King Agis said, “The Lacedaemonians are not wont to ask how many, but where the enemy are.”

1) Spartan officer (sculpture), Hoplite 2) from Samos, 3) from Argos, 4) from Athens (Alkmaionid clan), Nick Sekunda, The Ancient Greeks

War is the father of all and king of all, and some he shows as gods, others as men; some he makes slaves, others free, Heraclitus

Warrior from a Tripod

Battle of Hysiae (or Hysiai), c. 669 BC Sparta defeated by Argos

Messenian Wars

Battle of Irasa, around 571 BC, Greeks from Cyrene led by Battus II victorious against a Libyan-Egyptian Army of Pharaoh Apries

Battle near Leucon c. 555/0 BC ? according to Herodotus 7000 hoplites of Arcesilaus II killed by the Libyans

Battle at Thyreae , 300 Argives against 300 Spartans

Battle of Alalia c. 540/535 BC, Etruscan and Phoenician against Phocaean colony in Corsica

The Greek Ionian colonies revolt is supported Athens and Eretria. Darius I, the Persian King and Pharaoh of Egypt, starts an expedition against the Greeks.

Battle of Leipsydrion 513/512 BC

The Battle of Sepeia 494 BC

The Battle of Lade 494 BC

The Battle of Miletus 494 BC

Greco-Persian War

Siege of Lindos , a forgotten legendary Siege

The Battle of Marathon 490 BC -

Marathon, from The 15 decisive battle of the world, by Edward Creasy

Xerxes I ("The leader of Heroes") the son of Darius I, 10 years after his father was defeated in Marathon, starts a new expedition against the Greeks. From the East he attacks central Greece, from the West his allies the Carthagenians and Etruscans attack the Greek colonies in Italy. Aeschylus comments: "Now this is the battle for everything"

The Battle of Salamis 480 BC

The Battle of Himera 480 BC

The Battle of Artemisium 480 BC

Arrow and Spear Heads used in the Battle of Thermopylae


The Battle of Thermopylae 480 BC

In the year 479 BC many Persian soldiers are killed by a Tsunami in Potidaea / Chalkidice.

The Battle of Mycale 479 BC

The Battle of Plataea 479 BC -Region from Space ,

The Battle of Cumae 474 BC

Warrior, The 'Armento Rider', British Museum

The Battle of the Eurymedon c. 466 BC

The Battle of Tanagra 457 BC

The Battle of Oenophyta 457 BC

The Battle of Salamis / Cyprus 450 BC

The Battle of Coronea 447 BC

The Battle of Sybota 433 BC

The Battle of Potidaea 432 BC

War Memorial, Louvre Ma 863

Among the gods who live on mount Olympus, you're the one I hate the most. For you love war, constant strife and battle. Zeus to Ares. Iliad

Peloponnesian War, Athens and Allies versus Sparta and Allies

4 April 431 BC - 25 April 404 BC

Hoplite, drawing by Johnny Shumate

The Battle of Naupactus 429 BC

The Battle of Chalcis 429 BC

The Battle of Tanagra 426 BC

The Battle of Olpae 426 BC

The Battle of Pylos 425 BC

The Battle of Sphacteria 425 BC

The Battle of Delium 424 BC

The Battle of Amphipolis 422 BC

The Battle of Mantinea 418 BC

The Sicilian Expedition 415 - 413 BC

The Battle of Cynossema 411 BC

The Battle of Syme 411 BC

The Battle of Cyzicus 410 BC

The Battle of Arginusae 406 BC

The Battle of Ephesus 406 BC

The Battle of Aegospotami 405 BC - great loss of the Athenian navy power in Aegospotami, near the Hellespont in today Turkey,

Peloponnesian War , Thucydides The History of The Peloponnesian War

The Battle of Cunaxa 401 BC, A Persian-Persian battle with Greek mercenaries among which Xenophon, the author of The Anabasis.

Conon's Lion Tomb in Cnidus for the 394 BC victory

Corinthian War

The Battle of Elleporus 389 BC

The Battle of Tegyra 385 BC

The Battle of Naxos 376 BC

The Battle of Leuctra 371 BC in central Greece

The Battle of Mantinea 362 BC

The Battle of Tamynae 349 BC

Munn, Mark H., The Defense of Attica: The Dema Wall and the Boiotian War of 378-375 B.C. Berekeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Alexander the Great

According to an analysis the 60000 men of Alexander's army required each single day around 300000 pounds water, 200000 pounds of grain. More than 350000 pounds of other material was necessary for the transport animals.


The Battle of Crocus Field

The Battle of the Crimissus 340 BC

The Battle of Chaeronea 338 BC -

Alexander at Granicus

The Battle of the Granicus River, 334 BC - a battle in northwest Turkey,

The Battle of Issus 333 BC, a battle close to the today Syrian-Turkey border Issus

Alexander, Siege of Tyre

Siege of Tyre, 332 BC

Battle of Megalopolis 331 BC , revolt of Sparta

The Battle of Gaugamela 331 BC, a battle between the forces of the Persian King Dareius III and Alexander the Great in a place today in Irak. The Battle is also known as Battle of Arbela.

"Alexander deserves the glory which he has enjoyed for so many centuries and among all nations; but what if he had been beaten at Arbela having the Euphrates, the Tigris, and the deserts in his rear, without any strong places of refuge, nine hundred leagues from Macedonia?"--NAPOLEON. Arbela, from The 15 decisive battle of the world, by Edward Creasy

The Battle of Pandosia 331 BC

The Battle of the Hydaspes River, 326 BC, a battle in the northwest India.

Hypaspist , drawing by Johnny Shumate

Wars of Alexander's Diadochoi


Minos just sent me, Antigenes to the islands of happy people, as I had got fatal wounds on the head and my body was pricked from spears, at the moment that the goddess of war (Enyo) encouraged me during the infantry battle against the Aitolians....

The Battle of Crannon 322 BC

The Battle of Paraitacene 317 BC

The Battle of Gabiene 316 BC

The Battle of Gaza 312 BC

The Battle of Salamis 306 BC

The Battle of Ipsus 301 BC

The Battle of Corupedium 281 BC

The Battle of Heraclea 280 BC

The Battle of Cos 258 BC

The Battle of Sellasia 222 BC

The Battle of Raphia 217 BC

Romans versus the Macedonians and Italian Greeks

Iustum est bellum quibus necessarium

Pyrrhic Wars

The first European to acquire elephants was Alexander, after subduing Porus and the power of the Indians; after his death others of the kings got them but Antigonus more than any; Pyrrhus captured his beasts in the battle with Demetrius. When on this occasion they came in sight the Romans were seized with panic, and did not believe they were animals. For although the use of ivory in arts and crafts all men obviously have known from of old, the actual beasts, before the Macedonians crossed into Asia, nobody had seen at all except the Indians themselves, the Libyans, and their neighbours. This is proved by Homer, who describes the couches and houses of the more prosperous kings as ornamented with ivory, but never mentions the beast; but if he had seen or heard about it he would, in my opinion have been much more likely to speak of it than of the battle between the Dwarf-men and cranes Pausanias

One more such victory and I shall be lost!, Pyrrhus of Epirus

Battle of Heraclea 280 BC

Battle of Asculum 279 BC

Battle of Beneventum 275 BC

First Macedonian War 215 - 205 BC

Siege of Syracuse

Battle of Arius (Seleucid - Parthian war) 209 BC

Battle of Lamia 209 BC

Battle of Mantinea 207 BC

Cretan War

Battle of Chios 201 BC

Second Macedonian War 200 - 196 BC , The Battle of Cynoscephalae 197 BC

Battle of Thermopylae 191 BC

Battle of Eurymedon 190 BC

Battle of Myonessus 190 BC

Battle of Magnesia 190 BC

Third Macedonian War 171 BC - 168 BC,

The Battle of Callicinus 171 BC

The Battle of Pydna 168 BC

Fourth Macedonian War 150 BC - 148 BC

Duncan B. Campbell, Brian Delf (Illustrator), -Greek and Roman Artillery 399 BC - AD 363- , Osprey Publishing, Limited 2003, ISBN: 1841766348

William Gurstelle , The Art of the Catapult: Build Greek Ballistae, Roman Onagers, English Trebuchets, and More Ancient Artillery- ,Chicago Review Press (July 1, 2004) ISBN: 1556525265

Adrienne Mayor, Greek Fire, Poison Arrows & Scorpion Bombs: Biological and Chemical Warfare in the Ancient World-, Overlook Hardcover; 1st edition (September 29, 2003) , ISBN: 158567348X

Victor Davis Hanson , The Western Way of War: Infantry Battle in Classical Greece-, University of California Press; 2nd edition (February 11, 2000) , ISBN: 0520219112

-Anthony McNicoll, N. P. Milner, A. W. McNicoll . Hellenistic Fortifications from the Aegean to the Euphrates- , Oxford University Press (May, 1997) , ISBN: 019813228X (unfortunately a very expensive book)

Peter Connolly , Greece and Rome at War- , Greenhill Books, ISBN: 185367303X

Peter Green , The Greco-Persian Wars- , University of California Press; Reprint edition (August, 1998) ISBN: 0520203135

The Battle of Salamis: The Naval Encounter That Saved Greece - and Western Civilization- , Barry Strauss, New York: Simon and Schuster, 2004. (A selection (PDF File)

Simon Anglim, Rob S. Rice, Phyllis Jestice, Scott Rusch, John Serrati, Fighting Techniques of the Ancient World (3000 B.C. to 500 A.D.): Equipment, Combat Skills, and Tactics- , Thomas Dunne Books, 2003, ISBN: 0312309325

Ancient Greece

Science, Technology , Medicine , Warfare, , Biographies , Life , Cities/Places/Maps , Arts , Literature , Philosophy ,Olympics, Mythology , History , Images

Medieval Greece / Byzantine Empire

Science, Technology, Arts, , Warfare , Literature, Biographies, Icons, History

Modern Greece

Cities, Islands, Regions, Fauna/Flora ,Biographies , History , Warfare, Science/Technology, Literature, Music , Arts , Film/Actors , Sport , Fashion



Greek-Library - Scientific Library





Hellenica World