In Greek mythology Erebus (Ἔρεβος, Erebos) was a son of Chaos, father of Aether and Hemera by Nyx, his sister. (Hesiod. Theog. 123.) Hyginus (Fab. p. 1) and Cicero (de Nat. Deor. iii. 17) enumerate many personifications of abstract notions as the offspring of Erebos. The name signifies darkness, and is therefore applied also to the dark and gloomy space under the earth, through which the shades pass into Hades. (Hom. Il. 8);

According to some later legends, Erebus was part of Hades, the underworld. It was where the dead had to pass immediately after dying. After Charon ferried them across the river Acheron, they entered Tartarus, the underworld proper. Erebus was often used as a synonym for Hades, the Greek god of the underworld. Also, Erebus was the name of the gloomy space through which souls passed on their way to Hades.

The word is probably from Proto-Indo-European language, *h1regwos, cognate to Old Norse rœkkr, Gothic riqis "darkness", Sanskrit rajani "night", Tocharian orkäm "darkness". Another suggestion is a loan from Semitic, c.f. Hebrew erebh and Akkadian erebu "sunset, evening" (hence, "darkness"). The same etymology of "sunset" has been suggested for Europe.

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The HMS Erebus and the HMS Terror were the ships carrying Sir John Franklin's failed expedition to find the Northwest Passage.

Mount Erebus is an Antarctic volcano.

The Mount Erebus disaster was an aircraft accident that occurred in 1979.

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