
Main article: Electroweak star

An electroweak star is a theoretical type of exotic star in which the gravitational collapse of the star is prevented by radiation pressure resulting from electroweak burning; that is, the energy released by the conversion of quarks into leptons through the electroweak force. This process occurs in a volume at the star's core approximately the size of an apple and containing about two Earth masses.[2]

The stage of life of a star that produces an electroweak star is theorized to occur after a supernova collapse. Electroweak stars are denser than quark stars, and may form when quark degeneracy pressure is no longer able to withstand gravitational attraction, but can still be withstood by electroweak-burning radiation pressure.[3] This phase of a star's life may last upwards of 10 million years.[2][3][4][5]

Preon stars
Main article: Preon star

A preon star is a proposed type of compact star made of preons, a group of hypothetical subatomic particles. Preon stars would be expected to have huge densities, exceeding 1023 kg/m3. They may have greater densities than quark stars and neutron stars, although they would be smaller but heavier than white dwarfs and neutron stars.[6] Preon stars could originate from supernova explosions or the Big Bang. Such objects could be detected in principle through gravitational lensing of gamma rays. Preon stars are a potential candidate for dark matter. However, current observations[7] from particle accelerators speak against the existence of preons, or at least do not prioritize their investigation, since the only particle detector presently able to explore very high energies (the Large Hadron Collider) is not designed specifically for this and its research program is directed towards other areas, such as studying the Higgs boson, quark-gluon plasma and evidence related to physics beyond the Standard Model.

In general relativity, if a star collapses to a size smaller than its Schwarzschild radius, an event horizon will exist at that radius and the star will become a black hole. Thus, the size of a preon star may vary from around 1 metre with an absolute mass of 100 Earths to the size of a pea with a mass roughly equal to that of the Moon.

Boson stars

A boson star is a hypothetical astronomical object that is formed out of particles called bosons (conventional stars are formed from mostly protons, which are fermions, but also consist of Helium-4 nuclei, which are bosons). For this type of star to exist, there must be a stable type of boson with self-repulsive interaction; one possible candidate particle[8] is the still-hypothetical "axion" (which is also a candidate for the not-yet-detected "non-baryonic dark matter" particles, which appear to compose roughly 25% of the mass of the Universe). It is theorized[9] that unlike normal stars (which emit radiation due to gravitational pressure and nuclear fusion), boson stars would be transparent and invisible. The immense gravity of a compact boson star would bend light around the object, creating an empty region resembling the shadow of a black hole's event horizon. Like a black hole, a boson star would absorb ordinary matter from its surroundings, but the transparency means this matter (which likely would heat up and emit radiation) would be visible at its center. Simulations further suggest that rotating boson stars would be doughnut-shaped as centrifugal forces would give the bosonic matter that form.

As of 2018, there is no significant evidence that such stars exist. However, it may become possible to detect them by the gravitational radiation emitted by a pair of co-orbiting boson stars.[10][11]

Boson stars may have formed through gravitational collapse during the primordial stages of the Big Bang.[12] At least in theory, a supermassive boson star could exist at the core of a galaxy, which might explain many of the observed properties of active galactic cores.[13]

Boson stars have also been proposed as candidate dark matter objects,[14] and it has been hypothesized that the dark matter haloes surrounding most galaxies might be viewed as enormous "boson stars."[15]

The compact boson stars and boson shells are often studied involving fields like the massive (or massless) complex scalar fields, the U(1) gauge field and gravity with conical potential. The presence of a positive or negative cosmological constant in the theory facilitates a study of these objects in de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spaces.[16][17][18][19][20]

Braaten, Mohapatra, and Zhang have theorized that a new type of dense axion star may exist in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion Bose-Einstein condensate.[21] The possibility that dense axion stars exist has been challenged by other work that does not support this claim [22]

Planck stars
Main article: Planck star

In loop quantum gravity, A Planck star is a theoretically possible astronomical object that is created when the energy density of a collapsing star reaches the Planck energy density. Under these conditions, assuming gravity and spacetime are quantized, there arises a repulsive "force" derived from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. In other words, if gravity and spacetime are quantized, the accumulation of mass-energy inside the Planck star cannot collapse beyond this limit because it would violate the uncertainty principle for spacetime itself.[23]
See also

Dark star[24][25]
Exotic matter
Glueball
Q star

References

Truemper, J. E.; Burwitz, V.; Haberl, F.; Zavlin, V. E. (June 2004). "The puzzles of RX J1856.5-3754: neutron star or quark star?". Nuclear Physics B: Proceedings Supplements. 132: 560–565.arXiv:astro-ph/0312600. Bibcode:2004NuPhS.132..560T. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2004.04.094. S2CID 425112.
Shiga, D. (4 January 2010). "Exotic stars may mimic Big Bang". New Scientist. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
"Theorists Propose a New Way to Shine – And a New Kind of Star: 'Electroweak'". ScienceDaily. 15 December 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
Vieru, Tudor (15 December 2009). "New Type of Cosmic Objects: Electroweak Stars". Softpedia. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
"Astronomers Predict New Class of 'Electroweak' Star". Technology Review. 10 December 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
Hannson, J.; Sandin, F. (9 June 2005). "Preon stars: a new class of cosmic compact objects". Physics Letters B. 616 (1–2): 1–7.arXiv:astro-ph/0410417. Bibcode:2005PhLB..616....1H. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2005.04.034. S2CID 119063004.
Wilkins, Alasdair (9 December 2010). "Stars so weird that they make black holes look boring". io9. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
Kolb, Edward W.; Tkachev, Igor I. (29 March 1993). "Axion Miniclusters and Bose Stars". Physical Review Letters. 71 (19): 3051–3054.arXiv:hep-ph/9303313. Bibcode:1993PhRvL..71.3051K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.71.3051. PMID 10054845. S2CID 16946913.
Clark, Stuart (15 July 2017). "Holy Moley! (Astronomers taking a first peek at our galaxy's black heart might be in for a big surprise)". New Scientist: 29.
Schutz, Bernard F. (2003). Gravity from the Ground Up (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 143. ISBN 0-521-45506-5.
Palenzuela, C.; Lehner, L.; Liebling, S. L. (2008). "Orbital dynamics of binary boson star systems". Physical Review D. 77 (4): 044036.arXiv:0706.2435. Bibcode:2008PhRvD..77d4036P. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.77.044036. S2CID 115159490.
Madsen, Mark S.; Liddle, Andrew R. (1990). "The cosmological formation of boson stars". Physics Letters B. 251 (4): 507. Bibcode:1990PhLB..251..507M. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(90)90788-8.
Torres, Diego F.; Capozziello, S.; Lambiase, G. (2000). "A supermassive boson star at the galactic center?". Physical Review D. 62 (10): 104012.arXiv:astro-ph/0004064. Bibcode:2000PhRvD..62j4012T. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.62.104012. S2CID 16670960.
Sharma, R.; Karmakar, S.; Mukherjee, S. (2008). "Boson star and dark matter".arXiv:0812.3470 [gr-qc].
Lee, Jae-weon; Koh, In-guy (1996). "Galactic Halos As Boson Stars". Physical Review D. 53 (4): 2236–2239.arXiv:hep-ph/9507385. Bibcode:1996PhRvD..53.2236L. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.53.2236. PMID 10020213. S2CID 16914311.
Kumar, S.; Kulshreshtha, U.; Kulshreshtha, D. S. (2016). "Charged compact boson stars and shells in the presence of a cosmological constant". Physical Review D. 94 (12): 125023.arXiv:1709.09449. Bibcode:2016PhRvD..94l5023K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.94.125023. S2CID 54590086.
Kumar, S.; Kulshreshtha, U.; Kulshreshtha, D. S. (2016). "Charged compact boson stars and shells in the presence of a cosmological constant". Physical Review D. 93 (10): 101501.arXiv:1605.02925. Bibcode:2016PhRvD..93j1501K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.93.101501. S2CID 118474697.
Kleihaus, B.; Kunz, J.; Lammerzahl, C.; List, M. (2010). "Boson Shells Harbouring Charged Black Holes". Physical Review D. 82 (10): 104050.arXiv:1007.1630. Bibcode:2010PhRvD..82j4050K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.82.104050. S2CID 119266501.
Hartmann, B.; Kleihaus, B.; Kunz, J.; Schaffer, I. (2013). "Compact (A)dS Boson Stars and Shells". Physical Review D. 88 (12): 124033.arXiv:1310.3632. Bibcode:2013PhRvD..88l4033H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.88.124033. S2CID 118721877.
Kumar, S.; Kulshreshtha, U.; Kulshreshtha, D. S.; Kahlen, S.; Kunz, J. (2017). "Some new results on charged compact boson stars". Physics Letters B. 772: 615–620.arXiv:1709.09445. Bibcode:2017PhLB..772..615K. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2017.07.041. S2CID 119375441.
Braaten, Eric; Mohapatra, Abhishek; Zhang, Hong (2016). "Dense Axion Stars". Physical Review Letters. 117 (12): 121801.arXiv:1512.00108. Bibcode:2016PhRvL.117l1801B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.121801. PMID 27689265. S2CID 34997021.
Visinelli, Luca; Baum, Sebastian; Redondo, Javier; Freese, Katherine; Wilczek, Frank (2018). "Dilute and Dense Axion Stars". Physics Letters B. 777: 64–72.arXiv:1710.08910. Bibcode:2018PhLB..777...64V. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2017.12.010. S2CID 56044599.
Rovelli, Carlo; Vidotto, Francesca (2014). "Planck stars". International Journal of Modern Physics D. 23 (12): 1442026.arXiv:1401.6562. Bibcode:2014IJMPD..2342026R. doi:10.1142/S0218271814420267. S2CID 118917980.
Small, dark, and heavy: But is it a black hole?. Visser, Matt; Barcelo, Carlos; Liberati, Stefano; Sonego, Sebastiano (February 2009)

How Quantum Effects Could Create Black Stars, Not Holes

Johan Hansson, A hierarchy of cosmic compact objects – without black holes. Acta Physica Polonica B, Vol. 38, p. 91 (2007). PDF
Johan Hansson and Fredrik Sandin, The observational legacy of preon stars – probing new physics beyond the LHC.
J. E. Horvath, Constraints on superdense preon stars and their formation scenarios. Astrophys. Space Sci. 307, 419 (2007).
Fredrik Sandin, Exotic Phases of Matter in Compact Stars (2007). PDF
Nature News article: Splitting the quark (Nov. 2007).
"A New Way To Shine, A New Kind Of Star". SpaceDaily. 16 December 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2009.

External links

Abstract: Are Q-stars a serious threat for stellar-mass black hole candidates?. Miller, J.C.; Shahbaz, T.; Nolan, L.A. (1997)
Abstract: No observational proof of the black-hole event-horizon. Abramowicz, Marek A.; Kluzniak, Wlodek; Lasota, Jean-Pierre (2002)
New Scientist issue 2643: "Could preon stars reveal a hidden reality?" (6 February 2008)
New Scientist issue 2472: "Micro-stars may manage to avoid black-hole fate" (6 November 2008)
Dai, De-Chang; Lue, Arthur; Starkman, Glenn; Stojkovic, Dejan (2010). "Electroweak stars: how nature may capitalize on the standard model's ultimate fuel". Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics. 2010 (12): 004.arXiv:0912.0520. Bibcode:2010JCAP...12..004D. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2010/12/004. S2CID 118417017.

vte

Stars
Formation

Accretion Molecular cloud Bok globule Young stellar object
Protostar Pre-main-sequence Herbig Ae/Be T Tauri FU Orionis Herbig–Haro object Hayashi track Henyey track

Evolution

Main sequence Red-giant branch Horizontal branch
Red clump Asymptotic giant branch
super-AGB Blue loop Protoplanetary nebula Planetary nebula PG1159 Dredge-up OH/IR Instability strip Luminous blue variable Blue straggler Stellar population Supernova Superluminous supernova / Hypernova

Spectral classification

Early Late Main sequence
O B A F G K M Brown dwarf WR OB Subdwarf
O B Subgiant Giant
Blue Red Yellow Bright giant Supergiant
Blue Red Yellow Hypergiant
Yellow Carbon
S CN CH White dwarf Chemically peculiar
Am Ap/Bp HgMn Helium-weak Barium Extreme helium Lambda Boötis Lead Technetium Be
Shell B[e]

Remnants

White dwarf
Helium planet Black dwarf Neutron
Radio-quiet Pulsar
Binary X-ray Magnetar Stellar black hole X-ray binary
Burster

Hypothetical

Blue dwarf Green Black dwarf Exotic
Boson Electroweak Strange Preon Planck Dark Dark-energy Quark Q Black Gravastar Frozen Quasi-star Thorne–Żytkow object Iron Blitzar

Stellar nucleosynthesis

Deuterium burning Lithium burning Proton–proton chain CNO cycle Helium flash Triple-alpha process Alpha process Carbon burning Neon burning Oxygen burning Silicon burning S-process R-process Fusor Nova
Symbiotic Remnant Luminous red nova

Structure

Core Convection zone
Microturbulence Oscillations Radiation zone Atmosphere
Photosphere Starspot Chromosphere Stellar corona Stellar wind
Bubble Bipolar outflow Accretion disk Asteroseismology
Helioseismology Eddington luminosity Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism

Properties

Designation Dynamics Effective temperature Luminosity Kinematics Magnetic field Absolute magnitude Mass Metallicity Rotation Starlight Variable Photometric system Color index Hertzsprung–Russell diagram Color–color diagram

Star systems

Binary
Contact Common envelope Eclipsing Symbiotic Multiple Cluster
Open Globular Super Planetary system

Earth-centric
observations

Sun
Solar System Sunlight Pole star Circumpolar Constellation Asterism Magnitude
Apparent Extinction Photographic Radial velocity Proper motion Parallax Photometric-standard

Lists

Proper names
Arabic Chinese Extremes Most massive Highest temperature Lowest temperature Largest volume Smallest volume Brightest
Historical Most luminous Nearest
Nearest bright With exoplanets Brown dwarfs White dwarfs Milky Way novae Supernovae
Candidates Remnants Planetary nebulae Timeline of stellar astronomy

Related articles

Substellar object
Brown dwarf Sub-brown dwarf Planet Galactic year Galaxy Guest Gravity Intergalactic Planet-hosting stars Tidal disruption event

vte

Neutron star
Types

Radio-quiet Pulsar

Single pulsars

Magnetar
Soft gamma repeater Anomalous X-ray Rotating radio transient

Binary pulsars

Binary X-ray pulsar
X-ray binary X-ray burster List Millisecond Be/X-ray Spin-up

Properties

Blitzar
Fast radio burst Bondi accretion Chandrasekhar limit Gamma-ray burst Glitch Neutronium Neutron-star oscillation Optical Pulsar kick Quasi-periodic oscillation Relativistic Rp-process Starquake Timing noise Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit Urca process

Related

Gamma-ray burst progenitors Asteroseismology Compact star
Quark star Exotic star Supernova
Supernova remnant Related links Hypernova Kilonova Neutron star merger Quark-nova White dwarf
Related links Stellar black hole
Related links Radio star Pulsar planet Pulsar wind nebula Thorne–Żytkow object

Discovery

LGM-1 Centaurus X-3 Timeline of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and supernovae

Satellite
investigation

Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Chandra X-ray Observatory

Other

X-ray pulsar-based navigation Tempo software program Astropulse The Magnificent Seven

Category Category Commons page Commons

vte

Supernovae
Classes

Type Ia Type Ib and Ic Type II (IIP, IIL, IIn, and IIb) Hypernova Superluminous Pair-instability


Supernova&galaxia.png
G299-Remnants-SuperNova-Type1a-20150218.jpg
Physics of

Calcium-rich Carbon detonation Foe Near-Earth Phillips relationship Nucleosynthesis
P-process R-process Neutrinos

Related

Imposter
pulsational pair-instability Failed Gamma-ray burst Kilonova Luminous red nova Nova Pulsar kick Quark-nova Symbiotic nova

Progenitors

Hypergiant
yellow Luminous blue variable Supergiant
blue red yellow White dwarf
related links Wolf–Rayet star

Remnants

Supernova remnant
Pulsar wind nebula Neutron star
pulsar magnetar related links Stellar black hole
related links Compact star
quark star exotic star Zombie star Local Bubble Superbubble
Orion–Eridanus

Discovery

Guest star History of supernova observation Timeline of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and supernovae

Lists

Candidates Notable Massive stars Most distant Remnants In fiction

Notable

Barnard's Loop Cassiopeia A Crab
Crab Nebula iPTF14hls Tycho's Kepler's SN 1987A SN 185 SN 1006 SN 2003fg Remnant G1.9+0.3 SN 2007bi SN 2011fe SN 2014J SN Refsdal Vela Remnant

Research

ASAS-SN Calán/Tololo Survey High-Z Supernova Search Team Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope Monte Agliale Supernovae and Asteroid Survey Nearby Supernova Factory Sloan Supernova Survey Supernova/Acceleration Probe Supernova Cosmology Project SuperNova Early Warning System Supernova Legacy Survey Texas Supernova Search

Physics Encyclopedia

World

Index

Hellenica World - Scientific Library

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/"
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License