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ὣς οἵ γ´ ἀμφίεπον τάφον Ἕκτορος· ἦλθε δ´ Ἀμαζών,
Ἄρηος θυγάτηρ μεγαλήτορος ἀνδροφόνοιο.
Ὀτρήρ[η]〈ς〉 θυγάτηρ ἐυειδὴς Πενθεσί̣λ〈ε〉ια.
[καὶ] σύ, γύναι, τίνος ἔκγον[ος] ε̣ὔ̣χ̣[ε]αι εἶ̣ναι̣;

The Aithiopis (Greek: Αἰθιοπίς; Latin: Aethiopis) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. It was one of the Epic Cycle, that is, the "Trojan" cycle, which told the entire history of the Trojan War in epic verse. The story of the Aithiopis comes chronologically immediately after that of the Homeric Iliad, and is followed by that of the Little Iliad. The Aithiopis was attributed by ancient writers to Arktinos of Miletos. The poem comprised five books of verse in dactylic hexameter.


The Aithiopis was probably composed in the seventh century BC, but there is much uncertainty. Ancient sources date Arktinos to the eighth century; but the earliest artistic representations of one of the most important characters, Penthesileia, date to about 600 BC, suggesting a much later date.


In current critical editions only five lines survive of the Aithiopis' original text. We are almost entirely dependent on a summary of the Cyclic epics contained in the Chrestomatheia (see also chrestomathy) attributed (almost certainly wrongly) to the 5th-century AD philosopher Proklos Diadochos. Fewer than ten other references give indications of the poem's storyline.

The poem opens, shortly after the death of the Trojan hero Hektor, with the arrival of the Amazon warrior Penthesileia who has come to support the Trojans. She has a moment of glory in battle, but Achilleus kills her. The Greek warrior Thersites later taunts Achilleus, claiming that he had been in love with her, and Achilleus kills him too. Achilleus is ritually purified for the murder of Thersites.

Next another Trojan ally arrives, Memnon, son of Eos and Tithonos, leading an Ethiopian contingent and wearing armour made by the god Hephaistos. In battle Memnon kills Antilochos, a Greek warrior who was the son of Nestor and a great favourite of Achilleus. Achilleus then kills Memnon, and Zeus makes Memnon immortal at Eos' request. But in his rage Achilleus pursues the Trojans into the very gates of Troy, and in the Skaian Gates he is killed by an arrow shot by Paris, assisted by the god Apollo. Achilleus' body is rescued by Aias and Odysseus.

The Greeks hold a funeral for Antilochos. Achilleus' mother, the sea nymph Thetis, comes with her sisters and the Muses to lament over Achilleus' body. Funeral games are held in honour of Achilleus, at which Achilleus' arms are offered as a prize for the greatest hero; and there develops a dispute over them between Aias and Odysseus. There the Aithiopis ends; it is uncertain whether the judgment of Achilleus' arms, and subsequent suicide of Aias, were told in the Aithiopis, in the next epic in the Cycle, the Little Iliad, or in both.

Importance of the poem

Events told in the story of the Aethiopis were popular among ancient Greek vase painters. Especially popular scenes are the death of Penthesilea, and Ajax's retrieval of Achilles' corpse.

Despite being poorly attested, the Aethiopis is frequently cited in modern scholarship on the Homeric Iliad.[1] It is one of the most important paradigms used in Neoanalytic scholarship on Homer because of strong similarities between its story of Achilles, Antilochus, and Memnon, and the Iliadic story of Achilles, Patroclus, and Hector; the claim that such a similarity exists is known as the "Memnon theory".[2]


Online editions (English translation):

Print editions (Greek):


  1. ^ See e.g. G. Schoeck 1961, Ilias und Aithiopis: kyklische Motive in homerischer Brechung (Zurich); J. Burgess 1997, "Beyond Neo-analysis: problems with the vengeance theory", American Journal of Philology 118.1: 1-17; M.L. West 2003, "Iliad and Aithiopis", Classical Quarterly 53.1: 1-14.
  2. ^ See especially W. Schadewaldt 1965, Von Homers Welt und Werk (4th ed.; orig. publ. 1944; Stuttgart).

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