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AN ILLUSTRATED DICTIONARY

OF WORDS USED IN
ART AND ARCHÆOLOGY.
[All rights reserved.]
PRINTED BY GILBERT AND RIVINGTON, LIMITED, ST. JOHN’S SQUARE, LONDON.

APSE OF THE BASILICA OF ST. PAUL-WITHOUT-THE-WALLS, ROME.

[See Basilica, p. 37.

AN ILLUSTRATED DICTIONARY
OF WORDS USED IN
ART AND ARCHÆOLOGY.
Explaining Terms frequently used in Works on Architecture, Arms, Bronzes, Christian Art, Colour, Costume, Decoration, Devices, Emblems, Heraldry, Lace, Personal Ornaments, Pottery, Painting, Sculpture, &c., with their Derivations.

By J. W. MOLLETT, B.A.
Officier de l’Instruction Publique (France);
AUTHOR OF THE LIVES OF “REMBRANDT” AND “WILKIE” IN THE “GREAT ARTISTS” SERIES.
London:
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEARLE, AND RIVINGTON,
CROWN BUILDINGS, 188, FLEET STREET.
1883.
vii

PREFACE.

This Dictionary was commenced as an amended edition of that written by M. Ernest Bosc, architect of Paris, and contains the 450 engravings published in the French work, to which about 250 more have been added. Little or nothing, however, of the text of M. Bosc’s work has been left standing; his definitions having, in the process of revision under reference to original works, almost entirely disappeared. The whole work, as it now stands, has been drawn from, or carefully corrected by, the best authorities in each of its special branches. Considerable prominence has been given to Architecture, from the French original corrected from English writers; to Christian Antiquities from Martigny, and the Dictionary of Dr. Smith and Professor Cheetham, and other authorities; to Mediæval Armour, and terms of Chivalry, chiefly from Meyrick’s Ancient Armour; to Costume from Planché and Fairholt; to Heraldry from Boutell’s and Mrs. Bury Palliser’s works; to Pottery, the substance of the articles on this subject being derived from M. Jacquemart’s work; to Needlework, Ivories, Musical Instruments, Goldsmiths’ Work, Painters’ Materials and Processes Ancient and Modern, Colour, &c., with references to the several authorities referred to.

The Greek and Roman Antiquities, which are the principal part of M. Bosc’s work, have been in this volume reduced to the smallest possible compass: the Dictionaries of Dr. Smith and Rich must be referred to by those who require fuller definitions upon this subject, which would of itself fill ten such books as the present.

A few Indian, Chinese, and Japanese Terms, which have come into ordinary use in art, have been sought out and inserted: in the first-mentioned viiiDr. Birdwood’s Handbooks have been a most useful guide. Finally, it is necessary to state, that many words essential to the completeness of the work would have been in danger of omission, if I had not had before me Mr. Fairholt’s admirable Dictionary of Art Terms, which, occupying a more restricted ground than this, is so thorough and accurate in dealing with all that it professes to include, that the only raison d’être of this work is the very much wider and different ground that it covers, and the greater condensation of its definitions. Obviously the substance of every statement in the work is borrowed from some previous writer on the subject, and it is evident that a Dictionary of Reference is not a convenient vehicle for theory or invention.

The appended list of Classified Catalogues which have been prepared by direction of the authorities of the South Kensington Museum, will have the additional use of referring the reader to the fountain-head at which he can verify and amplify the condensed information that this work supplies.

J. W. MOLLETT.
October, 1882.
CLASSIFIED CATALOGUES OF BOOKS ON ART
IN THE
NATIONAL ART LIBRARY, SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM.
ISSUED BY AUTHORITY.

List of Works on Costume, 1s.; Furniture, 1d.; Heraldry, 3d.; Lace and Needlework, 1d.; Ornament, 6d.; Painting, 4d.; Pottery and Porcelain, 3d.; Sculpture, 3d.

These Catalogues may be had on application to the Secretary of the Science and Art Department, South Kensington, S.W.

ILLUSTRATED DICTIONARY OF WORDS
USED IN
ART AND ARCHÆOLOGY.

Abbreviations—Arch. Architectural; Chr. Christian; Egyp. Egyptian; Fr. French; Gr. Greek; Her. Heraldic; It. Italian; Lat. Latin; Med. Mediæval; O. E. Old English; Orient. Oriental; R. Roman.

Aar or Aarou, Egyp. A plain in a supra-terrestrial region, which corresponded, with the Egyptians, to the Elysian Fields of the Greeks and the Asgard of Scandinavian mythology.

Fig. 1. Abaculi used as pavement.

Abaculus, Gr. and R. (a diminutive of abacus, q.v.). A small square or cube of glass, or some vitreous composition made to imitate stone or glass of various colours. Abaculi were employed for the inlaid-work of pavements, or the incrustations of mosaic.

Abacus, Gr. and R. (ἄβαξ, a slab or board). 1. In general a rectangular slab of stone, marble, or terra-cotta. 2. A board or tray used in arithmetical calculations, and constructed for reckoning by tens. 3. A play-board divided into compartments, a kind of backgammon in use in antiquity. The same term was also applied to a board used for another game of skill, the ludus latrunculorum, which was more like our chess. 4. A side-board on which were displayed, in the triclinium, or dining-room, silver plate and other table utensils. 5. A slab of marble, used for a coating in the decoration of a room or apartment of any kind. 6. A square slab of terra-cotta or wood, placed by the earliest builders at the top of wooden columns, in order to give them a broader head, and so afford a better support to the beams which rested on them. It was this motive that gave rise to the formation of the abacus of the capital of a column.

Abaton or Abatos, Gr. (α, βᾰτὸς, inaccessible). A term used generally to denote any inaccessible place, such as the cella of a temple, an adytum from which the profane were excluded. The term Abaton denoted more particularly a building in the city of Rhodes, which contained, together with two statues in bronze, a trophy commemorating a victory gained over the Rhodians. This memorial had been placed in the building by queen Artemisia, who had consecrated it to a divinity. To destroy it would have been a sacrilege, and as no one could be allowed to penetrate into the interior of the Abaton, without the defeat of the Rhodians becoming known, all access to it was forbidden.

Abezzo, Olio di, It. Strasburg Turpentine (q.v.).

Fig. 2. Ewer for ablutions (Persian).

Ablutions, Chr. There were various ablutions: that of the head (capitilavium), as a preparation for unction in baptism; that of the hands (aquamanile), during Mass, &c.; that of the feet (pedilavium), including the ceremony of washing the feet of the poor, performed on Maundy Thursday, by the Pope. (Fig. 2.)

Abococke, Med. Cap of estate, worn by kings on their helmets: “a huge cappe of estate, called Abococke, garnished with two rich crownes;” 15th century.

Fig. 3. A Lictor with the fasces, wearing the abolla.

Abolla, Gr. and R. (ἀναβολὴ, a throwing back and around). A cloak made of a piece of cloth folded double and fastened round the throat by a brooch. Abolla major was the name given to the ample blanket in which the Greek philosophers were accustomed to wrap themselves. This cloak was adopted by the philosophers as an instance of their humility, because it was mostly worn by the poorer classes at Rome. Fig. 3 is a representation of one of the lictors, with his fasces on his shoulder, and wearing the abolla.

Abraxas, Gr. (a mystical or cabalistic word formed of the Greek letters α, β, ρ, α, ξ, α, ς). Cut stones or gems of very various shapes, upon which are engraved the words Abraxas, Abrasax. They are also known as Basilidian stones or gems, because they constituted the symbols of the gnostic sect of the Basilidians. Certain peoples looked upon them as magic amulets against particular maladies and demoniacal influences. The impressions on these stones are very varied; cabalistic figures, the signs Α and Ω, and the word ΙΑΩ, which designates the Supreme Being. Numerous explanations have been sought for this term abraxas; some philologists assert that it comes from the Persian [or Pehlvi], and that it signifies Mithra; others derive it from the Hebrew, or the Coptic, while others again recognize in it only a numerical sign, the letters of which, added together, would give the number 365, or the number of days that make up the year, and in this case abraxas would symbolize the annual revolution of the sun. A figure often found upon Abraxas stones is that of a serpent with a radiated lion’s head (Chnouphis), which rears itself amid seven stars. The reverse of these stones often bears the inscription ΤΩ ΧΝΟΥΦΙ, “To Chnouphis.”

Absidiole. Diminutive of apse, and thus used to denote a small apse terminating a lateral nave, while the apse closes the central or chief nave. (See Absis.)

Absis or Apse, R. (ἁψὶς, a bow or vault). Any enclosure of semicircular form terminating a room, hall, &c. There was an absis in the Basilica (q.v.), or court of justice, and it was in the semicircular recess thus formed that the judges’ seats were placed. Many temples also had an absis attached to them, and there is one in particular of this description well known to all archæologists. This is the absis of the temple of Venus at Rome, which was built by the emperor architect Hadrian. (See Apse.)

Abutment, Arch. called also Impost. The solid part of a pier from which an arch immediately springs.

Abydos, Tablets of, Egyp. Under this term are designated two hieroglyphic inscriptions containing the names of Egyptian kings. These tablets were graven upon the walls of a cella in a small temple at Abydos, in Upper Egypt; hence their name. The first tablet, the beginning of which was destroyed at the time of its discovery, contains the names of the kings of the twelfth and eighteenth dynasties; this inscription was discovered in 1817 or 1818 by J. W. Bankes, and drawn by Caillund in 1832; it had been taken down from the wall of the temple by Mimaut, the French consul at Alexandria. It is now at the British Museum. The second tablet, which begins with Menes, who is generally supposed to have been one of the first kings of Egypt, contains a complete list of the two first dynasties, as well as a great number of names belonging to kings of the third, fourth, fifth, sixth, ninth, tenth, and eleventh dynasties. This tablet was discovered in 1864 by M. Mariette. It is reproduced in De Rougé’s treatise on the six first dynasties.

Abyssus, Egyp. A Coptic word, read by some archæologists as Noun (q.v.), and which signifies the abyss, the immensity of the celestial waters upon which sails the solar bark.

Acacia, R. A term employed by some antiquaries to denote an object held in the hand of the statue of an emperor of the Lower Empire. It usually consists of a piece of cloth, which the emperor unfurled as a signal for the games to commence.

Academies of Italy. Literary societies established during the middle ages. The principal were the Accesi, Affidati, Amorevole of Verona, Animosi of Milan, Arcadi of Rome, Ardenti of Pisa, Ardenti of Naples, Ardenti of Viterbo, Catenati of Macerata, Chiave of Pavia, Crusca of Florence, Elevati of Ferrara, Eterea of Padua, Florimontana of Annecy, Granelleschi of Venice, Infiammati of Padua, Infocati, Insensati of Perugia, Intronati of Siena, Lincei of Rome, Occulti, Offuscati, Ostinati, Rinovati, Sonnachiosi of Bologna, Trasformati of Milan, Travagliati, Unanimi. Their devices are described under the respective headings.

Acæna, Gr. (ἀκαίνη), a measuring-rod; ten Greek feet in length.

Fig. 4. Architectural acanthus.

Acanthus, Gr. and R. (ἀκὴ a point, and ἄνθος, a flower). A plant, the ornamental foliage of which has been largely employed as an architectural decoration by different peoples. The acanthus has been applied to the ornamentation of friezes, cornices, modillions, and various other members of architecture, but in especial to the decoration of modillions (projecting brackets) (Fig. 4) and of Corinthian and composite capitals. There are several varieties of the acanthus; those most in use are the cultivated acanthus, or Brankursine (Acanthus mollis), and the spring acanthus (Acanthus spinosa), the foliage of which is much less beautiful, and furnished with small spikes which make the plant resemble a thistle. This last has also often been applied to decoration, in the Romano-Byzantine and lanceolated styles of architecture. An English name for this ornament is the “bear’s claw.”

Fig. 5. Bracket decorated with acanthus.

Acapna, Gr. (α, priv., and καπνὸς, i. e. without smoke). Wood for fuel, which had undergone several operations to hinder it from smoking when put on the fire. One of the methods employed consisted in stripping the bough of the bark, immersing it in water for some days, and then leaving it to dry. In a second method, the surface was rubbed with oil or oil-lees, or else the piece of wood was plunged into the oil for a few moments. A third method consisted in slightly charring the surface of the wood by passing it through the flame. The wood prepared by this last process was also called cocta and coctilia.

Acatium, Gr. and R. (ἀκάτιον, dimin. of ἄκατος, a light boat). A description of vessel belonging to the class called actuariæ, i. e. were propelled either by sails or oars. The acatium was a fast-sailer much employed by the Greek pirates. The stern was of a rounded concave form (inflexa), and the prow was adorned with a beak (rostrum). (See also Actuariæ.) The name acatium was also given to a drinking-vessel which was in the form of a boat. The Roman scapha was a similar vessel.

Acca. A word used in the 14th century for a cloth of gold shot with coloured silk, figured with animals: from Acre in Syria.

Accesi, It. (inflamed). One of the Italian Literary Academies. Their device was a fir-cone placed over a fire, with the motto “hinc odor et fructus.”

Accetta, Med. Lat. A battle-axe, or hache-d’armes.

Accidental or complementary colour, the prismatic complement of a ray of light: such are orange to blue, green to red, and purple to yellow.

Accidental light. An effect of light in a picture independent of the principal light, such as that on the Holy Child in the Notte of Correggio, or that of a candle, &c.

Acclamations, Chr. Formulas employed by the first Christians to express their grief on the occurrence of some misfortune, or on the other hand, to testify their joy at some piece of good fortune. These acclamations were imitated from the nations of antiquity [e. g. at marriages, “Io Hymen, Hymenæe, Talassio:” at triumphs, “Io, triumphe,” &c.].

Accollée, Her. (1) placed side by side: (2) entwined about the neck.

Accosted, Her. Side by side.

Accrued, Her. Grown to maturity.

Accubitum, R. (ad and cubitum, an elbow). A bed or rather couch of a peculiar kind, upon which the Romans reclined at meals, and which replaced the lectus triclinarius. It was a kind of sofa holding only a single person, while the lectus triclinarius held two or three. The act of reclining on this sofa was called accubitio or accubitus, a term derived from accubo, to recline at table.

Acerra or Acerna, R. (prob. from acer, maple). A small square box with a hinged lid; a coffer used to hold the incense for sacrifices; whence its Latin names arca turalis, arcula turalis, acerra turis custos. The acerra appears on certain bas-reliefs among the sacred utensils. It is to be seen represented on the altar of the small temple of Quirinus, at Pompeii, underneath a garland, and above an augur’s wand. It is generally met with, as being carried by the officiating priests, at religious ceremonies. The attendant carried the acerra in the left hand and employed the right hand to sprinkle the incense on the flame of the altar; whence the expression libare acerra. The term acerra was also used to denote a small portable altar placed before the dead, on which incense was burnt during the time the corpse was exposed to view (collocatio). The altar was also named, from this circumstance, ara turicrema.

Acetabula, R. A kind of bronze cymbals, attached to the hands and feet, as also to the knees. The same name was also given to silver cymbals which were played by striking them with a stick of hard wood.

Acetabulum, R. (from acetum, vinegar). A cup for vinegar used by the Romans at meals.

The acetabulum was also a goblet used by jugglers among the Greeks and Romans to make nutmegs disappear. By the latter these jugglers were called præstigiatores, by the former ψηφοκλέπται or ψηφοπαίκται. Lastly, we find in Pliny the Elder that acetabulum was the name given to a dry measure of capacity, equal to the quarter of a hemina or the half of the quartarius, and equivalent to .1238 of a pint. [The Greek Oxybaphon.]

Acha, Achia, Hachia, Lat. A battle-axe.

Achelor, Achlere or Ashlar. (Arch.) Hewn stone.

Achromatic, Gr. (α priv. χρομος, colour). The effect of an arrangement of lenses by which a coloured ray of light is rendered colourless.

Acicula, Gr. (dimin. of acus, a needle or pin). In particular a bodkin used by the Roman ladies to keep the hair in its place when curled or plaited, and to keep on false hair. The words acicula and acus are however all but synonymous. The former does not denote a bodkin of smaller size than the acus, but an object made of an inferior material; the acus being of silver, ivory or gold, while the acicula was simply of bone or some hard wood such as box, myrtle, olive, &c.

Fig. 6. Acinaces.

Acinaces, Orient. (ἀκινάκης; orig. a Persian word). A straight poniard resembling a very short Roman sword, used by the Eastern nations of antiquity, especially, the Medes, Persians and Scythians. It was worn by soldiers suspended from a belt round the waist, but the weapon hung either at the right or the left side, according to the nationality and accoutrements of the soldier. When, however, he wore a sword, this was always placed at the left, and the acinaces at the right side of the body. The handles of these weapons are generally extremely rich.

Acisculus, R. (Diminutive of ascia, an adze = a small adze). A small pick employed by stone-cutters and masons in early times. Representations of it may be seen pretty frequently on medals, in especial those of the Valerian family. [See Ascia.]

Acketon, Fr. A quilted leathern jacket, worn under the armour, introduced from the East by the Crusaders.

Aclis or Aclyx, R. A sort of harpoon, consisting of a thick short stock set with spikes. This massive weapon was chiefly employed by foreign nations, but not by the Romans. It was launched against the enemy, and drawn back by means of a cord to which it was attached, to be launched a second time. This weapon bears some resemblance to a particular kind of angon (or trident). (See Angones.)

Acoustic Vases, R. (Gr. ἀκουστικὸς, pertaining to the sense of hearing). Vases of earthenware or more often of bronze, which, in the theatres of antiquity, served the purpose of strengthening the voices of the actors. Vases of this kind would also seem to have been employed for the same purpose during the middle ages, for the architect Oberlin, when repairing the vault of the choir, in the ancient church of the Dominicans at Strasburg, discovered some acoustic vases there.

Fig. 7. Acratophorum, Roman.

Acratophorum, Gr. and R. (ἀκρατο-φόρος, holding unmixed wine). A table vessel for holding pure wine, while the crater (κρατὴρ), on the other hand, contained wine mixed with water. These vessels were often dedicated to Bacchus. They were made in earthenware and metal, but those that were dedicated to the gods were of gold and silver, and had their place among the treasures of the temples. Fig. 7 represents a silver acratophorum found at Hildesheim.

Acrolith, Gr. (ἄκρον, end, and λίθος stone). A statue covered with garments which in many cases were gilded. The extremities of these statues were of marble or stone—whence their name—more rarely of gold and ivory. The Minerva of Areia, at Platæa in Bœotia, described by Pausanius, was an acrolith. This was by Pheidias. The acrolith period is the infancy of the Greek plastic art.

Acropodium, Gr. (ἄκρον, end or point; and πόδιον, a foot). A low square plinth serving for basement to a statue and often forming part of it.

Acropolis, Gr. (ἀκρό-πολις, upper or higher city). From its primary meaning the term came to signify a fortified city. They were very numerous, in ancient times, in Italy, Greece and the colonies of Asia Minor. Most ancient Greek cities were built upon hills, and the citadel on the summit of the hill was called the acropolis.

Acrostic, Chr. (ἄκρον, end, and στίχος, a row or line). A combination of letters formed out of some word, which is thus made to express a thought differing from its own meaning. For instance, the Greek word ΙΧΘΥΣ (ICHTHUS, fish), symbolizes, in the primitive church, the name of Christ. The following is the acrostic of this word: Ιησους, Χριστος, Θεου, Υἱος, Σωτηρ I, CH, TH, U, S.

Fig. 8. Roman acrostolium.

Acrostolium, Gr. and R. (ἀκροστόλιον, extremity of beak of a ship). An ornament employed by the ancients to decorate the upper extremity of the prows of ships. This ornament often figured among trophies, since it was the custom for the victor in a naval combat to take the acrostolia from the captured ships. It is frequently to be met with on the bas-reliefs of triumphal monuments. Fig. 8 shows an acrostolium taken from a bas-relief in the Museum of the Capitol. The object seen projecting from the acrostolium is a sounding lead.

Acroterium, Gr. and R. (ἀκρωτήριον, the extremity of anything). In a signification more restricted than the primary one, yet generally admitted, the term acroteria is applied to the plain socles and pedestals placed at the summit of buildings to support statues, groups, or other crownings. Acroterium was the common name for the acrostolium, and the taking of it away as a trophy was called acroteriazein.

Actia, Gr., festivals held every fourth year, at Actium, in Epirus, in honour of Apollo.

Actinic (rays of light:) chemically active.

Actuariæ, R. (See Naves). Open boats, built to attain a high degree of speed, propelled by sails and sweeps, and never fitted with less than eighteen oars. Pirates used this class of vessel exclusively.

Actuarii, R. The shorthand writers who took down speeches in the senate. Also certain officials who answered to our commissariat officers.

Acuminated, Arch. Finishing in a point, like a lofty Gothic roof.

Acus, R. (Gr. ἀκὴ, a point). A bodkin, needle, or pin. The acus denoted both a needle for sewing and a pin for fastening anything. When used for the hair it was called acus crinalis or comatoria. In Christian archæology the word applies to the jewelled pins used as fastenings to papal or archiepiscopal vestments. The Roman acus is worn in the hair by the Italian peasant woman of the present day.

Addorsed, Her. (1) Back to back; (2) pointing backwards.

Adespotoi, Gr. (ἀ-δέσποτοι, i. e. without masters). A name given to a certain class of freedmen at Sparta.

Adobare, Med. To entrust with arms (to “dub” a knight). Meyrick.

Adobes. Bricks manufactured by the ancient Peruvians.

Adramire, Med. To challenge to a duel or tournament. (Meyrick.)

Fig. 9. Plan of a Roman temple, showing the adytum.

Adytum or Adyton, Gr. and R. (ἄδυτον, from α, priv., and δύω, to enter). An obscure and secret sanctuary in certain temples from which the public was excluded, and into which the priests alone might enter. The little temple of Pompeii possessed an adytum, and it was here that was discovered the Portici Diana now in the Naples Museum. There was also an adytum in the temple of Delphi, which was burnt down in the first year of the 58th Olym., and rebuilt by the Corinthian Spintharus. The temple of Paphos contained in its adytum a representation of the goddess under the form of a column pointed at the top and surrounded by candelabra. The engraving shows the position of the adytum of a small Doric temple, now destroyed, which once stood near the theatre of Marcellus at Rome. The adytum was the name given to the cella of a temple, in which oracles were given, or the worship was connected with mysteries. See Abaton and Cella.

Ædicula, R. (dimin. of Ædes, q.v.). A small house, temple, chapel, tabernacle, or even shrine. Thus the name was given to a small wooden shrine, constructed to imitate the front of a temple, and in which were preserved the ancestors of the family (imagines majorum), together with the Lares and tutelar divinities.

Ægicranes, Gr. (αἴγειος, of a goat; κρανίον, the skull). A goat’s [or ram’s] head employed as a decoration by ancient sculptors. It was used chiefly to adorn altars which were dedicated to rural divinities.

Æginetan marbles. Two remarkable groups of very early (archaic) Greek sculpture, in the Glyptothek at Munich—discovered in the temple of Pallas-Athene at Ægina, and arranged by Thorwaldsen. They illustrate “the infancy of art, which lingers round symbolic representation, and has not yet grasped the full meaning and truth of nature.” (Butler’s Imitative Art.) The anatomy of the bodies and limbs at this period is greatly superior to the expression of the heads.

Ægis, Gr. In its primary meaning, a goat-skin. The primitive inhabitants of Greece used the skins of goats and other animals for clothing, and defence. At a later period the Ægis became a protective mantle; the shield of Minerva, beneath which the goddess sheltered those whom she wished to protect from the enemy’s missiles. Later still the Ægis denoted the breastplate of a divinity, in especial that of Jupiter or Minerva, as opposed to the lorica, which was the breastplate of a mere mortal. The ægis bore in its centre the Gorgon’s head, of which the serpents were arranged round the border. Minerva is generally represented wearing it, either as a cuirass or a scarf passed over the right shoulder.

Aëneator (Lat. aëneus, brazen). The name given to any musician who played on an instrument of brass (aëneum); such as the buccinatores, cornicines, liticines, tubicines, &c. They formed a college.

Fig. 10 Eolipyle.

Æolipilæ or Æolipȳlæ, Gr. (αἴολος, the wind; and πύλη, an orifice). A metal vase with a narrow orifice, which was filled with water and placed upon the fire, either to make the chimney draw better, or, according to Vitruvius, to show which way the wind blew.

Æolian Harp, Gr. A musical instrument that is played on by the wind passing over its strings.

Ærarium, R. (æs, money). The public treasury as distinguished from the private treasury of the Emperors (fiscus). Under the Republic the temple of Saturn served as the public treasury, and here were preserved the produce of the revenue, the public accounts and other public records. The army had a separate treasury of its own called ærarium militare, entirely distinct from the ærarium publicum. It was established by Augustus to provide for the special expenditure of the army.

Aerial perspective. The realization of the effect of intervening atmosphere in the distances of a landscape.

Æro, R. A basket made of rushes or broom, but still more commonly of osier, and used for conveying sand. It was employed by the Roman soldiery when at work on intrenchments, excavations, or fortifications, as may be seen from bas-reliefs; more particularly some of those which adorn the column of Trajan.

Æruca, R. (æs, bronze). A very brilliant green colour artificially made to imitate verdigris.

Ærugo, R. Verdigris, the same colour as æruca (q.v.), but obtained from oxide of bronze. It is difficult to establish a real distinction between the two terms, as Pliny gives the name of ærugo (the rust of bronze) to what Vitruvius calls æruca. It is probable, however, that æruca was a kind of verdigris obtained by artificial means, while ærugo was the natural verdigris. This has given rise to the two terms, which by many archæologists are confused together. Æruca, the artificial copper rust, formed by the action of wine refuse upon copper, is an acetate of copper (verdigris): while the genuine copper rust, Ærugo, is a carbonate of copper.

Ærumna, R. A kind of fork by which travellers carried their baggage over the shoulder. 2. An instrument of punishment for slaves. (See Furca.)

Æs. A term used in antiquity to denote brass, copper, bronze, or any alloy of these metals. It also serves, in various connexions, to denote a number of different objects. Such as æs candidum, a brass mixed with silver; æs Corinthum, a brass mixed with gold; æs Cyprium, the ancient name for copper. (See also Bronze.)

Æs grave, R. A general term current in Rome to denote any bronze money at the period when the as was equal to about a pound in value.

Æs rude, R. The name given to the bronze ingots employed at Rome as ready money in exchanges and other commercial transactions.

Æs thermarum, Gr. and R. A bronze gong or metal bell hung up in the public baths, the sound of which, when struck, gave notice to the public that the baths were sufficiently warm to be ready for use.

Æs ustum. Peroxide of copper, or calcined copper.

Æsthetics, Gr. (αἰσθάνομαι, to comprehend). The science of the instinctive apprehension of the harmonies.

Aetos, Gr. (Ἀετός). A Greek word signifying eagle, and by analogy, a gable, pediment, or higher part of a building generally, so called from the resemblance which these parts bear to an eagle with outstretched wings. In the same way the Greeks gave the name of πτερὰ (wings), to the outer rows of columns flanking each side of a temple.

Affidati, It. One of the Italian literary academies. Their device was a nautilus, with the motto “tutus per suprema per ima.”

Affrontée, Her. Showing the full front.

Agalma, Agalmata, Gr. (ἄγαλμα, from ἀγάλλω, to glorify). Any work of art dedicated to a god, whether it were placed in his temple or not; such as tripods; [braziers for incense], or other accessories of a temple. The low pillar placed over a tomb, or the statue of a god might be agalmata.

Agate. A variety of quartz often employed by the engravers of antiquity. The term is a corruption of the word Achates, a river of Sicily, on the banks of which numerous varieties of the stone abound. Among these maybe mentioned the cerachates, or white wax-like agate; dendrachates, or arborescent agate; hemachates, or blood-agate, so called from its blood-like spots; and leucachates, or white agate. Agates were often carved into scarabæi by the Egyptians, and Babylonian cylinders have been found, made of the same material. The oriental agate is semi-transparent, the occidental is opaque, of various tints, often veined with quartz and jasper; hence its fitness for cutting cameos.

Agathodæmon, Cup of, Gr. (Ἀγαθο-δαίμων). A name given by the Greeks to a cup consecrated to Bacchus, and meaning literally, the “Cup of the Good Genius.” It was sent round after a feast, in order that each guest might partake of the wine.

Agea, R. A narrow passage or gangway in a boat, by means of which the boatswain (hortator) communicated with the rowers.

Agger, R. A general term to denote a mound of any materials, such as that formed by a dyke, quay, roadway, or earthwork; and particularly a rampart composed of trunks of trees and employed in offensive or defensive warfare. A celebrated agger was that of Servius Tullius at Rome. The art of constructing aggeres and other fortifications, had been learnt by the Romans from the Greeks, who in their turn had derived it from the East. It was after having penetrated into the heart of Asia under Alexander the Great, that the Greeks learned the use of siege works employed in the attack or defence of strong places, and became acquainted with various kinds of warlike engines such as the Acrobaticon, &c.

Agnus Bell, Chr. A sacring bell.

Agnus Dei, Chr. The Lamb of God, or lamb bearing the banner of the cross. The term is also used to denote certain ornaments or medallions of wax impressed with a figure of the lamb. They represented the ancient custom of distributing to worshippers, on the first Sunday after Easter, particles of wax from the consecrated paschal taper.

Agolum, R. A long sharp-pointed shepherd’s stick used by the Roman herdsmen for driving their cattle. The agolum was made out of a straight shoot of the prickly pear; it is still in use among the herdsmen of the Roman campagna at the present day.

Agonalia or Agonia, R. A Roman festival, which derived its name from the word agone (shall I proceed?) the question asked of the rex sacrificulus by the attendant, before he sacrificed the victim. The Quirinal was called Mons agonus, from a festival being held there on the 17th or 18th of March, in honour of Mars. The day itself was called Agonium martiale or day of the Liberalia. Another explanation of the etymology of the name is that the sacrifice was offered on the Quirinal hill, which was originally called Agonus. (Consult Ovid. Fasti, i. 319–332, he suggests several explanations.)

Agonistic, (ἀγωνιστικὴ, from ἀγὼν, a contest). With the ancients, that part of gymnastics in which athletes contended with arms.

Fig. 11. Agora of Antiphellus.

Agora, Gr. (ἀγορὰ, from ἀγείρω, to assemble). A place of assembly or public market. The agora was to the Greeks what the forum was to the Romans. There were numerous agoræ in Greece and Asia Minor. Fig. 11, represents the plan of the agora of Antiphellus; in which a and b indicate the sites of the corn-pits; c, that of a basilica. Agora is also used to denote the general assembly of freemen in contradistinction to the Boulè (q.v.).

Agraulia. An Athenian festival.

Agrenon, Gr. and R. A net, or garment of netted wool, worn over their other dress by the priests of Bacchus and by soothsayers.

Aguinia, Med. A corruption of ingenia, engines of war. (Meyrick.)

Aguzo, It. A spear-head; a spear.

Ahenum or Aenum. A bronze vessel furnished with a handle for suspending it over the fire, and so named from the material out of which it was made. (2) The coppers used in the public baths for heating the water in.

Fig. 12 Aiglets.

Aiglet, Fr. (aiguillette). A metal tag or point to a lace; sometimes used to signify the lace itself, as in the military costume of the present day. They were formerly used to fasten the slashed dresses of the middle ages; and sometimes to fasten armour, when they were made of leather with metal points. In civilian costume they were of silk. The term Aiguillette is also applied to the shoulder-knot worn by soldiers and livery servants.

Ailettes (little wings). Armour worn on the shoulders to protect the back of the neck; found in monumental brasses of the 13th century.

Aisle (ala, a wing). The wing of a building; the side passages of a Roman house. In buildings of vast size, such as a basilica or temple, comprising a central and two lateral naves, the latter are called aisles.

Alabarda, Med. A halberd.

Alabaster or Alabastrum, (ἀλάβαστρον). A small vase for holding precious perfumes; so called from the alabaster of which it was generally made. It was of various shapes, but chiefly assumed an elongated form resembling a long pear, a pearl-drop, &c. [Many of these perfume vessels are made of stalactite.] (2) A calcareous substance of white colour, translucent or semi-transparent, and presenting, according to the variety, undulating and continuous veins. The various kinds of ancient alabaster are very numerous; the following may be named; flowered alabaster (alabastro fiorito); golden (dorato); quince coloured (cotognino); eyed (occini); tortoise-shell (tartaruga); foam-white (pecorella); Busca de Palombara (palombara); onyx (onice), &c. The Egyptians used alabaster for making statues, phials, panegyric vases, canopea, small figures, and even sarcophagi; of which last that of Seti I., now in the British Museum, is an example. Alabaster was at one time frequently used for tombs and carved figures, and is now used for pulpits and other ecclesiastical purposes. False alabaster is the name given to a gypseous variety of this substance, of which there are rich quarries at Volterra, in Tuscany. It is called “Gesso Volterrano,” and is much used in Italy for the grounds of pictures.

Alabastrotheca, R. (θήκη, a chest). A box or casket containing alabaster flasks or vases.

Aland, Alant, Her. A mastiff with short ears.

Alapa. The blow on the shoulder in dubbing a knight.

Alba creta. Latin for white chalk, a term used by writers on art for gypsum.

Albani stone. A pepper-coloured stone used in ancient buildings at Rome before the introduction of marble.

Albarium (opus), R. (albus, white). A white coating or kind of stucco with which brick walls were covered after a previous application of ordinary cement. This stucco, which was also called simply albarium, was made by a mixture of chalk, plaster, and white marble.

Albalista, Arbalest. A cross-bow.

Fig. 13. Albe.

Albe, (albus, white). An ancient ecclesiastical vestment, common in old brasses. It was a long white linen gown, reaching to the feet, and secured by a girdle. The surplice is an albe with wider sleeves. (Fig. 13.)

Alberk, for Hauberk. A cuirass.

Album, Gr. and R. (albus, white). A space on the surface of a wall covered with white plaster, upon which were written advertisements or public announcements. By analogy the term was used to denote any kind of white tablets bearing an inscription, such as edicts, decrees, &c. These tablets were very numerous; there were the album pontificis, prætoris, centuriæ, decurionum, judicum, senatorum, &c.

Alcato, Arab. In armour, a gorget.

Alcora pottery (See Denia.)

Alcove. A niche or recess in a room.

Aldobrandini, Marriage, R. A celebrated fresco from the gardens of Mecænas, discovered at Rome near the church of Santa Maria Maggiore, whence it was conveyed to the villa Aldobrandini, and afterwards sold to the Borghese family. This painting which indisputably dates from the reign of Augustus, consists of a group of ten figures, representing, according to some, the marriage of Peleus and Thetis; and according to others, that of Manlius and Julia.

Fig. 14. Point d’Alençon.

Alençon, Point d’. Lace formerly known as Point de France. It is the only French lace not made on the pillow, but worked entirely by hand with a fine needle, on a parchment pattern; it is called “Vilain” in the French provinces, and in England is known as needle point. (Fig. 14.)

Alerion, Her. An eagle, in early Her., represented without feet or beak. (See Eagle.)

Ale-stake. In the middle ages the roadside ale-house was distinguished by a stake projecting from the house, on which some object was hung for a sign.

Alexandrinum (opus), R. A kind of mosaic employed especially for the pavement of rooms. The distinctive feature of these mosaics is that the lines or figures composing the designs are in two colours only, the prevailing ones being red and black upon a white ground. A large number of mosaics of this description exist at Pompeii, which are also called sectilia.

Alexikakos (Apollo). Another name of the celebrated statue generally called the Belvedere Apollo; from Nero’s villa at Antium.

Algaroth powder. An ingredient in the manufacture of an Antimony white pigment.

Fig. 15. Alhambraic ornament.

Alhambraic. Ornamentation in the Moorish style of the Alhambra, the characteristic of which is a faithful imitation of natural combinations of form and colour, with a rigid avoidance of the representation of natural objects. (Fig. 15.)

Alicula, R. A kind of large mantle, furnished sometimes with a hood. The term is derived from the Greek ἄλλιξ, the name given to the Thessalian chlamys. (See Chlamys.)

Alizarin, the colouring principle of the madder.

Allecret or Hallecret. A light armour for cavalry and infantry, consisting of a breastplate and tassets (or gussets), 16th century.

Allegory in art, is allegorically represented as a female figure veiled.

All Halowes or All Hallowes. O. E. for All Saints.

Alloys of Gold. Gold is found alloyed with various metals, never without silver, often with copper, iron, or other substances in small quantities, and sometimes with mercury, when it is called an amalgam. Gold alloyed with silver is called native gold. See Electrum.

Allouyère Fr. (Lat. alloverium). A purse or pouch often carried at the girdle, for holding papers, jewels, and money.

Almayne Rivets (German Rivets). Rivets used in plates of armour made to slide and thus give play to the arms and legs, invented in the 17th century, in Germany; hence their name.

Almery, Aumery, or Ambry, Arch. Chr. A niche or cupboard by the side of an altar, to contain the utensils belonging thereto.

Almond, Chr. An aureole of elliptic form, which is frequently met with encircling representations of saints, or of God the Father, God the Son, or the Virgin. A more common name, however, for this aureole is VESICA PISCIS (q.v.). The term of mystical almond was applied to the symbol expressive of the virginity of the Virgin Mary. The mystical meaning attached to this symbol is explained by reference to the rod of Aaron, which consisted of the bough of an almond-tree that had flowered in a single night and produced an almond on the morrow.

Almonry, Almonarium, Arch. Chr. A room where alms were distributed.

Fig. 16. Almuce.

Almuce, Aumuce, Amess, Chr. (almutium). A furred hood worn by the clergy for the sake of warmth, from the 13th to 16th centuries. Common in brasses of the 15th century. (Fig. 16.)

Aloa, or Haloa. An Attic festival, in honour of Demeter and Dionysus.

Alostel, O. E. A cry of heralds at the close of a tournament, ordering the combatants to quit the lists and retire to their lodgings.

Alpha and Omega, Chr. (ἄλφα and ὠμέγα). These two letters, respectively the first and the last of the Greek alphabet, symbolize our earthly life, since this has a beginning and an end. They are also a symbol of God as being the beginning and end of everything.

Altar. A kind of platform or table upon which sacrifices were offered to the gods. Hence, in Christian art, the table upon which the Eucharistic sacrifice is offered. (See Antependium, Ciborium, Reredos, &c. See Altare and Ara.)

Altar cards, Chr. Portions of the service of the mass printed separately on cards, and placed against the reredos of an altar.

Altar cloth, Chr. The linen coverings, and embroidered hangings of an altar.

Altare, R. (alta ara, high altar). A raised altar as contradistinguished from the ara which was of no great height. (Fig. 17.)

Fig. 17. Circular Roman altar.

Altar front, Chr. An antependium (q.v.).

Altar screen, Chr. The partition behind the high altar, separating it from the Lady Chapel.

Alto-rilievo (Ital.) High Relief. See Rilievo.

Alum is used in many processes—in the preparation of paper for water-colour painting, and of lakes, and carmine, from cochineal. Roche alum, or roach alum, Roman alum, and Turkey alum, are varieties of the common alum, described by mediæval writers as alumens.

Alumen (Lat.), Greek, (stypteria). Mediæval writers confused this word with the alums. The name was applied by the classics to several salts of the nature of vitriols, and among them to the natural sulphate of iron (copperas or green vitriol of commerce).

Alur, Aloring, or Alurde, &c., O.E. Parapet wall.

Alvéole; see Nimbus.

Alveus, R. (alvus, the belly). (1) A bath constructed in the floor of a room, the upper part of it projected above the floor, the lower part being sunk into the floor itself. (2) A playing-board, which was divided in the same manner as the ABACUS (q.v.). (3) A canoe hollowed out of the trunk of a tree, the Greek μονόξυλον. (4) The hull of a ship. (5) A wooden trough or tray.

Ama or Amula, Chr. A long phial for holding the wine presented at the altar at the moment of offering.

Amassette, Fr. An instrument of horn used for spreading colours on the stone in the process of grinding.

Amatito, Ital. Lapis Amatita. Amatito is the soft red hæmatite, and is called also matita rossa. Lapis amatita is the compact red hæmatite, and is also called in Italy mineral cinnabar, and in Spain albin. When this word is used by early writers on art, it probably indicates red ochre, the red hæmatite of mineralogists. (Fairholt.)

Amber. There are two varieties of this substance, viz., the grey and the yellow amber, of which the latter only need here be more particularly noticed. Its use may be traced back to a very early antiquity, the purposes to which it was applied being the setting of jewels and furniture. It was employed by the Jews for making amulets. Amber was also used by the Egyptians in the fabrication of necklaces composed of pearls or other delicate materials. By the Romans it was sculptured into vases or statuettes. The name of vasa electrina was given to amber vases set with silver, and that of electrina patera to pateræ made of amber alone. Amber was largely used by early painters as a varnish, and also as a vehicle. It is harder than copal, and is said to be the most durable of all varnishes. It requires a long time to fit it for polishing. Amber is supposed to be a vegetable fossil; it is washed up by the sea, especially on the shores of the Baltic.

Amber Yellow, is an ochre of a rich amber colour in its raw state; when burned it yields a fine brown red.

Ambitus, Gr. R. and Chr. (ambio, to go round about). A small niche in underground Greek or Roman tombs forming a receptacle for a cinerary urn. In the Middle Ages these niches were so far enlarged as to admit coffins; the name under which they then went being Enfeus (q.v.). During the same period the term ambitus was also applied to the consecrated ground by which a church was surrounded. It served as a place of asylum as well as for burial. The term is also applied to the process of canvassing for votes.

Ambivium, R. (ambi and via, a way round). Any road or street leading round a place.

Fig. 18. The ambo of St. Lawrence at Rome.

Ambo, Chr. (perhaps from ἀναβαίνειν, to ascend). A tribune of stone or marble in the ancient Latin basilicas, a pulpit. Fig. 18 gives a representation of the ambo in the church of St. Lawrence without the walls at Rome.

Ambrices, R. The cross laths (regulæ) inserted between the rafters and the tiles of a roof.

Ambry; see Almery.

Ambulant, Her. In the act of walking.

Ambulatory, Chr. (ambulo, to walk). Part of a cloister, forming a kind of gallery for taking exercise in.

Amenti or Amenthi, Egyp. One of the names given to the nether world of the Egyptians. It means the unseen region. We learn from Plutarch’s treatise on Osiris that, “the subterranean regions whither souls betake themselves after death is called Amenthes.” Osiris is the lord and god of Amenti, which was also called by the Egyptians the country of truth.

Amentum, R. A thong attached to the shaft of a lance at the centre of gravity. The soldier placed the fingers of his right hand between the two ends of the thong, gave the weapon a rapid turn, and then hurled it. Amentum was also used to denote the leather strap by which certain kinds of boots, such as the crepidæ, solæ, &c., were fastened above the instep.

Amess. (See Almuce.)

Amethyst, (ἀμέθυστος, without intoxication.) A precious stone of a more or less deep violet colour. The engravers of antiquity carved figures upon it, in especial those of Bacchus, since the stone was also used, in preference to any other, for making drinking-cups, from a belief that it possessed the virtue of dispelling intoxication. This was the origin of the Greek term. Among the ancient Jews the amethyst was one of the twelve stones composing the breastplate of the high priest; it occupied the eighth or ninth row. In Christian symbolism the amethyst (or the colour violet) signifies humility and modesty.

Amiantus, (ἀμίαντος [? undefiled]). A fibrous uninflammable mineral substance. It was used by the ancients for making fire-proof clothing. It was known by the name of asbestus (ἄσβεστος, uninflammable).

Amice. A piece of fine linen in the form of an oblong square, suspended over the shoulders of the clergy. Pugin says it is “a white linen napkin or veil worn by all the clergy above the four minor orders.” Durand says it is a proper covering for the head, typical of the helmet of salvation alluded to by the apostle; or of the cloth with which the Jews covered the Saviour’s face, when they asked him to prophecy who struck him. Milton, in Paradise Regained, alludes to it,—

“Morning fair
Came forth with pilgrim steps, in amice grey.”

Amma, Egyp. (1) A measure of length in use among the ancient Egyptians. It was about sixty feet. (2) A kind of line used in land surveying.

Ammah, Egyp. The door which formed the exit from the abode of the dead. Chapters lxxiii. and cxv. of the Book of the Dead are entitled,—On passing Ammah; i. e. directing one’s course to heaven by stepping over the Ammah.

Amorevole of Verona. One of the Italian literary academies. Their device was a hedgehog with its spines laden with grapes (for its young). Motto, “non solum nobis.”

Amorini, Ital. Cupids.

Ampelitis, Gr. (ἄμπελος, a vine). A black pigment prepared by the ancients from the burnt branches of the vine.

Amphibalus, Chr. A vestment, used on Sundays and high festivals; peculiar to the Gallican Church.

Amphidromia. Family festival held by the Athenians upon the occasion of the birth of a child. The carrying of the child round the hearth gave the name to the festival.

Amphimallum, Gr. and R. (ἀμφί-μαλλον, woolly on both sides). A description of woollen cloth more or less rough, and having a nap on both sides.

Amphiprostylos, Gr. and R. (ἀμφι-πρόστυλος). A temple or other building having two open porticoes (porticum and posticum), both in front and rear. They are so constructed as to project beyond the cella, or main body of the building.

Amphitapus, Gr. and R. (ἀμφί-ταπος, hairy on both sides). A particular kind of cloth, made of some material resembling Vicuna wool, and having, like the amphimallum, a nap on both sides. It was probably of Eastern origin.

Fig. 19. Ground-plan of an amphitheatre.

Amphitheatre, R. (ἀμφι-θέατρον). A building which was at first constructed for the purpose of exhibiting gladiatorial shows to the Roman populace; but later on any kind of spectacle, even to a naumachia, or sea-fight, was exhibited there. In the engraving, A shows the ground-plan of an amphitheatre, and B the plan of the seats.

Fig. 20. Greek Amphoræ.

Amphora, Gr. and R. (ἀμφὶ-φορέω). A large earthenware vessel, having a handle on each side of its neck (whence the name), and terminating in a point. Amphoræ were used for holding various kinds of produce, especially wine; they were placed side by side in an upright position in the cellar, the floor of which was covered with a deep bed of sand. The engravings represent amphoræ from Cnidus, Chio, and Samos. Amphoræ were also made of glass; and a specimen is mentioned by Nepos of one made of onyx. Homer mentions them of gold and stone; and the Egyptians had them of brass.

Amphotis, Gr. and R. 1. A brass cap lined with cloth inside. 2. A simple woollen cap worn by athletes to protect their temples and ears from the blows of the cestus, in a boxing match. 3. A wooden vessel in use among the ancient Greek peasants, as a milking-pail. It derived its name from having two handles or ears.

Ampulla, Gr. and R. A phial or flask with short and narrow neck and spherical body, which was used to hold the oil requisite for bathers (ampulla oleria); it could also be used to hold vinegar, wine, and other beverages, and was then called ampulla potaria. The ampulla generally took the form of a globe or bladder, but not invariably; a lentil-shaped variety with rounded sides was very common. Ampulla rubida was the name given to the leather-covered flasks which were made use of by travellers or sportsmen to carry wine, vinegar, or oil. The vessel or cruet used in Christian churches for the consecrated oil or wine was hence called the Ampul.

Ampyx, Gr. and R. (ἄμπυξ, from ἀμπέχω, to surround). Latin frontale. A general term to denote any net composed of strings, bands, or ribbons, which forms a head-band. It thus denotes at once a woman’s head-dress, or the ornamental strips of leather which serve as head-band for a horse. The ampyx worn by women was in some cases very costly, being made of gold or silver, and adorned with precious stones. The term was also applied, by analogy, to the cover of a vase. Another word for it is ampicter.

Amulets. Objects of a very heterogeneous description, to which is superstitiously attributed the power of healing certain diseases, or averting them from men and animals. This is the meaning which attaches, in its widest sense, to the term amulet (amuletum). Amulets are unquestionably of Eastern origin; by the Egyptians they were looked upon as preservatives against dangers, unlucky days, enemies, &c. The varieties of them were very numerous; among others, were scarabæi, small columns, cartouches, symbolic eyes, interlacing fingers, heads of uræus, &c. A large number of stones were also employed as amulets; those of commonest occurrence are hematite, jasper, lapis lazuli, amethysts, diamonds, heliotropes, &c. Each of these amulets had its special virtue; for instance, the clear crystal worn during prayer rendered the god propitious, and compelled him to give ear to the suppliant. Coral kept every evil influence away from a house; and in Italy it is looked upon, even at the present day, as a preservative against the evil eye. In Christian archæology, the name of amulets, or in some instances, Encolpia (q.v.), was given to relics, or objects of devotion, such as crosses, medals, wood from the true cross, the bones of saints, &c. Amulets were also called periapta (περίαπτα), i. e. suspended, because they were hung round the neck, and also pyctacium, because some amulets were folded in two. The Arabic word amulet means the same as periapta, that which is suspended.

Amussis, R. The exact sense of this term is not clearly defined by ancient authors, beyond the fact that it denotes generally any kind of instrument employed by builders—especially masons—for testing the accuracy, regularity, and evenness of their work. The term is used to denote sometimes the plumb-line, rule, or square; sometimes the level, measuring-line, &c.

Anabathra, Gr. and R. (ἀνά-βαθρα, steps up). Steps or stairs; a raised step; a mounting block. These last were often placed along the high roads.

Anabologium, Chr. Another name for the Humerale or Amice (q.v.).

Anaceia or Anakeia, Gr. (from ἄναξ, a king). A festival held at Athens in honour of Castor and Pollux, who were also called Anaktes and Anakestes. (See Anaceium). Similar festivals were held at Sparta, Argos, and other cities of Greece.

Anaceium, Gr. A temple of ancient Athens, dedicated to Castor and Pollux. Slaves used to be sold there.

Anaclinterium, Gr. (ἀνακλιντήριον). The head-board of a sofa or bed, which served as a support for the bolster and the pillow on which the sleeper’s head rested.

Anadem, Gr. (ἀνάδημα). In general a fillet or head-band; but in a more restricted acceptation, an ornamental band, such as was worn by women and youths among the Greeks. It was thus distinguished from the diadema and the vitta, which were also head-bands, but worn solely as the insignia of honorary, regal, or religious distinctions.

Anaglyph, (ἀνὰ and γλύφειν, to carve). A general term to denote any work of art that is sculptured, chased, carved, or embossed, such as cameos, bas-reliefs, or other raised work, whether in metal, marble, or ivory. When such sculptures or chasings are incised or sunk, they are called Intaglios or Diaglyphs (q.v.). According to St. Clement of Alexandria, anaglyphs were employed by the Egyptians when they wished to hand down a panegyric of any king under the form of a religious myth. Although the words of St. Clement are very obscure, and have furnished materials for countless discussions, it is now admitted that the anaglyphs in question belong to the group of hieroglyphics which may be deciphered on the cartouches of the Pharaohs, and in which we have, in fact, panegyrics of the Egyptian kings veiled in religious myths. The Egyptians also gave the name of anaglyphs to a kind of secret writing, understood only by the initiated; even at the present day it remains undecipherable, owing to our imperfect knowledge of Egyptian mythology. (See Cælatura.)

Anagogia. A festival at Eryx, in Sicily, in honour of Aphrodite.

Analemma, Gr. and R. (ἀνάλημμα). Any raised construction which serves for a support or rest, and more particularly a pier, wall, or buttress. (2) The pedestal of a sun-dial, and so the sun-dial itself.

Anancœum, R. A drinking-cup of great capacity, the form of which is unknown. If we may credit Varro it was sometimes richly chased.

Anankaion, Gr. (ἀναγκαῖον, from ἀνάγκη, restraint). A kind of prison the purpose of which is not exactly known. According to some archæologists it was a private prison for slaves, or for freedmen, who, from some fault, were reduced to servitude again; others assert that it was a public prison.

Anapiesma, Gr. and R. (ἀνα-πίεσμα, that which is pressed back). An appliance used in ancient theatres. It was a kind of trap-door by means of which deities were raised from beneath the stage so as to make them visible to the spectators. The proscenium contained a certain number of these trap-doors; one of them, leading from the orchestra to the front of the stage, enabled the Furies to appear; by another, marine deities made their appearance; while that through which passed the shades who ascended Charon’s staircase was called Charon’s anapiesma.

Anastatic. An ingenious modern process of reproducing copies of printed matter, engravings, ink drawings, &c., by transferring them to a sheet of polished zinc.

Anathēma, Chr. (ἀνάθημα, an offering). Anything offered up in churches by the faithful; as, for instance, vases and other utensils for sacrifice, altar ornaments, &c.

Anathĕma, Chr. The greater excommunication, answering to the Hebrew cherem.

Anchor. In Christian Art, the emblem of Hope. The attribute of S. Clement, the Pope, who was bound to an anchor, and thrown into the sea. (See Ancora.)

Ancile, R. A shield of the shape of a violin case. It was the sacred shield which, according to tradition, had fallen from heaven into the palace of Numa. It occurs frequently on medals, especially those of Augustus. The two incavations of the shield were more or less deep, and usually semicircular. But Ovid describes it as of an entirely different shape, being cut evenly all round; Idque ancile vocat, quod ab omni parte recisum est (Ovid, Fast. iii. 377). The Salii, or twelve priests of Mars Gradivus, had twelve such shields. The form was oval, with the two sides curving evenly inwards, so as to make it broader at the ends than in the middle. They used to beat their shields and dance.

Anclabris, Gr. and R. A small table used instead of an altar at sacrifices; it was slightly concave, so as to adapt it to hold the entrails of the victim for the inspection of the diviners. (See Altar.)

Ancon, Gr. and R. (αγκων). A term admitting various meanings, (1) A small console on each side of a door supporting an ornamental cornice. (2) The arm of a chair or arm-chair. (3) A cramp of wood or metal serving to connect together courses of masonry or blocks of stone. (4) The prongs or forks at the end of the props employed by hunters to hang their nets upon. (5) An earthenware vessel used in Roman taverns for holding wine. According to the etymology of the word which in Greek signifies hollow or elbow, this bottle must have been shaped like a retort. (6) The arms or branches of the square used by carpenters and stone masons, which form an angle similar to that formed by the bent arm.

Fig. 21. Roman anchor, from a bas-relief.

Ancora, Gr. and R. (ἀγκύρα, from ἄγκος, a bend). An anchor or piece of iron used to stop a ship. Like those now in use, the ancient anchors were generally furnished with two flukes or arms, but sometimes they had only one. In the latter case they were called terostomos, a term corresponding to our modern blind anchor. A bas-relief on the column of Trajan represents an anchor placed at the bow of the vessel. In Christian archæology the anchor is a symbol of hope; an anchor is frequently met with, among Christian symbols, associated with a fish; the emblem of the Saviour (See Acrostic).

Ancorale, Gr. and R. Literally the cable of an anchor, and then the buoy-rope, or even the buoy itself. The ancient anchors had a ring at the end of the shank to which the buoy-rope was attached. The latter served not only to indicate the place where the anchor lay, but also to drag the flukes out of the ground when the anchor was raised.

Andiron. Iron standards with bars for supporting logs of wood fires, frequently richly ornamented, and sometimes made partly of silver.

Andriantes, Gr. (ἀνδριάντες, images of men). Statues set up by the Greeks in honour of the victors in the public games. This custom dated from 50 Olym., or 584 B.C.

Androgeonia. An Athenian annual festival, in honour of Androgeus, the son of Minos.

Fig. 22. Plan of a Greek house, showing the andron.

Andron, Andronitis, Gr. and Gr.-R. (ἀνδρὼν, from ἀνὴρ, a man). That part of the Greek or Græco-Roman house exclusively set apart for men. Fig. 22 represents the ground-plan of a Greek house; the andron occupies all that part of the building which surrounds the open court, and consists of the apartments numbered 1 to 9. The Romans applied the term simply to a passage separating a house or part of a house from another.

Anelace, O. E. A knife or dagger worn at the girdle; broad, two-edged and sharp.

“An anelace and a gipciere all of silk,
Hung at his girdle, white as morwe milk.”
(Chaucer, Canterbury Tales.)

Fig. 23. Angel of the reign of Elizabeth.

Angel. A gold coin current in England and France in the 15th and 16th centuries. It derived its name from the figure of an angel stamped upon it. A similar coin, either of gold or silver, was current in France at various periods. From the time of Louis IX. to that of Louis XI., the gold angel was equal in value to a crown of fine gold, or a little more than fourteen francs. It was stamped with a figure of St. Michael, holding in his right hand a sword, and in his left a shield with three fleur-de-lys. Henry VI., king of England, when he was in possession of Paris, had a gold angel struck which was not above seven francs in value. It was stamped with the figure of an angel holding in his hand the shields of France and England. The same king also had a silver angel struck which was only worth about five and a half francs.

Fig. 24. Arms of France with Angels as supporters. XIV. century.

Angels, (Gr. ἄγγελος, a messenger) in Christian Art are represented in nine degrees, which are divided into three categories. The first consists of Seraphim, Cherubim, and Thrones; the second of Dominations, Virtues, Powers; and the third of Princedoms, Archangels, and Angels. They are represented as young, to show their continued strength; winged as messengers of speed; barefooted and girt to show their readiness; in robes of white indicative of purity, or in cloth of gold for their glory; the cloth of gold diapered with bands of precious stones; the emerald, emblem of unfading youth; the crystal, of purity; the sapphire, of celestial contemplation; and the ruby, of divine love. During the renaissance, Pugin complains, “the edifying and traditional representations of angelic spirits were abandoned, and, in lieu of the albe of purity and golden vests of glory, the artists indulged in pretty cupids sporting in clouds, &c.” The proper attributes of the angels are trumpets, for the voice of God; flaming swords, for the wrath of God; sceptres, for the power of God; thuribles or censers for the prayers of saints, and musical instruments to emblem their felicity.

Angiportus or Angiportum, R. A narrow road passing between two houses or rows of houses, or an alley leading to a single house.

Fig. 25. Point d’Angleterre.

Angleterre, Point d’. Lace made by Flemish makers who were invited to settle in England in the reign of Charles II., the English Parliament having passed an act prohibiting the importation of all foreign lace. England, however, could not produce the necessary flax, and the lace was of inferior quality. The merchants of the time remedied this by smuggling large quantities of lace from the Brussels market, selling it as English Point or Point d’Angleterre, by which latter name it is still known, effacing the old name “Point de Bruxelles.” (Fig. 25.)

Anglicanum Opus. (See Embroidery.)

Angones. French weapons of the Middle Ages furnished with three blades, one of which was straight, broad and keen, the remaining two curving outwards. Some angons have a lozenge-shaped head-blade. They were used as a kind of pike, and sometimes hurled like javelins. The latter kind somewhat resembled the aclis.

Anguilla, R. A whip made use of by Roman schoolmasters for punishing their scholars. It was so called because made from the skin of an eel (anguis).

Anguis, R. A serpent which among the Romans symbolized the local spirit (genius loci). Serpents were painted upon a wall to deter the public from defiling the spot thus indicated. At Pompeii these representations of serpents are found in the bakehouses, kitchens, and similar places where cleanliness is peculiarly desirable. The same term was applied to a military ensign in the shape of a serpent.

Anime. Gum anime is a resin, which is mixed with copal in making varnish, causing it to dry quickly and firmly.

Animosi of Milan. One of the Italian literary academies. Their device was “stags passing a river, resting on the heads of each other.” Motto, “Dant animos vices.” (Mutual help gives strength.)

Anklets, Gr. (See Periscelis.)

Annealing. The process of tempering brittle glass and metals by heat.

Annulet, Her. A plain ring, or false roundle.

Annulets, Arch. The rings or mouldings about the lower part of the echinos or ovolo of Doric capitals.

Annulus or Anulus, Gr. and R. (dimin. of anus, a ring). A finger-ring. They were originally made of iron, and used as a signet for sealing. Later on they were made of gold. Among the Greeks and Romans they were worn on the fourth finger of the left hand, whence the expression sedere ad anulos alicui, to be seated at any one’s left hand. The anulus bigemmis was a ring set with two precious stones; anulus velaris was a curtain ring. A plait of hair arranged in circles round the back of the head was also called anulus. In architecture the term was formerly employed instead of anulet. The stone most frequently used for rings was the onyx, upon which devices were carved with wonderful skill. The bezel, or part of the ring which contained the gem, was called Pala. (See Rings.)

Ansa, Gr. and R. A term signifying both haft and handle, and even eyelet or hole. Any vessel or vase which has large ears or circular handles on the neck or body, is said to be furnished with ansæ. Ansa ostii was the term applied to the handle by which a door is pulled or shut to. The bronze or iron eyelet on the top of a steelyard were also called ansæ stateræ. The holes or eyelets made in the side leathers of a Greek or Roman shoe were called ansæ crepidæ; the handle of the rudder, ansa gubernaculi; lastly an iron cramp was called ansa ferrea.

Fig. 26. Templum in antis.

Antæ, R. Square or rectangular pilasters supporting the walls of a temple, which was thence called templum in antis. (Fig. 26.) The antæ thus formed the end of the walls of the cella. The capitals of antæ and the friezes abutting on them were sometimes richly ornamented, as may be seen by referring to Fig. 27, which represents, in their restored state, the frieze and one of the antæ in the temple of Augustus, at Ancyra, in Galatia.

Fig. 27. Capital and frieze of one of the Antæ in the temple of Augustus.

Antarius, Antarii funes, R. Ropes employed for raising into the proper position any object of considerable weight, such as a column, mast, &c.

Fig. 29. Archaic Antefixa in terra-cotta.

Antefixa. Ornaments of terra-cotta which were placed above the cornice, at the end of each row of tiles on a roof (Fig. 29). They were also used in ancient times for decorating the ridge of a roof. We possess specimens of antefixa remarkable for delicacy of design and execution; such were the antefixa of the temple of Diana Propylæa at Eleusis, and the various Etruscan specimens to be found in our museums. They were decorated with masks, leaves, and especially palms painted to imitate nature or in different colours. The Etruscans employed coloured antefixa only; many specimens of these last may be seen at the Louvre, and in the museums of Perugia, Florence, and Naples. The Antefixa of the Parthenon were of marble. (Fig. 30.)

Fig. 30. Antefixa in marble from the Parthenon.

Antemural. A term referring either to the outworks protecting the approach to a castle, or to the wall surrounding the castle.

Antenna, R. The yard-arm of a ship.

Antepagmentum, R. The jamb of a door. Antepagmentum superius, the lintel.

Antependium. Richly ornamented hangings of precious metal, wood, or textile fabrics, in front of a Christian altar.

Anteportico. A synonym of Porch (q.v.); but little used.

Fig. 31. Anterides of the Cloaca Maxima at Rome.

Anterides, Gr. and R. (? ἀντερείδω, to stand firm). A structure employed to strengthen a weaker one. It consisted of a kind of buttress placed against an outer wall, chiefly in subterranean constructions, such as a sewer or aqueduct. Fig. 31 represents the anterides of the Cloaca Maxima at Rome.

Anthony, Cross of St., in the form of the letter T. It is the idealized representation of a crutch. (See Crosses.)

Anthropomorphic. Man-shaped; said for example of the character of the Greek Religion, whose gods and demi-gods were only ideal men, from which circumstance the representation of the human form became the first object of their plastic art.

Antia. The iron handle of a shield.

Antiæ, R. The ringlets of hair worn by men and women which hung about the ears and the temples.

Antick. Strange, irregular, or fantastic in composition.

Antilena, R. An appliance attached to the pack-saddle of a beast of burden. It was a broad strap passing in front of the animal’s breast so as to prevent the saddle from slipping backwards. It was employed especially in mountainous districts.

Antimensium, Chr. A consecrated altar cloth.

Antimony. The oxide of this metal is employed in the preparation of yellow pigments for enamel or porcelain painting. Glass is coloured yellow by antimony. (See Naples, Guimet’s Yellows.)

Antipendium, Chr. (See Antependium.)

Antiphoner, Chr. An antiphonarium; a book of responses set to music.

Antique. Pertaining to ancient Greek or Roman art: more freely used in recent times to describe the quality of ancient art in general, but properly applicable only to classical art.

Fig. 32. Opus Antiquum.

Antiquum Opus, Arch. An ancient kind of stone-work or masonry composed of irregular stones. Another name for it was opus incertum.

Antiseptic varnish. A glazing composed to protect vegetable or animal pigments.

Antitype. The realization of the type.

Antonine Column. One of the most valuable architectural monuments in Rome. It is a lofty pillar ornamented with a series of bas-reliefs extending spirally from the base to the summit, representing the victories of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus.

Anulus. (See Annulus.)

Anvil. In Christian art the attribute of St. Adrian, and of St. Eloy, the patron saint of the smiths.

Apalare, R. A kitchen utensil; a sort of large metal spoon or ladle.

Ape. In Christian art the emblem of malice and of lust. Common in illuminations of the penitential psalms, in allusion to David’s fall.

Apex, R. (apex, the top). A piece of olive wood pointed at the end, and set in a flock of wool. It formed the head-dress of the Flamines and Salii. By analogy, the term was further used to denote a cap, and also the ridge on the top of a helmet to which the horsehair crest was attached.

Aphractus, Gr. and R. (ἄφρακτον, lit. unguarded). A vessel without a deck, or only partly decked fore and aft.

Aphrodisia, Gr. (Ἀφροδίσια). A general term under which were comprised all the festivals held in honour of Venus (Aphroditè).

Fig. 33. Aplustre and anchor of a Roman ship.—From bas-relief.

Aplustre, Gr. and R. (ἄφλαστον). An ornament placed at a ship’s stern. It was constructed of flexible wooden planks, in imitation of the feather of a bird’s wing.

Apobates, Gr. (Lat. Desultor). One who dismounts. (1) Soldiers in chariots who leaped in and out in the fight. (2) The circus riders who leaped from one horse to another.

Apodyterium, R. and Gr.-R. (from ἀπὸ δύω, to put off). In a general sense, an undressing-room, and more particularly the apartment in the baths where the bathers undressed. As little light penetrated from without, there was generally a lamp burning in a niche. An apodyterium such as that just described may still be seen at Pompeii.

Apollino, It. The name usually given to the beautiful “Apollo of Florence,” attributed to Praxiteles.

Apophyge or Apophysis, Arch. The small fascia or band at the top and base of the shaft of columns.

Fig. 34. Apostle Mug.

Apostle Mug. The mug or tankard shown in the engraving is of Nanconian or Nuremberg stone-ware, with figures of the twelve apostles enamelled in colours upon it. (Fig. 34.) Apostle Spoons are well known to have received their names from the figures of the Apostles forming the handles.

Apostyls Coats, O. E. Probably garments used for mystery plays.

Apotheca, Gr. and R. (ἀποθήκη, a granary). A store-room or magazine for containing any kind of stock. The Romans also applied the term specially to a wine store-room situated in the upper part of the house; this was sometimes called the fumarium. Here the wine was placed in amphoræ to ripen it more quickly, whereas when stored in the cella vinaria, it was placed in Cupæ and Dolia (q.v.).

Apotheosis, Gr. (ἀπὸ, θεὸς god, to deify). A deification; the ceremony by which a mortal was introduced among the number of the gods. The proper term in Latin is consecratio (q.v.). The funeral pile, in such cases, was built several stories in height, and an eagle was let loose from the top storey, to carry the soul of the emperor from earth to heaven. This is commemorated upon the medals struck on the occasion, which represent an altar with a fire on it, from which an eagle ascends.

Apparel, Chr. Embroidered additions to the vestments of the clergy.

Appaumée, Her. Said of a hand, open, erect, and showing the palm.

Appianum, Lat. Appian green, a pigment used by the ancients, prepared from green earth, now known as Cyprus or Verona green, because the best is found at those places.

Apple. The emblem in classical art of victory, and in Christian art of the fall of man.

Appliqué, Fr. Applied ornament, as of metal or porcelain upon wood. In embroidery, Appliqué work is used, when a pattern cut out of one colour or stuff is applied, or laid on, to another.

Fig. 35. Apse of St. William in the Desert, a monastery in the South of France.—Built about A. D. 820.

Apse, Apsis, or Chevet (ἁψὶς, bow or vault). The termination of a church. It is generally of semicircular form, and surmounted by a demicupola, but there are instances of rectangular apses. Fig. 35 represents the apse of St. William in the Desert. (See Absis.)

Apsis gradata, Chr. The chair occupied by bishops in the early Christian basilicas.

Apteral, Arch. Without wings. A temple without columns on the sides.

Aqua fortis (nitric acid). Used by engravers and etchers for biting-in on copper and steel.

Aqua marina. A transparent green stone, frequently used by the gem engravers of antiquity.

Aquæmanalis. (See Aquiminarium.)

Aquamanile, Chr. The basin used for washing the hands of the celebrant in the liturgy. A. of great splendour are frequently mentioned in the ancient records. The corresponding ewer was called Urceus.

Aqua-tint. A method of engraving with the help of mastic. (Consult Fielding’s “Art of Engraving.”)

Fig. 36. Pont-du-Gard, a Roman aqueduct near Nismes. (Restored)

Aqueduct, Gen. (aqua, water, and duco, to lead). An artificial canal for conveying water from one point to another, and often to a considerable distance from the source. Many ancient nations have executed works of this description, but the Roman aqueducts are especially celebrated. The most perfect is that which still exists, in a ruined state, over the river Gard, near Nismes in the South of France, called Pont-du-Gard. (Fig. 36.) Aqueducts were often discharged into reservoirs.

Aquilæ, R. The eagles, or ensigns, of the Roman legion under the Empire. They were of silver or bronze, and had the wings outstretched. As an architectural term aquila denotes the triangular face formed by the tympanum of a pediment, because the latter was often ornamented with an eagle. (See Ensign.)

Aquiminarium, R. An ewer for pouring water over the hands of the guests after a banquet. Other terms for this ewer were aquæmanalis and aquimanale.

Ara, R. The Latin term for Altar. (See this word and Altare.)

Arab Pottery. (See Gargoulette.)

Arabesque, Gen. An ornament of a pattern more or less intricate, composed of stems, foliage, leaves, fruits, scrolls, or leafage, as well as of curious and fantastic animals. It is an error to suppose that arabesque, as its name might seem to indicate, was an Arab invention; it was known to the Greeks and Romans, and was largely employed in Græco-Roman architecture.

Aræostylé, Arch. An order of temples, in which the space between the columns is four diameters in width.

Arbalest. (See Cross-bow.)

Arca, R. (arceo, to enclose, preserve). (1) A kind of box or strong chest used by the ancients as a receptacle for money, clothes, or any valuable effects. (2) A strong box or money chest; (3) a rough chest used for a coffin; (4) a cage for criminals, made of oak; (5) a wooden caisson, answering the purpose of a modern coffer-dam.

Arcade. A series of arches.

Arcadi. A Literary Academy established at Rome in 1690. The members adopted pastoral names. Their device was a Pandæan pipe, surrounded by a wreath of olive and pine.

Arcatures, Arch. A series of blind arcades represented on a wall, in relief or painting. Carved arcatures are those forming a kind of screen; they are detached from the wall, and have an inner and outer face.

Arcera, R. A cart boarded all over so as to resemble a huge chest (arca). The inmate reclined on cushions and pillows covered with drapery; and the exterior was covered with hangings, the richness of which varied with the rank and fortune of the owner.

Arch (arcus, a bow). A structure the form of which is based on the segment of a circle. The kinds of arches are named according to the curve which they make. Round-headed arches; semicircular, segmental or stilted, introduced by the Romans. Triangular arches, of very early date. Horse-shoe arches; the Moorish, the common horse-shoe and the pointed (which is also a Moorish form). Then the trefoil arch of the Early English style: with its variations, including the square-headed trefoil of the 13th century. The lancet or acute-pointed; the equilateral; the pointed trefoil; the ogee, of the 14th and 15th century; the Tudor arch, of the reigns of Henry VII. and VIII.; and the decorative forms, not used in construction; the flamboyant, the cinquefoil and the multifoil are all described under the headings printed above in Italics.

Archaic (art). The first period of Art is distinguished by stiffness and conventionality of treatment, directed much more to the symbolic representation of an idea than to beauty or true imitation. It is properly called also the hieratic type, from its intimate relation to religious symbolism. See Selinuntian; Æginetan Marbles.

Archangels. The seven angels of the Christian hierarchy who stand in the presence of God. St. Michael, sometimes in complete armour, bears a sword and scales, as the Angel of Judgment, also a rod with a cross; St. Raphael bears a fish, and a pilgrim’s staff and gourd; St. Gabriel bears a lily; Uriel carries a parchment roll and a book, as the interpreter of prophecies; Chamuel bears a cup and a staff; Zophiel a flaming sword; and Zadchiel the sacrificial knife which he took from Abraham. The Archangels are generally represented with the nimbus, and clothed as princes and warriors; their ensign is a banner and cross, and they are armed with a sword and a dart in one hand.

Arched or Archy, Her. Bent or bowed.

Arched-buttress or Flying Buttress, Arch. An incomplete arch supporting the spandrels of a roof. It springs from a Buttress (q.v.).

Archeria, Med. Lat. A vertical loophole from which arrows could be discharged.

Archibault. (See Archivolt.)

Architrave, Gr. and R. (ἀρχὸς, chief; and Ital. trave, a beam). That part of a structure which rests immediately on the capital of a column or pilaster. Architraves are surmounted by a frieze and a cornice.

Archivium, Gr. and R. A building in which archives (charters and records) of a city or state were deposited. It was also called Archeion or Tabularium (q.v.).

Archivolt or Archibault, (arcus, and volutus, rolled round). The whole of the mouldings decorating an arch or arcade, and following the contour of the same.

Archlute, old Eng. A kind of theorbo, or double-necked lute. 16th century.

Archy. (See Arched.)

Arcosolium, Chr. (arcus, and solium, a coffin). An arched or vaulted sepulchral chamber in the catacombs, sanctified by the interment of martyrs and holy persons; and in later generations often richly decorated, as with marble incrustations, paintings, and mosaics. The arcosolia in which Christians of small means were buried are constructed in the walls of the passages in the catacombs. The wealthier Christians, however, had arcosolia specially excavated for their family and friends; the following inscription is frequently found on them: Nobis et nostris et amicis.

Arcuatio, R. A structure formed by means of arches or arcades, and employed to support a construction of any kind, such as a bridge, aqueducts, &c.

Arcubalista, R. (βάλλω, to throw). A machine for hurling arrows, somewhat similar to a cross-bow.

Arcubus. (See Arquebus.)

Arcula, R. Diminutive of Arca (q.v.). (1) A small chest. (2) A colour-box used by encaustic painters. (3) A small sepulchre, or stone coffin.

Arculum, R. A garland which the Dialis (Priest of Jupiter) wore on his head while sacrificing; it consisted of one or two pomegranate boughs bent into a circle and fastened with fillets of white or red wool.

Arcuma, R. A small carriage constructed to hold only one person. (See Plaustrum, Chiramaxium, Vehiculum.)

Arcus, R. (1) A bow for discharging arrows. There were many kinds in use among the ancients. Those of the Greeks and Romans presented on the whole much analogy with each other, while the Scythian bow differed entirely from both. (2) An arch of masonry; the arcus triumphalis was a triumphal arch. The Romans never used any other form of arch than the semicircle.

Ardenti. Literary Academies of this name existed at Pisa, at Naples, and at Viterbo.

Area, R. (1) Any broad, open and level space, and so a square or parade. Areæ were adorned with fountains and statues set up in honour of some divinity, who frequently gave his name to the spot. Thus at Rome there were the area Apollinis, area Mercurii, &c. (2) A threshing-floor in a field.

Arena, R. (1) Sand; a material employed in building. (2) The level space forming the area of an amphitheatre.

Arenaria, R. A Roman game of ball for two persons; it derived its name from the fact that the ball was made to rebound from the ground (arena).

Areste. A cloth of gold, elaborately figured, used for vestments. 13th century. It is not to be confounded with arras.

Fig. 37. Arezzo vase.

Arezzo Vase. Many fine examples of old Etruscan pottery have been found in or near the town of Arezzo in Tuscany. They are of red lustred ware ornamented in relief, and show evident traces of Greek origin. (Fig. 37.)

Argei, R. (1) Certain sites at Rome, having a small temple attached to them. (2) Images or lay-figures made of bulrushes, which were cast into the Tiber, on the Ides of May, from the Sublician bridge. This custom is still kept up in the south of France, where, in certain towns, on Ash-Wednesday, they drown an image called Caramentran who represents the god of the carnival.

Argent, Her. The metal silver, represented in engravings by a plain white.

Fig. 38. Point d’Argentan.

Argentan, Point d’. Lace made much in the same way as Point d’Alençon, but having the flowers bolder and larger in pattern and in higher relief; the foundation, called the bride-ground, is also coarser. It takes its name from the little town of Argentan in Normandy, where it was made. (Fig. 38.)

Fig. 39. Argentella lace.

Argentella. A name given to a lace made in Genoa, but worked much like Point d’Alençon.

Argive. A school of sculpture, contemporary with the Attic School of Pheidias; of which Polycletus was the head. He was the author of the Canon, or law of proportion in sculpture, exemplified in his Doryphorus (spear-bearer); he worked principally in bronze, and was famous for his chryselephantine statues. A specimen of the Argive school of sculpture is the Discobolus of Myron (a contemporary of Polycletus) in the British Museum. It is an ancient copy in marble from the original bronze statue. Closeness to Nature is a distinguishing characteristic of the Argive School.

Fig. 40. Battering-ram.

Aries or Ram. A battering-ram. It consisted of a stout beam, furnished at one end with an iron head, shaped like that of a ram, and was used to batter the walls of a city till a breach was effected. The battering-ram was at first worked by men, who simply carried it in their arms, but in course of time it was suspended from a wooden tower (Fig. 40), or a vertical beam, and worked with the aid of ropes. When the battering-ram was enclosed in a kind of wooden shed bearing some resemblance to the shell of a tortoise, it was called by the name of that animal (testudo) (Fig. 41).

Fig. 41. Battering-ram in testudo.

Ark, Chr. A symbol of the church.

Armanahuasi, Peruv. The baths of the ancient Peruvians. They were remarkable for the elegance and luxury displayed in their ornamentation. They were furnished with magnificent fountains, some of which threw their jets upwards (huraea), others in a horizontal direction (paccha).

Armarium, R. A cabinet, cupboard, or bookcase. Originally a place for keeping arms. Some were ornamented with plates of brass set in links of gold; others were made of gold inlaid with precious stones of various shapes. (See also Almery.)

Armatura, R. (1) In a general sense, armour of every kind. Thus armatura levis denoted the light infantry; and soldiers armed only with a hasta, and the dart, gæsa (of Gallic invention) were called leves milites. (2) The art of fencing. (3) The pieces of iron or bronze which connect stones or the parts of a structure. (4) The iron framework in a window or casement.

Armed, Her. Having natural weapons of offence, &c. A lion is armed of his claws and teeth, a bull of his horns, &c.

Armenian Green. (See Chrysocolla.)

Armet, Old Eng. A kind of helmet of the 16th century, worn with or without the beaver.

Armilausa, Lat. A classical garment adopted in England and elsewhere, worn by knights over their armour. Strutt describes it as “a round curtal weed, which they called a cloak, and in Latin armilausa, as only covering the shoulders.”

Fig. 42. Armilla. Celtic Bracelet.

Fig. 43. Armilla. Gaulish Bracelet.

Armilla. In general, any circlet of gold or silver which forms a bracelet for men or women, whether worn on the wrist, arm, or ankle. Bracelets worn by men often consisted of three or four massive bands of bronze, silver, or gold, and thus covered a considerable portion of the arm. Bracelets were worn by the Assyrians, the Babylonians, the Medes, the Persians, the Celts (Fig. 42), and the Gauls (Fig. 43). The Egyptians in some instances employed ivory and porcelain in their manufacture.

Armillum, R. A kind of urceolus, or small pitcher for holding a particular kind of wine. It was among the number of the sacrificial vessels, and was well known from the Latin proverb: Anus ad armillum (an old woman returns to her bottle).

Armilustrium. A Roman festival for the purification of arms.

Arming Points. The “points” or ties of armour.

Armins. Cloth or velvet coverings for pikehandles.

Armory, Her. (1) Heraldry. (2) A list of names and titles with the arms belonging to them.

Fig. 44. Primitive Roman Armour.

Armour, Arms. In almost every deposit where prehistoric remains are buried, we find clubs, hatchets, arrows, hammers, or other arms, mostly, even in the stone age, carefully ornamented. The ancient Egyptians were armed with “the bow, spear, two species of javelin, sling, a short and straight sword, dagger, knife, falchion, axe or hatchet, battle-axe, pole-axe, mace or club, &c. Their defensive arms consisted of a helmet of plate, or quilted head-piece, a cuirass, or coat of armour made of metal plates, or quilted with metal bands, and an ample shield” (Wilkinson). Among the Greeks, the heavy-armed warrior wore the greaves, cuirass, with the mitra underneath, and the zone or cingulum above; his sword, ensis or gladius, hung on his left side, and the large round shield, sacus, aspis, clipeus or scutum, hung from his shoulder; his helmet, corys, cunea, cassis or galea; his spear, enkus, doru or hasta, or two spears. The defensive armour, the shield and thorax, were called hopla, and the man hoplites. The light-armed, psiloi, anoploi, gymnai, gymnetai, had a slighter covering of skins, or cloth, and fought with darts, stones, bows and arrows or slings. There were also the peltastæ, so called from their small shield pelte. All the above-mentioned parts of classical armour, and their modifications in that of mediæval times are described under their respective headings; as well as much of mediæval armour.

Arnis, Gr. and R. An expiatory festival held in honour of Linus and his mother Psamathê, the daughter of Crotopus, king of Argos. Various legends are extant regarding the origin of this festival, which was called Arnis from the sheep (ἀρνειὸς) that were sacrificed.

Arotoi-Hieroi, Gr. Literally: sacred labours, a term used to denote three agricultural festivals which took place in Attica; the first was held in commemoration of the first sowing; the second, on occasion of reaping the earliest crop of barley in a field near Eleusis; the third, by way of invoking the blessings of Ceres on the field of corn specially set apart for the worship of Athena.

Arquebus. A hand-gun, larger than a musket. The man using it was called an arquebusier.

Arra or Arrha, R. A deposit, or earnest-money to a contract.

Arras. Tapestry. Textile hangings for walls; first made at Arras in the 14th century. It was originally called Opus Saracenicum.

Arrhæ Sponsalitiæ, called also Arrabo, was the name of the betrothal money paid to the parents of a bride; a practice of the Hebrews, continued by Christians.

Arrhephoria, Gr. (Ἀρρηφόρια). A festival held at Athens in the month of June or Scirophorium. The maidens who took part in it were called ἑροηφόροι or ἑροηφόροι. Four little girls and a priestess carried some sacred vessels to a grotto.

Arricciate, Ital. One of the coats of mortar laid on to a wall to receive fresco-painting.

Arrondie, Her. Curved, round.

Arrows, in Christian art, are the emblems of pestilence, death, and destruction.

Arsenicon, Greek for orpiment (q.v.).

Artemisia, Gr. A general term to denote all the festivals of Diana Artemis. The most celebrated were those held at Ephesus, Delphi, and Syracuse.

Articulation. The anatomical study of the juncture of the bones.

Artolaganus, R. (ἀρτο-λάγανον, i. e. bread-cake). A kind of dough-cake made with wine, milk, oil, and pepper. Cicero, in one of his letters, asserts that it was delicious.

Artophorium (bread-bearer), Chr. Another name for the ciborium or costly box prepared to contain the consecrated Host.

Artopta, Gr. and R. (from ἀρτάω, to bake). A mould in which bread and pastry were baked.

Artopticius, R. (sc. parús). A roll or loaf of bread baked in an artopta, many examples of which may be seen in the small museum at Pompeii; owing to their having become hardened, these loaves have retained their shape perfectly when taken from the oven after eighteen centuries.

Fig. 45. Arundel device.

Arundel Device. A chapeau or, and gules, surmounted by a fret or, and an acorn leaved vert. This is only one of the numerous badges of the house of Arundel, which is peculiarly rich in armorial bearings.

Arundel Marbles. A collection of ancient sculptures found in Greece and Asia Minor in the early part of the 17th century and brought to England at the expense of Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel. In 1667 his grandson presented them to the University of Oxford.

Arundo, R. A term with various significations. (1) A reed or cane. (2) An arrow or bow made of cane. (3) A fishing-rod. (4) A cane rod tipped with bird-lime for catching birds. (5) A reed pen for writing. (6) A Pan’s pipe in which the reeds were joined together by wax; whence its name arundo cerata. (See Calamus.)

Arx, R. (arceo, to enclose). A citadel or fortress. Arx is almost equivalent to Acropolis (q.v.), since citadels were usually built on elevated sites, thus forming an upper city (ἀκρόπολις).

Fig. 46. Greek Aryballos.

Aryballos. A Greek flask or vase used for oil or wine. It was commonly of a bladder shape with a thin neck. The example engraved (Fig. 46) is painted in the Asiatic style. On some of these vases the ornament is engraved.

Arystichos, Gr. and R. (from ἀρύω, to draw water). A vessel for drawing water, especially from the Amphora (q.v.). It was also called ephebos (ἔφηβος), because, at banquets, it was the duty of youths to mix the wine with water before handing it to the guests. This term has as synonyms aruter, arusane, arustis and oinerusis.

Arzica. (1) An artificial pigment of a yellow colour, used for miniature painting. (2) A yellow lake made from the herb “reseda luteola.” (3) A yellow earth for painting, of which the moulds for casting brass are formed; it yields an ochreous pigment of a pale yellow colour, which, when burned, changes to an orange colour.

Arzicon. A contraction of Arsenicon, for orpiment (q.v.).

As, R. The unit of value in the bronze currency of the Romans. Originally the as weighed one pound, whence its name as liberalis; and as it was composed of a mixture of copper and tin (æs), it was also called æs grave. At a later period the as had much declined in value; under Augustus it was only worth somewhat less than a penny.

Asaminthos, Gr. (ἀσάμινθος). A large vase of the Homeric epoch, large enough to admit of a person bathing in it. It is supposed that this was the tub of Diogenes.

Asbestus. (See Amiantus.)

Ascendant, Her. Issuing upwards, as a flower.

Ascia, Gr. and R. A term applied to instruments of various shapes and employed for different purposes, but all bearing a general resemblance to a carpenter’s adze. The expression sub ascia dedicavit, which is frequently found engraved on tombs together with the representation of an ascia, has given rise to numerous interpretations. It is supposed that this expression signified: This tomb [never before used] has been dedicated to the memory of the person in whose honour it was erected; or possibly the formula implied that the plot upon which the memorial stood had been granted in perpetuity. After all the discussion to which the formula has given rise, these are the two hypotheses most generally accepted. (See Acisculus.)

Ascopera, Gr. and R. (ἀσκὸς, leathern bag or wine-skin; πήρα, a pouch). A large bag made of undressed leather, carried as knapsack by foot-travellers, and thus distinguished from the Hippopera (q.v.).

Ascolia, Ascolias, Gr. and R. (from ἀσκὸς, a wine-skin). An Athenian game which consisted in leaping upon a wine-skin, filled with wine and greased over with oil, during the festivals in honour of Dionysus.

Ashlar, Achelor, &c.; also Astler or Estlar, O. E. Hewn stone for the facings of walls. “Clene hewen Ashler.”

Asilla, R. A yoke, like a milkman’s, or the Malay picol, for carrying burdens; is a common object in Egyptian and all other ancient representations of domestic appliances.

Asinarii. A term of reproach inherited by the early Christians from the Jews, who were accused of worshipping an ass.

Askos, Gr. and R. (ἀσκός). A vessel, originally shaped like a leather bottle (uter) for holding water or wine. It was furnished with a handle at the top, and had sometimes two mouths, one of which served to fill, the other to empty it. Later on, the askos assumed the form of an earthenware pitcher.

Asor, Heb. A musical instrument of ten strings played with the plectrum.

Asp. In Egyptian art the emblem of royalty; in Christian art, under the feet of saints, of conquered malice.

Aspectant, Her. Looking at one another.

Asperges, Aspergillum, Chr. The rod for sprinkling holy water.

Aspersed, Her. Scattered over,—the same as Semée.

Aspersorium, Chr. The stoup, or holy water basin.

Asphaltum. A brown carbonaceous pigment used in painting. It is found in various parts of the world, more particularly in Egypt, China, Naples, and Trinidad. The best is the Egyptian. (See Bitumen, Mummy.)

Aspic. (See Oil of Spike.)

Ass, Chr. An emblem of patience and sobriety; but also of idleness and obstinacy; sometimes of the Jewish nation.

Ass, Festival of the. A grotesque Christian festival of the Middle Ages, connected with the prominence of the ass in religious history.

Asser, R. (1) A beam, pole, or joist. (2) The rafters of a wooden roof. (3) Asser falcatus was a kind of ram which was launched, with the aid of machinery, by the garrison of a fortified town, against the enemy’s siege works.

Assett, O. E. A salver.

Assommoir, Fr. A sort of gallery built over a door or passage of a fortified place, from which stones, lead, and other heavy objects could be hurled down to overwhelm (assommer) the besiegers. Hence the name.

Asterisk, Chr. Sometimes called Stellula. A kind of crossed framework made of gold or silver, consisting of two arched bands which are sometimes surmounted, at the point of intersection, by a cross. The asterisk is placed upon the patera for the purpose of keeping up the cloth which covers the consecrated wafers of the host.

Astler. (See Ashlar.)

Astragal (ἀστράγαλος, knuckle-bone). A small semicircular moulding, so called from its resemblance to a row of knuckle-bones placed side by side. As it is decorated with beads, or berries of laurel or olive, separated by discs, it is now commonly known as a chaplet. Astragals are placed at the top of a column, beneath the capital, and divide the architrave into two or three parts. They are also used to decorate any kind of base. (See Torus.)

Astragalus, R. The ancient game of knuckle-bones; a common subject in classical sculpture, called also Tali.

Astreated, Arch. Star-shaped ornaments, used in Norman mouldings.

Asylum, Gr. and R. (ἄ-συλον, safe from violence). A place of refuge, to which was attached the privilege of inviolability called asulia. This privilege belonged to certain temples, woods, or other sacred enclosures. There were a considerable number of such retreats in Greece and the Greek colonies.

At Gaze, Her. Said of animals of the chase “standing still and looking about them.”

Atach-gah, Pers. The fire-altar of the ancient Persians; mentioned in the writings of Pausanias and Strabo.

Atellanæ (sc. fabulæ), R. A farce, so called from its having originated in Atella, a city of the Osci, in Campania. Hence the name of Oscan games (ludi Osci). Atellanæ were played by youths of good family, on the conclusion of a tragedy. They were introduced into Rome in the fourth century B.C. These farces were distinguished by their refinement, and freedom from low buffoonery.

Athenæum. A university for literary and scientific studies at Rome, on the Capitoline Hill.

Athyr, Egyp. One of the months of the ancient Egyptians. It was the third of the four months called the months of inundation.

Fig. 47. One of the Atlantes of the Theatre of Bacchus at Athens.

Atlantes, Gr. and R. (from τλῆναι). Human figures so called, in allusion to the story of the Titan Atlas, which were employed instead of columns to support entablatures (Fig. 47). The Latin equivalent for the term is Telamones. Similar female figures were Caryatides.

Fig. 48. Atlas, a device used by Philip II. of Spain.

Atlas. One of the several devices adopted by Philip II. of Spain was a figure of Hercules bearing on his shoulders and kneeling beneath, the weight of the world; a feat recorded to have been performed by him in order to give relief to Atlas from his customary burden. The motto “Ut quiescat Atlas,” is written on a ribbon.

Atramentale, Atramentarium, Gr. and R. (atramentum, q.v.). An inkstand, of any shape or material whatsoever. Inkstands were made of terra-cotta, bronze, and silver. There is a Pompeian painting in which a double inkstand is represented, one side of which contains black ink, the other an ink of some different colour. There were also portable inkstands called theca. (See Theca.)

Atramentum, Gr. and R. (ater, black). A general term to denote any kind of black liquid; such were atramentum scriptorum, atramentum librarium, or simply atramentum—all terms for writing ink; atramentum sutorum, the black used by shoemakers for dyeing their leather, another name for which was chalcamentum (q.v.); and atramentum tectorium, a kind of ink used for writing inscriptions with a brush. In ancient times, all descriptions of ink were made with soot and gum, forming a kind of Indian ink which was diluted with water. Vitruvius (Book VII.) thus describes the process by which atramentum was obtained: “Soot is first procured by burning rosin in a vaulted chamber, and the black (atramentum) thus obtained is then mixed with gum.”

Atriolum, R. (dimin. of Atrium). (1) A small atrium. It might be either a smaller atrium adjoining the principal one in a house, or the atrium of a dwelling of inferior size. (2) A small antechamber forming the entrance of a tomb.

Fig. 49. Atrium, with Ionic columns.

Atrium, R. and Mod. A term perhaps derived from Atria, a city of Tuscany in which structures of this description were first built. It consisted of a kind of covered court (cavædium), round which were grouped the different apartments of the house. In the centre of the roof was an aperture with sloping sides called the compluvium, and in the court beneath, a basin which collected the rain-water from the roof. This was called the impluvium. There were besides, the atrium displuviatum and the atrium testudinatum. The atrium was unquestionably the most essential and the most interesting part of a Roman mansion; it was here that numbers assembled daily to pay their respects to their patron, to consult the legislator, to attract the notice of the statesman, or to derive importance in the eyes of the public from an apparent intimacy with a man in power.—Moule.

Fig. 50. Atrium, with Doric columns.

During the Middle Ages the term atrium was used to denote the open plot of ground surrounding a church, which served for a cemetery, and the close or courtyard of certain churches.

Attegia, R. A hut or cabin made of reeds, and covered with thatch.

Attic-order, Arch. An arrangement of low pilasters, surmounting a building.

Fig. 51. Atticurge doorway at Agrigentum.

Atticurge, Arch. (Ἀττικουργὴς, wrought in Attic fashion). A doorway, the uprights of which, instead of being perpendicular, inclined slightly inwards, so that the opening was wider at the threshold than immediately under the lintel. Fig. 51 represents the doorway of an ancient monument at Agrigentum, in Sicily.

Attires, Attired, Her. The antlers of a stag or “hart” having antlers.

Attributes. Conventional symbols of the character, or the agency, or the history, of subjects of art representation.

Auditorium, R. (a place for hearing). A lecture-room, assembly-room, court of justice, or generally any place in which orators, poets. &c., were heard. The Basilicæ contained halls so named, in which courts of justice were held.

Augmentation, Her. An honourable addition to a coat of arms.

Augurale, R. (augur, a soothsayer). In a Roman camp the augurale was a place situated to the right of the general’s tent or Prætorium (q.v.). It was so called because the augurs there took their station to observe the flight of birds. In Greece, the oracles were consulted; but in Rome questions were addressed to Jupiter, who answered simply “Do” or “Do not,” by his messengers the birds. They gave no prophecies.

Augustine’s Oak, at Aust on the Severn; the scene of the conference between St. Augustine and the British bishops, A. D. 602.

Aula, Gr. and R. (αὐλή). (1) An open court attached to a house. It was usually in front, and on either side of it were the stables and offices. When it belonged to a farm it was round this courtyard that the stabling, sheepfolds, and other outhouses were arranged. (2) Aula regia was the central part of the scene in a Greek or Roman theatre.

Aulæa or Aulæum, R. (aula, a hall). (1) Hangings or tapestry used to decorate the dining-room or triclinium, or generally, any piece of tapestry used as a curtain, whether to cover a doorway, act as a screen, or hide the stage in a theatre. (2) The covering of a sofa or dining-couch, also called, from the way in which it hung all round it, peristroma (περίστρωμα). Aulæa is almost synonymous with Velum (q.v.).

Fig. 52. Aulmonière.

Aulmonière. The Norman name for the pouch, bag, or purse appended to the girdle of noble persons, and derived from the same root as “alms” and “almoner.” It was more or less ornamented and hung from long laces of silk or gold; it was sometimes called Alner. (Fig. 52.) (See Allouyère.)

I will give thee an alner
Made of silk and gold clear.
(Lay of Sir Launfal.)

Aulos, Gr. The Greeks gave this name to all wind instruments of the flute, or oboe, kind; it was not blown at the side like a flute, but by a vibrating reed in the mouthpiece, like a clarionet. The single flute was called monaulos, and the double one diaulos.

Aumbrie, Aumery, Almery, O. E. A cupboard or closet.

Aumery of Here, O. E. A cupboard with hair-cloth sides for ventilation. A meat-safe.

Aureola, Chr. (aurum, gold). A quadrangular, circular, or elliptic halo surrounding the bodies of Christ, the Virgin, or certain saints. Another name for this ornament is the mystical almond or Vesica Piscis (q.v.). When it envelopes the head only it is called the Nimbus.

Aureole. (See Aureola.)

Aureus, R. (sc. nummus, golden). The unit of value for gold currency under the Roman emperors, worth about a guinea.

Auripetrum. A cheap imitation of gold leaf; made of tinfoil coloured with saffron.

Auspicium, R. (aves aspicio). Divination from observation of the flight of birds. (Auspicium ex avibus, signa ex avibus.) There was also the auspicium cœleste or signa ex cœlo, of which the most important was a flash of lightning from a clear sky. Besides these there were the auspicia pullaria, or auspices taken from the sacred chickens; the auspicia pedestria, caduca, &c. (See Augurale.)

Authepsa, Gr. and R. (αὐθέψης). Literally a self-boiler; it was a sort of kettle or cauldron, which was exposed to the rays of the sun, to heat the water within it; whether, however, the ancients had attained the art of raising water to boiling heat, in this manner, it is impossible to say. The apparatus is mentioned by Cicero and Lampridius, but neither of them gives any description of it.

Avellane. A variety of the heraldic cross. (See Crosses.)

Avena, R. (oats). A Pandæan pipe, made of the stalk of the wild oat.

Aventail, Fr. (avant taille). The movable front of a helmet.

Aventurine. A kind of brown glass, mixed with bright copper filings, formerly made at Venice.

Averta, R. A trunk, bag, or portmanteau, carried on the crupper by travellers who rode on horseback.

Aviarium, R. (avis, a bird). (1) A poultry-yard. (2) An aviary in which birds—and more particularly those of rare breeds—were kept.

Axis, R. (1) The axle-tree of a carriage. (2) Axis versatilis was a cylinder worked by a crank, and used for drawing water from a well by means of a cord which rolled round it as it revolved. (3) The upright pivot upon which a door turned. It worked in two sockets, placed respectively in the upper and lower lintels.

Azarcon. The Spanish name for red lead.

Azure. A blue colour known from the very earliest times. Azure stone was the name given to the lapis lazuli. The name is given also to Cobalt. In heraldry it is the name for the blues in the arms of persons whose rank is below that of a baron; it is represented in heraldic engraving by regular horizontal lines.

Azyme, Chr. Unleavened bread.

B.

Baccalarii, Med. Lat. A contraction of bas-chevaliers: poor knights; distinct from knights bannerets, who were also termed rich knights.

Baccelleria, Med. Lat. The order of bachelors. Thus we read,

“La flor de France et la bachelerie.”

Bachelor or Bachelier has been derived from bas échelle, the lowest step of the ladder. (Meyrick.)

Baccha, Gr. and R. A Bacchante; a woman who celebrates the mysteries of Bacchus, in the temples of the god, or in the Bacchic orgies. In the numerous representations of Bacchantes which occur on monuments of ancient art, they carry the thyrsus in their right hands, and wear a wreath of ivy or vine-leaves on their heads. They appear also in the disguise of Lenæ, Thyades, Naiads, Nymphs, &c.

Bacchanalia, R. (Greek, Dionysia). Festivals held in honour of Dionysus or Bacchus.

Bacchos, Gr. and R. A short, richly ornamented thyrsus, carried by the Mystæ, at Eleusis, on occasion of their being initiated in the mysteries. There was a proverb in Greece which said: “Many carry the Bacchos, but few are inspired by the gods.”

Bacillum (dimin. of Baculum, q.v.). A small wand, especially the lictor’s wand.

Backgammon, originally called table board, is mentioned in a MS. of the 13th century. The name of bag-gamon is first found in 1646.

Baculum, Baculus, R. A general term to denote any kind of staff, except such as form the insignia of any rank or office, or are employed in certain professions.

Fig. 54. Badge of King Henry V. in his chantry in Westminster Abbey.

Fig. 53. Planta genista, or broom.

Badges. Small heraldic shields, worn by servants and others, showing, in embroidered cloth or silver, a figure or device; common also “in the furniture of houses, on robes of state, on the caparisons of horses, on seals, and in the details of Gothic edifices.” (Lower, “Curiosities of Heraldry.”) Fig. 54 from the cornice of King Henry’s chantry in Westminster Abbey shows the adaptation of heraldic badges in architectural ornament. (The description is inserted under Blazon, q.v.) The Badges worn by the military followers of the feudal leaders answered the purpose of our modern uniforms. Among remarkable badges are the “Bear and ragged staff” of the Earls of Warwick, the red and white roses of Lancaster and York, the sprig of broom (Fig. 53) of the Plantagenets.

Badgers. Brushes of badger’s hair, for blending or softening. (See Blending.)

Bagordare, Med. It. A burlesque tournament in which the combatants were attended by fools instead of heralds and esquires.

Bagpipe. This ancient and favourite instrument of the Celtic races is represented in an O. E. MS. of the 14th century. Several of the Hebrew instruments mentioned in the Bible and in the Talmud were kinds of bagpipes. So was a Greek instrument called “Magadis.” In Russia and Poland, and in the Ukraine, it used to be made of a whole goat’s skin, and was called “Kosa,” a goat. It is of high antiquity in Ireland, and a pig playing the bagpipe is represented in an illuminated Irish MS. of A. D. 1300.

Baijoire. (1) A medal or coin on the obverse or reverse of which were two faces in profile, placed one over the other. (2) An ancient silver coin of Genoa, and an ancient Dutch gold coin. The term is certainly derived from an old word Baisoire [baiser, to kiss].

Bai-Kriem, Hindoo. Literally, roasted rice; a stone employed in some of the monuments of the ancient Cambodia. (See Bien-Hoa.)

Bailey. (See Ballium.)

Bainbergs (Germ. Bein-bergen). Shin-guards or modern greaves.

Baisoire. (See Baijoire.)

Balance or Scales. In Christian symbolism the balance symbolizes the Last Judgment. The Scales and Sword are also, generally, the attribute of personified Justice.

Balandrana. A large cloak, of the 12th and 13th centuries.

Balayn, O. E. Whalebone for crests of helmets.

Baldachin, It. A canopy of wood, stone, or metal over seats and other places of honour, common also over fireplaces and beds, and carried in coronation and other processions over the most honoured persons.

Baldric, Baudrier, or Baudrick, O. E. A girdle or sash, usually a belt of leather, and worn over the shoulder. They were sometimes hung with bells. (See Balteus.)

Balea, Balia, Med. Lat. (from βάλλω, to throw). (1) A sling. (2) A ballista. From their skill in the use of slings, the inhabitants of Majorca, Minorca, and Ivica had the appellation Baleares.

Bales, O. E. (Lat. balascus; Fr. balais). An inferior kind of ruby.

Baleyn. (See Balayn.)

Balista. (See Ballista.)

Balista a pectore, Med. Lat. A hand cross-bow.

Balistrariæ, Med. Lat., Arch. Cruciform openings in the wall of a fortress to shoot quarrels through from cross-bows.

Balletys or Tuptai, Gr. A ceremony consisting in a mock combat with stones, which took place at the Eleusinian festival.

Fig. 55. Ball-flower.

Ball-flower. An ornament characteristic of the Decorated style of the 14th century. It represents the “knop” of a flower. Ball-flowers may be seen in the Cathedrals of Bristol, Gloucester, and Hereford.

Ballista or Balista, Gr. and R. (βάλλω, to throw). A military engine for hurling large missiles. It was constructed of wood, and consisted of two uprights connected horizontally by a double cross-beam. Strands of twisted fibre formed the motive power of the engine, which was fitted with an iron groove. The cord was drawn back by men, with the aid of a drum or pulleys. The ancient balista was used to shoot stones; the catapult to project heavy darts. Some balistæ threw stones weighing three cwt. The mediæval balistæ threw quarrels or stones.

Ballistarium or Balistarium, Gr. and R. A shed or magazine in which ballistæ were kept.

Ballium, Med. Lat. (1) (from Ital. battaglia). The Bailey or courtyard of a castle. (2) The bulwark which contained such a Bailey.

Balneæ or Balineæ. (See Balneum.)

Balnearia, R. A general term for all the utensils used in a bath, such as strigils, unguentaria, guttæ, oils, perfumes, essences, &c.

Fig. 56. Balneæ. The Caldarium.

Balneum, Balneæ, Thermæ, Gr. and R. Balneum meant originally a tub or other vessel to bathe in; next, the room in which it was placed; when there were many such rooms the plural balnea was used. Balneæ were the public baths, under the Republic, when they consisted of ordinary baths of hot and cold water. Thermæ were the magnificent and luxurious buildings adapted for the hot air system. They contained (1) the Apodyterium, or dressing-room; (2) the Frigidarium, where the cold bath was taken; (3) the Tepidarium, a bath of warm air; (4) the Caldarium, with a vapour bath at one end, a warm water bath at the other, and a Sudatorium, or sweating bath in the middle. The pavement, called suspensura, was over a furnace, hypocaustum. The bathers were currycombed with strigils, which the Greeks called stlengis or xystra; and they dropped oil over their bodies from narrow-necked vessels called guttus or ampullæ. The Thermæ contained exedræ, or open air chambers, where philosophers lectured, and libraries, and had gardens, and shady walks, and fountains, with statuary attached to them. The ruins of the Thermæ built by Titus, Caracalla, and Domitian remain visible (Fig. 56).

Balon, Balein, Balayn, O. E. Whalebone.

Balsam of Copaiba. An oleo-resin, used as a varnish, and as a vehicle, for oil painting.

Balteolus. Dimin. of Balteus (q.v.).

Balteus or Balteum (a belt), R. (1) A baldric or wide belt which passed over one shoulder and beneath the other, for the purpose of suspending a sword, buckler, or any other arm. (2) The ornament on the baldric on which was marked the number of the legion to which a soldier belonged. (3) A richly ornamented band of leather placed round a horse’s breast, below the Monile, or throat-band (q.v.). (4) The broad belt in the sphere, which contains the signs of the Zodiac. (5) The bands surrounding the volutes of an Ionic capital. (6) The præcinctiones, or small walls, or parapets, separating the different tiers in a theatre or amphitheatre. (Generally a BELT.)

Baltheus, Med. Lat. for Balteus.

Baluster. A small pillar, swelling in the centre or towards the base.

Fig. 57. Balustrade.

Balustrade, Arch. An enclosure or parapet composed of ballisters (q.v.), and by analogy, an enclosure consisting of any other ornament, such as trefoils, carved work, &c. Fig. 57 represents a balustrade of the pointed Gothic style.

Bambino, It. A babe. Image of the infant Christ.

Bambocciata, It. The style of genre painting of Teniers, Van Ostade, Wilkie, and others. It was introduced into Rome in 1626 by Peter Van Laar, who was called, from an unfortunate deformity that he had, Il Bamboccio, or the Cripple.

Banded, Her. Encircled with a band.

Banderolle. (1) A small flag, about a yard square, upon which arms were emblazoned, displayed at important funerals. (2) In architecture of the Renaissance, a flat scroll, inscribed.

Fig. 58. Falling-Band.

Bands. Originally the name given to the collars which (in the 17th century) replaced the ruff of Elizabeth’s reign. At first they were made of stitched linen or cambric edged with lace, stiffened so as to stand up round the neck. Contemporary with these were the falling bands. The engraving (by Hollar, 1640) shows a merchant’s wife with collar or falling band of cambric edged with lace. The term bandbox has descended to us from those days, when similar boxes were made expressly for keeping bands and ruffs in. (Fig. 58.)

Bands, Arch., are either small strings round shafts, or a horizontal line of square, round, or other panels used to ornament towers, spires, and other works. (See Balteus.)

Bandum, Banderia, Med. Lat. A small banner. The French poets called it “ban,” a word probably of Celtic origin, signifying “exalted.” (Meyrick.)

Bankard, O. E. (Fr. banquier). A carpet or cloth covering for a table, form, or bench.

Fig. 59. The Royal Standard, or Banner.

Banner. In heraldry, a square, or narrow oblong flag, larger than the pennon (q.v.), charged with the coat of arms of the owner displayed over its entire surface, precisely as it is blazoned on a shield, as in the illustration of the Royal Standard, which should properly be styled the Royal Banner. (See Standard.) The Union Jack is also a banner, in which the blazonry of the two nations of England and Scotland are combined, not by “quartering,” but by an earlier process of “blending” the cross and the saltire in a single composition. The profusion of banners at tournaments, in feudal times, when each noble planted his own in the lists, was an element of picturesque effect. The term applies to all kinds of flags, or colours, proper to individuals, or corporations, &c., who display them. It does not appear that military banners were used by the ancients. The banners used in Roman Catholic countries bear the representation of patron saints, or symbols of religious mysteries.

Banner-cloth, Chr. A processional flag.

Banneret. A knight entitled to display a banner.

Baphium, Gr. and R. (βάπτω, to dye). A dyer’s workshop.

Fig. 60. Baptistery of St. Jean, Poitiers.

Fig. 61. Baptistery of St. Constance, Rome.

Baptisterium, R. (from βάπτω, to dip). A kind of cold plunging-bath, constructed in the Frigidarium (q.v.), or the room itself. In Christian archæology, baptistery was the name given to a building adjoining a basilica, or situated near it, in which baptism was administered. Such is the baptistery of St. John Lateran at Rome. One of the most ancient baptisteries in France is that of St. Jean, at Poitiers, represented in Fig. 60. It dates from the fourth century; that of St. Constance, at Rome (Figs. 61, 62), belongs to the same period.

Fig. 62. Interior of the Baptistery of St. Constance.

Bar, Her. A horizontal line across a shield.

Barathron or Orugma, Gr. (βάραθρον). A deep cleft behind the Acropolis at Athens, into which criminals were thrown, either under sentence of death by this means, or after they had been put to death by hemlock or other poisons. It was situated near the temple of Diana Aristobulê.

Barba, Gen. The beard, whence the attributive barbatus, frequently employed to denote one who wears a beard. Thus bene barbatus, a man with a well-trimmed beard; barbatulus, a young man whose youthful beard had never been touched with the razor. Among many nations of antiquity the custom prevailed of curling the beard artificially, so as to obtain long curls or ringlets, cincinni. (See Cincinnus.) The Assyrians, Egyptians, Jews, Persians, Greeks, and Romans may be particularly enumerated. Shaving the beard was introduced into Rome about B.C. 300, and became the regular practice. In the later times of the republic many persons began to wear it trimmed, and the terms bene barbati and barbatuli were applied to them. Under Hadrian the practice of wearing beards was revived, and the emperors until Constantine wore them. The Romans let the beard grow as a sign of mourning; the Greeks shaved. The beard is an attribute of the prophets, apostles, and evangelists (excepting St. John); and, in ancient art, of Jupiter, Serapis, Neptune, &c. Neptune has a straight beard; Jupiter a curly silky one. The early Britons shaved generally, but always had long moustachios. The Anglo-Saxon beard was neatly trimmed or parted into double locks. The Normans originally shaved clean, but when settled in England let all their beard grow. Close shaving prevailed among the young men in England in the 14th century; older men wore a forked beard. After sundry changes, clean shaving obtained in the reign of Henry VI., and the beard was rarely cultivated from then until the middle of the 16th century. The most extravagant fashions arose in Elizabeth’s reign, and were succeeded by variations too numerous to detail.

Barbatina, It. A preparation of clay mixed with the shavings of woollen cloth, used in the manufacture of pottery to attach the handles and other moulded ornaments. (Fortnum.)

Barbed, Her. Pointed, as an arrow.

Fig. 63. Barbican.

Barbican, Mod. (1) A long narrow opening made in a wall, especially in a foundation wall, to let the water flow away. (2) The term also denotes an outwork placed in front of a fortified castle or any other military post. In the latter acceptation the term Antemural (q.v.) is also used. The illustration is taken from the arms of Antoine de Burgundy. In this instance the barbican is a small double tower, or out-post watch-house, and the shutter-like pent-house protection of the unglazed window openings bears a striking resemblance to a modern sun-blind.

Barbitos, Gr. and R. (βάρβιτος). A stringed instrument which dates from a very high antiquity; it was much larger than the Cithara (q.v.). To strike the long thick strings of the barbitos, a Plectrum (q.v.) was used instead of the fingers. The invention of this instrument is attributed to Terpander; Horace, on the contrary, says it was invented by Alcæus, and Athenæus by Anacreon. It was a kind of lyre with a large body.

Barbotine, Fr. A primitive method of decorating coarse pottery with clays laid on it in relief. (Jacquemart.)

Barca. A boat for pleasure, or for transport. It was also a long-boat. (See Bari.)

Barde, Barred, Her. In horizontal stripes.

Barded, Her. Having horse-trappings, or—

Bardings, which were often enriched with armorial blazonry.

Bardocucullus, R. and Gaul. (bardus and cucullus, i. e. monk’s hood). A garment with sleeves and hood worn by the poorer classes among the Gauls. It bore some resemblance to the Roman Pænula (q.v.).

Barge-board, or Verge board, is the external gable-board of a house; which is often elaborately ornamented with carvings.

Bari or Baris, Gr. and Egyp. (βᾶρις). A shallow Egyptian boat, used on the Nile to transport merchandise, and in funeral processions. The Egyptian sacred barks, with which they formed processions on the Nile, were made of costly woods, and ornamented with plates of gold or silver, and carried a miniature temple (naos), which contained the image of a divinity. The prow and the poop were ornamented with religious symbols of the richest workmanship.

Fig. 64. Barnacles or Breys.

Barnacles or Breys. An instrument used in breaking horses.

Baron, in heraldic language, signifies a husband. The rank of Baron in the peerage corresponds with that of the Saxon Thane; it is the lowest.

Baronet. An hereditary rank instituted by James I. in 1612.

Baron’s Coronet, first granted by Charles II., has, on a golden circlet, six large pearls; of which four are shown in representations.

Baroque. In bad taste, florid and incongruous ornamentation. The same as rococo.

Barrulet, Her. The diminutive of a Bar (q.v.).

Fig. 66. Barry of six.

Barry, Her. Divided into an even number of bars, which all lie in the same plane.

Barry-Bendy, Her. Having the field divided by lines drawn bar-wise, which are crossed by others drawn bend-wise.

Fig. 67. Bartizan.

Bartizan, Watch-turret, Arch. A small watch-tower made to project from the top of a tower or a curtain-wall, generally at the angles. City-gates were in some instances furnished with bartizans. Originally they were of wood, but from the 11th century they were made of masonry, and so formed part of the structure on which they rested; they were, in fact, turrets. (Fig. 67.) (Compare Barbican.)

Fig. 68. Bar-wise.

Bar-wise, Her. Disposed after the manner of a Bar (q.v.).

Barytes. A heavy spar, or sulphate, the white varieties of which are ground and made into paint (constant or Hume’s white). Mixed with an equal quantity of white lead, it produces Venice white, and with half as much “Hamburg,” or with one-third “Dutch” white.

Basalt is a very hard stone, much like lava in appearance, and black or green in colour, used for statuary. The principal specimens are Egyptian and Grecian.

Basanos, Gr. (1) (Lat. lapis Lydius) The touchstone; a dark-coloured stone on which gold leaves a peculiar mark. Hence (2) trial by torture. (3) A military engine, the form of which is not exactly known.

Bascauda, R. A basket, introduced from Britain as a table utensil, considered as an object of luxury. It was the old Welsh “basgawd,” and served to hold bread or fruits.

Bascinet. A light helmet, round or conical, with a pointed apex, and fitting close to the head, mentioned in the 13th century.

Bascule, O. E. (1) The counterpoise to a drawbridge. (2) A kind of trap-door. (A badge of the Herbert family.)

Fig. 69. Ionic Base.

Base, Arch. The lower part of a pillar, wall, &c.; the division of a column on which the shaft is placed. The Grecian Doric order has no base.

Base. Her. The lowest extremity.

Baselard, Fr. An ornamental short dagger, worn at the girdle; 15th century. With such a weapon the Lord Mayor of London “transfixit Jack Straw in gutture.” The weapon is preserved by the Fishmongers’ Company.

Bases. A kind of embroidered mantle, which hung down from the middle to about the knees, or lower; worn by knights on horseback. (Narcs.)

Basileia, Gr. (βασίλεια). A festival instituted in honour of Jupiter Basileus. It was in commemoration of the victory which the Bœotians had won at Leuctra, and in which success had been promised them by the oracle of

Fig. 70. Basilica at Pompeii (restored).

Fig. 71. Ground-plan of a Basilica.

Basilica (sc. aula), Gr. and R. (βασιλικὴ, sc. στοὰ, i. e. royal hall). This term owes its original meaning to the fact that in Macedonia the kings, and in Greece the archon Basileus dispensed justice in buildings of this description. The Romans, who adopted the basilica from the above-named countries, used it as a court of justice, but besides this it became a branch of the forum, and even when it did not form a part of the latter was constructed near it, as was the case at Pompeii. Fig. 71 represents the ground-plan of this basilica, and Fig. 70 a view of the same building restored. The ground-plan of the basilica is rectangular, the width not more than half nor less than a third of the length. It was divided by two single rows of columns into three naves, or aisles, and the tribunal of the judge was at one end of the centre aisle. In the centre of the tribunal was the curule chair of the prætor, and seats for the judices and advocates. Over each of the side aisles there was a gallery, from which shorter columns supported the roofs; these were connected by a parapet wall or balustrade. The central nave was open to the air. Under Constantine the basilicæ were adopted for Christian churches. The early Norman churches were built upon the same plan, and the circular apsis, where the judges originally sat, used for the central altar, was the origin of the apsidal termination of the Gothic cathedrals. The first basilica was built at Rome, B.C. 182. In the Middle Ages structures resembling small churches erected over tombs were called Basilica.

Basilidian Gems. (See Abraxas.)

Basilinda, Gr. and R. (βασιλίνδα). Literally, the game of the king; it was often played by Greek and Roman children. The king was appointed by lot, the rest being his subjects, and bound to obey him, during the game.

Fig. 72. Basilisk.

Basilisk. A fabulous animal, having the body of a cock, beak and claws of brass, and a triple serpent tail. The emblem of the Spirit of Evil. In heraldry, a cockatrice having its tail ending in a dragon’s head.

Basilium, Gr. (βασίλειον). A royal diadem, of a very tall form, of Egyptian origin. Isis-Fortuna is often represented wearing the basilium on her head.

Basinet. (See Bascinet.)

Basons for ecclesiastical ceremonies, for collecting alms or for holding the sacramental vessels, were a favourite subject for the goldsmith’s art. Some beautifully enamelled basons of the 13th century represent subjects of hawking and hunting, &c.

Bas-relief, Basso-relievo, sculptured figures projecting less than half of their true proportions; Mezzo-relievo projecting exactly half; Alto-relievo more than half, from the ground upon which they are carved.

Bassara or Bassaris, Gr. (a fox, or fox-skin). A long tunic of Lydian origin worn by the Mænads of Lydia and Thrace, who were often called, from this circumstance, Bassaræ and Bassarides.

Basterna, R. A closed litter appropriated especially to the use of ladies, as the Anthologia Latina says: “The gilded basterna conceals the chaste matrons.” It was carried by two mules harnessed in shafts, one in front and one behind; the Lectica (q.v.), on the contrary, was carried by men. During the Middle Ages the same form of litter was a common means of conveyance in England.

Fig. 73. Ground-plan of the Bastile.

Bastile, Arch. An outwork placed so as to defend the approach to a castle or fortified place. A famous Bastile which had been converted into a state prison was that of Paris, destroyed in 1789. Fig. 73 shows the ground-plan of it. The diminutive of this term is Bastillon, which has been changed into Bastion.

Bastion, Mod. A projecting polygonal buttress on a fortification. The anterior portions of a bastion are the faces; the lateral portions, the flanks; the space comprised between the two flanks, the gorge; and the part of the fortification connecting two bastions together, the curtain.

Bastisonus, Med. Lat. A bastion or bulwark.

Batagion or Batagium. (See Patagium.)

Fig. 74. Naval and Military Badge of the “Bath.”

Fig. 75. Civil Badge of the “Bath.”

Bath, Order of the, numbers 985 members, including the Sovereign; viz. First Class: Knights Grand Cross—G.C.B.—50 Naval and Military and 25 Civil Knights. Second Class: Knights Commanders—K.C.B.—120 Naval and Military and 50 Civil. Third Class: Companions—C.B.—525 Naval and Military and 200 Civil.

Batiaca or Batioca, Gr. and R. A vase of a very costly description, used as a drinking-vessel.

Batière, Fr., Arch. (See Saddle-roof.) A roof is said to be “en batière” when it is in the form of a pack-saddle; that is, when it has only two slopes or eaves, the two other sides being gables.

Batillum or Vatillum, R. (1) A hand-shovel used for burning scented herbs to fumigate. (2) Any kind of small shovel.

Baton. In heraldry, a diminutive of the BEND SINISTER couped at its extremities.

Baton. The military baton, or staff, was of Greek origin. (See Scytale.)

Batter, Arch. Said of walls that slope inwards from the base. Walls of wharfs and of fortifications generally batter.

Battle-axe is one of the most ancient of weapons. The pole-axe is distinguished by a spike on the back of the axe. (See Bipennis.)

Fig. 76. Embattled.

Battled, Embattled, Her. Having battlements.

Fig. 77. Battlement.

Battlement, Embattailment, Bateling, O. E. (Fr. Créneau, Merlet, Bretesse). A parapet in fortifications, consisting of a series of rising parts, called Merlons or Cops, separated by spaces called Crenels, Embrasures, or Loops.

Batuz. Norman French for battus, beaten with hammered up gold; said of silken stuffs so adorned.

Baucalia or Baucalis, Gr. and R. (βαυκάλιον, βαύκαλις). A drinking-vessel, which varied in shape and material.

Baucens, Bauceant, Med. A black and white banner used in the 13th century. (Meyrick.)

Baudekyn, O. E. A fabric of silk and gold thread.

Baudekyn (Lat. Baldakinus). Cloth of gold, brocade: “pannus omnium ditissimus.”

Baudrick or Baldrock, O. E., of a church bell. The strap by which the clapper is hung in the crown of the bell.

Baukides, Gr. (βαυκίδες). A kind of shoe worn by women; it was of a saffron colour. This elegantly-shaped shoe was highly esteemed by courtezans, who often placed cork soles inside their baukides, to make themselves appear taller.

Baxa or Baxea, Gr. Sandals made of textile plants, such as the palm, rush, willow, papyrus, and a kind of alfa. They were worn by comic actors on the stage.

Bay, Arch. (Fr. Travée). A principal compartment or division in a structure, marked off by buttresses or pilasters on the walls, or by the disposition of the vaulting, the main arches, &c. The French word baie means an opening made in a wall for a door or window.

Bayeux Tapestry. A roll of unbleached linen worked in coloured worsted with illustrations of the Norman Conquest (about A. D. 1068); preserved in the public library at Bayeux. A full-sized copy may be seen in the South Kensington Museum.

Bayle, Arch. The open space contained between the first and second walls of a fortified castle. These buildings often had two bayles; in this case, the second was contained between the inner wall and the donjon.

Bayonet. A weapon, so called after the town of Bayonne in France, where it was invented about A. D. 1650.

Bay-stall, Arch. The stall or seat in the bay (of a window).

Beads, Arch. An architectural ornament of mouldings consisting of small round carved beads, called also Astragal. Another name for this ornament is Paternosters.

Beaker (Fr. cornet). A trumpet-shaped vase, or drinking-cup.

Fig. 78. Moulding with Beak-heads and Tooth-ornament.

Beak-heads (Fr. becs d’oiseau), Mod. An ornament peculiar to English architecture, representing heads and beaks of birds. The ancient Peruvians used the same ornament in their architecture, as shown in Fig. 79, taken from the decoration of the monolithic door of Tianuaco.

Fig. 79. Peruvian ornament (Beak-heads).

Bear. Dancing bears are represented in Anglo-Saxon MSS.

Beards. (See barba.)

Beaver. The movable face-guard of a helmet.

Beds. Anglo-Saxon beds usually consisted merely of a sack (sæccing) filled with straw, and laid on a bench or board, which was ordinarily in a recess at the side of the room, as we still see in Scotland. The word bedstead means only “a place for a bed.” Tester beds, or beds with a roof, were introduced by the Normans. Early in the 13th century beds were covered much as now, with ‘quilte,’ counterpane, bolster, sheets, and coverlet; and stood behind curtains which hung from the ceiling. In the 15th century the beds became much more ornamental, having canopy and curtains, and these, as well as the tester or back, decorated with heraldic, religious, or other devices. At the sides were costers, or ornamental cloths. Between the curtains and the wall a space was left called the ruelle, or little street.

Beech Black. A blue-black vegetable pigment.

Bees, in Christian art, are an attribute of St. Ambrose.

Belfry (Fr. Beffroi). The campanile or bell-tower of a church. Frequently detached from the church, as at Chichester Cathedral. (See Bell-gable.)

Bell. An attribute of St. Anthony, referring to his power of exorcising evil spirits. In heraldry, the bell is drawn and blazoned as a church bell.

Bell-cot, Arch. A BELL-GABLE (q.v.).

Fig. 80. Belled.

Belled, Her. Having bells attached, like the cows in the device of the city of Béarn. (Fig. 80.)

Bell-gable, Arch. A turret raised over the west end of small churches and chapels that have no towers to hang a bell in. This is distinct from the smaller turret at the east end of the nave for the Sanctus Bell (q.v.).

Bellicrepa, Med. Lat. A military dance, of Italian origin.

Bellows were called in A.S. bælg or blastbælg. A MS. of the 14th century represents a man blowing at a three-legged caldron with a perfectly modern-looking pair of bellows. Bellows, in Christian art, are an attribute of Ste. Geneviève.

Bell-ring, Mod. The ring in the Crown of a bell from which the clapper hangs.

Bells on the caparisons of horses were common in the Middle Ages. A passage in the romance of Richard Cœur de Lion describes a messenger “with five hundred belles rygande.” Chaucer’s monk has also bells on his horse’s “bridel” which “gyngle as lowde as doth the chapel belle.”

Belt, Chr. A girdle used to confine the alb at the waist.

Belt of Beads, Chr. A rosary was sometimes so called.

Belvidere, It. A prospect tower over a building.

Bema, Gr. (1) A stone platform or hustings, used as a pulpit in early Christian churches. (2) The term is synonymous with sanctuary. (3) It also serves to denote an ambo and a bishop’s chair. (See Ambo.) The Athenian bema was a stone platform from which orators spoke at the assemblies (ecclesiæ) in the Pnyx.

Bembix, Gr. and R. (Lat. Turbo). (1) A child’s whipping-top. (2) The whorl of a spindle.

Benches, for seats, are represented in the 14th century formed by laying a plank upon two trestles.

Fig. 81. Bend. Arms of Le Scrope.

Bend, Her. One of the Ordinaries. It crosses the field diagonally, from the dexter chief to the sinister base, as in Fig. 81, the arms of Richard Le Scrope: Azure, a bend or.

Bendideia, Gr. (Βενδίδεια). A festival held in the Piræeus in honour of the goddess Bendis (the Thracian name of Artemis or Diana).

Bendlet, Her. The diminutive of Bend.

Bend-wise, or In bend, Her. Arranged in the direction of a bend.

Fig. 82. Bendy.

Bendy, Her. Parted bend-wise into an even number of divisions.

Benna, Gaul. and R. This term, borrowed either from the Welsh or the Gauls, denoted among the Romans a four-wheeled cart or carriage made of wicker-work. A benna may be seen on the bas-reliefs of the column of Marcus Aurelius.

Bennoŭ, Egyp. A mythical bird resembling the phœnix, which sprang from its own ashes, and was made the emblem of the resurrection. It symbolized the return of Osiris to the light, and was therefore consecrated to that god.

Benzoin. A gum-resin used as an ingredient in spirit varnishes.

Fig. 83. Berlin porcelain jug.

Berlin Porcelain. The manufactory was first founded in 1750, under Frederick the Great. Fig. 83 is a specimen of Berlin hard porcelain.

Beryl. A gem of an iridescent green colour.

Bes, R. (bi, twice, and as). A fraction of value equivalent to two-thirds of an as.

Besa, Gr. and R. A drinking-vessel, also called bessa and bession. It was wider at the bottom than at the top, and in shape much resembled the Bombylos (q.v.).

Bessa (Fr. beysse ferrée), Med. An instrument like a pickaxe or mattock used by the pioneers of an army; 15th century. (Meyrick.)

Bession. (See Besa.)

Bestions, Arch. This term is applied by Philibert Delorme to the fantastic animals which occur in sculptures of the decorative or florid period of architecture.

Beten, O. E. Embroidered with fancy subjects.

“A coronall on her hedd sett,
Her clothes with beasts and birdes were bete.”

Beveled, Arch. Having a sloped surface. (See Splay.)

Bever. A Norman word for “taking a drink” between breakfast and dinner; elsewhere called “a myd-diner under-mete.”

Fig. 84. Bezant.

Bezant, Her. A golden “roundle” or disk, flat like a coin.

Biacca, It. White carbonate of lead; a pigment.

Biblia, Med. Lat. A war engine for attack.

Bibliotheca, Gr. and R. (βιβλίον, book, and θήκη, case). Primarily the place where books were kept, and hence used for the collection of books or MSS. itself. The most celebrated library of antiquity was that founded by the Ptolemies at Alexandria, destroyed by the Arabs, A. D. 640.

Bibliothecula, Gr. and R. (dimin. of bibliotheca). A small library.

Bice. The name of certain very ancient blue and green pigments, known also as Mountain (or Saunders’) blue, and Mountain green, and by other names. (See Carbonates of Copper.)

Biclinium, Gr. and R. A couch or sofa on which two persons could recline at table.

Bicos, Gr. (See Bikos.)

Bidens, R. (dens, a tooth). Literally, with two teeth, forks, or blades. The term was applied to a hoe, a pair of scissors, and an anchor (ancora bidens). A two-forked weapon of the same name occurs in some representations of Pluto.

Bidental, R. (bidens). A structure consecrated by the augurs or haruspices, through the sacrifice of an animal. This was generally a sheep of two years old, whence the name bidens applied to the victim. The bidental was often an altar surrounded with a peristyle, as may be seen from the remains of one of them at Pompeii. A bidental was set up in any place which had been struck by lightning. A cippus or puteal placed on the exact spot which had been struck bore the inscription: Fulmen or fulgur conditum.

Bien-hoa or Ben-hoa, Hind. A kind of stone employed by the Khmers or ancient inhabitants of Camboja for their sculpture; they also called it baï-kriem (roasted rice), which it exactly resembles. Its deep yellow colour recalls in a striking degree that of old white marbles which have been long exposed to the sun and air in warm countries.

Fig. 85. Bifrons.

Bifrons, R. (frons, a forehead). Having two fronts or faces. Libraries and picture galleries generally contained statuary of heads or busts coupled together back to back, but especially of Janus, emblematic of his knowledge both of the past and the future. The illustration represents a Greek vase, in imitation of the statuary described.

Biga, R. (bi and juga, double-yoked). A car drawn by two horses. Bigæ also denoted, like bijugus or bijugis, two horses harnessed together. [The Greeks called this method “Synoris.”]

Bigatus, R. (sc. nummus). A silver denarius (one of the earliest Roman coins) which had a BIGA on the reverse. Other denarii were quadrigati, having a four-horse chariot on the reverse.

Biggon, O. E. “A kind of quoif formerly worn by men;” hence “Béguines,” the nuns at the Béguinage at Ghent, who still wear the biggon.

Bikos, Gr. and R. A large earthenware vase adapted to hold dry provisions, such as figs, plums, &c.

Bilanx, R. (double-dish). A balance with two scales. (See Libra.)

Bilbo. A light rapier invented at Bilboa.

Bilix, R. (double-thread). A texture like “twill,” or “dimity,” made by a double set of leashes (licia).

Fig. 86. Bill-head.

Bill, O. E. A weapon made of a long staff with a broad curved blade, a short pike at the back, and a pike at the top, used by infantry of the 14th and 15th centuries. (Fig. 86.)

Billet, Her. A small oblong figure.

Billet, Arch. A moulding of the Roman epoch, consisting of short rods separated from each other by a space equal to their own length. Some billets are arranged in several rows.

Bilychnis, Gr. and R. A double lamp with two beaks and two wicks, so as to give out two separate flames.

Binio, R. A gold coin current at Rome. It was worth two aurei or fifty silver denarii. (See Aureus.)

Bipalium, R. A spade, furnished with a cross-bar, by pressing the foot on which the instrument could be pushed into the ground. Representations of this tool occur pretty frequently on tombs.

Fig. 87. Bipennis.

Bipennis or Bipenne, Gen. (penna, a wing). An axe with a double blade or edge, used as an agricultural implement, an adze, or a military weapon. The Greeks, who called it βουπλὴξ, never made use of it. It was used especially by barbarous nations, such as the Amazons, Scythians, Gauls, &c. Fig. 87 represents a Gaulish bipennis taken from one of the bas-reliefs on the triumphal arch at Orange.

Bird, in Egyptian hieroglyphics, signified the soul of man, and in Christian art had originally a similar meaning afterwards forgotten.

Bird-bolt. A short thick arrow, with a blunt head, about the breadth of a shilling.

Biremis, R. (remus, an oar). A pair-oared boat, or a vessel having two banks of oars.

Fig. 88. Biretta. (Portrait of a Rector of Padua.)

Biretta, It. A cap. In its restricted meaning the term is applied to that worn by priests and academical persons. The illustration shows the state costume of the Rector of the University of Padua, who wears a sacerdotal biretta.

Birotus and Birota, R. (rota, a wheel). Anything having two wheels, and so a two-wheeled carriage, car, or chariot.

Birrus and Byrrus, R. A russet-coloured capote with a hood. It was made of a coarse cloth (bure) with a long nap. Such was, at first, the meaning of the term, but in course of time birri of a fine quality were made.

Bisaccium (It. bisacce). Saddle-bags of coarse sacking.

Biscuit, Fr. A kind of porcelain, unglazed. The finest is the so called Parian porcelain.

Bisellium, R. (sella, a seat). A seat of honour or state chair, reserved for persons of note, or who had done service to the state. There was room on the seat for two persons.

Bishop’s Length. Technical name for a portrait-canvas of 58 inches by 94 inches.

Bismuth. The pigment, called pearl white, which is the sub-nitrate of this metal, is very susceptible to the action of sulphurous vapours, which turn it black.

Bisomus, Chr. A sarcophagus with two compartments; that is, capable of holding two dead bodies. (See Sarcophagus.)

Bistre. A warm brown water-colour-pigment, made of the soot of beech-wood, water, and gum. It is the mediæval fuligo and fuligine.

Biting-in. The action of aqua fortis upon copper or steel in engraving.

Bitumen. This pigment should be genuine Asphaltum, diluted and ground up with drying oil or varnish. It dries quickly. There is a substance sold as bitumen which will not dry at all. (See Asphaltum.)

Bivium, R. (via, a way). A street or road branching out into two different directions; at the corner there was almost always a fountain.

Bizarre, Fr. Fantastic, capricious of kind.

Black is the resultant of the combination in unequal proportions of blue, red, and yellow.

Black, in Christian art, expressed the earth; darkness, mourning, wickedness, negation, death; and was appropriate to the Prince of Darkness. White and black together signify purity of life, and mourning or humiliation; hence adopted by the Dominicans and Carmelites. In blazonry, black, called sable, signifies prudence, wisdom, and constancy in adversity and love, and is represented by horizontal and perpendicular lines crossing each other.

Black Pigments are very numerous, of different degrees of transparency, and of various hues, in which either red or blue predominates, producing brown blacks or blue blacks. The most important are beech black, or vegetable blue black; bone black, or Paris black, called also ivory black; Cassel or Cologne black, cork black, Frankfort black, and lamp-black. (See Asphaltum.)

Blades, Arch. The principal rafters of a roof.

Blasted, Her. Leafless, withered.

Blautai, Gr. (Lat. soleæ). A richly-made shoe; a kind of sandal worn by men.

Blazon, Her. Armorial compositions. To blazon is to describe or to represent them in an heraldic manner. The representation is called Blazonry. For example, the blazoning of the BADGES on the cornice of King Henry’s chantry in Westminster Abbey is as follows:—On the dexter, a white antelope, ducally collared, chained, and armed or; and on the sinister a swan gorged with a crown and chain. The beacon or cresset or, inflamed proper. (See Fig. 54.)

Blending. Passing over painting with a soft brush of badger’s hair made for the purpose, by which the pigments are fused together and the painting softened.

Blindman’s Buff. Called “hoodman-blind,” temp. Elizabeth.

Blind-story, Arch. The TRIFORIUM in a church. Opposed to the CLEAR or CLERESTORY (q.v.).

Blocking-course, Arch. The last course in a wall, especially of a parapet. The surface is made slightly convex to allow of water flowing off more easily.

Blodbendes (O. E. for blood-bands). Narrow strips of linen to bind round the arm after bleeding.

Blodius, O. E. Sky-blue.

Bloom. The clouded appearance which varnish sometimes takes upon the surface of a picture.

Blue. One of the three primary colours, the complementary to orange. Blue, in Christian art, or the sapphire, expressed heaven, the firmament, truth, constancy, fidelity. Its symbolism as the dress worn by the Virgin Mary is of modesty. In blazonry it signifies chastity, loyalty, fidelity, and good reputation. Engravers represent it by horizontal lines.

Blue Black, or Charcoal Black, is a pigment prepared by burning vine-twigs in close vessels. Mixed with white lead it yields very fine silvery greys. (See also Black Pigments.)

Blue Pigments. Minerals:—see Ultramarine, Cobalt, Blue Verditer. Vegetable:—Indigo. Animal:—Prussian blue. (See Carbonate of Copper, Intense Blue.)

Blue Verditer. (See Verditer.)

Figs. 89, 90. Boars. Gallic ensigns.

Boar. In mediæval art, emblem of ferocity and sensuality. In heraldry the boar is called Sanglier. The military ensigns of the Gauls were surmounted by figures of the wild boar.

Boclerus, Med. Lat. A buckler; 14th century. The word is derived from the German Bock, a goat. Compare Ægis.

Bodkin, Saxon. A dagger, a hair-pin, a blunt flat needle.

“With bodkins was Cæsar Julius
Murdred at Rome, of Brutus, Cassius.”
(The Serpent of Division, 1590.)

“He pulls her bodkin that is tied in a piece of black ribbon.” (The Parson’s Wedding, 1663.)

The Latin name for this classical head-dress was acus.

Body Colour. In speaking of oil colours the term applies to their solidity, or degree of opacity; water-colour painting is said to be in body colours when the pigments are laid on thickly, or mixed with white, as in oil painting.

Boedromia, Gr. and R. A festival instituted in honour of Apollo the Helper—βοηδρόμος. It was held at Athens on the sixth day of September, a month thence called Boedromion.

Bohemian Glass. The manufacture of a pure crystal glass well adapted for engraving became an important industry in Germany about the year 1600, and the art of engraving was admirably developed during the century. Of Johann Schapper, especially, Jacquemart says that he produced “subjects and arabesques of such delicacy of execution that at first sight they seemed merely like a cloud on the glass.”

Bohordamentum, Med. Lat. A joust with mock lances called “bouhours.”

Bojæ, R. (bos, an ox). (1) A heavy collar of wood or iron for dangerous dogs. (2) A similar collar placed round the necks of criminals or slaves.

Boletar, R. A dish on which mushrooms (boleti) were served, and thence transferred to dishes of various forms.

Bolevardus, Med. Lat. A boulevard or rampart.

Bombard, O. E. A machine for projecting stones or iron balls; the precursor of the cannon. First used in the 14th century.

Fig. 91. Bombards worn by King James I. of England.

Bombards, O. E. Padded breeches. In Elizabeth’s reign the breeches, then called Bombards, were stuffed so wide that a gallery or scaffold was erected to accommodate members of Parliament who wore them. The engraving shows James I. (painted 1614) attired for hawking. (Fig. 91.)

Bombax, O. E. The stuff now called Bombasin. “A sort of fine silk or cotton cloth well known upon the continent during the 13th century.” (Strutt.)

Bombé, Fr. Curved furniture, introduced in the 18th century.

Bombulom or Bunibulum, O. E. (from the Greek βόμβος, a hollow deep sound). A musical instrument consisting of an angular frame with metal plates, which sounded when shaken like the sistrum of the Egyptians.

Bombylos and Bombylê, Gr. and R. A vase so called from the gurgling noise which the liquid makes in pouring out through its narrow neck.

Bone Black. (See Ivory Black.)

Book. In mediæval art an attribute of the fathers of the Church; in the hands of evangelists and apostles it represents the Gospel. St. Boniface carries a book pierced with a sword. St. Stephen, St. Catherine, St. Bonaventura, and St. Thomas Aquinas also carry books.

Bordure, Her. A border to a shield.

Boreasmos, Gr. A festival held at Athens in honour of Boreas, the god of the north wind.

Borto or Burdo, Med. Lat. A lance.

Boss. The centre of a shield; also an architectural ornament for ceilings, put where the ribs of a vault meet, or in other situations.

Fig. 92. Greek Bossage.

Fig. 93. Bossage.

Bossage, Arch. An arrangement of plain or ornamental projections on the surface of a wall of dressed masonry. Figs. 92 and 93 represent two Greek walls finished in this manner.

Boston, O. E. A flower so called.

Botéga, It. A manufactory or artist’s workshop where pottery is made.

Fig. 94. Botonée Fitchée.

Botonée, Fitchée, Her. Varieties of the heraldic cross, called also treflée. (Fig. 94.)

Fig. 95. Coffee-pot of Bottcher Ware.

Bottcher Ware. Early Dresden pottery. (1) A very hard red stone-ware, made of a red clay of Okrilla, invented at Meissen by John Frederick Bottcher. (2) Porcelain. Bottcher, finding his wig very heavy one day, examined the powder upon it, and discovered it to be the fine kaolin of Aue, from which the Dresden (or Meissen) china is made. Bottcher’s first object was to obtain a paste as white and as perfect as that of the Corea; he succeeded at his first trial, and produced pieces with archaic decoration so perfectly imitated, that one would hesitate to declare them European.

Fig. 96. Bottle-mouldings.

Bottle, Boutell, Bowtell, or Boltell, Arch. An old English term for a bead moulding; also for small shafts of clustered columns resting against the pillars of a nave, in the Romano-Byzantine and Gothic periods. These shafts spring from the ground and rise to the height of the bend of the roof, the diagonal ribs of which they receive on coupled columns. Probably from bolt, an arrow.

Fig. 97. Water Bouget.

Bougets or Water Bougets, Fr., were pouches of leather, which were used by the Crusaders for carrying water in the deserts. Fig. 97 is a heraldic representation of the coat of arms of De Ros.

Boulé, Bouleuterion, Gr. An assembly composed of the foremost men of the nation. It was a kind of senate or higher council which deliberated on the affairs of the republic. The popular assembly, on the other hand, composed of all the males of free birth, was called agora, and was held in a place called by the same name. (See Agora.)

Boule. A peculiar kind of marquetry, composed of tortoise-shell and thin brass, to which are sometimes added ivory and enamelled metal. Named from its inventor, André Charles Boule, born 1642.

Boulting-mill. A mill for winnowing the flour from the bran (crusca); the device of the Academy of La Crusca. (See Crusca.)

Bourdon. A pilgrim’s staff. On the walls of Hôtel Cluny, at Paris, the pilgrim’s bourdon and cockle-shells are sculptured. Piers Plowman describes a pilgrim’s

burdoun y-bounde
With a broad liste, in a withwynde wise
Y-wounden about.”

Bourginot. A close helmet of the 15th century, first used in Burgundy.

Fig. 98. Bourgogne Point Lace.

Bourgogne, Point de, is a beautifully fine and well-finished pillow lace resembling old Mechlin. No record remains of its manufacture. (Fig. 98.)

Bovile. (See Bubile.)

Bow. Represented in the most ancient monuments. In classical art an attribute of Apollo, Cupid, Diana, Hercules, and the Centaurs.

Bow, Arch., O. E. A flying buttress, or arch-buttress.

Bowed, Her. Having a convex contour.

Bower or Bowre, O. E. The Anglo-Saxon name for a bed-chamber, “bird in bure” = a lady in her chamber. The bed-chambers were separate buildings grouped round or near the central hall.

“Up then rose fair Annet’s father,
Twa hours or it wer day,
And he is gane into the bower
Wherein fair Annet lay.”
(Percy Ballads.)

Bowls of metal, generally bronze or copper, found in early Anglo-Saxon barrows or graves, are probably of Roman workmanship. Some beautiful buckets (A.S. bucas) were made of wood, generally of ash, whence they had another name æscen. They are ornamented with designs, and figures of animals, and were probably used at festivities to contain ale or mead.

Bowtell or Boutell, Arch. (See Bottle.)

Brabeum, Brabium, or Bravium, Gr. (βραβεῖον, from βραβεὺς, judge). Three terms denoting the prize assigned to the victor in the public games.

Fig. 99. Figures with Braccæ.

Braccæ, Bracæ, or Bragæ (Celtic breac). Trousers worn principally by barbarous nations, such as the Amazons, Gauls, Persians, and Scythians. Anaxyrides was the name given to close-fitting trousers, braccæ laxæ to wider pantaloons, such as those worn by the Gaul in the left-hand corner of Fig. 99, from a bas-relief taken from the sarcophagus of the vigna Ammendola. The braccæ virgatæ were striped pantaloons worn especially by Asiatics; braccæ picta, variegated or embroidered trousers. (See Breeches.)

Fig. 100. Three diamond rings interlaced.

Braced or Brazed, Her. Interlaced, as in the illustration of the arms of Cosmo, the founder of the Medici family. (Fig. 100.) (See also the illustration to Fret.)

Bracelet. Bracelets were, among the ancients, a symbol of marriage. (See Armilla.)

Bracelets. (See Periscelis.)

Brachiale, R. (brachium, the arm). An armlet, or piece of defensive armour covering the brachium or forearm. It was worn by gladiators in the circus. Some beautifully ornamented specimens were found among the excavations at Pompeii.

Brackets, Arch., in mediæval architecture, are usually called Corbels. (See Fig. 5.)

Braconniere, O. E. A skirt of armour, worn hanging from the breast and back plates; 16th century.

Bractea or Brattea, R. Leaves of metal, especially of gold, beaten out.

Braga, Bragæ. (See Braccæ.)

Bragamas, O. E. (See Braquemard.) “Un grant coustel, que l’en dit bragamas;” 14th cent.

Braggers, O. E. An obsolete term for timber Brackets.

Brake, O. E. A quern or hand-mill.

Brand, A.S. A torch; hence, from its shining appearance, a sword. (Meyrick.)

Brandrate, O. E. An iron tripod fixed over the fire, on which to set a pot or kettle.

Braquemard, O. E. A kind of sabre—“un grant coustel d’Alemaigne, nommé braquemart;” 14th century.

Brass, Gen. An alloy made by mixing copper with tin, or else with zinc or silver. Another name for it is Bronze (q.v.). Corinthian brass is very celebrated, but little is known of its composition even at the present day. Mosaic gold, pinchbeck, prince’s metal, &c., are varieties of brass differing in the proportions of the ingredients. Brass beaten into very thin leaves is called Dutch Metal.

Fig. 101. Brassart.

Brassart. Plate armour for the arm. (Fig. 101.)

Brasses. Engraved metal plates inlaid in the pavements or walls of churches as monuments. The material was called cullen (or Cologne) plate. The engravings were made black with mastic or bitumen, and the field or background was coarsely enamelled in various colours.

Brattach, Celtic. A standard; literally, a cloth.

Braunshid, O. E. Branched.

Breadth “in painting is a term which denotes largeness, space, vastness,” &c. (Consult J. B. Pyne “On the Nomenclature of Pictorial Art,” Art Union, 1843.)

Breccia, It. A conglomerate used by the ancients in architecture and sculpture.

Breeches (breac Celtic, braccæ Lat.). The word breeches in its present acceptance was first used towards the end of the 16th century; previously, breeches were called hose, upper socks, and slop. (See Bombards and Braccæ.)

Bremen Green. (See Verditer.)

Breys, Her. (See Barnacles.)

Bridges, O. E. A kind of satin manufactured at Bruges.

Fig. 102. Bridle-device of the Arbusani.

Bridle. A favourite Scriptural emblem of self-restraint and self-denial. The illustration is the device of Benedetto Arbusani of Padua; with the motto which, according to Epictetus, contains every essential to human happiness. (Fig. 102.) (See “Historic Devices.”)

Broach or Broch, O. E. A church spire, or any sharp-pointed object, was frequently so called.

Fig. 103. Broad arrow.

Broad Arrow, now used as the Royal mark on all Government stores, &c., was first employed as a regal badge by Richard I. (Fig. 103.)

Fig. 104. Gold Brocade State or “Ducal” costume of the Dogeressa of Venice.

Brocade. A stout silken stuff of variegated pattern. Strutt says it was composed of silk interwoven with threads of gold and silver. The state or “ducal” costume of the Dogeressa of Venice, represented in the illustration, consisted principally of an ample robe of the finest gold brocade, lined with ermine. (Figs. 88, 104.)

Broella. Coarse cloth worn by monks in the Middle Ages.

Bromias, Gr. A drinking-vessel of wood, or silver, resembling a large Scyphus (q.v.).

Bronze. Antique bronze was composed of tin and copper; the modern bronze contains also zinc and lead, by which the fluidity is increased, and the brittleness diminished.

Bronzes (ancient Chinese) are rarely seen out of the province of Fokien. The lines of metal are small and delicate, and are made to represent flowers, trees, animals of various kinds, and sometimes Chinese characters. Some fine bronzes, inlaid with gold, are met with in this province. As a general rule, Chinese bronzes are more remarkable for their peculiar and certainly not very handsome form than for anything else.

Bronzing. The art of laying a coating of bronze powder on wood, gypsum, or other material. Another method is the electrotype process. (Consult Walker’s Electrotype Manipulation.)

Figs. 105 to 112. Gallic and Merovingian brooches.

Brooch. (See Fibula.) Anglo-Saxon and Irish specimens of magnificent workmanship are described in the Archæological Album. In the Middle Ages brooches bore quaint inscriptions: Chaucer’s “prioress” wore

a broche of gold ful shene,
On which was first y-wretten a crouned A,
And after, Amor vincit omnia.”

Leather brooches for hats are mentioned by Dekker in Satiromastix, 1602. Figs. 105, 106, 107 represent different brooches found in France of the Gallic and Merovingian periods. (Compare Fibula, Phaleræ.)

Fig. 113. Gallic brooch.

Brown, in Egyptian art, was the colour consecrated to Typhon; in ancient times it was the sign of mourning. Regarded as a compound of red and black, Bistre, it is the symbol of all evil deeds and treason. In a monastic costume it signifies renunciation. With the Moors it was emblematic of all evil. Christian symbolism appropriates the colour of the dead leaf for the type of “spiritual death,” &c. (Consult Portal, Essai sur les Couleurs symboliques.)

Brown Madder. (See Madder.)

Brown Ochre. A strong, dark, yellow, opaque pigment. (See Ochres.)

Brown Pigments are asphaltum, bistre, umber, sienna, Mars brown, Cassel earth, Cappagh brown, brown madder, and burnt terra verde;—chiefly calcined earths. (See also Indigo.)

Brown Pink (Fr. stil de grain). A vegetable yellow pigment. (See Pinks.)

Brown Red is generally made from burnt yellow ochre, or Roman ochre, or from calcined sulphate of iron. (See Mars.)

Brunswick Green. A modification of Mountain Green (q.v.).

Bruny, Byrne, or Byrnan. Saxon for a breastplate or cuirass, called by the Normans “broigne.”

Brushes. (See Hair Pencils.)

Fig. 114. Brussels Lace.

Brussels Point à l’Aiguille differs somewhat from the lace usually known as Brussels Lace or Point d’Angleterre, but resembles Point d’Alençon in the réseau ground. (Fig. 114.) (See Point d’Angleterre.)

Buccina (Gr. βυκάνη). A kind of trumpet anciently made of a conch-shell, represented in the hands of Tritons.

Buccula, R. (bucca, a cheek). The chin-piece or cheek-piece of a helmet, which could be raised or lowered by the soldier at will.

Bucentaur. A monster, half man and half ox. The name of the Venetian state galley.

Buckets, Anglo-Saxon. (See Bowls.)

Fig. 115. Heraldic buckle.

Buckle, Her. The crest of the Pelham family, now represented by the Earls of Chichester. It is a common ornament of ecclesiastical buildings, houses, and other objects in Sussex. (Fig. 115.)

Buckler. (See Clipeus and Scutum.)

Buckram. A cloth stiffened with gum, so called from Bokhara, where it was originally made.

Fig. 116. Bucranium.

Bucranium, R. (βουκράνιον). An ox’s head from which the flesh has been stripped; an ox-skull employed in the decoration of friezes by Greek and Roman architects. Fig. 116 represents a bucranium in the temple of Vespasian at Rome.

Budge, O. E. Lambskin with the wool dressed outwards. Mentioned by Chaucer.

Buffett-stoole, O. E. A stool with three legs.

Buffin, O. E. Coarse cloth of Elizabeth’s time.

Bugles, O. E. Glass beads in the hair, temp. Elizabeth and James I.

Buldiellus, Med. Lat. A baudric.

Bulga, R. A purse or leathern bag for money which was carried on the arm. According to Festus the word is of Gallic origin.

Fig. 117. Bulla (on a door).

Bulla, R. (bullo, to bubble). A term denoting objects of various kinds, but all more or less approximating in shape to a water-bubble. The heads of certain nails were called bullæ; Fig. 117 shows one of the bullæ decorating an ancient bronze door in the Pantheon at Rome. The bulla aurea was an ornament of globular shape, worn round the neck by children of patrician family. The bulla scortea was an ornament made of leather, worn by freedmen or individuals of the lower orders.

Bulting-pipe, O. E. A bolting-cloth for sifting meal.

Bullula, R. (bulla). Diminutive of Bulla (q.v.).

Bur. A term in etching for the rough edge of a line, commonly removed, but by Rembrandt and other great masters made effective.

Burdalisaunder, Bourde de Elisandre. Burda, a stuff for clothing (mentioned in the 4th century) from Alexandria. A silken web in different coloured stripes; 14th century.

Burgau. A univalve shell, Turbo marmoratus, producing a mother-of-pearl; and hence all works in mother-of-pearl, of whatever material, are called “burgau.” (Jacquemart.)

Burin. An instrument for engraving on copper.

Burnisher. A steel instrument used by engravers to soften lines or efface them. An agate is used to burnish gold.

Burnt Sienna. (See Sienna.)

Burnt Terra Verde. (See Green Earth.)

Burnt Umber. (See Umber.)

Burr, O. E. (1) The broad iron ring on a tilting-lance, just below the gripe, to prevent the hand slipping back. (2) Projecting defences at the front of a saddle. (Meyrick.) (3) The rough edge produced on the metal by an incised or etched line in an engraving.

Buskin. (See Cothurnus.)

Bustum, R. (buro, to burn). An open spot upon which a pyre was raised for burning the corpse of a person of distinction. When the area adjoined the burying-ground, it was called bustum; when it was separate from it, it was called ustrina.

Fig. 118. Arch-buttress.

Buttress, Arch. An abutment employed to increase the solidity or stability of a wall; it may either immediately abut on the wall, or be connected with it by a flying or arch-buttress (Fig. 118). In the Romano-Byzantine and lanceolated styles buttresses are largely employed to strengthen the walls of naves which have to support high vaulted roofs.

Buxum, R. (πύξος). Box, an evergreen, the wood of which was used for various purposes, as with us. By analogy, the term buxum was applied to objects made of this wood, such as combs, flutes, children’s shoes, and waxed tablets for writing.

Buzo, O. E. The arrow for an arquebus, or cross-bow. French, boujon: “a boult, an arrow with a great or broad head.” (Cotgrave.)

Byrrus. (See Birrus.)

Byssus, Gr. and R. (βύσσος). The precise meaning of this term is unknown; there is no doubt it was a texture made of some very costly material, since we learn from Pliny that the byssus cloth which he calls linum byssinum was exceedingly dear. Everything leads us to suppose that it was a linen material of the finest quality. This opinion would seem to be confirmed by Herodotus and Æschylus. The word comes from the Hebrew butz.

Fig. 120. Byzantine ornament on an English font.

Fig. 119. Byzantine Font.

Fig. 121. Roman-Byzantine Cross at Carew.

Byzantine Period. Time, about 6th to 12th century A. D. (Byzantium, the Latin name of Constantinople.) Byzantine Architecture is noteworthy for a bold development of the plan of Christian places of worship. It introduced the cupola, or dome, which was often surrounded by semi-domes; an almost square ground-plan in place of the long aisles of the Roman church; and piers instead of columns. The apse always formed part of Byzantine buildings, which were richly decorated, and contained marble in great profusion. St. Sophia, Constantinople (A. D. 532–537), is the finest example of Byzantine architecture. St. Mark’s, Venice (A. D. 977), and the Cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle (A. D. 796–804), are also of pure Byzantine style. Byzantine Painting was that which succeeded the decline of the early Christian Art in the catacombs and basilicas of Rome, and which preceded and foreshadowed the Renaissance of Art in Italy. In style it was based on that of the catacombs, but with a reminiscence of the excellence of ancient Greece; it was, however, restrained and kept within narrow limits by the conventionalities which were imposed upon it by the Church, and which almost reduced it to a mechanical art. The mosaics of the 10th and 11th centuries in St. Mark’s, Venice, are perhaps the best existing examples of the Byzantine period. Specimens are also to be seen in St. Sophia, Constantinople; and at Ravenna.

C.

Caaba, Arabic (lit. square house). The sacred mosque at Mecca. The temple is an almost cubical edifice, whence its name. It is a favourite subject of representation upon Mussulman works of art.

Caballaria, Cavalherium, hevallerie (Gr. κλῆρος ἱππικὸς), Med. A meadow set apart for military exercises.

Caballerius, Med. Lat. A cavalier, or knight.

Cabeiri were the personification of the element of fire. The precise nature attributed to them is unknown. There were two principal branches of their worship, the Pelasgian and the Phœnician. It is probable that this religion originated in Asia Minor, and penetrated to the island of Samothrace, in remote antiquity; it was very popular throughout Greece in the Pelasgic period. The principal temples were at Samothrace, Lemnos, Imbros, Anthedon, and other places.

Cabeiria, Gr. (καβείρια). Annual festivals in honour of the Cabeiri. (See Thronismus.)

Cabinet Pictures. Small, highly-finished pictures, suited for a small room.

Fig. 122. Cable and tooth-mouldings.

Cabling, or Cable-moulding. A moulding in Roman architecture, made in imitation of a thick rope or cable.

Fig. 123. Lion’s head cabossed.

Cabossed, Her. Said of the head of an animal represented full-face, so as to show the face only. (Fig. 123.)

Cabulus, Med. Latin (Old French, chaable). A machine for hurling stones; a large BALLISTA.

Caccabus, Gr. and R. (κάκκαβος or κακκάβη). A sort of pot or vessel for cooking any kind of food. It was made of bronze, silver, or earthenware, and assumed a variety of forms; but the one in ordinary use resembled an egg with an opening at the top which closed by a lid. The caccabus rested upon a trivet (tripus).

Cadafalsus, Cadafaudus. (See Cagasuptus.)

Cadas, O. E. An inferior silken stuff used for wadding; 13th century.

Cadency, Her. Figures and devices, by which different members and branches of a family are distinguished.

Cadet, Her. Junior.

Cadlys-drain, Welsh. Chevaux-de-frise.

Cadmium Yellow is the sulphide of cadmium, the finest and most permanent of all the yellow pigments in use.

Cadpen, Welsh. A chief of battle; captain.

Cadrelli, Med. Lat. Cross-bow quarrels. (See Carreaux.)

Cādūceus or Caduceum. A wand of laurel or olive, given by Apollo to Mercury in exchange for the lyre invented by the latter. Mercury, it is said, seeing two snakes struggling together, separated them with his wand, whereupon the snakes immediately twined themselves round it. This was the origin of the caduceus, as we know it; it was always an attribute of Mercury, who thence obtained his name of Caducifer, or caduceus-bearer. The caduceus was an emblem of peace.

Cadurcum, R. This term is applied to two distinct things: (1) the fine linen coverlets, and (2) the earthenware vases, manufactured by the Cadurci, or Gauls inhabiting the district now called Cahors.

Cadus, Gr. and R. (from χανδάνω, to contain), (1) A large earthenware jar, used for the same purposes as the amphora; especially to hold wine. An ordinary cadus was about three feet high, and broad enough in the mouth to allow of the contents being baled out. (2) The ballot-urn in which the Athenian juries recorded their votes with pebbles, at a trial.

Cælatura (cælum, a chisel). A general term for working in metal by raised work or intaglio, such as engraving, carving, chasing, riveting, soldering, smelting, &c. Greek, the toreutic art. Similar work on wood, ivory, marble, glass, or precious stones was called Sculptura.

Cæmenticius, Cæmenticia (structura). A kind of masonry formed of rough stones. There were two methods of construction to which this name applied. The first, called cæmenticia structura incerta, consisted in embedding stones of more or less irregular shape in mortar, so as to give them any architectural form, and then covering the whole over with cement. The second, called cæmenticia structura antiqua, consisted in laying rough stones one on the top of the other, without mortar, the interstices being filled by drippings or smaller stones.

Cæmentum. Unhewn stones employed in the erection of walls or buildings of any kind.

Caer, British (Lat. castrum; Saxon, chester). A camp or fortress.

Cæsaries (akin to Sanscrit keça, hair, or to cæsius, bluish-grey). This term is almost synonymous with Coma (q.v.), but there is also implied in it an idea of beauty and profusion, not attaching to coma, which is the expression as well for an ordinary head of hair.

Cæstus, Cestus. A boxing gauntlet. It consisted of a series of leather thongs, armed with lead or metal bosses, and was fitted to the hands and wrists.

Cætra. (See Cetra.)

Cagasuptus, Med. Lat. A CHAT-FAUX, or wooden shed, under which the soldiers carried on the operations of attack. (Meyrick.)

Cailloutage, Fr. Fine earthenware; pipe-clay; a kind of hard paste; opaque pottery. “Fine earthenware is most frequently decorated by the ‘muffle;’ the oldest specimens, those made in France in the 16th century, are ornamented by incrustation.” (Jacquemart.)

Cairelli, Med. Lat. (See Cadrelli.)

Cairn. A heap of stones raised over a grave, to which friends as they pass add a stone. The custom still prevails in Scotland and Ireland.

Caisson, Arch. A sunken panel in a ceiling or soffit. (See Coffer.)

Calamarius (calamus, q.v.). A case for carrying writing-reeds (calami). Another name for this case was theca calamaria.

Calamister and Calamistrum. A curling-iron, so named because the interior was partly hollow like a reed (calamus), or perhaps because in very early times a reed heated in the ashes was employed for the purpose; hence, Calamistratus, an effeminate man, or discourse. (Compare Ciniflo.)

Calamus (κάλαμος, a reed or cane). A haulm, reed, or cane. The term was applied to a variety of objects made out of reeds, such as a Pan’s pipe, a shepherd’s flute (tibia), a fishing-rod (piscatio), a rod tipped with lime, for fowling, &c. (See Arundo.) It was specially used, however, to denote a reed cut into proper shape, and used as a pen for writing.

Calantica. (See Calautica.)

Fig. 124. Calash.

Calash (Fr. calèche). A hood made like that of the carriage called in France calèche, whence its name. It is said to have been introduced into England in 1765 by the Duchess of Bedford, and was used by ladies to protect their heads when dressed for the opera or other entertainments.

Calathiscus (καλαθίσκος). A small wicker basket.

Calathus (κάλαθος, a basket; Lat. qualus or quasillus). A basket made of rushes or osiers plaited, employed for many purposes, but above all as a woman’s work basket. The calathus was the emblem of the γυναικεῖον or women’s apartments, and of the housewife who devoted herself to domestic duties. The same term denoted earthenware or metal vases of various shapes; among others a drinking-cup.

Calautica or Calvatica, R. (Gr. κρήδεμνον, from κρὰς and δέω; fastened to the head). A head-dress worn by women; the Greek MITRA (q.v.).

Calcar (calx, the heel). A spur. It was also called calcis aculeus (lit. heel-goad), a term specially applied to the spur of a cock. The latter, however, was just as often called calcar. In mediæval Latin calcaria aurea are the golden, or gilt, spurs which were a distinctive mark of knighthood; calcaria argentea, the silver spurs worn only by esquires. Calcaria amputari, to hack off the spurs, when a knight was degraded:—

“Li esperons li soit copé parmi
Prés del talon au branc acier forbi.”
(Roman de Garin MS.)

Calcatorium (calco, to tread under foot). A raised platform of masonry, set up in the cellar where the wine was kept (cella vinaria), and raised above the level of the cellar-floor, to a height of three or four steps. On either side of this platform were ranged the casks (dolia) or large earthenware vessels in which the wine was made. The calcatorium served as a receptacle for the grapes when crushed (whence its name), and as a convenient place from whence to superintend the making of the wine.

Calceamen. Synonym of Calceus (q.v.), a term far more frequently employed.

Calceamentum. A general term denoting any description of boot and shoe. (Each will be found separately noticed in its place.)

Calcedony or Chalcedony (from the town Chalcedon). A kind of agate, of a milky colour, diversified with yellow, bluish, or green tints. The Babylonians have left us a large number of chalcedony cylinders, covered with inscriptions. (See also Agate, Cameos.)

Calceolus (dimin. of Calceus, q.v). A small shoe or ankle-boot worn by women. There were three kinds: the first had a slit over the instep, which was laced up when the boot was on. A second shape had a very wide opening, and could be fastened above the ankle by a string passed through a hem round the top. In the third description there was neither cord, lace, nor slit. The shoe was always low in the heel, and was worn like a slipper.

Calceus (calx, the heel). A shoe or boot made sufficiently high to completely cover the foot. The Romans put off their shoes at table; hence calceos poscere meant “to rise from table.”

Calculus (dimin. of calx, a small stone or counter). A pebble, or small stone worn by friction to present the appearance of a pebble. Calculi were used in antiquity for recording votes (for which purpose they were thrown into the urn), for reckoning, and for mosaic paving (hence the English word “calculation”).

Caldarium (calidus, warm). The apartment in a set of Roman baths which was used as a kind of sweating-room. This chamber, which is constructed nearly always on the same plan in the different baths which have been discovered, included a Laconicum, a Labrum, a Sudatorium, and an Alveus. (See these words.) Fig. 56 (on p. 32) represents a portion of the caldarium of Pompeii, restored.

Caldas Porcelain is from the Portuguese factory of that name, specialized for faiences in relief; the greater number are covered with a black coating; the others with the customary enamels of the country, violet, yellow, and green.

Caldron, for domestic use of the 14th century, is depicted as a tripod with a globular body, and broad mouth and two handles.

Calibre (or Caliper) Compasses. Compasses made with arched legs.

Caliga. A military boot worn by Roman soldiers and officers of inferior rank. The caliga consisted of a strong sole, studded with heavy pointed nails, and bound on by a network of leather thongs, which covered the heel and the foot as high as the ankle.

Caliptra. (See Calyptra.)

Caliver. A harquebus of a standard “calibre,” introduced during the reign of Queen Elizabeth.

Calix. A cup-shaped vase, used as a drinking-goblet. It was of circular shape, had two handles, and was mounted on a tolerably high stand. The term also denotes a water-meter, or copper tube of a specified diameter, which was attached like a kind of branch-pipe to a main one.

Calliculæ. A kind of very thin metal disk, more or less ornamented, worn by rich Christians, and especially priests, as an ornament for the dress. Calliculæ were also made of purple-coloured cloth. Many of the pictures in the catacombs represent persons wearing calliculæ on their colobia and other garments. (See Colobium.)

Callisteia (καλλιστεῖα). A Lesbian festival of women, in which a prize was awarded to the most beautiful.

Callot. A plain coif or skull-cap (English).

Calones (κᾶλα, wood). (1) Roman slaves who carried wood for the soldiers. (2) Farm servants.

Calote, Fr. A species of sabre-proof skull-cap worn in the French cavalry.

Calotype. A process of printing by photography, called also Talbotype.

Calpis, Gr. A water-jar with three handles, two at the shoulders and one at the neck.

Calthrops. (See Caltraps.)

Fig. 125. Caltrap.

Caltraps (for cheval-traps). Spikes of metal thrown on the ground to resist a charge of cavalry. In Christian art, attributes of St. Themistocles.

Calvary, Chr. An arrangement of small chapels or shrines in which the incidents of the progress to the scene of the crucifixion are represented. To each such “station” appropriate prayers and meditations are allotted.

Calvatica. (See Calautica.)

Calyptra (from καλύπτω, to hide). A veil worn by young Greek and Roman women over the face. It is also called caliptra, but this term is less used.

Camail (for cap-mail). A tippet of mail attached to the helmet. In mediæval Latin called camale, camallus, camelaucum, calamaucus, calamaucum.

Camara. (See Camera.)

Camayeu. Monochrome painting, i. e. in shades of one colour, or in conventional colours not copied from nature.

Camber, Arch. A curve or arch.

Camboge or Gamboge. A gum-resin, forming a yellow water-colour. The best gamboge is from Siam, and the kingdom of Camboja (whence its name). It should be brittle, inodorous, of conchoidal fracture, orange-coloured or reddish yellow, smooth and somewhat glistening. Its powder is bright yellow. An artificial gamboge, of little value, is manufactured with turmeric and other materials.

Cambresian Faience. The “poterie blance” of Cambrai is mentioned in a MS. of the 16th century. It was an enamelled faience.

Camella. An earthenware or wooden vessel employed in certain religious ceremonies. It probably served for making libations of milk.

Cameo (Ital. cammeo). A precious stone engraved in relief; it is thus opposed to the Intaglio (q.v.), which is cut into the stone. Cameos are generally carved from stones having several layers. They were employed in the decoration of furniture, vases, clasps, girdles, and to make bracelets, rings, &c. Cameos were largely made by the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans; by the two latter generally of sardonyx and onyx. (See Intaglio, Shell Cameo, &c.)

Cameo-glass. (See Glass.)

Camera, more rarely Camara. The vault or vaulted ceiling of an apartment. Camera vitrea, a vaulted ceiling, the surface of which was lined with plates of glass. The term was also used to denote a chariot with an arched cover formed by hoops; an underground passage; a pirate-vessel with a decked cabin; and, in short, any chamber having an arched roof, as for instance the interior of a tomb.

Camera Lucida. An optical instrument for reflecting the outlines of objects from a prism, so that they can be traced upon paper by a person unacquainted with the art of drawing.

Camera Obscura. A darkened room in which the coloured reflections of surrounding objects are thrown upon a white ground.

Camfuri, Camphio, Med. Lat. A decreed duel: from the German “kampf,” battle; and the Danish “vug,” manslaughter. (Meyrick.)

Camies, O. E. A light thin material, probably of silken texture.

Fig. 126. Caminus.

Caminus. Literally, a smelting furnace, and then an oven for baking bread; also, a hearth or fireplace. Fig. 126 represents a baker’s oven at Pompeii.

Camisado, O. E. A sudden attack on a small party; a Spanish term.

“To give camisadoes on troupes that are lodged a farre off.” (Briefe Discourse of Warre.)

Camisia (a Gallic word, whence prob. Ital. camicia). A light linen tunic worn next the skin (tunica intima).

Camlet or Chamlet, O. E. Originally a tissue of goat’s and camel’s hair interwoven. In Elizabeth’s reign the name was given to a cloth of mixed wool and silk, first manufactured in Montgomeryshire, on the banks of the river Camlet.

Cammaka. A cloth of which church vestments were made, temp. Edward III.

Camoca, O. E., 14th century. A textile probably of fine camel’s hair and silk, and of Asiatic workmanship, much used for church vestments, dress, and hangings.

Campagus or Compagus. A kind of sandal. It was worn especially by the Roman patricians.

Campana, It. A bell; hence, Campanology, the science or study of bells.

Campanile. A belfry.

Camp-ceiling. Where all the sides are equally inclined to meet the horizontal part in the centre (as in an attic).

Campestre, R. (from campester, i. e. pertaining to the Field of Mars). A short kilt worn by gladiators and soldiers when going through violent exercises in public. The kilt fitted close to the body, and reached two-thirds down the thigh.

Campio Regis, Engl. The king’s champion, who on the day of the coronation challenges any one who disputes the title to the crown.

Campus Martius (i. e. Field of Mars). At Rome, as in the provinces, this term had the same meaning which it bears in some countries at the present day; i. e. a ground on which soldiers went through their exercises. In ancient times, however, the Field of Mars, or simply the Field, served also as a place of assembly for the comitia.

Fig. 127. Canaba.

Canaba, Gr. and R. A Low Latin name for the slight structures common in country places, such as we should now call sheds or hovels. Those who lived in them were called canabenses. Fig. 127 is from a terra-cotta vase found near the lake Albano.

Fig. 128. Canaliculus.

Canaliculus (dimin. of Canalis, q.v.). A small channel or groove; or a fluting carved on the face of a triglyph. (Fig. 128.)

Canalis (akin to Sanscrit root KHAN, to dig). An artificial channel or conduit for water. The term canalis is also given to the fillet or flat surface lying between the abacus and echinus of an Ionic capital. It terminates in the eye of the volute, which it follows in such a way as to give it the proper contour.

Canathron (Gr. κάναθρον). A carriage, of which the upper part was made of basket-work.

Canberia, Med. Lat. (Fr. jambières). Armour for the legs.

Cancelli (from cancer, a lattice). A trellis, iron grating, or generally an ornamental barrier separating one place from another. In some amphitheatres the PODIUM (q.v.) had cancelli at the top. In a court of law the judges and clerks were divided from the place set apart for the public by cancelli (hence “chancel”).

Candela. A torch, made of rope, coated with tallow, resin, or pitch. It was carried in funeral processions (hence “candle”).

Fig. 129. Candelabrum.

Candelabrum. A candlestick, candelabrum, or generally any kind of stand by which a light can be supported. There were many different kinds. The same term is also used to denote the tall pedestal of a portable lamp (Fig. 129). (See Candlebeam.)

Candellieri, It. A style of grotesque ornamentation, characteristic of the Urbino majolica ware.

Candlebeam, O. E. A chandelier of the Middle Ages with “bellys of laton” (or brass cups) slung by a pulley from the ceiling.

Candles. The A.S. poets called the sun “rodores candel,” the candle of the firmament, “woruld candel,” “heofon candel,” &c. Originally, no doubt, the candle was a mere mass of fat plastered round a wick (candel-weoc) and stuck upon a “candel-sticca,” or upright stick; when the candlestick had several branches, it was called a candle-tree. There were iron, bone, silver-gilt, and ornamented candlesticks. Through the Middle Ages candles were stuck on a spike, not in a socket, and a chandelier of the 16th century shows the same arrangement.

Fig. 130. Persian Candys.

Candys (κάνδυς). A Persian cloak of woollen cloth, generally purple in colour.

Canephoria. Greek festivals of Diana; or an incident of another feast, called pratelia, in which virgins about to marry presented baskets (canea) to Minerva. The name, Canephorus, or “basket-bearer,” was common to the virgins who attended processions of Ceres, Minerva, and Bacchus, with the consecrated cakes, incense, and other sacrificial accessories, in the flat baskets called canea.

Fig. 131. Canette of white stone-ware, 1574.

Canette. A conic-shaped German drinking-mug, resembling the modern “schoppen,” of which highly ornamented examples in white stone-ware have been produced by the potters of Cologne and other parts of Germany. (Fig. 131.)

Caniple, O. E. A small knife or dagger.

Canis (akin to Sanscrit ÇVAN, Gr. κύων). A dog. This term has numerous diminutives: catulus, catellus, canicula. However ancient any civilization, the dog is always met with as the companion of man, and in each nation it follows a particular type. Thus a distinct difference is perceptible in the dogs of the Etruscans, Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, Indians, and Gauls. The Egyptians had terriers and greyhounds, wolf-dogs, and others for hunting or watchdogs. All these breeds are met with on the bas-reliefs of Egyptian monuments. The Egyptian name for a dog, wou, wouwou, is evidently onomatopoietic or imitative. (See also Dog.)

Canistrum, Canister, or Caneum (κάνιστρον, from κάνη, a reed). A wide shallow basket for carrying the instruments of sacrifice and offerings for the gods. It was generally carried on the head by young girls, who were called Canephoræ (κανηφόραι, i. e. basket-bearers), q.v.

Canon (κανὼν, from κάνη, i. e. anything straight like a reed). A fixed rule or standard which is supposed to have served, in antiquity, as a basis or model in forming statues, the various members of which bore a definite proportion one to the other. The Greeks had some such canon. The δορυφόρος (spearman) of Polycletus was, it is said, looked upon as affording a standard for the proportions of the human body. The Egyptians are also supposed to have had a canon, in which the middle finger formed the unit of measurement.

Canopea or Canopic Vases. An Egyptian vase, made of clay, and so named from its being manufactured at Canopus, a town of Lower Egypt, the present Aboukir. The same name was given to funereal urns made in the shape of the god Canopus, who is described by Russin as pedibus exiguis, attracto collo, ventre tumido in modum hydriæ, cum dorso æqualiter tereti (i. e. having small feet, a short neck, a belly as round and swelling as a water-jar, and a back to match). Canopean vases were made of earthenware, alabaster, and limestone. They were placed at the four corners of tombs or sarcophagi containing mummies. In them were deposited the viscera of the dead, which were placed under the protection of the four genii, symbolized each by the head of some animal which served at the same time for the lid of the canopea.

Cant, Arch. (1) To truncate. (2) To turn anything over on its angle.

Cantabrarii, Med. Lat. Standard-bearers: from Cantabrum, a kind of standard used by the Roman emperors. (Consult Meyrick.)

Canted Column, Arch. A column polygonal in section.

Cantellus, Med. Lat. (Fr. chanteau and cantel; Lat. quantillus). (1) A cut with a weapon, or the portion cut away. (2) Heraldic for the fourth part of a shield, since called a canton. (3) The hind part of a saddle.

Canteriolus (dimin. of canterius, a prop). A painter’s easel. The term, which is of doubtful Latinity, corresponds to the Greek ὀκρίβας.

Canterius, R. This term has numerous meanings; it serves to denote a gelding, a prop, the rafters forming part of the wood-work of a roof, and a surgical contrivance, of which the form is unknown, but which was used for suspending horses whose legs chanced to be broken, in such a way as to allow the bone to set.

Fig. 132. Cantharus (Greek).

Cantharus (κάνθαρος, a kind of beetle). A two-handled vase or drinking-cup, of Greek invention. It was particularly consecrated to Bacchus, and accordingly, in representations of the festivals of that god, it figures constantly in the hands of satyrs and other personages. (Fig. 132.)

Cantherius. (See Canterius.)

Canthus (κανθὸς, the felloe of a wheel). A hoop of iron or bronze forming the tire of a wheel. The Greeks called this tire ἐπίσωτρον (i. e. that which is fastened to the felloe).

Canticum. An interlude of music in a Roman play.

Cantilevers or Cantalivers, Arch. Blocks framed into a wall under the eaves, projecting so as to carry a moulding. (See Modillion.)

Cant-moulding, Arch. Any moulding with a bevelled face.

Canum. A Greek basket, more generally called Canistrum (q.v.).

Canvas prepared for painting is kept stretched upon frames of various sizes: e. g. kit-cat, 28 or 29 inches by 36; three-quarters, 25 by 30; half-length, 40 by 50; bishop’s half-length, 44 or 45 by 56; bishop’s whole length, 58 by 94.

Cap-a-pie (Fr.). In full armour, from head to foot.

Caparison. The complete trappings of a war-horse.

Capellina, Med. Lat. The chapeline or small Chapel de Fer.

Capellum, Med. Lat. A scabbard (not the hilt of a sword).

Capellus ferreus. (See Chapel de Fer.)

Capillamentum, R. A wig of false hair, in which the hair was long and abundant. (See Coma.)

Capillus (from caput, the head). Hair; the hair of the head in general. (See Coma.)

Capis, R. A kind of earthenware jug, with a handle. Vessels of this kind were used in sacrifices, and the capis is often found represented on medals. Other names for it were capedo, capeduncula, and capula.

Capisterium (deriv. from σκάφη or σκάφος, i. e. that which is scooped out). A vessel resembling the alveus, or wooden trough, and which was employed for cleansing the ears of corn after they had been threshed and winnowed.

Capistrum (from capio, i. e. that which takes or holds). (1) A halter or head-stall. (2) A rope employed for suspending the end of the beam in a wine-press. (3) A muzzle made to prevent young animals from sucking after they have been weaned. (4) A broad leather band or cheek-piece worn by flute-players. It had an opening for the mouth to blow through.

Capita aut Navia (lit. heads or ships; of coins having the head of Janus on one side and a ship on the reverse). A game of “heads or tails” played by the Romans and Greeks.

Capital (caput, a head). A strip of cloth worn round the head, in primitive times, by Roman women, to keep in their hair. Later on it was worn only by women attached to the service of religion. (See Capitulum.)

Capitellum. (See Capitulum.)

Capitium. An article of female dress; a kind of corset or bodice.

Capitolium (i. e. the place of the caput; because a human head was supposed to have been discovered in digging the foundations). The Capitol, or enclosure containing the temple raised in honour of Jupiter. The first Capitol of Rome was built on the Mons Capitolinus or Capitolium. The chief cities of Italy possessed each its Capitolium.

Fig. 133.

Fig. 134.

Capital. A term which denotes the member of architecture crowning the top of a column, pillar, or pilaster. Figs. 133 and 134 represent cushion capitals of the Romano-Byzantine epoch. Orders of Architecture are known by their Capitals. (See Composite, Corinthian, Doric, Ionic, and Tuscan.)

Capo di Monte, Naples. A manufactory of faience, established by Charles III.

Cappagh Browns, Light and Dark. Rich brown pigments, made of a bituminous earth from Ireland. Called also Mineral or Manganese Brown.

Capreolus, R. (lit. a wild goat or roebuck). A fork for digging, with two prongs converging together like the horns of a roebuck. The term is also used for a strut or brace. The tie-beams and king-posts in the frame of a roof are often connected by capreoli.

Capriccio, It. Caprice in art.

Fig. 135. Capricornus. The device of Cosmo de’ Medici.

Capricornus. The zodiacal sign of September employed by Augustus Cæsar in commemoration of his victory at Actium on the day when the sun enters that sign. The same device was used by Cosmo de’ Medici, and by the Emperor Rodolph II. of Germany, with the motto, “Fulget Cæsaris Astrum.” (Fig. 135.)

Caprimulgus, Lat. A goat-milker, a common device on antique gems and bas-reliefs, representing a man or a faun milking a goat.

Capronæ, R. (from caput and pronus, i. e. that which hangs down the forehead). The forelock of a horse, and by analogy, a lock of curling hair falling down over the centre of the forehead, in a man or woman.

Capsa or Scrinium, R. A box or case of cylindrical form, used for several purposes, but more particularly for the transport of rolls or volumes (volumina). The capsæ were generally provided with straps and locks, the former serving as a handle.

Capsella and Capsula, R. (dimin. of Capsa, q.v.). A case or casket for jewels, &c.

Fig. 136. Capuchon and mantle. From an Italian painting of the 13th century.

Capuchon. A hood with neck-piece and mantle. The engraving (Fig. 136) is a portrait of Cimabue.

Capula. Dimin. of Capis (q.v.).

Capularis, R. The straight handle or hilt of any kind of instrument or weapon, in contradistinction to ansa, which signifies a curved haft or handle. The term capularis was applied indifferently to the handle of a sword, a sceptre, &c.

Car, Chariot, or Carriage. (See Carrus and Currus.)

Carabaga, Med. Lat. Also Calabra. A kind of catapult or balista.

Carabine. (See Carbine.)

Carabus (κάραβος). A small boat made of wicker-work; a kind of shallop covered with raw hides. It was either propelled by itself or attached to the stern of a larger vessel. Similar to the coracle.

Caracalla (a Celtic word). A military garment introduced from Gaul into Rome by the Emperor Antonine, who obtained thus his surname of Caracalla.

Caracole, Arch. A spiral staircase.

Carbassus or Carbassum (κάρπασος, fine Spanish flax). This term was used indifferently to denote all textures made of the fine Spanish flax. Thus any kind of linen garment, the sails of a ship, the awning of a theatre or amphitheatre, all came under the term of carbassus.

Carbatinæ (καρβάτιναι). A rough kind of boot in common use, made of a single piece of leather, and worn by peasants.

Carbine, or Carabine, or Caraben. A short gun with a wheel lock and a wide bore, introduced in the 16th century.

Carbonate of Lead, or white lead, is the principal white pigment. It is prepared by exposing sheets of lead to the action of acetic and carbonic acids. It is called also Ceruse, Flake-white, Krems (or Vienna) white, Nottingham white. It is also known, under different modifications of colour, as Venice, or as Hamburg, or as Dutch white. It is a pigment very liable to injury from exposure to certain gases. (See Oxide of Zinc.)

Carbonates of Copper yield blue and green pigments, known from the earliest times, and under many names, as Mountain blue and green, blue and green Ash, or Saunders’ (for cendres’) blue and green. These names are also applied to the manufactured imitations of the native carbonates of copper. Powdered Malachite is a form of the native green carbonate. The colours called Emerald Green and Paul Veronese Green are artificial.

Carbuncle (Lat. carbunculus). A gem of a deep red colour. A jewel shining in the dark. (Milton.)

Carcaissum, Med. Lat. (Fr. carquois; It. carcasso; Mod. Gr. γαρκάσιον). A quiver.

Carcamousse, Med. A battering-ram. The name is onomatopoetic.

Carcanet, O. E. A necklace set with stones, or strung with pearls.

Carcass, Arch. The unfinished frame or skeleton of a building.

Fig. 137. Carceres. Roman prisons.

Carcer (akin to arceo, i. e. an enclosure (Gr. ἕρκος). (1) A prison. (2) The circus. At Rome the prisons were divided into three stages: the first, which formed a story above ground (carcer superior), was for prisoners who had only committed slight offences; the carcer interior, or stage on a level with the ground, served as a place of confinement in which criminals were placed to await the execution of their sentence; lastly there was the carcer inferior, or subterranean dungeon called robur, for criminals condemned to death. Fig. 137 represents the carcer built at Rome by Ancus Martius and Servius Tullius; Fig. 138 the carceres of the circus.

Fig. 138. Carceres. Stables in the circus at Rome.

Carchesium (καρχήσιον). (1) A drinking-cup of Greek invention, and having slender handles rising high over the edge, and reaching to the foot. It was an attribute of Bacchus, and was used in the religious ceremonies. (2) A scaffolding in the shape of the carchesium at the masthead of a ship. (Anglicè, “crow’s-nest.”)

Cardinalis. (See Scapus.)

Cardo. A pivot and socket used for the hinge of a door. The term was also used in carpentry to denote a dove-tailed tenon; this was called cardo securi-culatus, i. e. a tenon in the shape of an axe, the dove-tail bearing some resemblance to the blade of that tool.

Care-cloth, O. E. A cloth held over the bride and bridegroom’s heads at a wedding.

Carellus (Fr. carreau). A quarrel or arrow for cross-bows, the head of which was either four-sided or had four projections.

Carillon, Fr. A set of large bells, arranged to perform tunes by machinery, or by a set of keys touched by a musician. Antwerp, Bruges, and Ghent are celebrated for the carillons in their steeples.

Caristia (from χάρις, favour or gratitude). A Roman feast, at which the members of a family came together. It lasted three days: on the first, sacrifices were offered to the gods; the second was consecrated to the worship of deceased relations; and on the third the surviving members of the family met at a banquet. Strangers were not allowed in these gatherings.

Carminated Lakes. Also called Lake of Florence, Paris, or Vienna. Pigments made from the liquor in which cochineal and the other ingredients have been boiled to make carmine. (See Madder.)

Carmine. A beautiful pigment prepared from the insect, cochineal. Carmine is the richest and purest portion of the colouring matter of cochineal. The various kinds of carmine are distinguished by numbers, and possess a value corresponding thereto; the difference depending either on the proportion of the alumina added, or on the presence of vermilion added for the purpose of diluting and increasing the quantity of the colour: the alumina produces a paler tint, and the vermilion a tint different to that of genuine carmine. The amount of adulteration can always be detected by the use of liquor ammoniæ, which dissolves the whole of the carmine, but leaves the adulterating matter untouched. Carmine is chiefly used in miniature painting and in water-colours. It is made in large quantities in Paris.

Carmine-madder. (See Madder.)

Carnarium, R. (caro, flesh). (1) A larder for fresh or salted provisions. (2) The iron hooks on which they were hung.

Carnificia or Carnificina, R. (carnifex, executioner). Subterranean dungeons, in which criminals were put to the torture, and, in many cases, executed.

Carnix or Carnyx (Celtic and Gaulish word). A trumpet in the form of a long horn, of which the mouth was curved so as to resemble the mouth of an animal. This instrument gave out a peculiarly loud strident sound, and was used more particularly by the Celtic nations, notably the Gauls. It is constantly found represented on the coins of these nations, and on bas-reliefs. Some archæologists have mistaken the carnices on medals for cornucopiæ.

Carol, Chr. An enclosed place; a circular gallery. In old French, carole signified a round dance, or a circle of stone. In the last century the term was applied to the ambulatory, or circular gallery, behind the choir in churches.

Carpentum, R. A two-wheeled carriage of Gaulish invention; it was often covered with an awning, resembling in form that of the Camara (q.v.). The carpentum funebre or pompaticum was a hearse. It was made to resemble a shrine or small temple. Lastly, the term carpentum was used to denote a cart, with two wheels, employed for agricultural purposes.

Carrago (i. e. formed of carri or carts). A kind of intrenchment peculiar to certain barbarous nations. It was constructed by drawing up waggons and war-chariots in a curved line, approaching a circle as nearly as the nature of the ground permitted. It formed a first line of defence, behind which the combatants sheltered themselves in order to defend the camp proper, which lay in the centre of the carrago.

Carreaux, Med. Fr. Quarrels for cross-bows, so called from their square form.

Carriolum. (See Carrocium.)

Carroballista or Carrobalista (carrus, a car). A ballista mounted upon a carriage, to be transported from place to place. (See Ballista.)

Carrocium, Carrocerum, Med. Lat. A standard fixed on a carriage.

Carrotus. A quarrel. (See Carellus, &c.)

Carruca, Carrucha, or Carucha. A carriage of costly description, richly ornamented with bronze and ivory carvings and chased gold. It differed widely from the Essedo and the Rheda (q.v.).

Carrus or Carrum (Celtic root). A cart or chariot of Gaulish invention, on two wheels, used in the army as a commissariat waggon. A carrus occurs among the sculptures on the column of Trajan.

Cartamera (Gaulish word). A Gaulish girdle made of metal, and used to support the braccæ, or trousers. It was made sometimes in the form of a serpent with its tail in its mouth, but more generally resembled a fringe of twisted hemp, like the torques, by which name accordingly it was known among the Romans. (See Torques.)

Cartibulum, R. (corrupted from gertibulum, i. e. that which bears or carries). A side-board, consisting of a square slab of stone or marble, supported in the middle by a pedestal or stem. The cartibulum always stood against a wall.

Fig. 139. Egyptian Cartouche.

Fig. 140. Egyptian Column with Cartouche.

Cartouche, Egyp. An elliptical tablet of scroll-like form, containing the names of the Pharaohs. Fig. 139 represents the cartouche of King Artaxerxes. Cartouches were applied to decorate columns, an illustration of which may be seen on the abacus and capital of the column in Fig. 140.

Caryatides (Καρυάτιδες, i. e. women of Caryæ). Female figures, in an upright posture, which were employed in lieu of columns to support entablatures or any other members of architecture. One of the finest instances of the application of caryatides to this purpose is to be found in the portico of the temple of Pandrosos, at Athens.

Caryatis. A festival in honour of Artemis Caryatis, which was celebrated at Caryæ, in Laconia.

Case Bags, Arch. The joists framed between a pair of girders, in naked flooring.

Cash. A Chinese coin.

Fig. 141. Casque.

Fig. 142. Casque.

Casque, Fr. Helmets of every description, from those of classical times to the present, have been called casques by the poets; but the head-piece specially so designated is first seen in English armour of the reign of Henry VIII. The casque was generally without a visor, and worn more for parade than warfare. The engraving Fig. 141 represents a Gaulish and Fig. 142 an Oriental casque.

Casquetel. A small open helmet without beaver or visor, having a projecting umbril, and flexible plates to protect the neck behind.

Cassel Black. (See Black.)

Cassel Earth. A brown pigment.

Cassel Yellow. (See Turner’s Yellow.)

Cassida. (See Cassis.)

Cassilden, O. E. Chalcedony.

Cassis or, rarely, Cassida (perhaps an Etruscan word). A casque or helmet made of metal, and so distinguished from Galea (q.v.), a helmet made of leather. Figs. 141 and 142 represent respectively a Gaulish and an Eastern cassis (the latter, however, is considered by some antiquaries to be Gaulish). The war-casque of the Egyptian kings, although of metal, was covered with a panther’s skin; it was ornamented with the Uræus (q.v.).

Cassock signifies a horseman’s loose coat, and is used in that sense by the writers of the age of Shakspeare. It likewise appears to have been part of the dress of rustics. (Stevens.) It was called a “vest” in the time of Charles II. Later on it became the distinguishing dress of the clergy.

Cassolette, Fr. A perfume box with a perforated lid; the perforations in a censer.

Cassone. An Italian chest, richly carved and gilt, and often decorated with paintings, which frequently held the trousseau of a bride.

Castanets. Various peoples have employed flat pieces of wood to produce a certain kind of noise during religious ceremonies. The Egyptians seem to have had for this purpose “hands” of wood or ivory, which were struck one against the other to form an accompaniment to chants or rhythmic dances. (See Crotala, &c.)

Fig. 143. Cup of Castel Durante (1525), in the Museum of the Louvre.

Castel Durante. An ancient manufactory of Urbino ware, established in the 14th century. Fig. 143, from a cup in the Louvre, is a fine specimen of Castel Durante majolica of the 16th century.

Castellum (dimin. of Castrum, q.v.; i. e. a small castle). A small fortified place or citadel; also a reservoir for water. The ruins of castella still existing are very few in number; one of the most perfect, as far as the basin is concerned, is that of the castellum divisorium or deversorium, at Nismes.

Casteria. A storehouse in which the rudder, oars, and movable tackle of a vessel were kept.

Castor. The beaver; hence applied to beaver hats.

Castoreæ, R. Costly fabrics and dresses made of the fur of beavers.

Castra, R. (plur. of castrum, which, like casa, = the covering thing). This term was applied solely to an encampment, a fortified or intrenched camp, while the singular castrum, an augmentative of Casa (q.v.), denotes a hut, or strongly-constructed post, and consequently a fort, or fortress; but for this last the Romans preferred to use the diminutive castellum.

Castula or Caltula, R. A short petticoat worn by Roman women, held up by braces.

Casula, R. (dimin. of casa). (1) A small hut or cabin. (2) A hooded cloak, or capote.

Cat. The Egyptian name for the cat (maaou) is evidently onomatopoetic. As a symbol, this animal played a part which has hitherto not been clearly determined. Certain papyri show us the cat severing the serpent’s head from its body, a symbol which would seem to point out the cat as the destroyer of the enemies of the daylight and the sun. Again, the goddess Bast is represented with a cat’s head, the animal being sacred to her.

Cat (Med. Lat. cattus or gattus). A covering under which soldiers lay for shelter, while sapping the walls of a fortress, &c.

Cataclista, R. A close-fitting garment worn by Roman ladies, bearing a great resemblance to those which are to be seen on Egyptian statues.

Catacombs, Chr. This term, the etymology of which is uncertain, serves to denote disused stone quarries, made use of by the early Christians for their meetings, and as subterranean cemeteries. We meet with catacombs in several cities, but the most celebrated are unquestionably those of Rome. Catacombs also exist at Syracuse, Catana, Palermo, Naples, and Paris.

Catadromus, R. (from κατὰ and δρόμος, i. e. a running down). A tight-rope for acrobats in a circus or amphitheatre. The catadromus was stretched in a slanting direction from a point in the arena to the top of the building.

Catafaltus, Med. Lat. (See Cagasuptus.)

Catagrapha, Gr. and R. (κατα-γραφὴ, i. e. a drawing or marking down). A painting in perspective (rarely met with in the works of the ancient painters).

Cataphracta, Gr. and R. (κατα-φράκτης, i. e. that which covers up). A general term to denote any kind of breastplate worn by the Roman infantry. [Cataphracti were heavy-armed cavalry, with the horses in armour.]

Cataphracti. Decked vessels, in opposition to aphracti, open boats.

Catapirates, Gr. and R. (κατα-πειρατὴς, i. e. that which makes trial downwards). A sounding lead, of an ovoid form, with tallow or a kind of glue at the end, by means of which sailors were able to ascertain the nature of the bottom.

Catapulta, Gr. and R. (κατα-πέλτης, i. e. that which hurls). A military engine for discharging heavy missiles. The ballista projected stones; the catapult, darts; the scorpio (uncertain). They were all called tormenta, from the twisting of the ropes of hairs or fibres which supplied the propelling force.

Catascopium, Gr. and R. (dimin. of Catascopus, q.v.). A post of observation or sentry tower.

Catascopus, Gr. and R. (κατάσκοπος, i. e. that which explores or spies). (1) A post of observation. (2) A vessel employed as a spy-ship; and by analogy (3) a scout, i. e. a soldier whose duty is to act as a spy on the enemy.

Catasta (from κατάστασις, i. e. a place of presentation). A platform upon which slaves were placed to be publicly sold. Some scaffolds of this kind were made to revolve, so that the purchaser might thoroughly inspect every part of the slave at his leisure. Catasta arcana was the name given to a gridiron, or iron bed, upon which criminals were laid to undergo torture. (See Gridiron.)

Cateja (Celtic word). A missile made of wood hardened in the fire. It was employed by the Gauls, Germans, and other barbarians in the way of a harpoon, a rope being fastened to one end of the weapon, by means of which it could be recovered after it had been launched.

Catella (dimin. of Catena, q.v.). A term specially used to denote the finer sorts of chains made of bronze, silver, and gold. Chains made of the precious metals were worn as trinkets. [The use of the diminutive indicates elegance and delicacy.]

Catellus, R. (dimin. of Catena, q.v.). A chain used to shackle slaves, or perhaps merely attached to them in the way of a clog.

Catena, R. (1) A chain, especially (2) a chain of gold or silver worn as an ornament round the body, like a balteus (shoulder-belt), by certain goddesses, dancing girls, bacchantes, or courtezans.

Catenarius. The chained dog kept at the entrance of their houses by the Romans.

Catharmata (καθάρματα, from καθαίρω, i. e. that which is thrown away in cleansing). Sacrifices in which human victims were offered up, in order to avert the plague or similar visitations. [They were thrown into the sea.]

Cathedra (καθέδρα, from κατὰ and ἕδρα, i. e. a place for sitting down). A chair having a back, but without arms. There were various kinds of cathedræ: the cathedra strata was a chair furnished with cushions; cathedra supina, a chair with long sloping back; cathedra longa, a chair with long deep seat. The cathedra philosophorum was the equivalent of our modern term, a professor’s chair.

Catherine Wheel. In Gothic architecture, a large circular window, filled with radiating divisions; called also rose-window.

Cathetus, Arch. (1) The axle of a cylinder. (2) The centre of the Ionic volute.

Fig. 144. Catillus for grinding corn.

Catillus and Catillum (dimin. of Catinus, q.v.; i. e. a small bowl). (1) The upper part of a mill for grinding corn, which served both as grindstone and hopper or bowl. Fig. 144 represents an ancient mill, a fourth part of the catillus being suppressed in order to show the reader the mechanism. (2) A small dish having much resemblance to the catinus, and so by analogy (3) a flat circular ornament employed to decorate the scabbard of a sword.

Catinus and Catinum, R. (akin to Sicilian κάτινον). Dishes used for cooking, and for the table. Catina might be of earthenware or metal, of glass or other precious material, and were employed as sacrificial vessels to hold incense, &c.

Catty. A Chinese weight = 1⅓ lb.

Catulus, R. When a slave ran away from his master, and was retaken, he was led back in chains, the catulus being the chain which was attached to an iron collar passing round his neck. A slave was thus said to be led back cum manicis, catulo, collarique, i. e. with manacles, leading chain, and neck-collar.

Caudex. (See Codex.)

Caudicarius, Codicarius, R. (from caudex, a tree-trunk). A wide flat barge employed in river transport. It was of rough construction, and was broken up on arriving at its destination.

Caudicius, R. A vessel of the same kind as the caudicarius, employed on the Moselle.

Caughley-ware (Shropshire). A soft porcelain; 18th century.

Caul, O. E. A cap or network enclosing the hair.

Cauliculi or Caulicoli, R. (dimin. of caulis, a stalk). Acanthus leaves springing from the capital of a Corinthian column.

Caupolus. (See Caupulus.)

Caupona, R. (caupo, an innkeeper). An inn or hostel for the accommodation of travellers. The cauponæ bore a general resemblance to our roadside inns. [Also, a cooked-meat shop.]

Cauponula, R. (dimin. of caupona). A small tavern, or low wine-shop of mean appearance.

Caupulus, R. A kind of boat, classed by authors among the lembi and cymbæ.

Caurus, R. An impersonation of the North-West wind; represented under the form of an old man with a beard, pouring down rain from an urn.

Causia, Gr. and R. (καυσία, from καῦσις, i. e. that which keeps off heat). A broad-brimmed felt hat, of Macedonian invention, and adopted by the Romans. It was especially worn by fishermen and sailors.

Cauter (καυτὴρ, i. e. that which burns). A cautery or branding-iron. The cauter was (1) an instrument used by surgeons; it was also used for branding cattle and slaves. (2) An instrument employed to burn in the colours in an encaustic painting.

Cauterium = Cauter (q.v.).

Cavædium, R. (from cavum and ædes, i. e. the hollow part of a house). An open courtyard. In early times the Romans had an external courtyard to their houses. In course of time, however, the increase of luxury and comfort brought about a change in the cavædium, which was partially covered in with a roof supported by columns, a partial opening being left in the centre, which was called the compluvium. When thus altered, the cavædium went under the name of Atrium (q.v.).

Cavalherium. (See Caballaria.)

Cavallerius or Cavallero, Med. Lat. A knight or cavalier.

Cavea, R. (from cavus, i. e. a hollow place or cavity), (1) A wooden cage with open bars, of wood or, more generally, of iron, used for the transport and exhibition of the wild beasts of a menagerie. (2) A bird-cage. (3) A frame of wicker-work employed by fullers and dyers. (4) A palisade to protect young trees when growing up, and (5) the vast reversed cone formed by the successive stages of a theatre or amphitheatre. This might be divided, according to the size of the building, into one, two, or three distinct tiers, called respectively upper, lower, and middle (summa, ima, media cavea). (6) A warlike machine used in attacking cities.

Cavetto, Arch. (deriv. from Ital. cavo). A concave moulding formed of a segment of a circle.

Cavo-relievo. Intaglio-sculpture cut into the stone, as in Egyptian art.

Ceadas or Cæadas (κεάδας or καιάδας). A deep cave into which the Spartans thrust condemned prisoners.

Ceinture or Ceint. A girdle. (See Cinctus.)

Celadon. A peculiar tinted porcelain, described by Jacquemart as the earliest tint of Chinese pottery.

Celebê (Κελέβη). A vase of ovoid form and with two handles. The lower part is shaped elegantly, like an amphora, but the upper part resembles a pitcher with a sort of projecting lip. Its peculiarity is in the handles, which are “pillared” and “reeded.”

Celes, R. A racing or saddle horse, as opposed to a draught horse. The same term was also applied to a vessel or boat of a peculiar form, propelled by oars, in which each rower handled only a single oar. It was also called celox.

Fig. 145. Plan of temple showing the Cella.

Cella, R. (from celo, to hide). The interior of a temple, i. e. the part comprised within the four walls. In Fig. 145 a represents the portico, b the cella. The term is also used to denote a niche, store-room, or, in general, any kind of cellar; e. g. cella vinaria, cella olearia, and even a tavern situated in a cellar. The term was also applied to slaves’ dormitories, the parts of the public baths, &c.

Cellatio. A suite of apartments in a Roman house set apart for various purposes, but especially as quarters for slaves.

Cellula (dimin. of Cella, q.v.). A small sanctuary, i. e. the interior of a small temple, and by analogy any kind of small chamber.

Celox. (See Celes.)

Celt. A variety of chisels and adzes of the flint and bronze periods.

Celtic (Monuments) were usually constructed of huge stones, and are known, for that reason, as megalithic monuments. Such are Standing Stones, Dolmens, Menhirs or Peulvans, Cromlechs, Covered Alleys, Tumuli, &c. (See these words.)

Cembel. A kind of joust or HASTILUDE.

Cendal, Sandal, &c., O. E. The name, variously spelt, of a silken stuff used for vestments, and for banners, &c.; 13th century. We now call this stuff sarcenet.

Cenotaph (κενο-τάφιον, i. e. an empty tomb). A monument raised to a Roman citizen who had been drowned at sea, or who, from any other cause, failed to receive burial.

Censer. A sacred vessel used for burning perfumes.

Fig. 146. Centaur.

Centaur (κένταυρος, according to some, from κεντέω and ταῦρος, i. e. herdsman; but prob. simply from κεντέω, i. e. Piercer or Spearman). The Centaurs are represented with the body of a horse, and bust, head, and arms of a man. (Fig. 146.) In Christian archæology, the Centaur is a symbol of the swift passage of life, the force of the instincts, and in a special sense, of adultery. The war of the Centaurs and the Lapithæ is the subject of the frieze at the British Museum, from a temple of Apollo in Arcadia. Hippo-centaurs were half horse; Onocentaurs, half ass; and Bucentaurs or Tauro-centaurs, half ox.

Fig. 147. Centaur and young.

Cento (κέντρων, patchwork). A covering made of different scraps of cloth, and used as clothing for slaves. The same term denotes a coarse cloth which was placed beneath the saddle of a beast of burden, to keep the back of the animal from being galled by the saddle. In Christian archæology the term was used to denote a coarse patchwork garment, and, by analogy, a poem composed of verses taken from various authors, like the Cento nuptialis of Ausonius.

Centunculus (dimin. of Cento, q.v.). A motley garment of various colours, like that of our harlequin. It was worn, according to Apuleius, by the actors who played in burlesques, and there are certain vases on which Bacchus is represented, arrayed in a similar costume.

Cepotaphium (κηπο-τάφιον). A tomb situated in a garden.

Cera (akin to κηρός). Wax, and, by analogy, any objects made of wax, such as images of the family ancestors (imagines majorum); or the wax tablets for writing on with the stylus. These were called respectively ceræ duplices, triplices, quintuplices, according as they had two, three, or five leaves. The first, second, third, and last tablet were called respectively prima, secunda, tertia, ultima or extrema cera.

Ceramic. Appertaining to Pottery (q.v.).

Cerberus. The three-headed dog who guarded the gates of hell.

Cercurus (κέρκουρος, perhaps from Κέρκυρα, the island Corcyra). A Cyprian vessel propelled by oars. Its form is unknown.

Cerebrerium. An iron skull-cap, temp. Edward I.

Cere-cloth (cera, wax). Cloth saturated with wax, used for enveloping a consecrated altarstone, or a dead body.

Cereus (cera, wax). A wax candle, made either with the fibres of cyperus or papyrus twisted together and dipped in wax, or with the pith of elder, or rush, covered with the same material.

Ceriolare (cera, wax). A stand, holder, or candelabrum for wax candles. There were a great variety of this kind of vessel. (See Candelabrum.)

Cernuus (from cer = κάρα, and nuo, i. e. with head inclined to the ground). A tumbler who walks upon his hands with his feet in the air. Women even used to turn series of summersaults, resting alternately on the feet and hands, among a number of swords or knives stuck in the ground. This exhibition was called by the Greeks εἰς μαχαίρας κυβιστᾶν, i. e. lit. to tumble head over heels between knives).

Cerōma (κήρωμα, a wax-salve). A room in which wrestlers rubbed themselves over with oil and fine sand. The room was so named from the unguent employed, which consisted of wax mixed with oil [which was also called cerōma].

Cero—plastic. The art of modelling in wax.

Cero-strotum or Cestrotum, Lat. A kind of encaustic painting upon ivory or horn, in which the lines were burnt in with the cestrum, and the furrows filled with wax.

Certosina Work. Florence, 15th century. Ivory inlaid into solid cypress-wood and walnut. The style is Indian in character, and consists in geometric arrangements of stars made of diamond-shaped pieces, varied with conventional flowers in pots, &c.

Certyl. Old English for kirtle.

Ceruse. A name for white lead. (See Carbonate of Lead.)

Cervelliere. (See Cerebrerium.)

Cervi (lit. stags). Large branches of trees with the forks still left upon them, but cut down close to the stock, so that the whole presented the appearance of a stag’s antlers. Cervi were employed to strengthen a palisade, so as to impede the advance of infantry, or resist attacks of cavalry.

Cervical (from cervix, a neck). A cushion or pillow for supporting the back of the head on a bed or dining-couch. (See Pulvinar.)

Cervus. (See Stag.)

Ceryceum (κηρύκειον, a herald’s staff). It is a synonym of Caduceus (q.v.).

Cesticillus (dimin. of Cestus, q.v.). A circular pad used as a rest by persons who had to carry burdens on their heads.

Cestra. (See Cestrosphendonè.)

Cestrosphendonè, Gr. (a dart-sling.) A dart fixed to a wooden stock with three short wooden wings, discharged from a sling.

Cestrotum. (See Cero-strotum.)

Cestrum or Viriculum (κέστρον, i. e. that which pricks or pierces). A graver used in the process of encaustic painting on ivory. It was made of ivory, pointed at one end and flat at the other. (See Cero-strotum, Rhabdion.)

Cestus (κεστὸς, embroidered), (1) In general any kind of band or tie; but specially the embroidered girdle of Venus. (2) A boxing gauntlet. (See Cæstus.)

Cetra (prob. a Spanish word). A small round shield in use among several barbarous nations, but never by the Romans.

Chaable, Old Fr. A large ballista. (See Cabulus.) Trees blown down by the wind are still called “caables” in France. (Meyrick.)

Chabasite (χαβὸς, narrow, compressed). A crystal of a white colour.

Chaconne, Fr. (Sp. chacona; It. ciacona). A modification of the dance chica (q.v.).

Chadfarthing, O. E. A farthing formerly paid among the Easter dues, for the purpose of hallowing the font for christenings. (Halliwell.)

Chafer, O. E. (1) A beetle or May-bug. (2) A saucepan.

Chafer-house, O. E. An ale-house.

Chafery, O. E. A furnace.

Fig. 148. Chaffagiolo ware. Sweetmeat plate, with arabesques, about 1509.

Chaffagiolo, or Caffagiolo, is the place where Cosmo the Great established the first Tuscan manufactory of majolica, and where Luca della Robbia acquired his knowledge of the stanniferous enamel. Fig. 148 is a specimen of Chaffagiolo ware of the 15th century.

Chain-moulding, Arch. An ornament of the Norman period, sculptured in imitation of a chain.

Chain-timbers, Arch. Bond timbers, the thickness of a brick, introduced to tie and strengthen a wall.

Chair. (See Sella.)

Chair de Poule (chicken’s flesh). An ornamentation of the surface of pottery with little hemispheric points; a Chinese method.

Chaisel, Old Fr. (1) An upper garment. (2) A kind of fine linen, of which smocks were often made.

Chalameau, Fr. Stem or straw-pipe. The lower notes of the clarionet are called the chalameau tone, from the ancient shawm.

Chalcanthum (χάλκ-ανθον, i. e. that which is thrown off by copper). Shoemaker’s black or copperas, used for imparting a dark colour to boot-leather. (See Atramentum.)

Chalcedony. (See Calcedony.)

Chalcidicum (Χαλκιδικὸν, i. e. pertaining to the city of Chalcis). The exact meaning of this term is unknown. According to some, it was a portico; according to others, a kind of long hall or transept.

Chalciœcia (χαλκι-οίκια, brazen house). A Spartan festival in honour of Athena under that designation.

Chalcography (χαλκὸς, copper). Engraving on copper. Chalcography was discovered in Florence, in the 15th century, and early introduced into England. Caxton’s “Golden Legend,” containing copper-plate prints, was published in 1483. The process is as follows:—A perfectly smooth plate of copper, having been highly polished, is heated in an oven, and then white wax rubbed over it until the whole surface is covered with a thin layer. A tracing is laid over the wax, with the black-lead lines downwards, which transfers the design to the wax. Then the tracing-paper is removed, and the engraver goes over the lines lightly with a fine steel point, so as just to penetrate the wax, and scratch a delicate outline upon the copper. The wax is then melted off, and the engraving finished with the graver, or burin, a steel instrument with a peculiar pyramidal point. Should the lines be cut too deeply, a smooth tool, about three inches long, called a burnisher, is used to soften them down, and to burnish out scratches in the copper. The ridges or burrs that rise on each side of the engraved lines are scraped off by a tool about six inches long, called a scraper, made of steel, with three sharp edges. This method has for printing purposes been generally superseded by other processes, principally etching.

Chalcus (χαλκοῦς). A Greek copper coin, somewhat less than a farthing.

Fig. 149. Chalice, silver-gilt—14th century.

Chalice, Chr. (deriv. from calix, a cup). A sacred vessel used in the celebration of the mass. There were many different kinds, called ministeriales, offertorii, majores, and minores. The ministeriales served to distribute the wine; the offertorii were employed by the deacons to hold the wine offered by the faithful. Lastly, they were distinguished according to their size, as large or small (majores and minores). Vessels called calices were also frequently suspended from the arches of the ciborium, and other parts of the church, as ornaments. In Christian symbolism the chalice and serpent issuing from it are an attribute of St. John the Evangelist.

Chalon, O. E. A coverlet. (Chaucer.)

Chamade, Fr. A beat of drum or trumpet inviting the enemy to a parley.

Chamber Music, as opposed to concert music. Madrigals were probably the earliest specimens of chamber music.

Chambers, O. E. Small cannon for firing on festive occasions.

Chamberyngs, O. E. Bedroom furniture.

Fig. 150. Chameleon and Dolphin.

Chameleon (χαμαὶ, on the ground, and λέων, a lion). In Christian symbolism, the emblem of inconstancy; in Chemistry, manganate of potass is called chameleon from the changes of colour which its solution undergoes. The chameleon with a dolphin on its back (Fig. 150) was the device of Pope Paul III.

Chamfer, Arch. (1) The angle of obliquity (of the sides of a steeple, &c.). (2) A hollow channel or gutter, such as the fluting of a column.

Fig. 151. Chamfron.

Chamfron, O. E. (Med. Lat. chamfrenum; Fr. champ-frein). A frontal of leather or steel to a horse’s bridle. (Fig. 151.)

Chamlet, O. E. (See Camlet.)

Chammer, O. E. (Fr. chamarre). A gown worn by persons of rank, temp. Henry VIII.

Champ, Arch. A flat surface.

Champ-levé. A form of enamelling in which the pattern is cut out of the metal to be ornamented.

Chamulcus, R. and Gr. A heavy dray for the transport of building materials, such as blocks of marble, columns, obelisks, &c.

Chance, O. E. The game of hazard.

Chancel, Chr. (from cancelli, a lattice). A term anciently used to denote the choir. It derived its name from the cancelli or stone screen by which it was enclosed.

Chandaras (Sanscrit, chanda-rasa, lit. moonjuice). An ancient name for copal.

Chandeleuse, Fr. Candlemas Day.

Chandi (from chand, the moon). Indian name for silver.

Chand-tara (lit. moon and stars) is the name of an Indian brocade, figured all over with representations of the heavenly bodies.

Changeable Silk, O. E., was woven of two colours, so that one of them showed itself unmixed and quite distinct on one side, and the second appeared equally clear on the other; mentioned A. D. 1327, 1543, &c.

Changes. The altered melodies produced by varying the sounds of a peal of bells.

Fig. 152. Chante-pleure.

Chante-pleure, Fr. A water pot, made of earthenware, about a foot high, the orifice at the top the size of a pea, and the bottom full of small holes. Immersed in water, it quickly fills. If the opening at the top be then closed with the thumb, the vessel may be carried, and the water distributed as required. The widow of Louis I., Duke of Orleans, adopted this as her device, after the murder of her husband, in 1407.

Chantlate, Arch. A piece of wood under the eaves of a roof, by which two or three rows of overhanging slates or tiles are supported.

Chantry, Chr. (Fr. chanter, to sing). A chapel to which is attached a revenue as provision for a priest, whose duty it is to sing masses for the repose of the founder’s soul.

Chape, O. E. (Spanish chapa, a thin plate of metal). (1) The transverse guard of a sword. (2) A metal plate at the end of a scabbard. (3) A catch by which a thing is held in its place.

Fig. 153. Chapeau.

Chapeau, Her. Also called a cap of dignity, of maintenance, or of estate. An early symbol of high dignity.

Chapeau Chinois, Fr. A set of small bells arranged in the form of a Chinese hat.

Chapel or Chapelle de Fer. Iron helmet of knights of the 12th century. The diminutive is chapeline.

Chaperon, Fr. A hood or small cap for the head.

Chapiter, Arch. The upper part of a capital.

Fig. 154. Chaplet Moulding.

Chaplet, Arch. (Fr. chapelet). (1) A small cylindrical moulding, carved into beads and the like. (See Fig. 154.) (2) Chaplets of flowers, which were worn in England, by both sexes, on festive occasions, during the Middle Ages, and chaplets of jewels in earlier times. (3) Chr. It was anciently the custom to crown the newly baptized with a chaplet or garland of flowers. (4) Chr. A succession of prayers recited in a certain order, regulated by beads, &c. (5) In Heraldry. A garland or wreath. (See Crancelin.)

Chapter, Chr. (Lat. capitulum). The body of the clergy of a cathedral, united under the bishop.

Chapter-house, Chr. A place of assemblage for a Chapter of the clergy. That of Westminster contains some fine wall paintings of the middle of the 14th century.

Chaptrel, Arch. The capital of a column supporting an arch; an impost.

Character, Gr. and R. Generally, any sign or mark impressed, painted, or engraved on any object. In a more restricted sense, it denotes the instrument of iron or bronze with which such marks were made. In Art, the expression means a faithful adherence to the peculiarities of objects represented.

Charbokull, O. E. A carbuncle.

Charcoal Blacks are made of ivory, bones, vine-twigs, smoke of resin, &c., burned in a crucible excluded from the air. The best charcoal crayons are made of box and willow; the former produces a dense hard crayon, the latter a soft friable one. (Fairholt.) (See Blue Black.)

Chare Thursday, O. E. Maundy Thursday.

Charge, Her. Any heraldic figure or device.

Charisia, Gr. (Χάριτες, the Graces). Nocturnal festivals held in honour of the Graces, at which cakes and honey were distributed to those present.

Charisteria, Gr. (χάρις, gratitude). Festivals celebrated yearly at Athens, in remembrance of the Athenian general Thrasybulus, the saviour of his country.

Charistia. (See Caristia.)

Charistion. An instrument of Archimedes for weighing. Whether it bore most resemblance to the balance (libra), or the steelyard (statera), is uncertain, as its form is entirely unknown.

Charles’s Wain (Anglo-Saxon, carles-waen, the churl’s waggon). The seven stars forming the constellation generally called the Great Bear.

Charnel, O. E. Apex of the basinet.

Charnel-house. A small building attached to a cemetery, for a receptacle for the human bones disinterred when fresh graves were dug.

Charta, Gr. and R. Writing-paper in use among the ancients. There were eight different kinds, which were classed as follows in the order of their quality: (1) Charta Augustana or Claudiana; (2) Liviana; (3) hieratica; (4) amphitheatrica; (5) Saitica; (6) leneotica; (7) fanniana; (8) dentata. The last was so called from being polished by means of the tooth (dens) of some animal, or a piece of ivory. There was also a charta emporetica or packing-paper, and lastly a charta bibula. It is uncertain whether this last was blotting-paper, or a kind of transparent paper which had been steeped in oil or some other fatty substance.

Charter-room or Charter-house. A place in which the charters of a particular family or house were preserved.

Chartophylax, Chr. A man who had charge of the charters of a church.

Chasing. (See Cælatura.)

Chasse, Chr., Fr. A reliquary in the form of a box with a ridged top.

Chastelain, O. E. The lord of a castle.

Chastons, O. E. Breeches of mail; 13th to 16th century.

Fig. 155. Chasuble.

Chasuble (Lat. casula, a cottage). Part of ancient ecclesiastical costume common to all the Roman Catholic clergy, from the priest to the Archbishop. It was originally made of wool, and in one piece throughout, without sleeves, and without slit or opening in front, and perfectly circular; but the shape varied with the material; and from the 6th century downwards we hear of chasubles of brilliant colour and costly materials, such as silk or thickly-embroidered cloth of gold, and oval in form, hanging no longer in graceful folds as in the 11th century. The engraving (Fig. 155) shows a chasuble of the year 1387. (Compare Pænula, Planeta.)

Chatai, Hindoo. Mats, a common manufacture all over India. Those of Midnapore, near Calcutta, are remarkable for their fineness and classical design of the mosaic, like patterns of stained glass.

Chat-faux, Med. A wooden shed—modern scaffold. (See Cagasuptus.)

Chatrang (Sanscrit chatur-anga, the four angas or soldiers; or chaturaji, the four kings). The Persian name for a very ancient game of the “Four Kings,” supposed to be the origin of the four suits of playing-cards. (Rev. E. S. Taylor, “History of Playing-cards.”)

Chatzozerah, Heb. A Jewish trumpet mentioned by Moses, used chiefly for religious and warlike occasions.

Chauffault, Old Fr. A tower of wood.

Chausses, O. E. (1) Pantaloons of mail used by the Danes. (2) Tight pantaloons worn by the Normans and mediæval English.

Chaussetrap. (See Caltraps.)

Chaussons, O. E. Breeches of mail (or of cloth).

Chavarina, Med. Lat. A carbine.

Checkere, O. E. A chess-board.

Checkstone, O. E. A game played by children with small round pebbles.

Checky, Her. (See Chequée.)

Cheese, Chr. St. Augustine says that a sect called the Artotyrites offered bread and cheese in the Eucharist, saying “that the first oblations which were offered by men, in the infancy of the world, were of the fruits of the earth and of sheep.” (Aug. de Hæres. c. xlviii.)

Chef-d’œuvre, Fr. A work of the highest excellence.

Chekelatoun. (See Ciclatoun.)

Chekere, O. E. Chess (q.v.).

Chele (χηλὴ, prob, from a root χα- meaning cloven). This term is applied to a great variety of objects; it signifies a cloven foot, a hooked claw, or anything presenting a notched or serrated appearance. Thus a breakwater, the irregular projections of which bore some resemblance to the teeth of an immense saw, was also called chêlê. There were, besides, various engines and machines which went under this name.

Chelidoniacus, sc. gladius (from the Greek χελιδὼν, a swallow). A broad-bladed sword with a double point like a swallow’s tail.

Chelidonize, Gr. (lit. to twitter like a swallow). Singing the “Swallow Song” (χελιδόνισμα), a popular song sung by the Rhodian boys in the month Boedromion, on the return of the swallows, and made into an opportunity for begging. A similar song is still popular in Greece. (Fauriel, “Chants de la Grèce.”) (See Coronize.)

Cheliform (χηλὴ, a claw). In the form of a claw.

Chelonium (a tortoise-shell, from χελώνη, a tortoise), (1) A kind of cramp or collar placed at the extremities of the uprights of certain machines. (2) A part of a catapult, also called pulvinus. (See Catapulta.)

Chelys (χέλυς, a tortoise). (1) The lyre of Mercury, formed of strings stretched across a tortoise-shell. (2) In the 16th and 17th centuries, a bass-viol and division-viol were each called chelys. (See also Testudo.)

Chemise de Chartres, Fr. A kind of armour mentioned among the habiliments proper for knights who should engage in single combat. (Meyrick.)

Chenbele. (See Cembel [hastilude].)

Cheng, Chinese. A musical instrument, consisting of a box or bowl, into which a series of tubes of different length and pitch are inserted; the tubes have holes in them to be played upon with the fingers.

Chêniscus (χὴν, a goose). An ornament placed at the bow, and sometimes the stern of ships. In shape it resembled the neck of a swan or goose.

Chequée, Checky, Her. Having the field divided into contiguous rows of small squares; alternately of a metal (or fur) and a colour.

Chequers, O. E. (See Checkstone.)

Cherub, pl. Cherubim, Heb. According to the classification of Dionysius, the first hierarchy of Angels consists of three choirs called Seraphim, Cherubim, and Thrones, and, receiving their glory immediately from Deity, transmit it to the second hierarchy. The first hierarchy are as councillors; the second as governors; the third as ministers. The Seraphim are absorbed in perpetual love and worship round the throne; the Cherubim know and worship; the Thrones sustain the throne. The Seraphim and Cherubim are in general represented as heads merely with two or four or six wings, and of a bright red or blue colour, &c. (Cf. Mrs. Jameson’s Legendary Art.) (See Angels, Seraphim. Dominions, &c.)

Cherubic Hymn, Chr. A hymn sung in the Greek Church before the great entrance (see Entrance); so called from its first words, οἱ τὰ χερουβὶμ μυστικῶς εἰκονίζοντες, κ.τ.λ.

Chesible, for Chasuble (q.v.).

Chesnut Brown. A brown lake pigment prepared from the horse chesnut; very durable for oils and water-colour painting.

Chess. Writers immediately after the Conquest speak of the Saxons as playing at chess, which, they say, they learned from the Danes. The game of chess is very prominent in the romances of the Middle Ages. The Scandinavian navigators introduced some remarkable elaborately carved chessmen, of walrus ivory, from Iceland, in the 12th century. The castles are replaced by warriors on foot, called hrokr, from the Saracen roc, Persian rokh, our rook. In the Saracen game the vizier represented our queen, and the elephant our bishop, the roc, or hero, as aforesaid, our rook. Beautifully carved chessmen in the costumes of the 13th and 14th century exist in England. They were all very large, a king being four inches in height and seven in circumference. The chess-boards were of corresponding size, and made of all materials, including the precious metals, crystal, sapphires, and topazes. The pieces varied in form: the mediæval rook had a head like a fleur-de-lis, the knight was represented by a small upright column with the upper part bent on one side. The aufin or bishop was of the same shape, but the bent end was cleft to indicate a mitre. The figures of the 16th century much more nearly resemble those now in vogue.

Chesse, O. E. (Fr. chasse). A border, a circlet.

Chest of Viols, O. E. A set of instruments complete for a “consort” of viols, i. e. two trebles, two tenors, and two basses.

Chester, O. E. A person who places corpses in their coffins.

Chests and Coffers, in Norman times, were adorned with elaborate carving and richly inlaid. They were still the general depositories for clothes and treasures. Cupboards (armoires) were introduced by the Normans, and filled with household utensils.

Chevalet, Fr. The bridge of a violin or other stringed instrument.

Cheval-traps. (See Caltraps.)

Chevaucheurs. Anglo-Norman horsemen, or running messengers.

Chevaux-de-frize. An arrangement of iron spikes for the defence of a battlement against assault.

Cheveril, O. E. Kid leather, proverbially elastic; hence, a cheveril conscience (that will stretch).

Chevesaile, Old Fr. A necklace.

Chevetaine, Old Fr. A captain; hence the mediæval cheuptanus.

Chevron. (1) Arch. One of the mouldings frequently used in Norman architecture, usually called zigzag (q.v.). (2) A badge on the coatsleeve of a non-commissioned officer. (3) Her. One of the ordinaries; the lower half of a Saltire (q.v.).

Chevronel, Her. A diminutive of the Chevron, of half the size.

Chevroter, Fr. A musical term: “to skip, quiver, to sing with uncertain tone, after the manner of goats,” alla vibrato.

Chiaroscuro, It. (chiaro, light, and oscuro, dark). Light and shade.

Chiave of Pavia. One of the Italian literary academies, composed entirely of noble and illustrious persons, who wore a golden key suspended round the neck, and had for a motto, Clauditur et aperitur liberis, and the text from Rev. iii. 7.

Chica. A dance popular in Spanish South America, of a jig-like character; the origin of the Fandango. (See Chaconne.)

Chief, Her. One of the ordinaries; the chief bounded by a horizontal line contains the uppermost third of the field of a shield. In chief, arranged horizontally across the upper part of the field.

Childermas, O. E. Innocents’ Day.

Chilled (Fr. chancissure). Said of a moisture on the varnish of a picture by which the defect of cloudiness called Blooming is caused.

Chimæra, Gr. A monster described by Homer, with a lion’s head, a goat’s body, and a dragon’s tail. In Christian art it is a symbol of cunning. (See also Dog of Fo.)

Chime. (1) To play bells by swinging the hammers, opposed to ringing by swinging the bells. (2) A chime of bells is a Carillon.

Chimere, Chr. The outer dress of a Protestant bishop. It is made of black satin, without sleeves.

Chimneys (Gr. χιμήνη, winter), carried up in the massive walls of the castles, were first introduced into England by the Normans. The fire was still piled up in the middle of the hall, but fireplaces were built against the side walls in the more private apartments—the original of the well-known mediæval fireplace and “chymené.” Leland, in his account of Bolton Castle, which was “finiched or Kynge Richard the 2 dyed,” notices the chimneys: “One thynge I muche notyd in the hawle of Bolton, how chimeneys were conveyed by tunnells made on the syds of the walls, betwyxt the lights in the hawle, and by this means, and by no covers, is the smoke of the harthe in the hawle wonder strangely conveyed.”

Chin-band, Chin-cloth. A muffler of lace worn by ladies, temp. Charles I.

China. (See Pottery.)

China (or Chinese) Ink. (See Indian Ink.)

Chinese Paper. A fine absorbent paper of a yellowish tint, used for proofs of engravings, &c. Japanese paper is now frequently preferred.

Chinese White. Oxide of Zinc (q.v.). It is more constant than white lead.

Chinny-mumps. A Yorkshire music made by rapping the chin with the knuckles.

Chints or Chintz (Hindoo, chhint, spotted cotton cloth). Cotton cloth printed in more than two colours.

Chiramaxium, Gr. and R. (χειρ-αμάξιον, i. e. hand-cart). An invalid’s chair mounted upon two wheels, and drawn or pushed by slaves.

Chiridota, Gr. and R. (from adj. χειριδωτὸς, i. e. lit. having sleeves). Tunics with long sleeves, worn in especial by the Asiatic races and by the Celts. The early Britons, before the Roman invasion, wore close coats checkered with various colours in divisions, open before and with long close sleeves to the wrist.

Chirimia, Sp. (from chirimoya, a pear). An oboe.

Chirography. The art of writing with hands.

Chirology. The art of talking with the hands.

Chiromancy (μάντις, a soothsayer). Divination from the lines of the palms of the hands.

Chironomia, Gr. and R. (χειρο-νομία, i. e. measured motion of the hands). The mimetic art. By this term is expressed not only the art of speaking with gestures and by means of the hands, but also the action of speaking combined with gesticulation. This art dates from a high antiquity. It was originally part of the art of dancing,—clapping the hands in rhythm; also a gymnastic exercise, for pugilists and others.

Chiroplast. An instrument for teaching fingering of musical instruments, invented by Logier in 1810.

Chirothecæ (Gr. χειροθήκη; Lat. gantus). Gloves were unknown to the early Greeks and Romans, but in use among the ancient Persians. In Christian archæology they are first met with in the 12th century. (See Gloves.)

Chisleu, Heb. The ninth month of the Jewish year. It begins with the new moon of our December.

Fig. 157. Diana wearing the Greek chiton.

Chiton (χιτών). The Greek tunic. (Fig. 157.)

Chitte, O. E. A sheet.

Chivachirs (Chevaucheurs). Old Fr. Running messengers.

Chlaina (Lat. læna). A kind of cloak, of ample size, worn by the Greeks in campaigning. In time of peace it served as a bed coverlet. The diminutive χλανίδιον appears to have been a woman’s mantle.

Chlamyda. (See Chlamys.)

Fig. 158. Apollo wearing the chlamys folded round his arm.

Fig. 159.

Chlamys, Gr. A short light mantle, which was worn by Greek youths (not by Romans) until they arrived at manhood. It was the regular equestrian costume, and was of an oblong square shape. (Fig. 159.) The chlamys is seen in representations of men hunting or fighting with beasts, as a shield wrapped round the left arm, the right poising the spear. (Fig. 158.) In Botany, the floral envelope.

Chœnix (χοῖνιξ). A Greek measure of capacity, variously valued from a pint and half to two quarts.

Choir, Quire, or Quere, Arch. The part of the church for the singers and clerks, i. e. the space between the NAVE (for the people), and the BEMA, or presbytery, for the celebrating clergy. But in mediæval writings the term includes the BEMA. (See Chancel.)

Choir Wall or Choir Screen (Fr. clôture). The wall or screen between the side aisles and the choir.

Choosing-stick (a Somersetshire provincialism). A divining-rod.

Chopines, It. Clogs or high shoes, of Asiatic origin, introduced from Venice in the 16th century.

Choragic Monuments. Small pedestals or shrines erected by the winner of a choral contest to display the tripod which was his prize. At Athens there was a street lined with such monuments, called the “Street of the Tripods.” The Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, still existing in Athens, is one of the most valuable remains of Greek architecture.

Choragium, Gr. and R. (χορηγὸς, or chorus-leader). A large space in a theatre, situated behind the stage. It was here that the “properties” were kept and the rehearsals of the chorus took place. The term is also used to denote the furniture, costumes, decorations, and, in a word, all the accessories required in the production of a piece.

Chordaulodion. A self-acting musical instrument invented by Kauffmann of Dresden in 1812.

Chorea, Gr. and R. (χορὸς, q.v.). A choral dance, in which the dancers took each other by the hand and danced to the sound of their own voices.

Chorus, Gr. and R. (χορὸς, i. e. prop. a circle). (1) A choir of singers in a dramatic entertainment. (2) A band of dancers who went through their movements to the sound of their own singing. (3) A round choral dance; in this last signification chorea may equally well be used.

Chorus or Choron, O. E. An instrument somewhat resembling a bagpipe; the name was also applied to certain stringed instruments. The word choron originally designated a horn. (Hebrew, Keren.)

Chous, Gr. and R. (χόος, contr. χοῦς, i. e. that from which one pours). An amphora, forming a measure of exact capacity. Another name for it was Congius (q.v.). It held twelve Cotylæ (q.v.).

Choutara, Hindoo. A kind of guitar with four wire strings.

Chrism, Chr. (from χρίω, to smear). A composition of balsam and oil of olives used by Christians of various denominations at the administration of the sacraments.

Chrismal, Chrismatory, Chr. (1) The vessel made to contain the consecrated oil. (See Labarum.) (2) A vessel for the reservation of the consecrated Host. (3) A cloth used to cover relics. (4) Old English chrisom, a white linen cloth put upon the child’s head in baptism. (See Font-cloth.)

Chrismarium, Chr. (See Chrismal, 1.)

Chrisom. O. E. (1) See Chrismal, 4. (2) A child that dies within a month after birth.

Christ-cross, O. E. (1) The Alphabet; so named from a school lesson beginning “Christe Crosse me spede in alle my worke.” (2) The mark made for his signature by a person who cannot write.

Christemporeia, Chr. Literally, the selling of Christ, simony.

Christian Horses, O. E. Bearers of sedan chairs.

Christmas-boxes. So called from the old practice of collecting them in boxes.

Chromatic Scale (χρῶμα, colour). In Music, the scale that proceeds by semi-tones; so called from the practice of printing the intermediate notes in various colours.

Chromatics. The science of colours.

Chromatrope. An optical instrument for assisting the invention of combinations of colours.

Chrome, Chromium. An important mineral, the green oxide of which furnishes the Chrome Green.

Chrome Green. A dark green pigment prepared from oxide of chromium; mixed with Prussian blue and chrome yellow it is called Green Cinnabar.

Chrome Ochre. Oxide of chromium of a fine yellowish green.

Chrome Red. A chromate of lead; a durable pigment used in oil painting. (See Red Lead.)

Chrome Yellow. A chromate of lead, which makes a bad pigment for oil painting. It is very poisonous and not durable; when mixed with white lead it turns to a dirty grey. As a water-colour pigment it is less objectionable.

Chromite. Chromate of iron; a mineral consisting of protoxide of iron and oxide of chromium, used in the preparation of various pigments.

Chronogram (χρόνος, time). An inscription which includes in it the date of an event.

Chryselephantine Statues of ivory and gold. The most celebrated were that of Minerva, by Pheidias, which stood in the Acropolis at Athens, and was 40 English feet in height; and that of Zeus, 45 feet high, likewise by Pheidias, in the temple of Olympia. A reproduction of this statue was shown in the Paris Exhibition of 1855.

Chrysendeta, R. (χρυσένδετα, i. e. set or inlaid with gold). A very costly description of plate-service employed by wealthy Romans. Of its precise character nothing unfortunately is known, but to judge from the epigrams of certain authors, it must have been chased and embossed.

Chrysoberyl (βήρυλλος, a beryl). A gem of a yellowish green colour; a species of corundum (q.v.).

Chryso-clavus (Lat. golden nail-head). All rich purple silks, woven or embroidered with the clavus in gold, were so named. They were used for altar frontals, and the clavi were sometimes made so large that a subject was embroidered upon them; they were then called sigillata or sealed. (See Clavus.)

Chrysocolla or Gold Green (χρυσόκολλος, inlaid or soldered with gold). (1) Native verdigris. Its principal use was for the preparation of a solder for gold. (See Santerna.) (2) The Greek term for Green Verditer and Armenian Green (Latin, Armenium); a pigment obtained from malachite and green carbonate of copper. It was also called pea green or grass-green.

Chthonia, Gr. and R. (χθὼν, the earth). Festivals held every spring at Argos in honour of Ceres, at which four aged women sacrificed heifers.

Church, in Christian art, is the attribute of a founder thereof, who is frequently represented holding it in his hand. The most ancient symbol of the Church is the ark of Noah, subsequently a ship, often covered with the waves, &c., very frequent in the catacombs. On tombs it is held to imply that the dead expired in full communion with the Church.

Churcheard, Church-haw, Church-litten. Old English provincialisms for a churchyard or burial-ground.

Church-stile, O. E. A pulpit.

Chymbe, O. E. A cymbal:—

“As a chymbe or a brazen belle,
That nouther can undirstonde my telle.”

Chymol, Gemell, O. E. A hinge, still called the eastern counties a “gimmer.”

Chytra, Gr. and R. (from χέω, to pour). A common kind of pot, of Greek origin, made with red clay. It was used for cooking.

Chytria, Gr. An Athenian festival, which derived its name from the χύτρα, or common pot in which were cooked the vegetables or other provisions offered to Bacchus and Mercury in memory of the dead.

Chytropus, Chytropous, Gr. (χυτρό-πους, lit. a pot-foot). A chytra with three or four feet.

Cibilla. (See Cilliba.)

Ciborium, Gr., R., and Chr. (κιβώριον, the pod of the καλοκασία, or Egyptian bean). (1) A drinking-vessel so called because it resembled the Egyptian bean in shape. (2) In Christian archæology a kind of baldachino or canopy, supported by a varying number of columns, which forms the covering of the high altar in a church. Called also the Tabernacle, Sacrament house, God’s house, or holyroof. (See Severey.) (3) Ciborium also signifies a vessel in which the consecrated wafer is “reserved.”

Ciclatoun or Siklatoun. The Persian name, adopted in England, for a textile of real gold thread; 12th century.

Ciconia, R. (lit. a stork). (1) A sign made in dumb show by bending the forefinger into the form of a stork’s neck. (2) An instrument, in shape like an inverted T, employed by farmers to make sure that trenches dug by the spade were of uniform depth. (3) Ciconia composita was the name given to a more elaborate instrument of the same kind invented by Columella.

Cicuta, R. (i. e. lit. the hemlock). A term used by analogy to denote anything made out of the hemlock plant, especially the Pan’s pipes.

Cidaris, Gen. (κίδαρις or κίταρις, a Persian tiara). A sort of diadem or royal bonnet worn by Eastern princes. It was tall, straight and stiff in shape, and was ornamented with pearls or precious stones. The same name was also applied to the bonnet worn at ceremonies by the high priest of the Jews. (See Tiara.)

Cilery, Arch. Drapery or foliage carved on the heads of columns.

Cilibantum, R. (See Cilliba.) A stand or table with three legs.

Cilicium, R. (1) A coarse cloth made of goat’s hair, and manufactured in Cilicia. It was much used in the army and navy: in the former for making the soldiers’ tents; in the latter for clothes for the sailors or for sails. (2) During the time of mourning, or when suffering under any calamity, the Jews put on a kind of cilicium made of coarse canvas. (3) A cloth mattress stuffed with sea-weed or cow-hair, which was placed outside the walls of besieged cities to deaden the blows of the battering-ram or of projectiles. (4) In Christian archæology the cilicium or hair-shirt is a sleeveless jacket made with a material of horsehair and coarse hemp. The Dominicans, Franciscans, and certain Carthusians wear the cilicium to mortify the flesh.

Cilliba, Gr. and R. (κίλλος, an ass) A trestle, and by analogy a dining-table supported by trestles. This form of table, which was commonly used by the early Romans, was replaced later on by the circular table.

Cimbal. An old name for the Dulcimer (q.v.).

Cimeter, Cymetar, Scimeter, &c. A short curved sword used by the Persians or Turks, mentioned by Meyrick as adopted by the Hussars, temp. Elizabeth.

Cincinnus, R. A long ringlet or corkscrew curl of hair produced with the curling-irons. (See Hair.)

Cincticulus, R. (dimin. of Cinctus, q.v.). A kind of short petticoat worn by youths.

Cinctorium, R. (from cinctus, a girdle). (1) A sword-belt worn round the waist, and thus distinguished from the Balteus or baldric, which passed over the shoulder. The balteus was worn by private soldiers, while the cinctorium was the distinctive badge of an officer. (2) The dagger, so called because it was suspended from or put into the girdle.

Cincture, Arch. The fillet, at each end of the shaft of a classical column (q.v.).

Cinctus, R. (from cingo, i. e. a girding). A short petticoat (or kilt) worn by men; also in the same sense as cingula and cingulum, a girdle. Cinctus gabinus was a particular manner of arranging the toga, by throwing one end over the head, and fastening the other round the waist like a girdle. As an adjective, cinctus was applied to any individual of either sex who wore any kind of belt or girdle. (See Discinctus.)

Fig. 160. Cineraria.

Cinerarium, R. (i. e. a place of ashes). A niche in a tomb, sufficiently roomy to hold an urn of large size, or a sarcophagus. The following was the disposition of one, or in many cases, three sides in a Roman tomb: in the centre of the wall was a large niche (cinerarium medianum) for a sarcophagus, and on each side of this two small niches (columbaria), and above each of the latter was a much larger recess for large urns. (See also Columbarium, Cubiculum, Cupella.)

Cinerarius. A hair-dresser (who heated his tongs in the cinders).

Cingulum, R. A girdle or other fastening round the waist. In modern archæology, cingulo militari decorare signifies to create a knight, from the practice of investing him with the military girdle; and cingulum militare auferre is to degrade a knight. (See Discinctus.)

Ciniflo, R. A synonym for Cinerarius (q.v.).

Cinnabar. Sulphide of mercury; an ancient red pigment used for sacred and imperial purposes. (See Chrome Green, Dragon’s Blood, Vermilion.)

Cinnamon-stone. A variety of lime-garnet of a clear cinnamon-brown tint.

Cinque-cento (literally, 500). The Italian art of the 16th century.

Fig. 161. Heraldic Cinque-foil.

Cinque-foil, Arch. (Fr. cinque and feuille, a leaf). An ornamental foliation or feathering of the lanceolated style, consisting of five projecting points or cusps. (Fig. 161.)

Cinta, Med. Lat. (Fr. enceinte). The outside wall of a fortress.

Cinyra. An old term for a harp.

Fig. 162. Cippus (Tomb-stone).

Cippus, R. (1) A short stone pillar of cylindrical form, employed to mark the boundaries between adjoining estates or nations. (2) A pillar of cylindrical or rectangular form, and sometimes perfectly plain, sometimes richly ornamented, erected for a tomb-stone. (Fig. 162.) In some instances the cippus enclosed a cavity in which the urn containing the ashes of the dead person might be placed. A cippus was placed at the corner of a cemetery, and the measurements of the burying-ground were recorded upon it. In Med. Lat. the word is used for the keep of the castle.

Circenses Ludi, R. Games in the circus. (See Consualia.)

Circinate. Curled in the manner of the Ionic volute, or like the fronds of young ferns rolled inwards from the summit to the base.

Circinus, R. A compass; an instrument employed, as now, by architects, sculptors, masons, and various other trades. The Romans were also acquainted with reduction compasses.

Circle. The emblem of Heaven and eternity.

Circumlitio. An ancient Greek varnish, with which the statues of the Greeks were tinted. (Eastlake.)

Circumpotatio, R. (from circum and poto, i. e. a drinking-around). A funeral feast in which the guests passed round the wine from hand to hand. It took place at the tomb of the person in whose memory it was held, and on the anniversary of his death.

Circumvallation. A fortification made round a blockaded place by a besieging army.

Fig. 163. Model of a Roman Circus.

Circus, Gr. and R. (i. e. a circle). A flat open space near a city, round which were raised scaffoldings for the accommodation of the spectators. This was the form of the earliest circuses; but as civilization advanced, they were regularly constructed of stone. The arena was in the form of a vast rectangle terminating at one extremity in a semicircle, and surrounded by tiers of seats for the spectators. At the end fronting the semicircular part was a rectangular pile of buildings, underneath which were the carceres or stalls for the horses, and down the centre of the circus ran a long low wall called the spina, adorned with statues, obelisks, &c. This spina formed a barrier by which the circus was divided into two distinct parts, and at each end of it was a meta or goal, round which the chariots turned. (See Meta and Ovum.) The Romans constructed circuses in England, wherever they had a large encampment. The ruins exist at Dorchester, Silchester, Richborough, and other places.

Cirrus, R. (1) A lock of hair; a ringlet curling naturally, and so distinguished from the cincinnus, a curl produced by means of the curling-iron. (2) A tuft; the forelock of a horse when tied up above its ears. (3) A tuft of flowers forming a bunch or head, such as phlox, calceolaria, &c. (4) Light curled clouds in the sky, portending wind, are hence called cirri.

Ciselure, Fr. Chasing. (See Cælatura.)

Cissibium or Cissybium, Gr. and R. (κισσύβιον, i. e. made or wreathed with ivy). A drinking-vessel, so called because the handle was made of ivy-wood, or more probably because it had an ivy-wreath carved upon it.

Cissoid (lit. ivy-shaped). A celebrated curve, applied in the trisection of an angle, invented by Diocles the geometer.

Cissotomiæ, Gr. (κισσο-τόμοι, sc. ἡμέραι, i. e. the days of ivy-cutting). A festival held in Greece, in honour of Hebe, goddess of youth, and a youth called Cissos, who, when dancing with Bacchus, had fallen down and been changed into ivy. Accordingly at this festival youths and girls danced with their heads wreathed with ivy.

Cista, Cistella, Sitella, R. (κίστη, a chest). (1) A large wicker-work basket in which the voters deposited their voting-tablets at the comitia. It was of a cylindrical shape, and about four or five feet high. (2) A smaller basket into which the judges cast the tablets recording their sentence. (3) A wicker-work basket in which children carried about their playthings. (4) The cist which was carried in procession at the Eleusinian festival, and which might be either a wicker basket or a box of metal. It was filled with corn, rice, sesame, salt, and pomegranates. Richly ornamented chests or boxes, with bronze mirrors in them, found among Etruscan ruins, are called cistæ mysticæ. The sitella, or situla, was a different vessel; viz. a bucket of water, into which the lots (sortes) were thrown. The situla had a narrow neck, so that only one lot could come to the surface when it was shaken. It was also called Urna or Orca.

Cistella, R. A dulcimer; lit. a little box. (See Cista.)

Cistellula, R. (dimin. of Cista, q.v.). A very small cista.

Cistophorus, Egyp., Gr., and R. (κιστοφόρος, i. e. bearing a cista or cistus). A silver coin, current in Asia, and worth about four drachmæ. It was so called from bearing the impression of a cista (chest), or, more probably, of the shrub cistus. [Value four francs of French money.]

Cistula, R. Dimin. of Cista (q.v.).

Citadel (It. cittadella, a little town). A fortress within a city.

Cithara, Cither, Gr. and R. (κιθάρα). A stringed instrument of great antiquity, resembling our modern guitar. It was played with a plectrum. The name was afterwards applied to many stringed instruments of varied form, power of sound, and compass. The mediæval Rotta was called C. teutonica; the harp was called C. Anglica.

Cithara Bijuga. A guitar with a double neck.

Citole, O. E. A kind of guitar.

“A citole in hir right hand had sche.” (Chaucer.)

Cittern. A stringed instrument, like a guitar, strung with wire instead of gut. The cittern was at one time a part of the furniture of every barber’s shop, and customers played on it while waiting for their turns. (Niche 1 of Exeter Gallery. See Clarion.)

Civery, Arch. (See Severey.) A bay or compartment of a vaulted ceiling.

Civic Crown, Her. A wreath of oak leaves and acorns. (See Corona.)

Ckuicui, Peruvian. One of the divisions of the temple of the Sun (Inti), so named as being dedicated to the rainbow (Ckuichi). (See Inti.)

Clabulare. (See Clavulare.)

Clack or Clap-dish, O. E. A box with a movable lid used and rattled by beggars to attract attention:—

“His tongue moves like a beggar’s clapdish.”

Cladeuteria. A Greek festival held in honour of Bacchus, at the time when the pruning of the vines took place.

Fig. 164. Clerestory and Triforium in Worcester Cathedral.

Claire-voie (Anglicè, Clerestory), Arch. (i. e. clear-storey). A row of large windows, forming the upper storey of the nave of a church, rising clear above the adjoining parts of the building.

Clan (Gaelic, klann, children). A tribe of persons of one common family, united under a chieftain.

Clap-bene, O. E. Bene signifies a prayer, and children were invited by this phrase to clap their hands together, as their only means of expressing their prayers.

Clap-dish. (See Clackdish.)

Clappe or Clapper, O. E. A wooden rattle used to summon people to church on the last three days of Passion Week, when the bells were not rung.

Clarenceux, Her. The title of one of the three kings of arms at Heralds’ College. The others are called Garter and Norroy.

Clarichord, O. E. A stringed instrument, in the form of a spinet, of mediæval times. At the marriage of James of Scotland with the Princess Margaret, A. D. 1503, “the king began before hyr to play of the clarychordes, and after of the lute. And upon the said clarychorde Sir Edward Stanley played a ballad, and sange therewith.” (Wharton, “History of English Poetry.”) It is identical with the clavichord, the origin of the spinet, harpsichord, and pianoforte.

Fig. 165, 166. Clarions (heraldic).

Clarion, O. E. A small trumpet, with a shrill sound. (Represented in the third niche of the “Minstrels’ Gallery” of Exeter Cathedral, of which there is a cast in the South Kensington Museum.)

Classic Orders of Architecture. The Grecian: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian;—and the Roman: Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite orders (q.v.) are generally thus distinguished.

Clathrate. Latticed like a grating (clathri).

Fig. 167. Clathri over bronze doors.

Clathri, R. A grating or trellis formed of wooden or metal bars; clathri were employed to form the imposts over hypæthral doors, and to light the stables (carceres) under the circus, &c. Fig. 167 represents one of the bronze doors of the Pantheon at Rome with the grating above.

Claude Glass. A dark convex glass for studying the effect of a landscape in reverse. Its name is supposed to be derived from the similarity of the effects it gives, to those of a picture by Claude Lorrain.

Clausula, R. The handle of any instrument whatsoever, when made in such a way that the hand can be inserted into it, as for instance with a ring or sword-hilt. The Strigilis (q.v.) had a handle of this description. Clausula is thus to be distinguished from capulus (a straight handle), and ansa (a handle affixed to another object).

Clava, R. (1) A stout knotty stick, growing much thicker towards one end. (2) A very heavy club with which young recruits went through their exercises. (3) A club like that of Hercules, or a mace or war-club with an iron head, and studded with nails or (more commonly) sharp spikes.

Clavate. Club-shaped; tapering down from the top.

Clavesignati, Med. Lat. The Papal troops were so called, who had the keys of St. Peter on their standards and uniforms.

Claviary. In Music, an index of keys.

Fig. 168. Clavichord—18th century.

Clavichord. A stringed instrument in the form of a spinet. (Fig. 168.) (See Clarichord.)

Clavicula. Dimin. of Clavis (q.v.).

Clavier. Of a musical instrument, the key-board.

Clavis, R. A key. The clavis clausa was a small key without a neck or lever; clavis laconica, a key of Egyptian invention, having three teeth; clavis adultera, a false key; clavis trochi, a curved stick made of iron and having a hook at the end, which was used by Greek and Roman boys for trundling their hoops.

Clavius. A walled plain in the moon, more than a hundred miles in diameter.

Clavulare or Clabulare, R. A large open cart used for carrying provisions, especially dolia (casks) filled with wine. The body of the carriage was formed by a wooden trellis-work (clavulæ)—whence its name—and was of a semi-cylindrical shape, adapted to accommodate wine barrels.

Clavus, R. A nail. In Christian archæology, a purple hem or band applied as an ornament to a dress, which was then called vestis clavata. (See Chryso-clavus.)

Claymore (Gaelic, claidheamb, a sword, and mor, great). The highland broadsword.

Clechée, Her. (See Undée.) A variety of the heraldic cross.

Clef or Cliff, Music. A figure indicating the pitch to be adopted for the key-note of a piece of music; an invention of the 13th century.

Clepsydra, Gen. (κλεψ-ύδρα, i. e. a stealing-away of water). A water-clock, and by analogy an hour-glass or sand-clock. The clepsydra was used as an hour-glass in the courts of justice at Athens, to measure out the time allowed to each orator.

Clerestory. (See Claire-voie.)

Cleystaffe, O. E. A pastoral staff.

Clibanus, R. (1) A basket used for baking bread; the bread itself, when thus baked, being called clibanicius. (2) Med. Lat. A short hauberk, which the later Greeks called κλίβανον, because it covered the breast. (Meyrick.) (3) Med. Lat. A tower.

Clicket, O. E. A key.

“With his clicket
Damian hath opened this wicket.” (Chaucer.)

Cliff. (See Clef.)

Clipeolum. Dimin. of Clipeus (q.v.).

Fig. 169. Clipeus.

Clipeus and Clipeum, R. (akin to καλύπτω, to cover or conceal). A large broad shield of circular shape and concave on the inside. It was of great weight, and formed part of the special equipment of the cavalry. The original clipeus Argolicus was circular, and often likened to the sun: in Roman sculpture it is often oval. The outer rim was termed antyx; the boss in the centre, omphalos, or umbo; a leather strap for the arm, telamon. It was replaced, subsequently, by the Scutum (q.v.). Fig. 169 is an ornamented bronze clipeus, thought to be Gaulish. This term also serves to denote (1) a shield of metal or marble which was employed as an ornament (Fig. 170 represents an ornamental shield, such as was placed on the frieze of a building, and especially in the metopes of the Doric entablature); and (2) an apparatus employed in the laconicum (q.v.) to regulate the temperature. In the illustration to Caldarium a slave may be seen pulling the chains of the clipeus.

Fig. 170. Ornamental Clipeus.

Fig. 171. Cloaca Maxima at Rome.

Cloaca, R. (from cluo, i. e. the cleanser). A subterranean sewer or canal constructed of masonry. The Cloaca Maxima, or Main Sewer of Rome, was constructed by the elder Tarquin to drain a marsh lying at the foot of the Palatine and Capitoline Hills. Fig. 171 represents one of its mouths. It was formed of three tiers of arches, the innermost being fourteen feet in diameter.

Clocks, O. E., “are the gores of a ruff, the laying in of the cloth to make it round, the plaites;” also ornaments on stockings and on hoods.

Clog-almanacks. The Anglo-Saxons calculated by the phases of the moon, set down on square pieces of wood, a foot or two long. These clogs are still common in Staffordshire. (Cf. Plott’s History of Staffordshire; Gough’s Camden’s Britannia, ii. 379.)

Cloish, or Closh, O. E. A kind of ninepins played with a ball. (Strutt, p. 202.) Cf. Club-kayles.

Cloisonné. A form of enamelling by incrustation, in which the pattern is raised by strips of metal or wire welded on.

Fig. 173. Cloisters in the Church of Mont St. Michel.

Cloister, Chr. (from Lat. claustrum, q.v.). A kind of court or quadrangle surrounded by a covered way, and having much analogy to the atrium of a Roman house. The cloister was an essential appendage to an abbey. One of its sides was usually bounded by the church, with which it easily communicated. The walls of the cloisters were often adorned with frescoes, and the court was occasionally planted with trees, the centre being occupied by a fountain. A monastery was often called a cloister. The sides of the cloister were anciently termed the Panes of it, and the walks its alleys or deambulatories. (Fig. 173.)

Cloister Garth. The quadrangular space enclosed by the cloisters. The cloister garth at Chichester is still called the Paradise, and that at Chester the Sprise garden. (See Paradise, Sprise.)

Close, Her. With closed wings.

Close-gauntlets. Gauntlets with immovable fingers.

Closet, Her. A diminution of the BAR, one half its width.

Cloths of Estate. Costly embroidered hangings for the canopy of a throne.

Clouée, Her. Fastened with nails, and showing the nail-heads.

Clouts. Old name for kerchiefs.

Clown, in pantomime. Harlequin is Mercury, the Clown Momus, and the painted face and wide mouth taken from the ancient masks; Pantaloon is Charon, and Columbine Psyche. (Clarke’s Travels, viii. 104–7.)

Club, Gr. and R. (Gr. φάλαγξ). This weapon being used in close fight gave its name to the compact body of troops so called. The Scythians united it with the mace, both being spiked. Ducange mentions the vulgastus, a crooked club; the plumbata, loaded with lead, the spontonus with iron. In the army of Charles I. rustics untrained were called clubmen. (See Clava.)

Club-kayles, O. E. Skittles played with a club, instead of a ball. (See Cloish.)

Clubs, at cards, are the ancient trèfles, the trefoil or clover-plant. (See Trefle.)

Cluden, Gr. and R. A sword, the blade of which was contrived to recede into the handle. It was used for theatrical representations.

Fig. 174. Clunaculum.

Clunaculum, R. (1) A dagger so called because it was worn at the back; “quia ad clunes pendet,” as Festus says. (2) The sacrificial knife with which the victim was ripped up. The dagger represented in Fig. 174, taken from the arch of Carpentras, was probably a Gaulish clunaculum.

Fig. 172. Clustered column in Nave of Wells Cathedral.

Clustered Column, Arch. A pier formed of a congeries of columns or shafts clustered together, either attached or detached. It is also called a Compound Pier. Fig. 172 is a specimen from Wells Cathedral.

Clypeate. Shaped like a shield.

Cnopstara. A weapon used by the Caledonians; a ball filled with pieces of metal swung at the heads of their lances, to frighten cavalry.

Coa Vestis, or simply Coa (i. e. the Coan robe). A very fine robe [made of silk, spun in Cos], of such light texture as to be almost transparent. It was worn by hetairai and singing and dancing girls, &c.

Coactilis, sc. lana (from cogo, i. e. that which is forced together). A kind of felted cloth made of wool closely pressed together. It formed a texture analogous to our felt. Another name for it was coactus.

Coal as an ancient pigment was used both in water-colours and in oil; it furnishes a brownish tint. “The shadows of flesh are well rendered by pit-coal, which should not be burnt.” (De Mayerne.)

Coassatio (from coasso, to join planks together). A general term for planks joined together, such as the flooring of a room, the top of a table, the deck of a ship, the roadway of a wooden bridge, &c. (See Constratum.)

Fig. 175. Coat Armour.

Fig. 176. Coat Armour. Devices on shield.

Coat Armour, Med. Embroidery of heraldic devices upon costume; hence a term for heraldry in general. (Figs. 175 and 176.)

Coat Cards, O. E. Court cards and tens, so named from the coat armour worn by the figures.

Cob. Irish name of a Spanish coin formerly current in Ireland; value about 4s. 8d.

Cobalt. A metal found in various combinations, from which various colouring matters are obtained of great use in the arts. Cobalt blue, a beautiful blue pigment, is obtained by mixing a salt of pure cobalt with a solution of pure alum, precipitating the liquid by an alkaline carbonate, washing the precipitate with care, drying and igniting it strongly. A fine green, known as Rinmann’s green, is similarly prepared. The chloride, the nitrate, and the sulphate of cobalt form sympathetic inks, which only become visible when the moisture is absorbed by the application of heat. From phosphate of cobalt a beautiful blue pigment is produced, called Thenard’s blue. It is said to have all the characters of ultramarine. Oxide of cobalt has the property of colouring glass blue; hence a glass formed of this oxide under the name of smalt is the blue colouring matter used for ornamenting porcelain and earthenware, for staining glass, for painting on enamel, &c.

Cobalt-bloom. (See Erythrine.)

Cobbards, O. E. The irons supporting a spit.

Cob-wall, Arch. A wall formed of unburned clay mixed with straw.

Cochineal. (See Carmine.)

Cochineal Lakes. (See Carminated Lakes.)

Cochlea (κοχλίας, i. e. a snail with spiral shell). Any object of spiral shape, like a screw; and so a worm and screw as a mechanical power in oil-, wine-, &c. presses; the “Archimedean Screw,” or “water-snail” for raising water; the revolving door through which the wild beasts were let out into the amphitheatre; and other contrivances similar to the Italian ruota, by which persons can be introduced through a wall without opening a door; also a spiral staircase, &c.

Cochlear, Cochleare (from κόχλος, a shell-fish). (1) A spoon having at one extremity a sharp point, and at the other a sort of small bowl. (2) A measure of capacity of very small size.

Cochlearium, R. A pond or nursery for fattening snails for the table. (English “cockles.”)

Cochlis, sc. columna (κοχλὶς, i. e. lit. a snail). A hollow monumental column, the interior of which was fitted with a cockle or spiral staircase, like the “Monument” of London.

Cock. In Christian art, the emblem of St. Peter, and of watchfulness.

Cockatrice. In Christian art, the emblem of sin; attribute of St. Vitus. (Her.: see the illustration to Basilisk.)

Cock-bead, Arch. A bead which projects from the surface of the timber on both sides.

Cockers, O. E. Ploughmen’s laced boots.

Cocket, O. E. A seal formerly attached to goods which had paid customs dues. Ancient cockets bear such inscriptions on them as “God willing,” “If God please,” &c.

Cockle-stairs, O. E. Winding stairs. (Cf. Cochlea.)

Coctilis, Cocta, Coctus, R. (prepared by fire). Later coctilis was a brick hardened artificially by fire, in contradistinction to one dried in the sun; murus coctilis, a wall built of hardened bricks. (See Acapna.)

Cocurra, Med. Lat. A quiver.

Cocytia (from Κωκυτὸς, the river of weeping). A festival held in honour of Proserpine, who had been carried off by Pluto. The latter, as king of the infernal regions, included in his sway the river Cocytus. The Cocytus and Acheron, two rivers of Epirus, remarkable for unwholesome and muddy water, and subterranean currents, were hence called the rivers of Hell. “Cocytia virgo” was Alecto, one of the Furies.

Cod, Scotch. A pillow (also pod).

Codex (caudex, the trunk of a tree). (1) A blank book for writing in, consisting of thin tablets of wood covered with wax; the term thus came to mean code, that is, a book containing laws, since these were inscribed in a book, the leaves of which were composed of thin leaves of wood. When parchment or paper was introduced, the term was still applied; and hence, later, became appropriate to any code of laws, e. g. the Gregorian, Theodosian, Justinian, &c. (2) An early manuscript book, such as the Codex of the Greek New Testament and of “Virgil” in the Vatican. (3) The term was also applied to the heavy logs attached to the feet of slaves; these were of various shapes, sometimes even serving the purpose of a seat.

Codicillus (dimin. of Codex, q.v.). A small book, or small leaves of wood covered with wax. The plural codicilli denoted a number of such sheets put together so as to form a sort of memorandum-book for taking rough notes. Any supplemental note made on the margin of the leaves composing a will, or added to them, was also called codicillus (codicil).

Codon (Gr. κώδων). A bell; the bell of a trumpet; a trumpet with a bell-mouth.

Cod-piece (from O. E. “cod,” a pillow or stuffed cushion; Fr. braguette); introduced temp. Henry VIII. An appendage to the taces over the os pubis, copied in the armour of the period. It continued in use to the end of Elizabeth’s reign.

Cœlum. In Architecture, that part of a building which was placed over any other part, and so a ceiling, or soffit.

Cœmeterium, Cemetery, Chr. (κοιμητήριον, from κοιμάω, i. e. a sleeping-place; Lat dormitorium). This term is an exclusively Christian one; it signifies a field of rest or refuge; the last resting-place of man. (See Hypogæum.)

Cœna (from Sanscr. khad-, to eat). The principal meal among the Romans, consisting of several courses termed respectively prima, altera or secunda, tertia, quarta cœna. The hour at which the cœna took place varied with the habits of the master of the house, but it was usually about four or five o’clock. It was the third meal of the day, being preceded by the jentaculum (breakfast), and the merenda or prandium (luncheon or early dinner). The corresponding Greek meal was called deipnon, which closed with a libation to Zeus; after which the drinking party that remained was called Symposium. (See Last Supper.)

Cœnaculum. In early times this term was used for the Triclinium (q.v.); later on it came to mean the upper stories of houses inhabited by the poor, our attic or garret. In the plural, cœnacula denotes the whole suite of rooms on the upper story of a house, and cœnacula meritoria such apartments let out on hire.

Cœnatio, like cœnaculum, a dining-room situated upstairs. It thus differed from the Triclinium (q.v.), which was a dining-room on the ground floor; the former was used in winter, the latter in summer. The cœnatio, or diæta, was a very magnificent apartment. Nero had one in his golden palace, constructed like a theatre, with a change of scenery for every course.

Cœnatoria, Cœnatoriæ Vestes. The garments worn by the Romans at the dinner-table.

Cœnobium (κοινό-βιον, i. e. a life in common). A monastery; a convent of monks who lived in common.

Cœur, Carreau, Pique, and Trèfle. The four French suits of cards, corresponding with our Hearts, Diamonds, Spades, and Clubs, probably introduced in the reign of Charles VII. of France (15th century). (Taylor.) Cœur is sometimes derived from Chœur. (See Coppe and Chatrang.)

“The hearts are the ecclesiastics, whose place is in the choir; the pike the military, &c.” (Menestrier.)

Coffer. (See Arca.) (1) In Architecture, a sunken panel in a ceiling or soffit. (2) A chest.

Cognizance, Her. Synonym for Badge.

Cogware, O. E. A coarse narrow cloth like frieze; 16th century.

Cohors, Cohort, R. A body of infantry forming the tenth part of a legion. The number of men composing a cohort varied at different periods between 300 and 600 men, according to the numerical strength of the legion. The first cohort of a legion was called a military cohort; the prætorian cohort formed the general’s body-guard, while to the city cohort was entrusted the protection of the city. The term was sometimes, though very rarely, applied to a squadron of cavalry.

Coif or Quoif. A close hood.

Coif de Fer, Coiffette. A skull-cap of iron of the 12th and 13th centuries.

Coif de Mailles. A hood of mail worn by knights in the 12th century.

Coiffe, Arch. A term employed during the 16th and 17th centuries to denote the vaulted ceiling of an apse.

Coillon. (See Coin.)

Coin or Coigne, Arch. The corner of a building. (See Quoin.)

Coin-stones, Arch. Corner-stones.

Fig. 177. Helmet with Cointise behind.

Cointise or Quintise. (1) A scarf wrapped round the body, and sometimes attached to the helmet. (2) Quaintly-cut coverings for the helmet. Fig. 177 represents a helmet decorated with PANACHE, CORO. E., and cointise. This is the origin of mantling in heraldry. (3) A garment worn over armour, temp. Edward II., was so termed. (4) Horses’ caparisons.

Colatorium. A colander. (See Collum Vinarium.)

Colayn Riban, O. E. An ecclesiastical textile, or orphrey web, for the manufacture of which Cologne was famous in the 15th century.

Colcothar of Vitriol. A red pigment formerly called caput mortuum.

Cold-harbour. This common topical name is the Anglo-Saxon ceald-herberga, cold “herberge” or shelter, and probably indicates a place where the ruins of a Roman villa or station were the only available shelter for travellers, in the ancient scarcity of inns.

Collar (of a shaft), Arch. The Annulet (q.v.). (See also Collar-beam.)

Fig. 178. Collar of Lancaster.

Collar, Med. (1) A defence of mail or plate for the neck. (2) Generally. An ornament for the neck. The Egyptians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, and Gauls wore collars, which were named variously streptos (στρεπτὸς), torquis, torques, &c. Collars were ornamented with heraldic badges in the Middle Ages. (3) Heraldic. One of the insignia of the orders of knighthood. (See Fig. 178.)

Fig. 179. Collar of S.S.

Collar of S.S. Originally adopted by Henry IV., on the canopy of whose tomb it is employed as decoration over the arms of himself and his queen. Its significance is doubtful. Camden says the letters are the initials of Sanctus Simo Simplicius, an eminent Roman lawyer, and that it was particularly worn by persons of the legal profession.

Collar-beam, Arch. A horizontal tie, connecting a pair of rafters together, across the vault of a roof.

Collare, R. (collum, neck). A collar made of iron or leather, and studded with spikes. It was used both to confine slaves, and as a dog-collar. When a slave ran away from his master, an iron collar, with a leading-chain attached to it, was put round his neck.

Collarium, Med. Armour for the neck.

Collegium, R. A religious or industrial corporation in ancient Rome. The corresponding Greek institutions were the Hetairiai. The collegia included trade companies or guilds.

Collet. The setting which surrounds the stone of a ring. (See Crampon.)

Colliciæ, Colliquiæ. (1) Broad open drains through fields. (2) Gutters of hollow tiles (umbrices) placed beneath the roof of a house to receive the rain-water, and convey it into the Impluvium.

Colliciaris (sc. tegula). A hollow tile employed in the construction of colliciæ.

Collodion. A solution of gun cotton in ether, used in photography.

Collum Vinarium (from collum, a neck). A colander or wine-strainer. The custom of straining wine dates back beyond our era, and Christ made an allusion to it when he told the Pharisees that their colla allowed a camel to pass, while they kept back a gnat. Snow was put into a strainer or a bag, called respectively collum nivarium, saccus nivarius, through which the wine was allowed to filter, not only to cool it, but because the intense cold cleared the wine, and rendered it sparkling and transparent; it was then called vinum saccatum. The Christian Church from the first adopted this instrument in its liturgy; another name for it was colatorium. (See Nassa.) The colander for wine was made of silver, or bronze, or other metal. The linen cloth called saccus was not used for wine of any delicacy, as it spoiled its flavour.

Colluviarium, R. An opening made at regular intervals in the channel of an aqueduct, for ventilation. As this opening formed a kind of well, it was also called Puteus (q.v.).

Collyra, Gr. and R. A kind of bread made in a special manner, which was eaten with soup or sauce; there was also a cake so called.

Collyris (κολλυρὶς, synonym of κολλύρα, q.v.). A head-dress worn by Roman ladies, resembling in shape the bread called κολλύρα; the latter was called κολλυρὶς as well.

Fig. 180. Collyrium or unguent Vase; Egyptian. Museum of the Louvre.

Collyrium (κολλύριον, dimin. of κολλύρα, q.v.). (1) A term denoting anything we should now call an unguent, but especially the salve collyrium, which was a liquid medicament. (2) Collyria was a term applied to Egyptian vases of terra-cotta, with or without enamel; to small quadrangular boxes of wood or pottery; and, lastly, to small cylindrical cases of wood or bronze divided into compartments. There were three prevailing forms of the vases. The Egyptians used antimony to make their eyes look larger, and had some medicament for the relief of toothache; and inscriptions indicating these uses may be read upon vessels of this kind. (Fig. 180).

Colne, O. E. A basket or coop.

Fig. 181. Roman Plebeian wearing the Colobium.

Colobium (from κολοβὸς, docked or curtailed). A tunic with short sleeves, which scarcely covered the upper part of the arm. At Rome it was worn by men of free birth. The colobium appears to have been the first dress adopted by Christian deacons, and in the liturgical writings it is often met with under the name of levitonarium; when it was of fine linen, it was also called lebiton and lebitonarium. (Fig. 181.) Later on the sleeves were lengthened, and it became known as the Dalmatic (q.v.).

Cologne Black. (See Black.)

Cologne Earth. A bituminous earth of a violet-brown hue, transparent and durable in water-colour painting.

Colonica. Synonym of villa rustica. A farmhouse.

Color, Lat. (1) The term is used in several senses in mediæval treatises upon music, with a general idea of a quality of tone obtained by striking variations. (2) The coloured lines used in transcribing music. (See Neumes.)

Colores Austeri. Ancient pigments, not floridi.

Colores Floridi. Ancient expensive and brilliant pigments. They were chrysocollum, indicum (or indigo), cæruleum (smalt), and cinnabar.

Colossus (κολοσσός). The word was used for all statues larger than life; that at Rhodes was ninety feet high. The Minerva and Jupiter Olympus of Pheidias, the Farnese Hercules, and the Flora of the Belvidere, were all colossal.

Colours, in Heraldry, are five: Blue or Azure, Red or Gules, Black or Sable, Green or Vert, Purple or Purpure. In French heraldry Green is Sinope. The uses and general symbolism of each colour are described under its own heading. The best work on symbolic colours is the “Essay” of M. Portal. One of the best on the theory of colours is that of Chevreuil.

Colubrina, Med. Lat. (from coluber, a snake). A culverin.

Columbar, R. A kind of pillory used for punishing slaves. The instrument derived its name from the holes in it, which bore some resemblance to pigeon-holes.

Fig. 182. Columbarium.

Columbarium. A dove-cote or pigeon-house, often constructed to hold as many as 4000 or 5000 birds. In the plural the term has many meanings. (1) It denotes the pigeon-holes or cells for the nests in a pigeon-house. (2) In a sepulchral chamber, the niches for holding the cinerary urns (ollæ). Fig. 182 represents the numerous columbaria in the tomb of the freedmen of Octavia. In the sepulchral architecture of the Jews, the rock-hewn walls forming the vestibules of certain tombs were honey-combed with minute columbaria, in which only lamps were placed. Fig. 183 represents cells of this character taken from the tomb of Quoublet-el-Endeh. (3) The openings in the side of a ship through which the oars passed. (4) The holes made in a wall to receive the head of a tie-beam. (5) The openings of the scoops in a particular kind of hydraulic wheel called Tympanum (q.v.).

Fig. 183. Columbaria in rock-hewn walls.

Columella. Dimin. of columna. (See Column, Cippus.)

Columen, Gr. and R. The highest timber in the framework of a roof, forming what is now called the ridgepiece.

Fig. 184. Ionic column.

Column, Arch. A column consists of three principal parts: the base (a), the shaft (b), and the capital (c). In the Doric, or most ancient style, the columns in a row rest upon a common base (podium). In the Ionic and Corinthian, each column has its own base (spira). The shaft of all columns tapers gradually from the base to the capital. Any swelling introduced to modify the straightness of the line was called entasis. On the summit of a row of columns rests the architrave, or chief beam (d); above this the frieze (e), and the cornice (f) projects above the frieze. These three together are called the entablature. The triangular gable-end of the roof, above the entablature, is called the pediment. A circuit of columns, enclosing an open space in the interior of a building, was called a peristyle. A temple of two stories, with one peristyle upon another (Ionic or Corinthian columns over the heavier Doric), was called hypæthral. In Christian archæology the column is a symbol of the Church, which was called, so early as St. Paul, columna et firmitatum veritatis (the column and support of truth).

Colures. In Astronomy, the two circles which pass through the four cardinal points of the ecliptic—the equinoctial and solstitial points.

Coluria, Arch. Circular segments of stone, in the construction of a column, such as are now called tambours or disks.

Colus. A distaff. With the Romans it consisted of a thick cane (arundo, donax), split at the end in such a way that the opening formed a basket. Compta, plena, or lana amicta were the epithets applied to a colus when filled with wool. The thread obtained from it was called stamen. The ball of loose wool at one end, prepared for spinning, was called glomus. The lower end of the distaff rested under the left arm; the right hand spun and wound the thread on to the spindles (called fusus). (See Distaff.)

Colymbion, Chr., Med. A vessel for holy water at the entrance of a church.

Colymbus, Gr. and R. A basin or reservoir used either as a swimming-bath or for washing linen in.

Coma (κόμη). (1) The hair; hair of the head. (2) The mane of animals. (See Cæsaries, Cincinnus, Hair, &c.)

Comatorius or Comatoria (sc. acus). A long pin or bodkin of gold, silver, bronze, or ivory, used by the Roman ladies to keep up their hair when plaited. It was also called Acus Crinalis (q.v.). (Compare Discerniculum.)

Combattant, Her. Said of lions, or other animals of prey, rampant and face to face.

Fig. 185. Ancient Carved Ivory Comb.

Combs (Lat. pecten, Gr. κτεὶς), as used for combing the hair, but not for wearing upon the head, are found in Pompeian and Egyptian tombs, and in the early British, Roman, and Saxon barrows. In the Middle Ages ivory combs were richly carved, and the ceremonial combs for use in ecclesiastical ceremonies are especially splendid. Greek and Roman combs were of box-wood; Egyptian combs were of ivory. Uncombed hair was a general sign of mourning. (See Discerniculum.)

Commentaculum (from commento, to strike on the face). A staff or wand carried in sacred processions by the Roman priests to assist them in clearing a way and preventing the people from pressing in on them too closely. Commotaculum was also used.

Commissatio (from commissor, to revel). A revelling or feasting which began after the Cœna (q.v.), and lasted far on into the night. (See Symposium.)

Commistio or Commixtio, Chr. The placing of a portion of the bread into the chalice of wine, during the ceremony of consecration.

Common-house. The part of a monastery in which a fire was kept for the monks during winter.

Communicales, Chr. Communion vessels, made especially to be carried in procession in Rome.

Compass. In Music, the whole range of sounds capable of being produced by a voice or instrument.

Compass-headed, Arch. A semicircular arch.

Compass Roof, Arch. An open timber roof.

Compass Window, Arch. A bay-window on a circular plan.

Compes. (1) A ring of gold or silver worn by the Romans round the leg, just above the ankle. (2) The chains or shackles worn round the ankle by slaves or prisoners.

Compitalia, Compitales. A festival held by the Romans in honour of the Lares compitales, celebrated in the cross-roads, compitia, where the images of those deities were often placed in niches.

Complement, Her. Applied to the moon, when full.

Complement. In Music, the interval to be added to another interval to make an octave; e.g. a third to a sixth; a fourth to a fifth, &c.

Complementary Colours. If the whole of the light which is absorbed by a coloured body were reunited with the whole of the light which it reflects, white light would result; in this case the absorbed colours are complementary to those which are reflected. The colour given by a mixture of the colours of any portion of a spectrum is the complement of the remaining portion. Red is complementary to Green, Orange to Blue, Greenish-Yellow to Violet, Indigo to Orange Yellow, and, in each case, vice versâ.

Completorium, Chr. The last of the Hours of Prayer.

Compline, Chr. Short evening prayers completing the daily round of devotion prescribed by the Hours of Prayer.

Compluvium, R. An opening in the roof of the atrium, furnished with gutters all round, which collected the rain-water from the roof, and conveyed it into the basin (impluvium) in the middle of the atrium.

Compon-covert, O. E. A kind of lace.

Fig. 186. Capital of the Composite Order.

Composite Order of Architecture. The last of the five Roman orders, composed of the Ionic grafted upon the Corinthian order. The examples at Rome are in the arch of Septimus Severus, the arch of the Goldsmiths, the arch of Titus, the temple of Bacchus, and the baths of Diocletian.

Compound Arch, Arch. A usual form of mediæval arch, which “may be resolved into a number of concentric archways, successively placed within and behind each other.” (Prof. Willis.)

Compound Pier, Arch. A clustered Column (q.v.).

Compounded Arms, Her. Bearings of two or more distinct coats combined, to produce a single compound coat.

Comus (Gr. κῶμος). (1) A revel, or carousal which usually ended in the guests parading the streets crowned with garlands, &c. (2) Festal processions instituted in honour of Bacchus and other gods, and of the victors at the games. (3) Odes written to be sung at such processions, e. g. those of Pindar.

Comus (Gr. κομμὸς, from κόπτω, to strike). (1) A beating of the head and breast in lamentation; a dirge. (2) A mournful song sung in alternate verses by an actor and a chorus in the Attic drama.

Concædes. A barricade constructed of trees which have been cut down and placed across the road (to impede the enemy’s march).

Concamerate, Arch. To arch over; to vault.

Concave. Hollowed in; opposed to convex, bulging out.

Concha (lit. a muscle or cockle). (1) A shell or shell-fish. (2) A Triton’s conch. In works of art, the Triton, or sea-god, has for a trumpet the buccina, remarkable for a spiral twist, long and straight; or the murex, equally twisted, but short and wide-mouthed. (3) The term was applied, by analogy, to various objects having the shape of a shell, such as cups or vases used for holding perfumes or for other purposes. (4) In Architecture, an apse, or a plain concave of a dome, is so called.

Conchoid. A mathematical curve in the form of the outline of a shell.

Conclave (with a key), Chr. (1) A meeting of cardinals assembled to elect a pope; and (2) the hall or apartment in which such meeting is held. The institution of the conclave dates from Gregory X.

Concrete, Arch. A mixture of gravel, pebbles, or broken stone with cement.

Condalium (κονδύλιον, dimin. of κόνδυλος, a knob or joint). A ring generally worn upon the first joint of the forefinger on the right hand.

Conditivium, Conditorium. (1) An underground vault in which were chests or coffins for holding bodies which had not been reduced to ashes. (2) A sarcophagus in which the body was placed. (3) A kind of arsenal or magazine in which military engines were kept.

Condrak, O. E. A kind of lace.

Condyle. A knuckle; the rounded end of a bone; hence—

Condyloid. Shaped like a condyle; and

Condylus. Synonym of Condalium (q.v.).

Cone. A figure broad and round at the base, tapering upwards regularly towards a point.

Coney, Cony, O. E. (1) A variety of the rabbit. (2) A beehive.

Confessio, Chr. Originally the place where a saint or martyr was buried; thence the altar raised over his grave; and subsequently the chapel or basilica built there.

Congé, Arch. The cavetto (hollow moulding) which unites the base and capital of a column to its shaft.

Congius (deriv. doubtful). A Roman measure containing six sextarii or twelve heminæ. It was used especially for measuring liquids. Angl. a pint and a half.

Conic Sections. Curves formed by the intersection of a cone and a plane; the circle, the ellipse, the hyperbola, and the parabola.

Conisterium, Gr. and R. A room in which wrestlers, after having had oil applied to their bodies, were rubbed over with fine sand (κόνις). The conisterium was an appendage to a palæstrum, gymnasium, &c.

Conopeum, Canopium, Gr. and R. (from κώνωψ, a gnat). A musquito-net, of very light material, introduced into Rome from Egypt. [This is the origin of the English word canopy.]

Fig. 187. Consecrated pyre on Roman medal.

Consecratio, R. A kind of apotheosis or deification by which a mortal was enrolled in the number of the gods. It was unknown under the republic, and was only instituted in the time and on behalf of the emperors. The ceremony was solemnized in the Field of Mars, and with the greatest splendour. A magnificent pyre was raised, from the top of which, when kindled, an eagle was let fly, which was supposed to carry up to the skies the soul of the deified emperor. Fig. 187, taken from a medal, represents one of these pyres.

Consentiæ, Gr. and R. Festivals held in honour of the twelve principal divinities of Rome or Greece.

Consignatorium Ablutorum, Chr. In early times there were baptisteries near churches, with a place closely adjoining in which to administer the rite of confirmation; it was the place specially set apart for the administration of this rite that was called consignatorium ablutorum.

Console. A projecting ornament, in wood or stone, used as a bracket.

Constant White. Sulphate of Barytes (q.v.).

Constellations. Groups of stars, mostly with classical names. Ancient C., forty-eight formed by Ptolemy in A. D. 150, with two others added by Tycho Brahe; Modern C., fifty-nine others since formed, many by Helvetius at the end of the 17th century. (Rossiter.)

Constratum, R. A flooring constructed of planks. (See Coassatio.)

Consualia, R. A festival of ancient Rome held in honour of the god Consus. It was from this festival that the games of the circus took their rise. Livy calls the god Neptunus Equestris. The feast was held with horse and chariot races. Horses and mules did no work, and were crowned with garlands during its celebration. The Rape of the Sabines took place at the first Consualia.

Contabulatio, R. The long parallel folds formed in any garment of ample size, such as the toga, palla, and pallium.

Contignatio, R. (a joining together of beams). The wood-work of beams and joists supporting the flooring in a building of several stories. The term is also used to denote the flooring and sometimes the story itself.

Continuous Impost, Arch. In Gothic architecture, the mouldings of an arch, when carried down to the ground without interruption, or anything to mark the impost-joint. (Newlands.)

Contoise, Fr. A flowing scarf worn attached to the helmet before 1350. (See Cointise.)

Contomonobolum, R. A game which consisted in leaping over a wide space by aid of a pole (contus) which was used as a fulcrum.

Contorniate. A class of antique medals having the contour, or edge, marked with a deep cut. They generally have monograms on the obverse, and scenes of mythology on the reverse.

Contour, Fr. Outline.

Contournée, Her. Facing to the sinister.

Contra, in compound words in music, signifies an octave below: contra-basso, a double bass, &c.

Contra Votum, Chr. (i. e. against one’s desires). A formula of grief, placed by the ancients on tombs, columns, and other sepulchral monuments, and adopted by Christians in the 5th century. (See Acclamations.)

Contractura, R. The tapering of the column, which begins from the upper part of the shaft, and gradually widens as it reaches the base. (See Entasis.)

Contralto, It. In Music, the voice of deepest tone in females, allied to the tenor in men.

Contrapuntal, Mus. Relating to Counterpoint (q.v.).

Contre-imbrications. An ornament cut in the form of fishes’ scales overlapping one another, the scales being indented. In the imbrications they stand out.

Contrepoint, O. E. (See Pourpoint.)

Contubernium, R. (1) A tent capable of accommodating ten soldiers and their corporal (decanus). (2) A dwelling-place, especially for slaves. Hence contubernales came to mean comrades, and generally persons living in intimacy under one roof together.

Contus (κοντὸς), Gr. and R. (1) A punting-pole, used also for taking soundings; each trireme was furnished with three poles of different lengths. (2) A cavalry pike or lance.

Conus, Gen. (κῶνος, a cone). (1) In general, any object of a conical form. (2) A kind of sun-dial described upon a hollow cone. (3) The metal ridge at the top of a helmet, to which the plume was attached. (See Fig. 252.)

Convivium, R. A banquet which generally took place at about the same hour as the cœna, but which was never followed by a commissatio. (See Cœna, Commissatio.)

Coopertorium, R. (that which covers). A rug of coarse cloth; a kind of blanket.

Cop, O. E. Generally the top of anything; a mound or heap. (See Battlement.)

Copal. A hard resin, which, dissolved in boiling linseed oil, forms an excellent varnish for pictures. It is also used as a vehicle for painting. The South African copal is the finest in quality. (See Varnish.)

Copatain, O. E. A sugar-loaf hat; “a copped-crown hat.”

Cope, Chr. A sacerdotal garment, also called a pluvial, because it was originally worn by priests in processions as a protection against the rain. It was open in the front, and fastened on the breast by a “morse” or clasp. In the primitive Church the cope was furnished with a hood, and hence mentioned as Cuculla.

Cope, Arch. To top a wall with thin bricks or stone.

Coperone, O. E., Arch. A pinnacle.

Cop-halfpenny, O. E. The game of “heads and tails.”

Cop-head, O. E. A crest of feathers or hair on an animal’s head.

Coping, Arch. The capping or covering of a wall, generally sloping to throw off rain. In Fig. 77 two of the merlons are coped.

Cophinus. Gr. and R. A large shallow wicker basket used for agricultural purposes. Cophinus et fænum, “a basket of hay,” is Juvenal’s word for the poor man’s bed. Compare English coffin.

Coppa Puerpera, It. Caudle-cup.

Coppe (It.), Cups (Sp. copa). The early Italian suit of playing cards corresponding to hearts. The Rev. E. S. Taylor suggests, “The notion of hearts, as the seat of the affections, &c., is in connexion with the office of the clergy;” hence the chalices. (See Cœur.)

Copped, O. E. Crested. (For Cop-head, q.v.)

Copperas (white) is considered the safest metallic drier for pigments and varnish.

Fig. 188. Ewer and basin of enamelled copper (Turkish).

Copper-enamelling. (Fig. 188.) (See Enamels.)

Copper-plate Engraving. (See Chalcography.)

Coppet, O. E. Saucy.

Coppid, O. E. Peaked; referring to the fashion of the long peaked toe.

Copple-crowned, O. E. With a head high and rising up, said of a boy “with his hair on end.”

Coppull, O. E. A hen’s name (in the Turnament of Tottenham).

Cops or Merlons, Arch. The raised parts of a battlement. (See Fig. 77.)

Coracle, O. E. A boat of wicker-work covered with hides.

Coracoid (κόραξ, a crow). In the form of a crow’s beak, e. g. a bone in the shoulder-blade.

Coral (see Amulets) is mentioned in the Lapidarium of Marbodus as a very favourite and potent amulet.

“Wondrous its power, so Zoroaster sings,
And to the wearer sure protection brings.
And, lest they harm ship, land, or house, it binds
The scorching lightning and the furious winds.
Sprinkled ‘mid climbing vines or olives’ rows,
Or with the seed the patient rustic sows,
’Twill from thy crops avert the arrowy hail,
And with abundance bless the smiling vale.”
(King, Antique Gems.)

Coranach, Coronach, Gaelic (corah-rainach, a crying together). A dirge.

Coranto, It. An Italian form of the country dance or jig.

Corazza, O. E. A cuirass.

Corbel, Arch. A projecting bracket supporting a pier, cornice, or column.

Corbel Steps, Arch. Steps into which the outlines of a gable are sometimes broken; also called Corbie Steps.

Corbel Table. A term in mediæval architecture, applied to a projecting course and the row of corbels which support it.

Corbie, Scotch. A raven; hence a “corbie messenger,” one that is long upon his errand, like the raven sent from the ark, who returned not again.

Corbie Steps. (See Corbel Steps.)

Corbis, R. A wicker basket of conical shape, used especially for agricultural purposes. A similar basket in every-day use in parts of Italy is still called “la corbella.” Cf. the German “Korb.”

Corbita, R. A merchantman of the larger class, so called because it hung out a basket at the masthead. These vessels were also called onerariæ.

Corbona Ecclesiæ, Chr. The treasure of a church, accumulated from the offerings of communicants at the Sacrament. The Greek synonym for this term is gazophylacium.

Corbula. Dimin. of Corbis (q.v.).

Corce, O. E. The body, stomach.

“He start to hym with gret force,
And hyt hym egurly on the corce!”
(Old MS.)

Cordate, Cordiform. Heart-shaped.

Cordax, Gr. and R. A dance of the ancient Greek comedy of a ridiculous and indecent character. Fauns and satyrs are constantly represented dancing the cordax.

Cordeliers, Fr. The Franciscan friars are so called from the rope girdles they wear.

Cordevan, O. E. A leather of goat-skin, originally from Cordova in Spain. Spelt also Cordewayne; hence cordwainer or cordiner, a shoemaker.

Cordigard, Med. (from the French corps de garde). A detachment of troops appointed for a particular service.

Fig. 189. Corean tea-pot. (About A. D. 1562.)

Corean Porcelain, from a country intermediate between China and Japan, combines the qualities of the most ancient art of each. The tea-pot represented in Fig. 189 is covered with gravings in the paste imitating the waves of the ocean, and shows four times repeated an imperial Japanese device, by which it appears that the piece was destined for the Mikado.

Fig. 190. Capital of the Corinthian Order.

Corinthian Order of Architecture. This order originated in Greece, and the capital is said to have been suggested by observing a tile placed on a basket left in a garden, and an acanthus growing round it. The principal distinction of this order is its capital, richly ornamented with leaves and flowers. Among the principal Corinthian examples are the temple of Vesta, the basilica of Antoninus, and the temples of Jupiter Tonans and Jupiter Stator; all at Rome.

Corium, R. Leathern body-armour cut into scale form.

Cork burned forms the pigment called Spanish Black.

Corn. In pagan art, the attribute of Ceres and Justitia and Juno Martialis.

Cornal. The head of a tilting-lance. (See Coronel.)

Cornelian, Carnelian, Gen. A variety of chalcedony of a horny transparency and a more or less deep red. Engraved cornelians have perpetuated much information about the manners and customs of the ancient Greeks and Romans. (See Sards.)

Cornemuse. A French form of the bagpipe.

Cornet. (1) A kind of heraldic banner. (2) The bearer of the colours of a regiment. (3) Square caps worn in the Universities. (4) Any object having corners, or angular extremities. (5) An obsolete musical instrument, once in common use in Germany and in England, something like a Hautboy, but larger and of a coarser tone. (See Waits.)

Cornice. (See Coronis.)

Cornichon, Fr. A kind of game at “quoits.”

Fig. 191. Coin showing the Corniculum.

Corniculum, R. (dimin. of cornu, and so a small horn). It was a mark of distinction conferred on a soldier who had distinguished himself by his conduct or courage, and was worn on his helmet. On Thracian and other coins we find representations of this horn as part of the royal head-dress.

Cornish, O. E. The ring placed at the mouth of a cannon.

Cornlaiters, O. E. Newly-married peasants begging corn to sow their first crop with.

Cornu, Cornus, and Cornum, R. (1) The horn of an animal. (2) Any object made of horn or of a horn-like shape. The musical cornu was curved; the straight horn was called tuba.

Cornu Altaris (horn of the altar), in Christian archæology, means merely the corner or angle thereof. Cornu Evangelii is the angle to the left, c. Epistolæ that to the right, of the celebrating priest.

Cornu-copiæ, R. Horn of abundance, a symbol of concord, prosperity, and good fortune. It was represented as a wreathed horn, filled to overflowing with corn and fruit.

Corolla, R. (dimin. of Corona, q.v.). The corolla denoted in a general sense a small crown or even a garland; in a more restricted acceptation it was a garland of artificial flowers made of horn shavings and painted various colours. Women used to wear this kind of wreath during winter.

Corollarium, R. (dimin. of Corona, q.v.). It denoted especially a wreath made out of thin metal leaves, which the audience in a theatre presented to their favourite actors.

Fig. 192. Mural crown.

Fig. 193. Naval crown.

Fig. 194. Celestial crown.

Corona (κορώνη), R. A crown or garland made with natural or artificial leaves and flowers (of horn, parchment, &c., or metal). There were many different kinds of coronæ, of which the principal were the following: corona civica; corona classica, navalis, or rostrata; corona castrensis or vallaris; corona longa; corona muralis; corona obsidionalis; corona natalitia; corona oleagina; corona ovalis; corona pactilis, plectilis, or plexilis; corona triumphalis; corona sutilis, &c. The most honourable was the c. obsidionalis, presented by a beleaguered army, after its liberation, to the general who raised the siege. It was made of grass, or wild flowers plucked on the site. The c. civica was presented to a Roman soldier who had saved the life of a citizen in battle. It was made of oak leaves. The c. navalis was made of gold. The c. muralis, presented to the first man over the wall of a besieged city, was also made of gold, and it was ornamented with turrets. The c. castrensis, presented to the first soldier who forced an entrance into an enemy’s camp, was of gold ornamented with palisades. Of the c. triumphalis there were three kinds: one of laurel or bay leaves, worn by the commanding officer during his triumph; one of massive gold held over his head; and a third of still greater value, also of gold. The c. ovalis, to commemorate an ovation to an officer, was made of myrtle leaves. The c. oleagina, of olive leaves, was given to common soldiers. Besides these, there were the various sacerdotal coronæ, emblematical of their functions: the funereal chaplets of leaves and flowers for the dead, called c. funebres or sepulchrales; the wreaths of roses, violets, myrtles, ivy, &c., worn at convivial meetings, c. convivialis; and the bridal wreath, of Greek origin, made of flowers not bought, but plucked by the bride herself, the verbena being the chosen flower among the Romans, c. nuptialis; and finally the c. natalitia suspended over the door of a house where a child was born. At Athens this was of olive for a boy, and of wool for a girl. At Rome the wreath was made of laurel, ivy, or parsley. The various crowns used in heraldry are described under their respective headings. (See Crown.)

Corona or Drip-stone, Gen. A moulding forming part of a cornice, the lower part or drip of which is grooved, so as to throw off the rain-water from the structure. Drip-stones are sometimes plain, sometimes decorated with rich sculptures.

Corona Lucis, Chr. A lamp or chandelier suspended above the altar of a church, from which usually depended a jewelled cross.

Coronach, Scotch. A dirge.

Coronarium (aureum), R. The gold for a triumphal crown (corona triumphalis): it was sent by the provinces to a victorious chief or general.

Coronarium (opus), R. Stucco-work applied to the decoration of a cornice or projecting moulding.

Coronel, Med. The head of a jousting-lance, so called from its resemblance to a little crown. Twelve were allowed to a tilter in the time of Henry VI. (Meyrick.)

Coronell, O. E. A colonel.

Fig. 195. Prince of Wales’s coronet.

Coronets. Ensigns of nobility worn upon the head, introduced into England about the middle of the 14th century. (See Baron, Duke, Earl, &c.) Ladies also wore them surmounting the horned head-dress of the reign of Henry V. The engraving (Fig. 196) represents Beatrice, Countess of Arundel, with coronet.

Fig. 196. Coronet of Countess of Arundel, temp. Henry V.

Coronis (κορωνίς). Anything curved; the cornice of an entablature.

Coronize (Gr. κορωνίζω, from κορώνη, a crow). To beg for the crow; said of strollers who went about begging with a crow, singing begging songs. (See Chelidonize.)

Corporal, O. E. The fine linen cloth or veil for the pyx, sometimes embroidered with golden thread and coloured silks. With such a “corporal” Mary, Queen of Scots, bandaged her eyes for her execution.

Corpse-candle, O. E. A thick candle used formerly at lake-wakes.

Fig. 197. Corpse or Lich-gate.

Corpse-gate or Lich-gate. A shed over the gate of a churchyard to rest the corpse under. (Fig. 197.)

Corrugis, R. (corrugo, to wrinkle). Literally, wrinkled; a loose garment which was wrapped round the body, and fell into numerous folds, so as to present the appearance of a wrinkled surface.

Cors, Arch. The shaft of a pinnacle.

Corsæ, R. The mouldings decorating the surface of a marble door-post.

Corse, O. E. (See Corce.)

Corse of Silk, O. E. Probably a silk ribbon.

Corselet, Fr. A light breastplate; 16th and 17th centuries.

Corspresant, Med. A mortuary.

Fig. 198. Cortina.

Cortina, R. (1) A deep circular vessel in the shape of a saucepan, used for various purposes. (2) The snake’s skin spread over the tripod of the Pythoness at Delphi. (3) An altar of marble, bronze, or the precious metals, in the form of a tripod. (4) The vault over the stage in a theatre was called cortina, from its resemblance to the lid of a tripod. (5) Tables of marble or bronze, made to imitate the slab upon which the Delphic priestess sat, were also called cortinæ Delphicæ. (See Fig. 199.)

Fig. 199. Cortina (Etruscan).

Cortinale, R. A cellar in which wine was boiled in caldrons (cortinæ) to preserve it.

Corundum. The Indian name for a very hard mineral called adamantine spar. The ruby and sapphire are varieties of corundum.

Corven. O. E. for carven, cut.

Corvene wyndows of glase,
With joly bandis of brase.”
(Lincoln MS.)

Corvus, R. (lit. crow). A crane or grappling-iron, used in naval warfare. It was a strong piece of iron with a spike at the end, which, being violently let down upon a ship from the yard-arm, or a special mast made for the purpose, went through the bottom and sank it, or at any rate grappled it fast. A variety of corvus was also made use of in the assault of fortified places.

Corybantica, Gr. and R. Festivals celebrated at Cnossus, in Crete, by the Corybantes, in honour of Atys and his mother Cybele. The priests ran through town and country carrying torches and uttering savage cries to the accompaniment of drums and cymbals. They performed frenzied dances known under the name of Corybantic dances.

Corycæum, Gr. and R. A large apartment in a gymnasium or a large bathing establishment, for the Corycobolia or sack-throwing, a game which consisted in suspending from the ceiling of the corycæum, at the height of about a yard from the ground, a sack filled with sand, bran, or seeds, to be thrust away with blows of the fist, and when it was in full swing to be stopped with the hands, back, or breast. The exercise was also called Corycomachia.

Corymbus, R. (κόρυμβος, a cluster). (1) A bunch of any fruit that grows in clusters, such as ivy-berries. (2) A head-dress or wig arranged in the form of corymbi, in a knot at the top of the head, as that of Venus is represented in the Medici statue. (3) The term is also sometimes used as a synonym of Aplustre (q.v.).

Corynalle, Arch. (See Cornal.)

“The schafte was strong over alle,
And a well-shaped corynalle.”

Coryphæus, Gr. (lit. at the head). (1) Any leader. (2) Esp. the leader of the chorus of the Attic drama. (3) An epithet of Jupiter Capitolinus.

Corytus, Gr. and R. A bow-case. The quiver for arrows was called pharetra.

Fig. 200. Cos—a Roman Grindstone.

Cos, R. A hone, whetstone, or grindstone. Fig. 200 is taken from an engraved gem.

Cosmi (κόσμοι). The supreme magistrates in Crete.

Costanti. One of the Italian literary academies. They had for their device the sun shining on a column, with the motto Tantum volvitur umbra (the shadow only revolves).

Cote, O. E. A woman’s gown; 15th century.

Cote Armour. (See Coat Armour, Tabard.)

Cote-hardie. A tight-fitting gown; 14th century.

Cothurnus, Gr. and R. The Buskin; a high boot of Greek invention, met with on representations of certain divinities and of some of the emperors covered with rich ornamentation. It is an attribute of the huntress Diana. The sole was thickened with cork for tragic actors, to make them taller. Horsemen wore it as high as the knee.

Cotillion (Fr. cotte, an under-petticoat). A dance introduced from France, where it usually terminated a ball.

Cotise, Her. A diminutive of the Bend, being one-fourth of its width.

Cotta. A short surplice.

Cottabus, Cottabê, Cotabos, Gr. and R. A game of Greek origin, played in various manners, by throwing wine into empty cups swimming on a basin of water, or into scales suspended above a bronze ornament. The man who drowned most cups won a prize, or he who made the best sound had a good omen. There were other methods.

Cotyla, Gr. and R. A measure of capacity equal to half a pint English.

Cotyttia (κοττύτια). Nocturnal festivals celebrated by the Edonians of Thrace in honour of a goddess called Cotytto (Cybele).

Fig. 201. Hart couchant.

Couchant or Dormant, Her. In repose. The illustration gives the device of King Richard II., a white hart couchant on a mount, &c. (Fig. 201.)

Coucher, O. E. A book kept couched or lying on a desk, e. g. books of the church services left in the places where they were used.

Coudières. (See Coutere.)

Coufic. (See Cufic.)

Coulisse, Tech. A piece of timber with a channel or groove in it, such as that in which the side-scenes of a theatre move.

Counter, Her. Reversed or opposite.

Counterfort, Arch. A buttress.

Counterpoint, Music. The art of combining melodies, or rather of adding to a melody harmonious parts. Double Counterpoint is “a kind of artificial composition, where the parts are inverted in such a manner that the uppermost becomes the lowermost, and vice versâ.” (See Stainer and Barrett, Dic. of Musical Terms.)

Counter-proof. An impression of an engraving printed from a wet proof.

Counter-seal or Secretum. A seal on the reverse or back of another seal. Early seals were generally impressed on both sides.

Countess, Arch. A roofing slate, 20 inches by 10 inches.

Couped, Her. Cut off smoothly. The reverse of erased.

Coupled (columns), Gen. Two columns are said to be coupled when they are placed quite close to each other without touching. Coupled heads is the term applied to two heads placed back to back upon the same pedestal or the same trunk. Many pedestals ornamented with Hermæ (q.v.) are surmounted by coupled heads.

Courant, Her. Running.

Course, Arch. One range, or stratum, of bricks, stones, or other material in the construction of a wall.

Court Cards. The king, queen, and knave of a suit. They were originally named in France; e. g. the four kings were Charlemagne, Cæsar, Alexander, and David; the four queens, Judith, Rachel, Argine, and Pallas; and the valets, Lahire, Hector, Lancelot, and Hogier. Of these the kings were said to represent the four ancient monarchies of the Jews, Greeks, Romans, and Franks; and the queens, wisdom, birth, beauty, and fortitude. (Taylor.) (See Chatrang.)

Court Cupboards, O. E. Richly carved and large cupboards for plate and other valuables, temp. Charles I.

Court Dish, O. E. A kind of drinking-cup.

Courtepy (Teutonic). Short cloak or gown.

Coussinet, Arch. The crowning stone of a pier, lying immediately under the arch.

Coutel, Fr. A short knife or dagger in use in the Middle Ages.

Coutere or Coutes. The elbow-piece in armour.

Fig. 202. Couvre-feu (Curfew).

Couvre-feu, Angl. Curfew. A screen used, as its name implies, for covering the fire; introduced with the famous Curfew-bell, temp. William Rufus. (Fig. 202.)

Cove, Arch. A name for concave mouldings or other concavities.

Coved Ceiling, Arch. A ceiling springing from the walls with a cove.

Coventry Blue. A celebrated “blew threde” made at Coventry, temp. Elizabeth.

Covert, Her. Partly covered.

Covinus, R. (Celtic, kowain). A war-chariot. The spokes of its wheels were armed with scythes. [It was used by the ancient Britons. The Romans gave the name to a close travelling carriage covered in all round.] (Compare Currus, Carpentum.)

Coward or Cowed, Her. An animal with its tail between its legs.

Cow-lady, O. E. The lady-bird.

“A paire of buskins they did bring
Of the cow-ladye’s corall wyng.”
(Musarum Deliciæ.)

Cowl, Mod. (from cuculla, Cucullus, q.v.). A priest’s hood.

Cox or Cokes, O. E. A fool; hence Coxcomb, for the top of a fool’s cap.

Crackle Porcelain or Cracklin. A kind of china, the glaze of which has been purposely cracked all over in the kiln. The Chinese have many kinds of this manufacture, some of which are extremely rare and valuable. White and grey are the common colours amongst modern crackle. The yellow and cream-coloured specimens are much prized: these are seldom seen in Europe. The greens, light and dark, turquoise, and reds are generally finely glazed, and have the crackle lines small and minute. In colouring, these examples are exquisite, and in this respect they throw our finest specimens of European porcelain quite into the shade. The green and turquoise crackle made in China at the present day are very inferior to the old kinds. Perhaps the rarest and most expensive of all ancient crackles is a yellowish stone-colour. (Fortune.)

Crackled Glass. (See Glass.)

Cracowes. Long-toed boots and shoes, introduced in 1384.

Cradle Vault, Arch. A cylindrical vault.

Cradling. A builder’s term for a timber frame for a ceiling, &c.

Craig, Scotch. (1) A rock. (2) The neck; throat.

Crampet. The decorated end of a scabbard.

Crampon. The border of gold which keeps a stone in a ring. (See Collet.)

Cramp-ring, O. E. A ring consecrated on Good Friday, an amulet against cramp.

Crancelin, Her. (from the German Kranzlein, a small wreath). The chaplet that crosses the shield of Saxony. It is said to be an augmentation conferred by the Emperor Barbarossa, who took from his head his own chaplet of rue, and threw it across the shield of the Duke of Saxony. (Boutell.)

Crane’s-bills. Geraniums, so called from the shape of their seed-vessels.

Crannogs, Irish. Lake fortresses constructed on artificial islands.

Crapaudine Doors. A technical name for doors that turn on pivots at top and bottom, or are hung with so called centre-pin hinges.

Crash. The grey linen used for the kind of embroidery called crewelwork.

Fig. 203. Silver Crater (Roman). Found at Hildesheim.

Crater, Gr. and R. (κρατὴρ, from κεράννυμι, to mix). (1) A large and beautiful vase with a wide open mouth, in which the wine and water was mixed which was handed round at banquets and sacrifices. It was into vases of this description that slaves dipped a ladle (cyathus), with which they filled the cups. The beautiful silver crater shown in the illustration (Fig. 203), of a date not later than the 1st century, was found with other treasures of a similar kind at Hildesheim, near Hanover, in 1869. It is now in the Berlin Museum. (2) The mouth of a volcano is named from its resemblance to the Greek crater. (3) A small constellation of the southern hemisphere called the Cup.

Crates, R. A frame or basket made of hurdles, and so a hurdle itself. (English, “crate.”)

Craticula, R. (dimin. of crates). A small hurdle, and by analogy, a gridiron, which looks like a small hurdle.

Creag, O. E. The game of ninepins.

Creagra. Gr. (κράγρα, from κρέας and ἀγρέω, i. e. a flesh-hook). A synonym of the Latin term Harpago (q.v.).

Creasing. A builder’s word for a row of tiles under the coping of a wall.

Credence Table. The small table beside an altar, on which the communion was placed before consecration.

Creme-box, O. E. A chrismatory (q.v.).

Cremesyn, O. E. Crimson velvet.

Cremium, R. (cremo, to burn). Small wood, made up into bundles, used by bakers, and for lighting the hypocausts under the baths.

Crenel. The peak at the top of a helmet.

Crenellated, Her. Embattled. (See Battlement.)

Fig. 204 Crenellated walls at Pompeii.

Crenelle, Fr. A cutting or indentation of the walls of a fortress or tower, &c. The spaces between the solid masonry are called embrasures, and the solid portions themselves merlons; usually the tops of the merlons are coped to throw off rain. (See Coping.) Fig. 204 shows a portion of the crenellated walls of Pompeii restored. (See Fig. 77.)

Crepida, Gr. and R. (κρηπίς). A slipper made of a strong leather sole, to the edges of which was fixed a piece of leather with eyelet-holes (ansæ) for the laces (corrigiæ) or a strap (amentum). This shoe was of Greek origin. Crepida carbatina was the name given to a shoe of the simplest and plainest description. (See Carbatina.) [This shoe is only found represented on figures clothed with the pallium, not the toga.]

Fig. 205. Crepido in a street in Pompeii.

Crepido, Gr. and R. (κρηπίς). In a general sense, any kind of base or stand upon which another object rests, and by analogy the embankment of a quay, a dike, or jetty. The term is also applied to the raised causeway for foot passengers at the side of a road or street. Fig. 204 represents a crepido on a high road near Pompeii, and Fig. 205 a crepido in the streets of the same town.

Crepitaculum, R. (crepo, to creak). A child’s rattle, made in the form of a circle to which bells were attached. These rattles have been found in the excavations of Pompeii. Some authors apply the term to the Sistrum of the Egyptians.

Crepitus (sc. digitorum), R. A snapping of the fingers made by pressing the tip of the thumb firmly against the tip of the middle finger.

Crepundia, R. A general term for playthings for children, as well as for necklaces of various ornaments, or amulets. These were in some instances of great length, and were worn by the children like shoulder-belts.

Créquier, Her. The wild plum-tree: the device of the Créquy family.

Fig. 206. Crescent.

Crescent, Her. The difference of the second son. The moon is a crescent when she appears as in Fig. 206. (Compare Decrescent, Increscent.)

Cresolite, O. E. Crystal.

Crespine, Fr. A network to confine the hair of ladies; the calantica of the ancients. It is found in mediæval monuments in a variety of forms.

Cressets. A small pan or portable fireplace, filled with combustibles, used for illuminating purposes; 16th century. Her., a beacon. (See Fig. 54.)

Crest, Arch, (crista). A running ornament, more or less incised and perforated, which is placed on the ridge of roofs. Many monuments of antiquity have been adorned with terra-cotta crests; in the Romano-Byzantine architecture examples occur which are made of stone, while in Pointed or Renaissance art they were made of lead.

Fig. 207. Royal crest of England.

Crest, Her. (Lat. crista). This word, familiar to us as the name of an ornament surmounting the helmet and the insignia of a gentleman of coat armour, signified in classic times a comb terminating in a peak in front of the casque decorated with horsehair or plumes. (See Crista, Fig. 252.) The earliest appearance of a crest in England is on the second seal of Richard I. Fig. 207 illustrates the manner in which the crest is worn upon the royal crown of England. Crests are not worn by ladies, excepting by the Sovereign. (See Panache.)

Fig. 208. Crest-coronet.

Fig. 209. Crest-wreaths.

Crest-coronet, Crest-wreath, or Orle, Her. A coronet or wreath to support a crest. (Fig. 208 and 209.)

Crest-tiles. Tiles used for covering the ridge of a roof.

Creta Lævis. A crayon of permanent colour for chalk drawing.

Crewel-work. (See Crash.)

Crewels. A worsted of two plies adapted for embroidery.

Crewetts. Small vessels used at the altar, to hold the wine and water for consecration.

Crimson (Arab, cremisi, the cochineal insect). A deep tone of red, tinged with blue.

Crinale, R. (crinis, the hair). A large convex comb worn by women and children at the back of the head.

Crined, Her. Having a mane or hair.

Crinetts, O. E. The long small black feathers on a hawk’s head. (H.)

Crinze, O. E. A drinking-cup. (H.)

Criobolè, Gr. (κριοβόλη). A sacrifice to Cybele, so called because the victim was a ram (κριός).

Crista, R. The crest of the helmet, which was attached to an elevated ridge (generally of horsehair). A fine example is given in the head of “Rome,” on the Tazza of Diruta. (Fig. 252.) (See Crest.)

Cristatus, R. (crista). Having a ridge and a crest. (Fig. 252.)

Cristendom, O. E. Baptism.

“And that bastard that to the ys dere,
Crystyndome schalle he none have here.” (H.)

Cristygrey. A kind of fur much used in the 15th century.

“Of no devyse embroudid hath hire wede,
Ne furrid with ermyn ne with cristygrey.”

Crites (κριτής). A judge in equity, as opposed to Dikastes, a judge in law.

Croakumshire. An ancient name for the county of Northumberland. (H.)

Crobbe, O. E. Knops of buds hung as ornaments from a roof.

Crobylus, Gr. and R. (κρωβύλος). A method of arranging the hair peculiar to the inhabitants of Athens. The hair, rolled up in a knot on the top of the head, was fastened with golden clasps in the shape of grasshoppers. The name applies only to men’s hair; the same fashion for women was called Corymbus.

Croc or Crook. A curved mace.

Crocea. A cardinal’s cloak.

Crochet. Knitting done with linen thread, and used under the name of nun’s lace from the 16th century for bordering altar-cloths, albs, &c.

Fig. 210. Crocket.

Crocket. (1) An architectural enrichment, generally of leaves or flowers; an ornamentation peculiar to the pointed style of architecture. (Fig. 210.) (2) A large roll of hair, much worn in the time of Edward I.

“His crocket kembt, and thereon set
A nouche with a chapelet.”

Crocota, Gr. and R. (from κρόκος, crocus). A very rich robe of saffron colour, whence its name. It was worn by Greek and Roman women as a gala dress, especially at the Dionysia.

Fig. 211. Cromlech.

Cromlec’h, Celtic (from cromm, curved, and lec’h, place). An enclosure formed by menhirs, or huge stones planted in the ground in a circle or semicircle. These enclosures (Fig. 211) were consecrated places used as burying-grounds. (See Standing stones, Dolmens, Menhirs, &c.)

Fig. 212. Cross Recercelée.

Fig. 213. St. Andrew’s Cross (Saltire).

Fig. 214. St. George’s Cross fimbriated.

Fig. 215. Victoria Cross.

Cross, Chr. (Crux). The symbol of the Christian religion. The ordinary or primitive type of cross has no summit. It is called commissa or patibulata, and sometimes the Tau cross, from its resemblance to the Greek letter so named (T). Fig. 121 represents a stone cross of the Romano-Byzantine period, at Carew, in England. The St. Andrew’s cross has the form of an X. The Greek cross is of four equal parts. The Latin cross has the foot longer than the summit or arms. The Maltese cross and the cross of Jerusalem are varieties of the Greek cross. The Patriarchal cross (heraldic) has two cross pieces, the triple cross has three, &c. Per Cross, in heraldry, is the division of a shield quarterly (a combination of pale and fesse). (Figs. 212 to 215.)

Cross and Pile, O. E. The game of “heads and tails.”

Cross-aisled, Arch. Having TRANSEPTS.

Cross-bows were brought to England by the Crusaders. They were frequently richly carved and inlaid.

Cross-days, O. E. The three days before Ascension Day.

Cross-gartered. Having the garters crossed on the leg. (H.)

Cross-hatching. A term in engraving applied to lines which intersect at regular angles, to increase depth of shadow.

Crossos, Gr. (κρωσσός). A wide-bodied vessel narrowing towards the mouth; it is furnished with a stand and two handles or ears (δίωτοι).

Cross-row, O. E. The alphabet. (See Christ-cross.)

Cross-springer, Arch. In vaulting, the diagonal rib of a GROIN.

Cross-vaulting, Arch. That which is formed by the intersection of two or more simple vaults. When the vaults spring at the same level, and rise to the same height, the cross vault is termed a GROIN. The illustration (Fig. 173), the cloisters of the church of Mont St. Michel in France, shows the cross-vaulting.

Fig. 216. Crotalia. Greek necklace.

Crotalium, Gr. and R. (from κροτέω, to rattle). A small rattle. The Greek and Roman ladies gave this name to their pendants formed of two or four pear-shaped pearls (elenchi), which rattled softly as the wearer moved about. (Fig. 216.)

Crotalum Gr. and R. (κρόταλον). Castanets made of slit cane, used by dancers in the worship of Cybele. The Middle Ages also had their crotala, which consisted of a metal rod, in which were inserted rings, which sounded when the instrument was shaken.

Crow or Raven. The attribute of St. Vincent.

Crowde or Croud, O. E. (1) The crypt of a church. (2) A fiddle.

Crown. (See Corona. See also Mural Crown, Naval Crown, Crest, &c.)

Fig. 217. Crown of Her Majesty the Queen.

Crown (of a bell). The top of the inside of a bell, in which the ring is fixed from which the clapper is suspended. In architecture the spire of a steeple is said to crown the tower, or a fleuron to crown a gable, &c.

Fig. 218. Crown of the Rose.

Crown. An old English coin, the value of which has varied at different periods. The illustration represents the gold crown of Henry VIII., dated 1462, called a crown of the Rose, value 4s. 6d. Other crown pieces were called, from the mint-mark, crowns of the Sun.

Croyle, O. E. Crewel; tightly-twisted worsted.

Crozier, Chr. The name is often improperly applied to the bishop’s crooked pastoral staff; it belongs to the staff surmounted by a cross which is borne before an archbishop. The Byzantine crozier was that of the T-shaped cross; it had sometimes curved serpents on both sides.

Crucifix. The representation of the Saviour on the Cross was first introduced in the time of Constantine. It has undergone considerable variation at different periods.

Fig. 219. Porcelain Cruciform Box (Egyptian).

Cruciform. Shaped to form a cross. The illustration represents a specimen of ancient Egyptian porcelain, of this shape, ornamented with the lotus. (See Egyptian Pottery.)

Crumata. (See Crusmata.)

Crumena, R. A leather pouch for carrying money. The balantion of the Greeks was worn suspended from the neck by a strap.

Crumenal, O. E. A purse.

Crupezia, Gr. (κρούω, to strike). A kind of sandal with a double sole, in the middle of which were castanets with springs. (See Crotalum.) Greek flute-players used them in the theatre to beat time to the singing and declamation of the chorus.

Fig. 220. Device of the Della Cruscan Academy.

Crusca, Accademia della. A literary academy established in Florence in the 15th century by Cosmo de’ Medici; their device, a bolting-mill, represented in Fig. 220, was symbolical of their object to cultivate the Italian language by winnowing the flour from the bran; and in allusion to it, the members called themselves by appropriate names, as Infarinato, Rimenato, Gramolato, Insaccato, &c. On the top of the shield is the Marzocco, or Lion of Florence, the emblem of the city.

Crusilée, Crusily, Her. Having the field semée of small crosses.

Cruske, O. E. An earthen vessel; cf. the Irish cruishkeen.

Crusmata, Crumata, Gr. and R. (κρούω, to strike). Castanets.

Crustæ, R. In the finest works of the chaser, the ornamental pattern was frequently distinct from the vessel, to which it was either fastened permanently, or so that it could be removed at pleasure, the vessel being of silver, and the ornaments of gold, which were called crustæ or emblemata (Dr. Smith). Of these the former were the figures embossed in low relief, and the emblemata were those in high relief. (See Damascening, Emblemata.)

Crustulum, R. (dimin. of crustum). Anything baked; plaster mouldings; a cheap kind of decoration in bas-relief.

Crutch. An attribute of St. Anthony, to denote his age and feebleness.

Crux. The Latin equivalent for Cross (q.v.).

Crwth (A.S. crudh, Eng. crowd). A Welsh instrument, a sort of violin, similar to the rébek of the Bretons.

Fig. 221. Crypt at Lanmeur (France).

Crypta, Crypt, Chr. (κρύπτω, to bury). In ancient times the crypt was really a cloister; it formed, in fact, a long and narrow gallery surrounded by buildings, and itself surrounding a building, garden, or court. The courtyards of villæ were surrounded by crypts; the ruins of Diomed’s villa, at Pompeii, afford a curious instance of the kind. In modern archæology the term crypt is applied to a subterranean chapel underneath a church. (Figs. 221 and 222.) Among the Romans the word meant (1) a covered portico, or arcade, called crypto-porticus. (2) A grotto, or more accurately a tunnel. (3) A subterranean vault used for secret worship. (4) In the catacombs, a tomb in which a number of bodies were interred together.

Fig. 222. Crypt of St. Mary’s Church, Warwick.

Crypteia (κρυπτεία). A systematic massacre of Helots at night, by young Spartans, who hid themselves during the day.

Crystal. Rock crystals are frequently found large enough to make vessels of. The Romans had crystal drinking-cups of extraordinary size and beauty. Crystal ornaments were especially chosen for ecclesiastical purposes, and for mediæval bookbinding, &c., and are frequently found in early British graves.

Crystalotype. A sun-picture taken and fixed on glass by the collodion process.

Cubiculum, R. and Chr. (cubo, to recline). (1) A bedroom. (2) The emperor’s pavilion or tent at the amphitheatre or circus. (3) In Christian archæology, the sepulchral chambers of the catacombs. (See Cinerarium.)

Cubile, R. (cubo). A bed, or chamber containing a bed.

Cubit (Gr. πῆχυς, Lat. cubitus, an elbow). A measure of length among the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. In Egypt there were two cubits; the natural cubit, or small cubit, was equal to 18 inches (6 palms or 24 fingers); the royal cubit to 21 inches (7 palms or 28 fingers). Each of the subdivisions of the cubit was consecrated to a divinity. The Greek cubit was equal to about 18¼ inches; the Roman cubit to very nearly 17½ inches.

Cubital, R. A bolster or cushion used by the Romans to rest the elbow on when reclining.

Cubit-arm, Her. A human arm couped at the elbow.

Cubitoria, (sc. vestimenta, vestes). (See Cœnatoria.)

Cucullus, R. Literally, a piece of paper rolled into the shape of a funnel, used at Rome by apothecaries and other tradespeople for wrapping up certain kinds of goods; and hence, by analogy, the hood affixed to certain garments, such as the lacerna, pænula, sagum, &c. (See Cowl.)

Cucuma, R. A term applied to various earthenware or metal vessels, when they were used to heat water or any other liquid.

Cucurbita, R. A pumpkin or gourd, and thence a cupping-glass.

Cudo, Cudon, R. A skull-cap made of soft leather or furs.

Cuerpo (Span.). Body clothing, i. e. a jacket.

Cufic (characters), Arab. The Cufic is the most ancient form of Arabian writing, and bears a great resemblance to the Syriac writing called estranghelo; it appears to have originated in the city of Cufa or Coufa, whence the name.

Cuirass. (See Cingulum, Lorica, Pectorale, Thorax.)

Cuir-boulli, Fr. Boiled leather, frequently mentioned by mediæval writers. It has lately been revived under the name of impressed leather, and brought to a high state of perfection. (Fairholt.) Hence:—

Cuirbouly, O. E. Tanned leather.

Fig. 223. Cuisse.

Cuisses, Fr. Armour for the thighs, introduced about the middle of the 14th century. In early examples they consisted of one, two, or three pieces of plate overlapping; later on they were formed of one piece only, and finally were finished with a back piece, enclosing the whole of the thigh in armour.

Cuitikins, Cutikins, Scotch. Guêtres, gaiters.

Cuker, O. E. Part of a woman’s horned head-dress, “furred with a cat’s skin.”

Culcita, R. A mattress of horsehair, wool, wadding, or feathers.

Culettes, Fr. Plates of armour protecting the back, from the waist to the saddle.

Culeus or Culleus, R. The largest liquid measure of capacity used by the Romans, containing 20 amphoræ, or about 119 gallons. The same name was also applied to a very large sack, of skin or leather, used for oil or wine. It was in the culei that parricides were sewed up.

Culigna, R. A vessel for holding wine. It was a kind of amphora of a broader form, its width exceeding its height.

Culina, R. A kitchen.

Cullis, Arch. Same as Coulisse (q.v.).

Culme, O. E. The summit.

Cultellus, R. (dimin. of Culter, q.v.). A knife. Cultellus ligneus, a wedge of wood.

Culter or Culta, R. A knife. Culter coquinaris was a kitchen-knife; culter venatorius, a hunting-knife; culter tonsorius, a razor; culter vinitorius, or falx vinitoria, a vine-dresser’s pruning knife. The term denoted as well (1) the knife with which the officiating priest cut the victim’s throat; (2) a knife for carving, also called cultellus; (3) the coulter of a plough fixed in front of the plough-share.

Culullus, R. (culeus, q.v.). Generally, any drinking-vessel, and more particularly any earthenware vessel used by priests and vestals at sacrifices.

Culver, A.S. A dove.

Culver-house. A pigeon-house.

Cumera, R. A kind of large box or basket employed by country people for keeping their seed-wheat in.

Cumerum, R. A bridal basket containing the presents of the bride and bridegroom; it was carried by a camillus in the bridal procession.

Cumpi-coptra, Peruv. One of the divisions in the royal arsenals of the ancient Peruvians. It contained llama-wool, and textures of alpaca, embroidered in the college of the Virgins of the Sun (Pasua-Huasi), (q.v.).

Cunabula, R. Literally, a child’s cradle, and thence a bird’s nest, a beehive, a native city; any place, in short, in which a living thing is born. A synonym for this term is Cunæ. Bibliologists call early specimens of printing by this name, or Incunabula (q.v.).

Fig. 224. Cuneiform characters.

Cuneiform (characters). Oriental characters formed by a single symbol, which is in the shape of a wedge (cuneus). This kind of writing has been in use among many nations; more particularly the ancient Persians, Persepolitans, Babylonians, and Ninevites. Fig. 224 represents the first cuneiform characters which found their way to Europe.

Cuneus, R. (1) A wedge of wood, iron, or any other metal. (2) In a theatre or amphitheatre, a set of tiers comprised within two staircases (scalæ), so called from its wedge-like form. (3) A body of soldiers drawn up in the form of a wedge to break through the enemy’s line. The common soldiers called the formation caput porcinum, a pig’s head.

Cuniculus, R. (cuneus). An underground passage to a fortified place.

Cupa, R. A barrel or hogshead. Vinum de cupâ was wine which had not been drawn off in amphoræ; it was wine from the cask, new wine. The cupa was sometimes made of earthenware like the dolium. It was used for many purposes besides that of a wine-vat. (See Cupella.)

Cupel. A melting-pot for gold.

Cupella, R. and Chr. (dimin. of Cupa, q.v.). In Christian archæology, a tomb. The word occurs on a catacomb marble, inscribed with grotesque Latin: “I, Secunda, erected this cupella to my two children,” &c. [The cupa was sometimes used by the Romans as a sarcophagus.] (See Cinerarium.)

Cupola, It. A concave roof, circular or polygonal.

Cups. (See Coppa.)

Curb Roof, Arch. A Mansard roof; a roof with a double set of rafters on each side, of peculiar construction.

Curch, Gael. A kerchief.

Curfew. (See Couvre-feu, Fig. 202.)

Curia, Curiæ, R. (1) A building in which the people met together to offer sacrifices and take part in the festivities on certain days of festival. (2) The senatorial curiæ were buildings in which the senate usually assembled. (3) The Salian curia was a place situated on the Palatine Hill, which formed the place of assembly for the Salian priests who guarded the anciles or sacred shields. (4) Curia calabra was a small temple founded, almost simultaneously with the building of Rome, on the Palatine; it formed the observatory for the petty pontiffs whose duty it was to watch the appearance of the new moon. In Christian archæology the Roman curia denotes the pontifical tribunals collectively.

Curliewurlies, Scotch. Fantastical circular ornaments.

Currach, Scotch. A coracle or small skiff; a boat of wicker-work covered with hides.

Fig. 225. Currus. The Chariot of the Sun. The device of Philip II. of Spain.

Currus, Chariot (Gr. ἅρμα). A two-wheeled car or carriage in use among nearly all the nations of antiquity. There were racing-chariots, riding-chariots, and triumphal chariots. Some of these were profusely decorated with ivory (currus eburnei). War-chariots armed with scythes or sharp blades were called falcati. (See Covinus.) The illustration (Fig. 225), a device of Philip II. of Spain, represents Apollo driving the chariot of the Sun.

Cursores. “Runners” before their masters’ carriages; messengers generally.

Curtail Dog, O. E. A dog belonging to a person not qualified to hunt game, which, by the forest laws, must have its tail cropped.

Curtail Step, Arch. The first step of a stair, when its outer end is finished in the form of a scroll; when it has a circular end, it is called a round-ended step.

Cushat, Scotch. A wood-pigeon.

Cushion-capital, Arch. (1) A capital resembling a cushion pressed by a weight. (2) A cube rounded off at its lower angles; the capital most prevalent in the Norman style.

Cusp. In Astrology, the “entrance” of a “house.”

Fig. 226. Cuspis.

Fig. 227. Cuspis—Flint lance.

Figs. 228, 229, 230. Cuspides—Roman lances.

Cuspis, R. A point, more particularly the point of a lance, or javelin, since these were not barbed. Fig. 226 represents a javelin-head which gives a complete idea of the character of the point called cuspis; Fig. 227 shows a flint lance; and Figs. 228 to 230 the lance-headed cuspides affixed to the top of the Roman ensigns. (See Spiculum.)

Cusps. The foliations of architectural tracery, such as are formed by the points of a trefoil.

Custodia. The shrine or receptacle for the host in Spanish churches.

Cutlass, Coutel-hache, or Coutel-axe, O. E. This weapon was introduced at the end of the 15th century.

Cut-work. Also called “opus consutum;” Ital. “di commesso.” Open-work embroidery came into universal use in England in the 16th century. In the reign of Richard II., however, we are told,—

“Cut werke was greate both in court and townes,
Bothe in mene’s hoddies, and also in their gownes.”

(See Appliqué.)

Cyanogen. A gaseous compound of carbon and nitrogen, necessary to the formation of Prussian blue.

Cyathus, Gr. and R. A vase or ladle with one handle, used for taking wine from the crater (κρατὴρ), in order to fill the cups (pocula, calices) of the guests, at feasts and banquets. The term was also used to denote a small measure containing the twelfth part of the sextarius, or ·0825 of a pint. The cyathus was used in medicine to measure drugs with accuracy. [It is often represented, on vases, in the hands of Bacchus, in place of his proper goblet the Cantharus.]

Cybistic (dance), R. (κυβιστάω, to tumble). A part of the military exercises in which the performer threw himself at intervals on his hands, so as to rebound on his feet.

Cyclas, R. (κυκλὰς, circular). A long and loose piece of drapery, of a very fine texture; it was hemmed with purple or gold embroidery. The cyclas formed part of a woman’s costume, but it was also worn by men of an effeminate or dissolute character; hence—

Cyclas, O. E. The name of a long sleeveless gown worn by knights over their armour (from ciclatoun, q.v., of which it was made).

Fig. 231. Cyclopean Masonry.

Cyclopean (masonry, monuments), Gr. and R. (κυκλώπειον). Ancient structures, also known as Pelasgian, as being the work of Pelasgians who had learned in the school of Phœnician workmen called Cyclopes. These ancient structures are formed of enormous irregularly-shaped stones (Fig. 231), placed one above the other without cement or mortar. Remains of them are found in Asia Minor, Greece, and Italy; they consist chiefly of the walls of acropoles.

Fig. 232. Cylix. A Gallic drinking-cup.

Cylix, Gr. and R. A vase also known as a calix or cup. It was a wide flat drinking-cup, very shallow, of a circular form, with two handles, and mounted on a tolerably tall foot. Fig. 232 shows a silver cylix or Gaulish cup, found in the ruins of Alisia.

Fig. 233. Decorated Cyma.

Cyma, Cymatium (Eng. Ogee, Gr. κυμάτιον). An architectural moulding, named from the Greek κῦμα (wave or billow), the moulding consisting of an undulation. A cyma, the outline of which is convex at the top and concave below, is called cyma reversa; when it is hollow in the upper part, it is called a cyma recta. (Fig. 233.)

Cymatile, R. (κῦμα). A Roman female dress, of a changing sea-green colour, like the waves.

Cymba, R. (κύμβος, a hollow). (1) A small boat. (2) A vase of metal or clay in the form of a small boat. (See Cymbium.)

Cymbals, O. E. A contrivance of a number of metal plates, or bells, suspended on cords.

Cymbalum, R. (from κύμβος). The cymbals; a musical instrument made of two disks of bronze or brass. (See Crotalum, Flagellum.)

Cymbe, Gr. An ointment-pot, similar in shape to the Ampulla (q.v.).

Cymbium, R. (κυμβίον). A boat-shaped drinking-cup with two handles. (See Cymba.)

Cynocephalus, Egyp. An ape with a dog’s head; a sacred animal, representing Anubis in the Egyptian mythology.

Cynophontis (sc. ἑορτὴ), Gr. (derived from the Greek κύων, dog, and φόνος, slaughter). Festivals held at Argos during the dog-days, when dogs found straying in the city were killed.

Cynopolites, Egyp. (κυνοπολίτης). A nome of Upper Egypt.

Fig. 234. Branch of Cypress and of Myrtle. Device of M. A. Colonna.

Cypress. In Persian art, this tree is the frequently-occurring emblem of the religion of Zoroaster, and of the soul aspiring to Heaven. In Christian and modern symbolism it is the emblem of mourning. The device of cypress and myrtle assumed by Marc Antonio Colonna on the occasion of the defence of Ravenna is emblematic of “death or victory.” The wood of the cypress-tree was much used for statuary by the ancients. Carved chests of cypress were especially used, in the Middle Ages, for keeping clothes and tapestry; its aromatic properties were considered a specific against moth. (Fig. 234.)

Cyprus. Thin stuff of which women’s veils were made.

Cyprus or Verona Green. A pigment mentioned by Pliny as Appian Green: it is prepared from green earths found at Cyprus or Verona, which are coloured by oxide of copper. (See Appianum.)

Cysts or Cists, Etrus. (κίστη, a chest). Offerings dedicated by women in the temple of Venus, of cylindrical caskets of enchased bronze. The handles of these caskets represent small figures, and the feet the claws of animals. Those which have been found in Etruscan tombs, chiefly at Præneste, are in many cases decorated with a graffito designs.

Cyzicenæ, Gr. (κυζικηναί). Large and richly-decorated apartments, built for the first time at Cyzicus, which had their principal fronts to the north, and were situated in a garden.

D.

Dabber. A tool used in etching to distribute the etching-ground over a plate of metal in the first process of engraving, and, in printing from copper-plate engraving and woodcuts, to spread the ink.

Dactyliography or Dactyliology, Gen. (δακτύλιος, a ring). The study of rings.

Dactyliotheca, Gr. (δακτυλιο-θήκη, a ringbox). (1) A glass case or casket containing rings. (2) A collection of rings, engraved stones, or precious stones. (See Glyptotheca.)

Dactylus, Gr. (δάκτυλος, a finger). The Roman digitus; a finger-breadth, the 16th part of a foot.

Dado, Arch. (1) The part of a pedestal between the base and the cornice. (2) In apartments, an arrangement of moulding, &c., round the lower part of the wall.

Dædal. A fanciful word coined by the poet Spenser, for “variegated in design.”

Dædala, Gr. Ancient images preserved in sanctuaries in memory of Dædalus, to whom were attributed the greater number of those works of art the origin of which was unknown. Hence the name was especially attributed to certain wooden statues, ornamented with gilding, bright colours, and real drapery, which were the earliest known form of images of the gods.

Dædala, Gr. (δαίδαλα). Festivals in honour of Hera, celebrated in Bœotia.

Dæmon, Daimon, Gr. (δαίμων). The good genius who watched over an individual during his whole life, like the Latin Lar and Genius. It was the belief of Socrates that he was guided by his Daimon in every important act and thought of his life. The word has a general meaning of “Divinity.”

Dag or Dagge. Old English name of a pistol.

Dagges, O. E. Ornamental cutting of the edges of garments, introduced into England about 1346. (See the illustration to Cointise, Fig. 177).

Dagob, Hindoo. A conical tumulus or shrine in which relics and images of Buddha were worshipped.

Dag-swain, O. E. A sort of rough material of which coverlets for beds, tables, or floors were made.

Daguerreotype. A kind of photography on plates of silver, named after M. Daguerre, the inventor.

Daidies, Gr. (from δαίω, to kindle). A festival held at Athens, during which torches were lit; it lasted three days.

Fig. 235. Dais.

Dais, Chr. An architectural structure, decorated with sculptures and ornaments, which serves as a canopy for an altar, throne, pulpit, chair (cathedra), statue, or group. Fig. 235 represents a stone dais of the St. Anne door in the cathedral of Paris.

Dais. In Anglo-Saxon houses, and generally; a covered seat of honour, at the upper end of the hall, on a raised floor. (“In all the houses of the wealthy in China there are two raised seats at the end of the reception-room, with a table between them.” Fortune.) (See Deas.)

Dalmahoy, O. E. A kind of bushy bob-wig, worn especially by chemists; 18th century.

Fig. 236. Ecclesiastical Dalmatic.

Dalmatic. A long robe or upper tunic partly opening at the sides, so named from its being of Dalmatian origin; an ecclesiastical vestment; also a portion of the coronation robes of sovereign princes. It was usually made of white silk with purple stripes, occasionally of other colours, the left sleeve only being ornamented; the right was plain for convenience. As early as the reign of Richard I., the dalmatic is mentioned amongst the coronation robes. (Fig. 236.) (See Colobium, Deacon.)

Damara or Dammar. A resin used for varnishes. It is a valuable substitute for mastic.

Damaretion. A Sicilian coin, supposed to have been of gold, equal in value to a half-stater.

Damas (or Damascus) Pottery Ware. The commercial name in the 16th century for a large class of wares, now generally known as Persian.

Fig. 237. Specimen of Arabic Damascening (full size).

Damascening, or Damaskeening, is the art of incrusting one metal on another, not in crusta, but in the form of wire, which by undercutting and hammering is thoroughly incorporated with the metal it is intended to ornament. (See Damask, Damascus Blades.) The process of etching slight ornaments on polished steel wares is also called Damascening. (Fig. 237.)

Damascus Blades are prepared of a cast steel highly charged with carbon, which, being tempered by a peculiar process, assumes the manycoloured watered appearance by which they are known. The process is called Damascening (q.v.).

Damask. A rich fabric, woven with large patterns, in silk, linen, wool, or even cotton, originally made at Damascus. (See Fig. 88.)

Dames, O. E. The old name for the game of draughts, represented early in the 14th century. The pieces were originally square.

Danace (δανάκη). The obolus which was placed in the mouth of the dead to pay the passage of the Styx.

Dance of the Corybantes. (See Corybantica.)

Dance of Death, Danse Macabre, Chr. Paintings, illuminations, or sculptures in bas-relief, representing men dancing under the eye of Death, who presides at this dance. In some instances the performers are skeletons and corpses. The most celebrated Dance of Death was that painted in fresco by Holbein in the cloister of the Dominicans at Basle. It has been destroyed by fire, but the etching-needle has preserved it for us. Other examples that may be named are, that in the new church at Strasburg, that of Lucerne, that in the palace at Dresden, and—most ancient of all—that at Minden, in Westphalia, which dates from 1380.

Dancette, Arch. The chevron or zigzag moulding peculiar to Norman architecture. (See Chevron.)

Dangu Faience. Pottery from a manufactory near Gisors in France, established in 1753.

Daphnephoria (δάφνη, a laurel). A festival held in honour of Apollo every ninth year at Thebes, in which the assistants carried laurel branches.

Dara, Ind. A kind of tambourine.

Darabukkeh. An Egyptian drum, unaltered from ancient times.

Daric Money. A Persian gold coin, stamped on one side with the figure of an archer kneeling, and on the other with a deep cleft, and to which the name of Daric money has been given by numismatists. Its proper name is the Stater of Dareius I., king of Persia. Its value is about 1l. 1s. 10d.

Darned Netting (needlework). (See Lacis.)

Datatim ludere, R. To play with a ball (“catch-ball”).

Davenport Pottery is the produce of a manufactory of fine faience established at Longport in England by John Davenport in 1793.

Day, Arch. Part of a window: the same as Bay.

Deacon, Chr. A dalmatic, or an alb; i. e. a deacon’s vestment.

Dead-boot, O. E., Chr. Prayers for the dead.

Dealbatus, R. (dealbo, to whiten over). Covered with a coating of stucco (albarium opus). The builders of antiquity made great use of stucco, both in the interior and exterior of buildings. All the buildings of Pompeii are stuccoed.

Deambulatory, Arch. (deambulo, to walk about). The lateral nave which surrounds the choir of a church; it is usually separated from the aisles by a grating (cancelli).

Deas, Dais, Dees, Scotch, (1) A table, especially the great hall table. (2) A pew in a church. (3) A turf seat erected at the door of a cottage. (See Dais.)

Death’s-man, O. E. The executioner.

Debased, Her. Reversed.

Decadence. The term in ancient art is applied to the period after the fall of Rome, and before the Renaissance in the 14th century; in modern art to the period of the rococo style of Louis XV.

Decaduchi (δεκα-δοῦχοι), Gr. A council of ten, who ruled Athens from B.C. 403 until the restoration of democracy.

Decan, Egyp. A period of ten days, which was ruled by a star called its Decan. The month was divided into three decans, and the year into thirty-six, each being presided over by its own inferior divinity. On zodiacs they are arranged in groups of three above the twelve superior gods. The decans were the tutelary genii of the horoscope.

Decarchia (δεκ-αρχία). A council of the Lacedæmonians.

Decastellare, Med. Lat. To dismantle.

Decastylos, Arch. A building of which the portico has ten columns; a decastylic pediment is a pediment supported by ten columns.

Decemjugus (sc. currus), R. A chariot drawn by ten horses abreast; represented on the medals of the later emperors.

Decempeda, R. A ten-foot measuring-rod used by architects and surveyors.

Decemremis, R. (remus, an oar). A vessel with ten banks of oars. It is certain that the different ranks of rowers, who had each his own seat, sat one above the other; the lowest row was called thalamos, the middle zuga, and the uppermost thranos; but it is very difficult to understand in what manner so many ranks could have been arranged, and the question has been the subject of infinite discussion.

Decennalia or Decennia. A festival at Rome in commemoration of the refusal of Augustus to become emperor for a longer period than ten years at a time.

Decollation (= beheading). An ecclesiastical expression applied to St. John the Baptist and other martyrs.

Fig. 238. Decorated window.

Decorated Style of Architecture. The second of the Pointed or Gothic styles of architecture used in England. It was developed from the Early English at the end of the 13th century, and gradually merged into the Perpendicular during the latter part of the 14th. Its most characteristic feature is the geometrical traceries of the windows.

Fig. 239. Decrescent.

Decrescent, In Detriment, Her. A half-moon having its horns to the sinister.

Decursio, R. (decurro, to run or march). Military manœuvres; a review, sham fight, or any exercise for training soldiers; the term decursus was also used.

Decussis, R. (decem, ten, and as). A piece of money marked with the numeral X (10), and which was worth ten asses (post-Augustan; see Denarius).

De Fundato or Netted. A name given to certain silks, which were dyed of the richest purple, and figured with gold in the pattern of netting.

De-gamboys, O. E. A musical instrument. (See Viol de Gambo.)

Degradation, Gen. The diminishing of the tones of colour, light, and shade, according to the different degrees of distance. (A term used especially in reference to glass painting.)

Degreed, Degraded, Her. Placed on steps.

Deice, Deas, or Deis, O. E. (See Dais.)

Deinos, Gr. A vessel with a wide mouth and semi-spherical body, something like the cacabus.

Delf. Common pottery from Delft in Holland.

Fig. 240. Oil cruet, Delft ware.

Delft Faiences are remarkable for the beauty of their paste and of their enamel, but spurious imitations are said to be abundant. Fig. 240 is a representative specimen of the real Delft ware. The date of the establishment of this manufacture is uncertain, but earlier than 1614; the ornamentation is inspired by Japanese art. (Consult Jacquemart’s History of the Ceramic Art.)

Delia, Gr. Festivals and games at Delos.

Delphica (sc. cortina), R. A table of a very costly description, made of white marble or bronze. It was used as a drinking-table, and had only three feet richly ornamented. [Explained under the heading Cortina.]

Delphinia. A Greek festival in honour of Apollo.

Delphinorum Columnæ, R. The two columns at one end of the spina of a circus, on which marble figures of dolphins were placed. The seven ova (eggs) on similar columns at the end of the spina opposite to these dolphins, served to indicate the number of turns made by the chariots round the goal. (See Ovum.) [The figure of the dolphin was selected in honour of Neptune.] (Cf. Circus.)

Fig. 241. Dolphin. Used as an ornament.

Fig. 242. Dolphin. Medal of Syracuse.

Delphinus, Dolphin, Gen. (δελφίν). The dolphin was often used as an ornament, and especially as a hand-rest or banister to the vomitoria or entrances of the theatres and amphitheatres. Fig. 241 represents a dolphin utilized in this manner at the theatre of Puzzoli. Many medals, as for instance those of Syracuse (Fig. 242), are stamped with a dolphin. (See also Dolphin.)

Delphis, R. A heavy mass of iron or lead used in naval warfare, to drop on board of a hostile ship and sink it. (Compare Corvus.)

Delubrum, R. (deluo, to cleanse). A shrine; the part of a temple which contains the altar or statue of the deity, and thence a temple containing an altar.

Demembered, Dismembered, Her. Cut into pieces, but without any alteration in the form of the original figure.

Fig. 243. Demi-lion, rampant.

Demi, Her. The half; the upper, front, or dexter half, unless the contrary is specified.

Demi-brassarts, Vambraces, or Avant-braces. Half-armour for the arm.

Demi-culverin. A cannon of four inches’ bore. (Meyrick.)

Demi-hag. A smaller kind of hackbut (arquebus).

Demi-haque, O. E. A fire-arm, smaller than the arquebus; 16th century.

Demi-jambes. Armour for the shins.

Demi-placcate. The lower part of a breastplate.

Demi-relievo. Sculpture in relief, in which one half of the figure projects; generally called Mezzo-relievo. (See Basso-relievo.)

Demiurgi (δημι-ουργοί). Popular magistrates.

Demosii. Slaves belonging to the state, at Athens.

Demotic (writing), Egyp. (δημοτικὰ, sc. γράμματα, i. e. popular writing). A mode of writing among the ancient Egyptians, differing from the hieroglyphic or sacred writing. This writing, which was employed for civil records, was introduced under the twenty-fifth dynasty, being derived from the hieratic writing, the first abbreviation of the hieroglyphics.

Demster, O. E. A judge.

Demyt, O. E. An old word for dimity; a kind of fustian. Perhaps so called because first manufactured at Damietta.

Denarius, R. (deni, by tens). The silver coin principally in use among the Romans. Until the reign of Augustus the denarius was worth ten asses, and afterwards sixteen. Denarius aureus was a gold denarius, equal in value to twenty-five silver denarii.

Denia. A city of Valencia in Spain, which disputes with Alcora the production of a remarkable kind of pottery, of which Jacquemart mentions a vase with two handles of Arab form, resembling the alcarazas, upon a smooth white enamel decorated with birds and flowers coarsely painted.

Dens, R. Literally, a tooth; hence the prongs of a fork, the flukes of an anchor, the barbs of a lance, the teeth of a saw or rake.

Dentale, R. (dens, a tooth). The piece of wood in a plough on which the plough-share (vomer) is fastened.

Dentatus, R. Armed with teeth.

Dentelle Decoration. Of French pottery, a light lace pattern, more delicate than the “lambrequin.”

Dentels, Fr. (See Dentile.)

Dentile, Dentils (Latin, denticuli), Arch. Ornaments in the form of small cubes or teeth, used in the moulding of cornices, in the Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite orders. (See Tooth-ornament, Dog’s-tooth.)

Depas, R. A bowl with two handles, the foot of which is made of a low flat moulding like the Doric fillet.

Depressed, Her. Surmounted, placed over another.

Derby Porcelain. Manufactory established in 1750. Jacquemart says, “Derby has made fine porcelains and statuettes which have nothing to fear by comparison with the groups of Saxony or Sèvres.”

Dere, O. E. Noble, honourable.

“Syr Cadore with his dere knyghttes.”

Derring do, O. E. Deeds of arms.

Deruncinatus, R. Smoothed and polished with the runcina or carpenter’s plane.

Desca, Lat. A stall or desk in a church.

Descobinatus, R. Rasped with the Scobina or carpenter’s rasp.

Destrere, Anglo-Norman. A war-horse.

Desultorius (sc. equus), R. (desilio, to leap off). A horse trained for equestrian performances in a circus by the desultor. Desultorius is itself sometimes used as a synonym for desultor. The desultor rode two horses at once, and got his name from his leaping or vaulting from one to the other.

Desvres, Pas de Calais, France. An interesting manufactory of faience established in the 17th century, of a style originating in Flanders. (Jacquemart.)

Detached. A term in painting applied to figures which stand out well.

Detriment, Her. (See Decrescent.)

Deunx, R. (de and uncia, a twelfth part off). A nominal value not represented by any coin. The term means literally eleven unciæ, or eleven-twelfths of anything [i. e. ounces or twelfths of a pound].

Developed, Her. Displayed, unfurled.

Devil, Chr. Mediæval representations of the devil (especially in painting) were taken from those of the satyrs of the ancients. They were, however, subject to no canon of symbolism at all, and varied from the likeness of a beautiful woman to every imaginable variety of the grotesque and repulsive.

Fig. 244. Old Devonshire Lace.

Devonshire Lace (Old). This lace is said to have been first introduced into England by the Flemings in 1567–73, and it long preserved its Flemish character. The engraving shows a specimen of old Devonshire lace, made at the beginning of the last century.

Devs, Pers. Evil genii, servants of Ahriman, in the religion of Zoroaster; they were twenty-eight in number, and were opposed to the ministers of the amchaspands or Izeds (q.v.).

Dextans, R. (de and sextans, i. e. a sixth part off). A nominal value not represented by any coin. The literal meaning of the term is ten unciæ, or ten-twelfths of anything [ounces].

Dexter, Her. The right side, i. e. to the spectator’s or reader’s left.

Fig. 245. Dextrochere or bracelet.

Dextrale, R. (dexter, right). A bracelet worn by Greek and Roman women on the right arm, and differing from the dextrocherium (Fig. 245), which was worn on the wrist. The latter ornament was often of gold. (See Armilla.)

Dholkee, Hindoo. A kind of tom-tom, or small drum. (See Tom-tom.)

Diabathrum, Gr. and R. (βάθρον, that on which one stands). A sandal or light shoe worn by women, especially such as were tall. The comic poet Alexis, talking of courtesans, says, “One is too short, and so she puts cork in her baukides; another is too tall, and she puts on a light diabathrum.”

Diaconicum, Scevophylacium, and Bematis Diaconicon, Chr. A room in an ancient basilica near the altar, where the priests put on and took off their vestments, and the deacons (διάκονοι) prepared the vessels and sacred ornaments to be used in the service. Diaconicum majus was the sacristy.

Diadema, R. (diadeô, to bind round). Originally the white fillet worn by Eastern monarchs round the head. It was made of silk, wool, or yarn, narrow, but wider in the centre of the forehead. The Greeks presented a diadem to every victor in the public games, and it was worn by priests and priestesses. As the emblem of sovereignty it is an attribute of Juno. Afterwards the term came to mean a diadem.

Diæta, Gr. and R. (i. e. a living-place). That part of a house in which a Roman received his guests. The same term was applied to a captain’s cabin in the after-part of a ship.

Diætæ, R. Summer-houses. (See Hortus.)

Diaglyph, Gr. and R. (διαγλύφω, to carve through). An intaglio, or design cut into the material on which it is executed. (See Intaglio.)

Diaglyphic. (Sculpture, engraving, &c.) in which the objects are sunk below the general surface.

Diagonal Rib, Arch. A cross formed by the intersection of the ribs which cut one another according to the groins of a groined roof.

Dialia, Gr. and R. (διάλια, from Δὶς, old form for Ζεύς). Festivals held in honour of Jupiter by the Flamen Dialis (the priest of Jupiter).

Diamastigosis, Gr. (διαμαστίγωσις, i. e. a severe scourging). A festival held at Sparta in honour of Artemis Orthia, during which boys were flogged at an altar in order to harden them to the endurance of pain.

Fig. 246. Diamicton.

Diamicton, Gr. and R. (διαμίγνυμι, to mix up). A wall, of which the outside surface was made of brickwork or regular layers of masonry, and the centre was filled up with rubble. Fig. 246.

Diamond, for glass-cutting, was not used till the 16th century, although suggested in a Bolognese MS. of a century earlier. Its discovery is attributed to Francis I., who, to let the Duchesse d’Estampes know of his jealousy, wrote on the palace windows with his ring,—

“Souvent femme varie;
Mal habil qui s’y fie.”

The art of cutting and polishing diamonds with diamond powder was discovered by Louis de Berquem in 1476.

Diamond, in Christian art. (See White.)

Diamond Fret, Arch. The descriptive name for a decorated moulding in Norman architecture.

Fig. 247. Di-amante, Punning device of Pietro de’ Medici.

Diamond Rings were used as seal and bearings on his escutcheon (represented in Fig. 100) by Cosmo de’ Medici, the founder of the famous Florentine family. The device in various forms was invariably adopted by his descendants. Fig. 247 is the device of Pietro de’ Medici († 1470), the son of Cosmo: a falcon with a ring, and the punning motto, “Semper,” forming with the device the words “Semper fa-’l-con di (Dio) amante.”

Diapasma, Gr. and R. (διαπάσσω, to sprinkle). A powder made of dried flowers and odoriferous herbs, which was put in a sachet for use as a perfume, or rubbed over the body.

Diaper, Arch. Ornament of sculpture in low relief, sunk below the general surface.

Diaper, O. E. A mode of decoration by a repeated pattern, carved or painted, generally in squares, representing flowers and arabesques.

Fig. 248. Diapered surcoat of a Herald, with the clarion.

Diaper or Damask, a name given to a fine linen cloth made at Ypres, is spoken of as early as the 13th century.

“Of cloth making she had such a haunt,
She passed hem of Ypres and of Gaunte.”
(Prologue of Canterbury Tales.)

The peculiarity of this cloth, as of that of Damascus, was in the pattern. “To diaper” is, in heraldry, to cover the field of an escutcheon with devices independent of the armorial bearings. The engraving shows a surcoat diapered, on which are embroidered armorial bearings. (Fig. 248.)

Diasia, Gr. Festivals in honour of Zeus, held at Athens, outside of the walls of the city, for the purpose of averting epidemics and other ills (ἄση).

Diastyle, Arch. An intercolumniation, in which the columns are separated from each other by a space of three diameters.

Diathyrum, Gr. A passage leading at one end to the street door of a house, and at the other to the door of the courtyard. The Romans called this space Prothyrum (q.v.).

Fig. 249. Diatonoi.

Diatoni, Diatonoi, Gr. and R. (διατείνω, to extend through). Long stones extending from one face of a wall to the other (to which modern architects give the name of perpenders or perpend-stones), and which were employed in the method of construction called Emplecton (q.v.). In Fig. 249 one is represented by the stone placed between b and c.

Diatreta, Gr. (διάτρητα, i. e. bored through). A drinking-cup made of glass, cut in such a way that the designs or ornaments upon it stand out completely from the body of the vase, and form a tracery, which is only united to the vase itself by small ties or pins left for the purpose.

Diatriba, Gr. and R. (διατρίβω, to spend time). Places in which learned discussions were held, such as lecture or assembly rooms.

Diaulos, Gr. The double flute. (See Aulos, Flute.) One in the British Museum, found in a tomb at Athens, is of cedar-wood, with tubes fifteen inches in length.

Diazoma, Gr. (διάζωμα, that which girdles). A Greek synonym of the Latin term Præcinctio (q.v.).

Dicasterion, Dicastery, Gr. (δικαστήριον; δίκη, justice). A tribunal at Athens in which the people themselves administered justice without the intervention of the magistrates.

Dicastes. A judge, or rather juryman, chosen annually from the citizens at Athens.

Dicerion, Chr. (δι-κέραιον, with two horns). A candlestick with two branches, holding which in their hands the Greek priests bless the people. The dicerion is symbolical of the two-fold nature of Christ. (See Tricerion.)

Dichalcon, Gr. (δίχαλκος, i. e. double-chalcos). A small Greek copper coin worth only one-fourth or one-fifth of an obolus.

Dichoria, Gr. (δι-χορία, i. e. division of chorus). When the ancient choruses divided into two, to recite in turn a part of the action of a play, or mutually to interchange sentiments, this action was called dichoria; each half of the chorus was called hemichoria (ἡμιχορία), and each stanza antichoria (ἀντιχορία).

Dicken, O. E. The devil. “Odds dickens!”

Dicker, O. E. Half a score.

Dicomos, Gr. (κῶμος, a feast). A banqueting-song, which was sung at the second course of the feast at the festivals of Bacchus.

Dicrotos, Dicrotus, Gr. (δί-κροτος, lit. double-beating). The Greek name for a vessel with two banks of oars, the Roman biremis.

Dictynnia (δίκτυον, a hunter’s net). A Cretan festival in honour of Artemis.

Fig. 250. Dictyotheton.

Dictyotheton, Gr. (from δίκτυον, a net). A kind of masonry composed of regularly-cut square stones, forming, in a wall so constructed, a network or chess-board pattern. It answered to the opus reticulatum of the Romans.

Didrachma, Didrachmum, Gr. (δί-δραχμον). A double silver drachma of the Greek coinage, which was worth about two shillings.

Die. In Architecture, for dado, or the part of a pedestal that would correspond to the dado (q.v.).

Die-sinking. The art of engraving on steel moulds, medals, coins, and inscriptions.

Difference, Differencing, Her. An addition to, or some change in, a coat of arms, introduced for the purpose of distinguishing coats which in their primary qualities are the same. Differencing is sometimes used in the same sense as Cadency; but, strictly, it is distinct, having reference to alliance and dependency, without blood-relationship, or to the system adopted for distinguishing similar coats of arms. (Bouteil.)

Digitale, R. (digitus, a finger). A kind of glove worn by the Sarmatians, an example of which may be seen on Trajan’s Column.

Diglyph, Gr. and R. (δί-γλυφος, doubly indented). An ornament consisting of two glyphæ (γλυφαὶ) or grooves channelled out on consoles. (See Triglyph.)

Diipoleia (πολιεὺς, of the city). A very ancient Athenian festival, celebrated annually on the Acropolis, in honour of Zeus Polieus.

Fig. 251. Rose dimidiated. Device of James I.

Dimidiated, Her. Cut in half per pale, and one half removed. Fig. 251 is a device placed by James I. on some of his coins, in which the thistle and rose are respectively dimidiated. The legend was, “Fecit eos in gentem unam.”

Diocleia. A festival of the Megarians, held about the grave of an ancient Athenian hero, Diocles. There was a prize for kissing.

Dionysia. The celebrated orgies of Dionysus or Bacchus, suppressed B.C. 186, and substituted by the Liberalia. (See Bacchanalia.)

Dioptra, Gr. and R. (δίοπτρα; διοράω, to see through). An instrument used in surveying to measure distances and to take levels.

Dioscuria, Gr. and R. (Διοσκούρια). Games instituted at Rome in honour of the Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux), who, at the battle of Lake Regillus against the Latins (496 B.C.), were supposed to have fought on the side of the Romans.

Diospolites, Egyp. One of the nomes or divisions of Lower Egypt.

Diota, Gr. (δί-ωτα, with two ears). A name applied indifferently to any kind of vase furnished with two handles, such as lagenæ, amphoræ, canthari, &c.

Diplinthus, R. (πλίνθος, a brick). Masonry two bricks thick.

Diploïs, Gr. and R. Folded in two; an upper garment which was doubled in the same manner as a woman’s shawl at the present day; it was much worn among the Greeks.

Diploma, Gr. and R. (δίπλωμα, i. e. double-folded). A passport consisting of two leaves (whence its name). The term is also used to denote a diploma by which any right or privilege is conferred.

Dipteral, Arch. A building having double wings. The term is applied to any building having a double intercolumniation all round it.

Diptheræ, Gr. and R. (διφθέραι; δέφω, to make supple). (1) Prepared skins for writing on. (2) A kind of garment; an overcoat of skin or leather which Greek slaves put on over their tunic.

Diptych, Gr. (δί-πτυχα, i. e. double-folded). Double tablets united by means of strings or hinges. Diptycha consularia, ædilitia, prætoria had engraved on them portraits of consuls, ædiles, prætors, and other magistrates. These consular diptychs were a part of the presents sent by new consuls on their appointment to very eminent persons. The series of them is a very valuable record of the progress of the art of ivory carving. In Christian archæology diptychs were decorated with scenes from biblical history. There were also diptychs of the baptized; of the bishops and benefactors of a church, living or dead; of saints and martyrs; and, lastly, of deceased members of the congregation, whose souls were to be remembered at mass. (See Triptych.)

Directors, or Triangular Compasses. A mathematical instrument adapted for taking three angular points at once.

Diribitorium, R. (diribeo, to sort or separate). A place or building in which a public officer inspected the troops, distributed the pay, and enrolled the conscripts in their respective regiments.

Dirige, Chr. A psalm forming part of the burial service, “Dirige gressus meos,” &c.; hence Dirge, for funereal music or hymns in general.

Dirk. A Scotch dagger.

Fig. 252. Tazza of Diruta, with head of “Rome.”

Diruta. An important porcelain manufactory in the Papal States, established by a pupil of Luca della Robbia in 1461.

Discerniculum, R. (discerno, to divide). A bodkin used by Roman women in the toilet to part their hair. (See Combs.)

Discharging Arch. An arch built into the structure of a wall, to relieve the parts below it of the pressure of those above it; such arches are common over flat-headed doors or other openings.

Discinctus, Gr. and R. (discingo, to ungird). A man who is ungirt, that is, who does not wear a girdle round the waist of his tunic; for a man, this was a mark of effeminate manners. Discinctus miles denoted a soldier who had been stripped by his commander of his sword-belt, as a mark of disgrace. (Compare Cingulum.)

Disclosed, Her. With expanded wings, in the case of birds that are not birds of prey. The contrary to Close.

Fig. 253. Discobolus of Myron copied on a gem.

Discobolus, Gr. and R. (δισκο-βόλος, i. e. discus-throwing). A man throwing the Discus (q.v.). [A celebrated statue of the sculptor Myron so called.]

Discus, R. (δίσκος; δικεῖν, to throw). This term denoted (1) the discus hurled by the Discobolus (q.v.); that is, a circular plate of metal or stone, about ten or twelve inches in diameter. (2) A sun-dial. (3) A shallow circular vessel for holding eatables.

Disk. (See Winged Disk.)

Disomum, Chr. (δί-σωμον, double-bodied). An urn or tomb which held the ashes or bodies of two persons; bisomum was also used. Both terms are met with in Christian inscriptions.

Fig. 254. Falcon Displayed.

Displayed, Her. Birds of prey with expanded wings. Fig. 254 represents the crest of Edward IV., the falcon and fetterlock.

Displuviatus, Displuviatum, R. An atrium, the roof of which was sloped outwards from the Compluvium (q.v.), instead of being sloped towards it. (See Impluvium and Atrium.)

Disposed, Disposition, Her. Arranged, arrangement.

Distaff. A common object in ancient art. It is an attribute of the Fates, and generally distaffs of gold were given to the goddesses. It was dedicated to Minerva. (See Colus.) The name of St. Distaff’s Day was given to the day after Twelfth Day in England.

Distance. In a picture, the point of distance is that where the visual rays meet; middle distance is the central portion of a picture, between the foreground and the extreme distance.

Distemper. A kind of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an aqueous vehicle, such as size. Distemper is painted on a dry surface. (See Fresco-painting.)

Ditriglyph, R. (δὶς, twice, and τρίγλυφος). The space between two triglyphs in the Doric order. The term is therefore a synonym of Metope (q.v.).

Dividers. Ordinary compasses for taking off and transferring measurements.

Dividiculum, R. A reservoir in the form of a tower, in which the water of an aqueduct was collected, and whence it was afterwards distributed. (See Castellum.)

Docana (δοκὸς, a beam). An ancient Spartan symbol of Castor and Pollux. It consisted of two upright beams, with cross pieces.

Doccia. An important Italian manufactory of soft porcelain founded in 1735. Jacquemart says, “Doccia now inundates Europe with spurious majolica of the 16th century, and with false porcelain of Capo di Monte, of which she possesses the moulds.”

Dodecahedron, Gr. A solid figure of twelve equal sides.

Dodecastyle, Gr. and R. (δώδεκα, twelve, and στῦλος, pillar). A building, the arrangement of which admits of twelve columns in front. A dodecastyle pediment is a pediment supported by twelve columns.

Dodra, R. (dodrans, nine parts). A kind of beverage, or rather soup, composed of nine ingredients. We learn from Ausonius that it was made of bread, water, wine, oil, broth, salt, sweet herbs, honey, and pepper.

Dodrans, R. (i. e. three-fourths). Nine unciæ, or three-quarters of an as. There was no coin of this value. As a measure of length, nine inches. (See As.)

Doff or Deff, Egyp. The square tambourine of the ancient Egyptians; the toph of the Hebrews, still in use among the Arabs, especially in the Barbary States.

Dog. An emblem of fidelity and loyalty. In mediæval art, the attribute of St. Roch; also of St. Dominic, the founder of the Dominican order; of St. Bernard, St. Wendelin, and St. Benignus. As an emblem of fidelity, it is placed at the feet of the effigies of married women upon sepulchres. It was common to represent, in painting or mosaic, a chained watch-dog at the doors of Roman houses. The Dog of Fo is a sacred emblem in China, sometimes called a Chimera; it is placed as the guardian of the thresholds of temples, and of the Buddhist altars. In the Chinese zodiacal system the dog is the sign for the month of September.

Dog Latin. Barbarous Latin; e. g. “Verte canem ex” (turn the dog out).

Dog’s-nose, O. E. A cordial used in low life, composed of warm porter, moist sugar, gin, and nutmeg. (Halliwell.)

Dog’s-tooth Moulding, Arch. A characteristic ornament of Early English architecture, formed of four leaves with small spiral fillets, which bear some resemblance to teeth. (See Tooth-ornament.)

Fig. 255. Bronze Dolabra or hatchet (Celtic).

Fig. 256. Hatchet, flint-stone.

Fig. 257. Gallic hatchet.

Dolabra, R. (dolo, to hew). An instrument like a pick or hatchet, which varied in form according to the different purposes for which it was employed. The dolabra was used for digging, cutting, breaking, and chopping, and was thus a pick, a hatchet, an adze or ascia, &c. Dolabra of flint or other hard stone, called Celts, are of remote antiquity. (See Celt.) (Figs. 255 to 257.)

Doliolum. Dimin. of Dolium (q.v.).

Dolium or Culeus, Gr. and R. A large earthenware vessel with a wide mouth, and of rounded, spherical form. It was used to contain wine and oil when first made, before they were transferred into smaller vessels for keeping.

Fig. 258. Dolmen.

Dolmen, Celt. A term which, in the Celtic language, means literally a stone table. It consists of a number of stones, of which some are fixed in the ground, and the others laid transversely over them. These structures were used as sepulchres. Figs. 258 and 259 represent two different types of dolmens. (See Cromlech.)

Fig. 259. Dolmen, in the forest of Rennes.

Dolon or Dolo, R. (δόλων). (1) A long stick armed with an iron point. (2) A cane, in the hollow of which a poniard was concealed. (3) The fore-topsail of a vessel.

Fig. 260. Heraldic Dolphin.

Dolphin, Her. A favourite fish with heralds. It is best known as the armorial ensign of the Dauphin, the eldest son and heir apparent of the kings of France—Or, a Dolphin az. In Christian archæology the dolphin is the symbol of swiftness, diligence, and love; it is often met with entwined with an anchor. The first Christians often wore these two symbols united in a ring, which was known as a nautical anchor. (See also Delphin.)

Dome, It. (1) Literally, the house of God. When a city possesses several churches, the name is applied to the cathedral only. (2) The interior of a cupola.

Dominions, in Christian art. (See Angels.)

Fig. 261. Plan of a Greek house.

Domus, Gr. and R. (Gr. δόμος, οἶκος). A house, in contradistinction to insula, a group of houses. The Greek house is divided into two parts by the central chambers. The external, the Andronitis, contains the men’s, and the inner, or Gynæconitis, the women’s apartments. The whole building was generally long and narrow, occupying a comparatively small frontage to the street, and the outside wall was plain without windows. Outside the door was often an altar of Apollo Agyieus, or an obelisk, or sometimes a laurel-tree, or a bust of the god Hermes. A few steps, called Anabathmoi, led up to the house door (αὐλεία θύρα), over which there was generally a motto inscribed: the passage (θυρωρεῖον, πυλὼν, θυρὼν) (A B in the plan) had the stables on one side, and the porter’s lodge opposite, and led to C, the Peristyle or Aula of the men’s quarters, a Hypæthral, or open air court, surrounded by porticoes called Stoai, and by the men’s apartments, which were large banqueting-rooms (οἶκοι, ἀνδρῶνες), smaller sitting-rooms (ἐξέδραι), and sleeping-chambers (δωμάτια, κοιτῶνες, οἰκήματα). The door to the passage D was called μέταυλος or μέσαυλος (i. e. the middle of the aulæ), and gave admission to E, the peristyle or aula of the Gynæconitis. The rooms numbered 10 to 17 were the chambers of the women; P P were called the Thalamos and Amphithalamos; H H and G were the ἱστῶνες, or rooms for working in wool; and at I was the garden door (κηπαία θύρα). There was usually an upper story where guests and slaves were lodged (ὑπερῷον, διῆρες), the stairs leading to which were outside the house. The roofs were flat, and it was customary to walk upon them. The floors were of stone, in later times ornamental or coloured. The construction and decoration varied with the ages; painted ceilings were a late introduction.

Fig. 262. Plan of a Roman house.

Of a Roman house, the principal parts were the Vestibulum, or court before the door, open to the street; the Ostium, Janua, or Fores, the entrance; the Atrium, Cavum Ædium, or Cavædium, with the Compluvium open over the central tank (termed the Impluvium); the Alæ (wings), Tablinum, Fauces, and Peristylium: of each of which a notice will be found in its alphabetical place in this work. (See also Cubicula, Triclinia, Exedræ, Pinacotheca, Bibliotheca, Balneum, Culina, Cœnacula, Diæta, Solaria, &c.) The floors of a Roman house were either of the composition called Ruderatio, and, from the process of beating down pavita, were then called Pavimentum, or of stone or marble or mosaics (Musivum opus). The inner walls were usually covered with frescoes. The ceilings left the beams visible, which supported the roof, and the hollow or unplanked spaces (Lacunaria or Laquearia) were often covered with gold and ivory, or with paintings. (See Camara.) The principal apartments had no windows, deriving their light from the roof; in the upper stories there were windows either open or latticed, or later filled with mica, and finally glass.

Fig. 263. Atrium with Doric columns. (See also Fig. 49.)

Don Pottery. A name given to the productions of a porcelain manufactory established in 1790 at Swinton on the Don.

Fig. 264. Donjon.

Donjon, Mod. The principal tower of a Norman or mediæval castle. It was generally separate from the other parts of the building. The greater number of feudal fortresses originally consisted merely of a donjon erected on an artificial earthwork. This donjon was surrounded by an open space walled, called the Inner Bailey, and another beyond called the Outer Bailey. Beneath were the dungeons. Fig. 264 represents a donjon called the Tower of Loudun. The White tower is the donjon of the Tower of London.

Doom. In Christian art, the Last Judgment; a subject usually painted over the chancel arch in parochial churches.

Dorelot. A network for the hair, worn by ladies in the 14th century. (See Calantica, Crespine, &c.)

Fig. 265. Column and Capital of the Doric Order.

Doric Order of Architecture. The earliest and simplest of the three Greek orders. “The Grecian Doric order, at its best period, is one of the most beautiful inventions of architecture—strong and yet elegant, graceful in outline and harmonious in all its forms, imposing when on a great scale, and pleasing equally when reduced in size, by the exquisite simplicity of its parts.” (Newlands.) The columns of this order had no pedestal, nor base; the capital, which was half a diameter in height, had no astragal, but a few plain fillets, with channels between them, under the ovolo, and a small channel below the fillets. The ovolo is generally flat, and of great projection, with a quirk, or return. On this was laid the Abacus, which was only a plain tile, without fillet or ornament. A peculiarity of this order was the flutings of the column, twenty in number, shallow, and with sharp edges. The best examples of the Grecian Doric of which we have descriptions and figures are the temples of Minerva (called the Parthenon) and of Theseus at Athens, and that of Minerva at Sunium. The Roman Doric differs in important particulars from the Grecian. (See Roman Doric.)

Dormant or Couchant, Her. Asleep. (See Couchant.)

Dormer (Fr. dormir, to sleep). The top story in the roof of a house.

Dormer Window. A gabled window in the sloping side of a roof, projecting vertically; when it lies in the slope of the roof, it is a skylight.

Dorneck, Dornex, or Dornyks, O. E. An inferior damask, wrought of silk, wool, linen thread, and gold, at Tournay or Dorneck; 15th century.

Dorsale, Dosser, Dossier, Chr. (dorsum, the back). Pieces of tapestry or hangings put up in the arches or bays surrounding the choir of a church in order to screen the clergy and choristers from draughts of air. Also pieces of tapestry hung upon parapets, the panels of pulpits and stalls, and sometimes the backs of side-boards. It was the custom to hang tapestry, cloth of Arras, or needlework round the lower half of all the ancient dining-halls to a height of about five feet above the basement.

Dorsualia, R. (dorsum). An embroidered saddle-cloth, which was laid across the back of a horse on the occasion of a triumphal entry, or on the backs of victims for sacrifice. Examples of dorsualia occur on several monuments, in especial on a bas-relief of the arch of Titus, at Rome.

Doryphorus, Gen. (δορυ-φόρος). Literally, spear-bearer. Fig. 130 represents a Persian spearman. A celebrated statue of Polycletus (of the Argive school) is called the Doryphorus. “Polycletus advanced his art in several respects, chiefly by fixing a law of proportion, of which his Doryphorus, a youth bearing a spear, was called the Canon (q.v.); and also by his making the weight of the body rest on one foot, in contradistinction to the ancient practice, thereby producing a contrast between the supporting, weight-bearing side of the body, and the supported, freely-resting side.” (Butler’s Imitative Art.) The statue by Polycletus is lost. The proportions handed down to us by Vitruvius are thus described by Bonomi:—

(1) The length of the horizontally extended arms equals the height of the figure.

(2) The head is an eighth, the face a tenth of the whole height.

(3) From the top of the scalp to the nipples is one-fourth.

(4) From the nipples to horizontal line across the centre of the square—the pubes—is one-fourth.

(5) From that line to one just below the knee-cap is one-fourth.

(6) From that line to the ground is one-fourth.

(7) The forearm (from the elbow) is a fourth of the height; the hand a tenth.

Dose or Dosall, O. E. (Lat. Dorsale, q.v.).

Dossar. (See Dorsale.)

Douai. A manufactory of modern faience established in 1784, producing stone-wares and “cailloutages.”

Doublé, Fr. (1) The term is applied to precious stones, when cemented upon glass. (2) The inside lining of a well-bound book.

Fig. 267. Doublet costume, temp. Elizabeth.

Doublet, although deriving its name from the French word doublée (lined), is in that language more generally known as “Pourpoint,” of which, in fact, it is merely a variety. It first appeared in England in the 14th century made without sleeves, which for convenience were afterwards added; and being universally adopted, it superseded the tunic. The engraving shows a doublet with stuffed sleeves of the time of Elizabeth. They were worn of varied forms till the reign of Charles II. (Fig. 267.)

Doubling, Her. The lining of a mantle or mantling.

Fig. 268. Two Doves. Device of Giovanna de’ Medici.

Dove. A Christian symbol of frequent occurrence; it expresses candour, gentleness, innocence, faith, and, in especial, the Holy Spirit. It is also a symbol of martyrdom and grief, and in this signification appears frequently represented on tombs and sarcophagi. With an olive-bough in its mouth it is a symbol of peace, and accordingly the inscription Pax (Peace) is often found accompanying representations of the dove, more particularly in the catacombs. With the Assyrians and Babylonians the dove was the symbol of Semiramis, who, according to them, took this shape on leaving earth. The dove was the favourite bird of Venus. As a symbol of conjugal fidelity, the device of two turtle-doves was adopted by Giovanna of Austria on her marriage with Francesco de’ Medici. (Fig. 268.)

Fig. 269. Dove-tailed Masonry.

Dove-tail or Swallow-tail, Gen. A method of joining employed for wood, stone, or iron, and so called because the tenon by which the joint is effected is cut in the shape of a dove-tail or swallow-tail. This tail fits into a notch (Fig. 269). The ancients employed double dove-tails for joining stones together; this method of construction was called Opus Revinctum (q.v.).

Dove-tail Moulding, Arch. (Norman; called also Triangular Frette). Decorated with running bands in the form of dove-tails.

Doves, the Eucharistic. Sacred vessels of gold, silver, gilded bronze, or ivory, in the form of a dove, a tower, &c., which served as receptacles for the reserved Host; they were hung up in the middle of the Ciborium (q.v.). At the Amiens Museum a dove of this kind is to be seen dating from the 12th century, and at the church of St. Nazaire at Milan there is one of silver, gilded within and enamelled without, which is also very ancient.

Dowlas, O. E. Coarse linen cloth made in Brittany; “filthy dowlas!

Drachma, Gr. (δραχμή; δράσσομαι, to hold in the hand). A drachm, the principal silver coin of the Greeks. There were two kinds of drachmata, which differed in value: the Attic drachm and the Æginetan. The Attic drachma was equal in value to a franc, equal to six oboloi. The piece of four drachmas was called a stater. As a weight the drachma was the eighth of an uncia; about = our modern drachm.

Draco, Gen. (1) A dragon; the ensign of the Roman cohort in the time of Trajan, adopted from the Parthians. (2) A fantastic animal of Pagan mythology: the garden of the Hesperides, the Golden Fleece, and the fountain of Castalia were all guarded by dragons. (3) In Christian archæology the dragon symbolizes sin, especially idolatry. (4) The Chinese give to several immortals the figure of a dragon. They distinguish the long dragon of heaven, a being especially sacred; the Kau, dragon of the mountain; and the Li, dragon of the sea. The dragons are represented as “gigantic saurians, with powerful claws, and terminated by a frightful head, scaly and strongly toothed.” There are the scaly dragon, the winged dragon, the horned and the hornless dragons, and the dragon rolled within itself which has not yet taken flight to the upper regions. In their zodiacal system the dragon is the sign for the month of March. (See Tchy.)

Draconarius, R. The standard-bearer who carried the draco.

Dracontarium, R. A band for the head, so called because it was twisted in imitation of the draco which was used as an ensign.

Fig. 270. Heraldic Dragon.

Dragon, Her. A winged monster having four legs. (See Draco.)

Dragon. A short carbine (hence “dragoons”).

Dragon’s Blood. A resinous astringent extract of a deep red colour, used as a colouring ingredient for spirit and turpentine varnishes and paints, &c. The Roman cinnabar was Dragon’s Blood.

Draught (or Drawte) Chamber, O. E. The with drawing room.

Draughts, Game of. (See Dames, Latrunculi.)

Dravid’ha, Hind. A Hindoo temple constructed on an octagonal plan. (See Nagaras, Vimana, Vesara.)

Fig. 271. Dresden milk-jug.

Dresden Porcelain, made at the Royal Manufactory established at Meissen in Saxony in 1709, is most excellent anterior to 1796, since when its ancient perfection has been lost. The mark of the best period is two crossed swords, with a sloped cross or a small circle beneath. The later mark has a star beneath the swords. On rejected pieces the swords were cut across with a line; but the manufactory at the present day counterfeits its old marks. Fig. 271 is a specimen of the best period, later than 1720 and before 1778.

Fig. 272. Pot-pourri vase, Dresden china.

Dressoir or Dressouer (the buffet of the 15th century, the évidence of the 16th) was the principal object of the dining-room, on which were displayed all the ornamental plate of the owner of the house, costly vases, &c. Kings had often three dressers, one for silver, another for silver-gold, and the third for gold plate. In form they varied; but they were made of the most valuable woods, and enriched with the finest carving. They were sometimes covered over with cloth of gold: the city of Orleans offered one in gold to Charles IV., which was valued at 8000 livres Tournois.

Drilbu, Hind. A bell used in Buddhist worship.

Drinking-cups of Glass are frequently found in the Saxon barrows or graves in England. They are ornamented in various patterns, and rounded at the bottom. The Anglo-Saxons were also rich in cups of the precious metals. They used horn cups also, as did the Normans. In the 15th century flat-shaped cups or bowls were used.

Drip, Arch. The edge of a roof; the eaves; the corona of a cornice.

Drip-stone, Arch. The moulding in Gothic architecture which serves as a canopy for an opening and to throw off the rain. It is also called weather-moulding and water-table. (See also Corona.)

Dromo, Dromon, R. (δρόμων; δραμεῖν, to run). A vessel remarkable for its swift sailing; hence—

Dromon or Dromound, O. E. A mediæval ship, propelled by oars and one sail, used for the transport of troops. The Crusaders called it a dromedary.

Dromos, Gr. and Egyp. (δρόμος). (1) The Spartan race-course. (2) An avenue leading to the entrances of Egyptian temples; that leading to the great temple of Karnac contained 660 colossal sphinxes, all of which were monoliths.

Drop Lake is a pigment obtained from Brazil wood, which affords a very fugitive colour.

Drops, Arch. (Lat. guttæ). Ornaments resembling drops, used in the Doric entablature, immediately under the TRIGLYPH and MUTULE.

Druidic (Monuments), Celt. Celtic monuments, also known by the name of Megalithic. (See Standing stones, Dolmens, Menhirs, Cromlechs, &c.). The most ancient and probably the largest Celtic or Druidical temple was at Avebury in Wiltshire. Dr. Stukeley, who surveyed it in 1720, says that “this may be regarded as the grand national cathedral, while the smaller circles which are met with in other parts of the island may be compared to the parish or village churches.”

Drum, Arch. (1) Of a dome or cupola, the Stylobate (or vertical part on which the columns rest). (2) Of the Corinthian and Composite capitals, the solid part; called also Bell, Vase, Basket.

Dry Point. Direct engraving upon copper with the sharp etching-needle itself, without the plate being covered with etching-ground, or the lines bit in by acid. This method produces very soft and delicate work, but it is not so durable in printing as the etched line.

Dryers. In painting, substances imparted to oils to make them dry quickly. The most general in use is OXIDE of LEAD, but white copperas, oxide of manganese, ground glass, oxide of zinc, calcined bones, chloride of lime, and verdigris have all been used at various times.

Drying Oil. Boiled oil, used in painting as a vehicle and a varnish. It is linseed oil boiled with litharge (or oxide of lead).

Dryness. A style of painting in which the outline is harsh and formal, and the colour deficient in mellowness and harmony.

Duck-bills, O. E. Broad-toed shoes of the 15th century.

Fig. 273. Duke’s coronet.

Duke, Her. The highest rank and title in the British peerage; first introduced by Edward III. in the year 1337, when he created the Black Prince the first English duke (in Latin “dux”). The coronet of a duke, arbitrary in its adornment until the 16th century was far advanced, is now a circlet, heightened with eight conventional strawberry-leaves, of which in representation three and two half-leaves are shown. (Boutell.)

Dulcimer. A musical instrument, the prototype of our pianoforte. It was very early known to the Arabs and Persians, who called it santir. One of its old European names is the cimbal. The Hebrew nebel, or perhaps the psanterin mentioned by Daniel, is supposed to have been a dulcimer; the psalterion of the Greeks also. A hand organ of the Middle Ages was called a dulcimer.

Dunkirk. A manufactory of modern faience which only existed for a short time in the 18th century, and was closed within a year. The works are therefore very rare. Jacquemart mentions a clock bearing a close resemblance to certain Dutch products, inscribed Dickhoof and A. Duisburg, and by the latter name identified as Dunkirk work.

Duns, Celtic. Ancient hill forts of the simplest kind, consisting of a round or oval earthen wall and ditch on a rising ground, probably contemporary with the pit dwellings.

Dunster, O. E. Broad cloth made in Somersetshire, temp. Edward III.

Dutch Pink. (See Pinks.)

Dutch White. (See Carbonate of Lead, Barytes.)

Dwararab’ha, Dwaragopouras, Dwaraharmya, Dwaraprasada, Dwarasala, Ind. (See Gopouras.)

E.

Fig. 274. Eagle—Ensign of France.

Eagle, Her. The eagle (called in heraldry Alerion) appears in the earliest English examples of arms, and his appearance often denotes an alliance with German princes. Both the German emperors and Russian czars adopted the eagle for their heraldic ensign in support of their claim to be considered the successors of the Roman Cæsars. The eagle borne as the ensign of Imperial France sits, grasping a thunderbolt, in an attitude of vigilance, having its wings elevated, but the tips of the feathers drooping, as they would be in a living bird. In remote antiquity the eagle was an emblem of the sun, and the double-headed eagle typifies the rising and the setting sun. The eagle was the attribute of Jove as his messenger. The eagle killing a serpent or a hare is an ancient symbol of victory. In Christian art the eagle is the attribute of St. John the Evangelist, the symbol of the highest inspiration. St. John is sometimes represented with human body and eagle head. The lectern in Christian churches is commonly in the form of an eagle. Elisha the prophet is represented with a two-headed eagle. (See Aquilæ.)

Fig. 275. Earl’s coronet.

Earl, Her. (from the Gaelic iarflath, “a dependent chief” = iar, “after,” and flath, “lord”; pronounced iarrl). Before 1337 the highest, and now the third degree of rank and dignity in the British peerage. An earl’s coronet has eight lofty rays of gold rising from the circlet, each of which supports a large pearl, while between each pair of these rays there is a golden strawberry-leaf. In representation five of the rays and pearls are shown. Elevated clusters of pearls appear in an earl’s coronet as early as 1445; but the present form of the coronet may be assigned to the second half of the following century.

Earl Marshal. In England, one of the great officers of state, who regulates ceremonies and takes cognizance of all matters relating to honour, arms, and pedigree.

Early English Architecture. The first of the pointed or Gothic styles of architecture used in England. It succeeded the Norman towards the end of the 12th century, and gradually merged into the Decorated at the end of the 13th. Its leading peculiarity is the long narrow lancet window.

Earn, Scotch. An eagle.

Fig. 276. Greek or Etruscan ear-rings in gold.

Ear-rings (Lat. inaures, Gr. ἐνώτια) were a common ornament for ladies in Greece and Rome, and among the early Saxons: they were worn by men during the reigns of Elizabeth and James I.

Earth Tables, Arch. The projecting course of stones in a wall, immediately above the surface of the ground, now called the plinth. (Parker.)

Earthenware. (See Pottery.)

Easel (from the German esel, an ass). A frame with movable rest for resting pictures on.

Easel-picture. A small portable picture.

Easter, Chr. (A.S. eastre). From the goddess “Eostur,” whose festival fell in April. The Latin name “Paschal” refers to the Jewish feast of the Passover. The Paschal season originally extended over fifteen days, from Palm Sunday to Low Sunday. (See Smith and Cheetham’s Dict. of Christian Ant.)

Eaves (A.S. efese, the edge). The overhanging “edge” of the roof of a house.

Ebénistes, Fr. Workers in fine cabinet-making.

Ebony. A heavy, hard, black wood, obtained from the Diospyrus ebenus. Ebony and other exotic woods came into general use in Europe from the end of the 17th century—subsequently to 1695, when the Dutch settled in Ceylon. The black ebony is the most valuable, but there are green and yellow varieties. Old carved ebony furniture found in English houses dates generally from the early years of the Dutch occupation of Ceylon.

Eburnean. Made of ivory.

Ecbasios (ἐκβαίνω, to disembark). A sacrifice offered to Apollo after a favourable voyage.

Ecclesia, Gr. General assembly of the citizens of Athens. (See Smith and Cheetham’s Dict. of Christian Ant.)

Echea, Gr. and R. (ἦχος, sound or noise). Earthenware or bronze vessels used to strengthen the sound in theatres. (See Acoustic Vessels.)

Echinate. Armed with spines or bristles like a hedgehog.

Fig. 277. Echinus or egg and tongue on the ovolo of a Greek cornice.

Echinus, Arch. (Gr. ἐχῖνος, a hedgehog). The egg and dart or egg and tongue ornament frequently carved on the round moulding, much used in classic architecture, called the ovolo. (Fig. 277.)

Echometry (μέτρον, a measure). The art of measuring the duration of sounds.

Ecorchée, Fr. (lit. flayed). Said of an anatomical model specially prepared for the study of the muscular system.

Ecphonesis, Chr. That part of a devotional office which is said audibly, in contrast with that said secreté.

Ectypus, R. A hollow mould which produces an impression in relief which is called ectypum.

Fig. 278. Ecuelle, Venetian porcelain.

Ecuelle, Fr. A porringer. Fig. 278 is a specimen in the best style of Venetian porcelain.

Edward-Shovelboards, O. E. Broad shillings of Edward VI., formerly used in playing the game of shovelboard. (Halliwell.)

Effeir of War, Scotch. Warlike guise.

Effigies, R. An image or effigy. The word is usually applied to the heads upon coins or medals.

Egg and Dart, or Egg and Tongue, Ornament, Arch. (Fr. aards et oves). A carving commonly inserted on the ovolo moulding. (See Echinus.)

Egg-feast or Egg-Saturday, O. E. The Saturday before Shrove Tuesday.

Egg-shell Porcelain. A very thin white porcelain of the “Rose family,” to which the Chinese have given the name of “porcelain without embryo.”

Eggs, as a Christian emblem, are supposed to represent “the immature hope of the resurrection.” (Martigny.)

Egret (Fr. aigrette). A small white heron, marked by a crest on his head.

Egyptian Architecture and Sculpture can be studied in the monuments remaining from remotest antiquity to about A. D. 300. Great varieties of style occur, which can be easily attributed to their respective periods by the hieroglyphical inscriptions. The three primitive motives of all Egyptian buildings are the pyramid, caves, and structures of timber; all contemporary with the most ancient relics. In sculpture, the most ancient works of all are also those most remarkable for fidelity to nature. The conventionality introduced afterwards with the canon of proportions is still combined with a close imitation of Nature in the details. The Grecian or Ptolemaic period begins B.C. 322. [See Wilkinson’s Ancient Egyptians, Canina’s Egyptian Architecture; and the works of Brugsch, Marriette, Soldi, Ebers, &c.]

Egyptian Blue, the brilliant blue pigment found on the monuments, is found by analysis to consist of the hydrated protoxide of copper, mixed with a minute quantity of iron. The green colour was derived from another oxide of copper; violet from manganese or gold; yellow from silver, or perhaps iron; and red from the protoxide of copper.

Fig. 280. Lenticular Phials. Louvre Museum.

Fig. 279. Oviform bottle. Egyptian.

Egyptian Pottery of great beauty is found in great quantities along with the costly ornaments in the tombs. It is intermediary between porcelain and stone-ware, and its colouring demonstrates a high degree of skill, science, and precision of execution. Among the forms frequently found are the oviform, long-necked bottles (Fig. 279), lenticular phials, with royal cartouches (Fig. 280), lamps (Fig. 281), &c. (See also Fig. 219.)

Fig. 281. Lamp in blue enamelled earthenware. Egyptian.

Eikon, Gr., or Icon, Lat. An image; hence iconoclasts or image-breakers.

Eileton, Chr. (from εἴλω, to wind or fold). The cloth on which the elements are consecrated in the Eucharist. “The eileton represents the linen cloth in which the body of Christ was wrapped when it was taken down from the cross and laid in the tomb.” (Germanus).

Eisodos, Chr. A ceremony of the Greek Church, of two parts. (1) The bearing into the church in procession of the book of the Gospels is called the Lesser Entrance. (2) A similar bearing in of the elements of the Eucharist is called the Greater Entrance.

Elæolite (lit. oil-stone). A mineral having a fatty resinous lustre.

Elæothesium, Gr. and R. A room in a suite of baths where oils, perfumes, and essences were kept, and the bathers were anointed and rubbed.

Elaphebolia, Gr. Athenian festivals held in the month called Elaphebolion, or the ninth month of the year, when a stag (ἔλαφος) was sacrificed to Diana.

Elbow-gauntlet. A long gauntlet of plate armour, adopted from the Asiatics in the 16th century.

Elbow-pieces (Fr. coudières). Plate armour to cover the joint at the elbow.

Elbows, Mod. (Fr. accoudoirs). The divisions between the stalls in a church, also called by the French “museaux,” from the fact of their ends being ornamented with an animal’s head.

Electoral Bonnet, Her. A cap of crimson velvet guarded with ermine, borne over the inescutcheon of the arms of Hanover from 1801 to 1816.

Electrotint. A method of preparing engraved copper plates for the printing-press by the electrotype process. (See Art Journal, 1850.)

Electrotype. The process whereby works in relief are produced by the agency of electricity, through which certain metals, such as gold, silver, and copper, are precipitated from their solutions upon moulds in so fine a state of division as to form a coherent mass of pure metal, equal in toughness and flexibility to the hammered metals. (Fairholt.) At the present day electrotypes are generally taken from engravings on wood for printing from.

Electrum (ἤλεκτρον). In Homer and Hesiod this word means amber. Pliny says that when gold contains a fifth part of silver, it is called electrum. Its colour was whiter and more luminous than that of gold, and the metal was supposed to betray the presence of poison. Specimens are rare. A beautiful vase of electrum is preserved in the St. Petersburg Museum. Some coins in electrum were struck by the kings of Bosporus, and by Syracuse and some Greek states.

Elements, Chr. The bread and the wine in the Lord’s Supper. In the Eastern liturgies the unconsecrated elements are called “the Mysteries,” and the bread alone the Seal (σφραγὶς), from its being divided by lines in the form of a cross. The interesting subject of the composition and form of the elements in the early churches is fully discussed in the “Dictionary of Christian Antiquities” (Smith and Cheetham).

Elemine. A crystallized resin used to give consistency to the varnish which forms part of the composition of lacquer.

Elenchus, R. (ἔλεγχος). (1) A pear-shaped pearl highly esteemed by the Roman ladies, who wore such pearls mounted as drops or pendants to brooches and rings. (See the illustration to Crotalium.) (2) An index to a book.

Elephant. In mediæval heraldry this animal is a symbol of piety, from an ancient legend, mentioned by Ælian, Pliny, and others, that it has in religious reverence, with a kind of devotion, not only the stars and planets, but also the sun and moon.

Elephant Paper. Drawing-paper manufactured in sheets, measuring 28 inches by 23. Double Elephant Paper measures 40 inches by 26¾.

Eleusinian Mysteries. The holiest and most venerated of the Greek festivals. The Lesser Eleusinia, held at Agræ in the month Anthesterion, were a preparation for the Greater, which were celebrated at Athens and Eleusis. The Mystæ were the initiated at the Lesser, of which the principal rite was the sacrifice of a sow, previously purified by washing in the Cantharus. The Greater were celebrated every year in the month Boedromion, and lasted nine days. On the first day the Mystæ assembled at Athens; on the second they went through a ceremony of purification at the sea-coast; the third was a day of fasting; on the fourth there was a procession of a waggon drawn by oxen, followed by women who had small mystic cases in their hands; on the fifth, or torch day, the Mystæ went in the evening with torches to the temple of Demeter, where they passed the night; on the sixth, which was the most solemn of all, a statue of Iacchos, the son of Demeter, was borne in procession to Eleusis, and the Mystæ were there initiated in the last mysteries during the following night. There was something in the secrets of this part of the ceremony which excited greatly the imagination of the ancient writers, especially Christians, who describe them “in an awful and horrible manner.” Each of the initiated was dismissed by the mystagogus with the words κόγξ, ὄμπαξ. On the next day they returned to Athens, and resting on the bridge of Cephisus engaged in a contest of ridicule with the passers-by: the eighth and ninth days were unimportant.

Eleutheria. A Greek festival in honour of Zeus Eleutherios (the Deliverer).

Elevati of Ferrara. One of the Italian literary academies. Their device was from the fable of Hercules and Antæus, with the motto from Horace, “Superat tellus, sidera donat” (Earth conquers us, but gives us Heaven).

Elevation. (1) In Architecture, &c., a perpendicular plan drawn to a scale. (2) In Christian archæology, the lifting up of the elements at certain points in the Eucharistic service, universally prescribed in the early Oriental liturgies, and introduced into the Western Church with the doctrine of transubstantiation.

Fig. 282. Bas-relief from the frieze of the Parthenon. One of the Elgin Marbles.

Elgin Marbles. Friezes and metopes from the Parthenon at Athens, brought to the British Museum by Lord Elgin. They are adorned with sculptures in relief; those on the frieze represent the Panathenaic procession in honour of Athena; those on the metopes, chiefly the contests of the Centaurs and Lapithæ. There are also statues and friezes, especially from the temple of the Wingless Victory and the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates. They are admirably described by Mr. Newton in his “Guide” to these sculptures published by the authorities of the British Museum. (Fig. 282.)

Fig. 283. Great Seal of Queen Elizabeth.

Elizabeth, Queen. The costume and the royal appurtenances of this monarch are well illustrated by the Royal Seal. In the Royal Arms we see the lions and the lilies (France modern and England quarterly). On the reverse (Fig. 284) the Tudor Rose, fleur-de-lis, and harp appear separately crowned for England, France, and Ireland. Elizabeth was fond of allegory and devices. In her portrait by Zoffany “the lining of her robe is worked with eyes and ears, and on her left sleeve is embroidered a serpent—all to imply wisdom and vigilance.” In her other hand is a rainbow with the motto, “Non sine sole iris” (no rainbow without the sun).

Fig. 284. Great Seal of Queen Elizabeth.

Elizabethan. The style of architecture and decoration gradually developed during the reign of the Tudors in England. Its characteristics are a mixed revival of classical forms with quaint and grotesque relics of the Gothic. Typical examples are Crewe Hall, Speke, in Lancashire, Haddon Hall, Kenilworth Castle, Raglan Castle, &c.

Ellipsis, Ellipse. A figure formed by cutting a cone obliquely across its length; hence—

Ellipsograph. An instrument for describing a semi-ellipse.

Ellotia or Hellotia. A Corinthian festival with a torch-race, in honour of Athena as a goddess of fire.

Ellychnium, R. (λύχνος, a light). The wick of an oil lamp; it was made of flax fibres or papyrus.

Emarginated. Having the margin broken by a notch or notches.

Embalming was frequently practised by the early Christians, especially with the bodies of martyrs. The practice was derived from the Jews. As a pagan ceremony embalming was intended to facilitate cremation.

Embalon, Gr. and R. A beak, corresponding to the modern ram, under the bows of a war galley, for the purpose of sinking the enemy.

Embas, Gr. A shoe of white felt, used esp. by the Bœotians.

Ember Days, Chr. (in Anglo-Saxon, ymbren dagas, “recurrent days;” in Latin, jejunia quatuor temporum; in French, les quatre temps, &c.). Special fasts appointed to be observed at the commencement of each of the four seasons of the year. In the Eastern Church there is no trace of such an observance. (The word has no connexion with embers in the sense of ashes.)

Emblazon, Her. (See Blazon.)

Fig. 285. Emblemata.

Emblemata, Gr. (ἐμβάλλω, to put in). Inlaid-work, or (1) Mosaic made of coloured cubes of glass or vitreous enamel. (See Sectile, Tessellatum, Vermiculatum.) Fig. 285 represents emblemata of different kinds of glass. (2) Crusts exquisitely wrought on the surface of vessels or other pieces of furniture; as, for instance, alabaster on marble, gold on silver, silver on bronze. The Romans generally used the term crustæ for this kind of work. From Emblemata is derived our word Emblem, the true meaning of which is “a symbolical figure or composition which conceals an allegory.” Thus an ape symbolized malice and lust; a pelican piety, and the Redeemer’s love for the world. &c. The most important books of Emblems are by Alciati, Paradin, and Sambuco.

Embolismus, Embolis, or Embolum, Chr. (1) An inserted or intercalated prayer in a liturgy. (2) The number of days required to make up the lunar year to the solar. (See Epact.)

Embolium, Gr. and R. (lit. something thrown in). An interlude or comic piece recited by an actress (emboliaria) between the acts of a drama.

Embolos, Arch., Chr. A covered portico or cloister surrounding the external walls of a church.

Embolum, Gr. The Greek term answering to the Latin Rostrum (q.v.). (See also Embolismus.)

Embolus, R. (ἔμβολος). The piston in the chamber of a pump.

Embossing, Embossment. A prominence like a boss; raised ornamental work.

Embowed, Her. Bent. An arm embowed has the elbow to the dexter.

Embrasure, Arch. (1) The interval between the COPS of a battlement. (2) An expansion of doorways, windows, &c., given by slanting the sides. (See Splay.)

Fig. 286. Indian Embroidery. In the Indian section of the South Kensington Museum.

Embroidery is one of the oldest of the ornamental arts. Some specimens of ancient Egyptian embroidery are exhibited in the Louvre, and Herodotus mentions the embroidered vestments of the gods in Egypt. The Israelites appointed Aholiab, “a cunning workman, and an embroiderer in blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen,” to be chief embroiderer to the sacred ark. The prophet Ezekiel mentions the embroidery of Tyre. It was the principal domestic occupation of ladies in Greece, from the days when Penelope embroidered a garment for Ulysses, representing a dog chasing a deer. The Romans called embroidery “Phrygium,” and imported it largely from the East. In later times Byzantium was celebrated for its embroidered ecclesiastical vestments. Pope Paschal, in the 9th century, was the greatest patron of the art. When the Caliph Omar pillaged the Persian palace of Khosroes, he found there a carpet of silk and cloth of gold, sixty cubits square, having a garden depicted upon it, and rubies, emeralds, sapphires, beryls, topazes, and pearls arranged with consummate skill to represent trees, fruit and flowers, rivulets, fountains, roses and shrubs. Our English word “embroidery” is derived from the Celtic “brouda,” to prick. Anglo-Saxon embroidery was celebrated throughout Europe as Opus Anglicanum. The celebrated Bayeux tapestry is attributed to the 12th century. A copy of it may be seen in the South Kensington Museum. The art decayed in England during the Civil War of the 17th century.

Embrued, Her. Stained with blood.

Embu. A French term for the loss of tone in an oil sketch, caused by the absorption of the oil whilst it is drying. It is easily corrected by a glaze.

Emerald. A precious stone of various shades of green, much used by the ancients for gem-engraving. The less brilliant varieties are known as beryls. For its significance in Christian art, see Green.

Emerald Green. A vivid bright green pigment, prepared from the arseniate of copper, and used both in oil and water-colours; called also Paul Veronese Green.

Emissarium, R. (emitto, to send forth). A channel, natural or artificial, for letting off stagnant water. Some of these channels are the most wonderful monuments of Roman ingenuity. The lakes of Trasimene, Albano, Nemi, and Fucino were all drained by EMISSARIA. The last is open to inspection, and is described as “a stupendous work of engineering, planned by Julius Cæsar, and completed by the Emperor Claudius.”

Empaistic, Gr. Damascening (q.v.) or in crusta work practised by the ancients, as opposed to Toreutic Art (q.v.).

Emperor Paper. The largest kind of drawing-paper manufactured in sheets measuring 66 inches by 47.

Emphotion, Chr. (from ἐμφωτίζω, to enlighten). A name given in the early Church to the white robe with which persons were invested in baptism; as it were, “a robe of light.”

Emplecton, Gr. and R. (lit. inwoven). A method of building, originating in Greece and adopted by the Romans, in which a space left in the interior of the wall was filled in with rubble, the whole block of masonry being bound together at intervals by ties (diatonoi). In the engraving, c and b are the square stones, the parts between them being the ties or diatonoi, and o the rubble. (See Fig. 249.)

Emporium, Gr. and R. (ἔμπορος, a passenger in a ship). A place at a sea-port where imported merchandise was warehoused and exposed for sale. The remains of the ancient emporium of Rome have been discovered on the banks of the Tiber. The name is sometimes applied to a town, but applies properly only to a certain place in a town.

Enafota or Enafodia, Chr. (Gr. ἐννεάφωτα). A corona or chandelier of “nine lights.”

Enaluron, Her. (See Entoire.)

Fig. 287. Pendant of gold, enamelled and enriched with jewels.

Enamel (Fr. esmail; Ital. smalto). A glassy substance of many brilliant colours, melted and united to gold, silver, copper, bronze, and other metals in the furnace. Enamel is coloured white by oxide of tin, blue by oxide of cobalt, red by gold, and green by copper. Different kinds of enamel are (1) inlaid or incrusted. (2) Transparent, showing designs on the metal under it. (3) Painted as a complete picture. “Many fine specimens of ancient Chinese enamel were seen in the Exhibition of 1851. They have the enamel on copper, beautifully coloured and enlivened with figures of flowers, birds, and other animals. The colouring is most chaste and effective. The Chinese say that no good specimens of this manufacture have been made for the last six or eight hundred years.” (Fortune.) Beautiful transparent enamels are made in India. They look like slices of emerald or sapphire laid in beds of gold, having tiny figures of beaten gold let into their surfaces. (See also Cloisonné, Champ-levé, Basse-taille, &c.) The beautiful example of enamel-work, Fig. 287, is attributed to Benvenuto Cellini. (See Fig. 188.)

Enamel. Painting in enamel is done by means of colours that are vitrifiable, a quality that is communicated to them by combining them with a vitreous base, which is called their flux. These are fused and fixed on the enamel by the action of fire, which produces in the colours applied such changes as the artist has previously learned to calculate. (Bouvier.)

Enamelled Glass. (See Glass.)

Enamelled Wares. (See Glazed Ware.)

Encænia, Chr. A dedication festival.

Fig. 288. Encarpa (Festoons) on the Temple of Vesta at Tivoli.

Encarpa, Gr. An architectural decoration formed of festoons or garlands of flowers and fruits (καρποὶ), whence its name. Fig. 288 shows an example from the temple of Vesta at Tivoli.

Encaustic, R. (lit. burning in). The art of painting in encaustic. Pliny says, “The colours were applied with wax on marble, and transparent gum on ivory. Coloured wax was applied to the wall in the form of a paste, and in the manner of mosaic or enamels. This was then melted or fused with hot irons (cauteria), a small fillet of a different tint being inserted between each flat tint.” Fairholt says, “There is no antique painting extant which is properly called ENCAUSTIC; all those supposed to be so have, on closer examination, proved to be in Fresco or in Tempera.”

Encaustic Tiles. Ornamental tiles for floorings, extensively used in the Middle Ages.

Encheirion, Chr. The napkin with which the priest wipes his hands; worn at the girdle.

Encoignure, Fr. A table made with an angle to fit into a corner.

Encolpia, Chr. (lit. worn on the breast, or from the Gr. ἐγκολπίζω, to contain in the womb). (1) Small caskets containing relics or a copy of the Gospels, worn by the early Christians suspended from the neck. (See Epomadion.) Their use is of the highest antiquity, and specimens have been found in the tombs of the ancient cemetery of the Vatican, belonging to the 4th century. These were square in form, having on one side the sacred monogram ΙΧΡ for ΙΗΣΟΥΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ between the letters Α and Ω. (2) The pectoral crosses worn by bishops are also called encolpia. Reliquaries in the form of a cross are first mentioned by Gregory the Great. He sent one of them to Queen Theodelinda. (Martigny.)

Encomboma, Gr. (i. e. girt on). A Greek apron, tied round the waist, worn chiefly by young maidens and by slaves to keep the tunic clean.

Encyclical Letters. (1) Chr. Letters “sent round” to all who should read them, and not addressed to any particular person (from the members of a council, &c.). (2) Gen. The same words, γράμματα ἐγκύκλια, apply to the subjects which the Greeks included in the “circle of the sciences,” or encyclopædia.

Encysted. Enclosed in a cyst.

Endecagon (ἕνδεκα, eleven; γωνία, an angle). A plane figure having eleven sides and eleven angles.

Endorse, Her. A diminutive of the Pale (q.v.), one-fourth of its width.

Endothys. (See Endytis.)

Endromis, Gr. and R. (δρόμος, a course or running). In Greek this name is given to hunting boots of Cretan origin, such as Diana is represented wearing by the Greek sculptors. Among the Romans the endromis was an ample blanket of coarse wool, introduced from Gaul, in which athletes wrapped themselves when they were heated with the exercises. Endromis Tyria was the name given to a large woollen wrap much finer than the ordinary endromis, and which was worn by the Roman ladies after their gymnastic exercises.

Endytis, Chr. (ἐνδύω, to put on). This term, in the Middle Ages, denoted an altar-covering; other terms for it were endothis and endothys.

Energumens, Chr. Men possessed with devils.

Enfeu, Fr. A sepulchral vault usually placed under the choir of a church; it assumed the form of a large niche. Originally bishops were interred by “droit d’enfeu” in tombs of this kind. The term is derived from the Latin infodere (to dig).

Enfiled, Her. Pierced with the sword.

Engageants, Fr. “Double ruffles that fall over the wrists.” (Ladies’ Dictionary, 1694.)

Engineer’s Cartridge. Drawing-paper manufactured in sheets measuring 30 by 22 inches. Double Engineer’s Cartridge measures 46 inches by 30.

Engobe, Fr. A “slip” or thin coating of white clay used to coat pottery before the invention of the tin glaze.

Engrailed, Her. A border line indented in semicircles.

Engraving. Copper-plate engraving is called Chalcography (q.v.) (Gr. χαλκὸς, copper); wood-engraving, Xylography (q.v.) (Gr. ξύλον, wood); and engraving on stone, Lithography (q.v.) (Gr. λίθος, a stone). [Each process is described under its own heading. See also Etching.]

Enhanced, Her. Raised towards the CHIEF, or upper part of the shield.

Enneapylæ, Pel. (ἐννέα and πύλαι). Literally, nine gates; a fortified enclosure constructed by the Bœotian Pelasgians round the Acropolis of Athens, some years after the Trojan war. Xerxes destroyed the enneapylæ after the capture of Athens. A few fragments of it remain to this day, not far from the temple of the Wingless Victory.

Enotia, Gr. (Lat. inaures). Ear-rings (q.v.).

Enseniator, Med. Lat. (from the Italian insegna, an ensign). A mounted ensign-bearer.

Ensiculus, R. A small sword, or child’s sword, used as a plaything. It is the diminutive of Ensis.

Ensigned, Her. Adorned; having some ensign of honour placed above, as a coronet above a shield.

Figs. 289, 290. Gallic Ensigns.

Ensigns, Gen. (Lat. signa militaria; Gr. σημεῖα). Military symbols beneath which soldiers are ranged according to the different regiments to which they belong. The most ancient Roman ensign was a bundle of straw, hay, or fern. Then came the eagle, the wolf, the minotaur, the horse, and the boar. Afterwards the eagle alone was displayed (B. C. 104); it was made of silver or bronze, with expanded wings. The serpent or dragon was used as a particular ensign by the several cohorts, and the centuries had also each its ensign; but these were cloth flags. Under Constantine the LABARUM (q.v.) was introduced. (See Cuspis, Figs. 228 to 230.)

Fig. 291. Gallic Ensign.

Ensiludium, Med. Lat. A contest in sport with swords. (See Cembel, Hastiludium.)

Ensis, Sword. A synonym of Gladius (q.v.).

Ensis a Estoc, Med. A stabbing-sword, usually carried at the saddle-bow.

Fig. 292. Entablature with leaf ornament.

Entablature. A member of architecture placed as a crown to another. The entablature is composed of architrave, the part immediately above the column; frieze, the central space; and cornice, the upper projecting mouldings. (See Fig. 184.)

Fig. 293. Entablature with honeysuckle ornament.

Entalma, Chr. The document by which a bishop confers the right of hearing confessions.

Fig. 294. Egyptian Column, showing entasis.

Entasis, Gr. and R. (ἔντασις, a stretching tight). The swelling of a balustre or of the shaft of a column. The narrowing of the shaft is called Contractura (q.v.).

Enterclose, Arch. A passage between two rooms in a house.

Enthronisation, Chr. (Lat. incathedrare). (1) The ceremony of placing a newly-ordained bishop upon his throne. (2) That of placing the relics in the altar of a church on consecration. (3) The installation of a presbyter in his church is sometimes called enthronisation.

Entire, Her. Said of a charge when it extends to the border lines of a shield, coat, or banner; also of a shield, coat, or banner of arms, when borne without any difference or mark of cadency.

Entoire, Entoyre, Her. A bordure charged with a series of inanimate figures or devices, as crosslets, roundles, &c. To a similar bordure of living figures the term Enaluron is applied.

Entrance, Chr. (See Eisodos and Introit.)

Entrecoupe, Fr. When two vaults are superimposed, and both spring from the same walls, “entrecoupe” is the term applied to the arched interval—if any—between them.

Enveloped, Environed, Her. Surrounded.

Eolian (Æolian) Harp. A musical stringed instrument arranged to be played upon by the wind (from Eolus [or properly Æolus], the ruler of the winds).

Eolodicon. A musical instrument similar to a harmonium, invented in the last century by Eschenbach.

Eolophone. A musical instrument similar to a harmonium.

Eōra, Gr. (ἐώρα). A festival held at Athens in honour of Icarius and his daughter Erigonê. It was known also by the names of Æora (αἰώρα) and Aletis (Ἀλῆτις). The last appellation originated in a hymn which was sung at the festival, and which had been composed by Theodorus of Colophon. It was sometimes called “Eudeipnos,” from the rich banquets usually given during its celebration.

Epact (Gr. ἐπακταὶ, sc. ἡμέραι; in Med. Lat. adjectiones Lunæ). The number of days required at the end of a lunar year to complete the solar year. (See Embolismus.)

Epagomenæ (sc. days), Gen. (ἐπαγόμεναι ἡμέραι, i. e. intercalated days). The name given to the five supplementary days of the year among those nations who divided the year into twelve months of thirty days each.

Epaullière or Epaullets, Er. Shoulder-plates; also the shoulder-knots formerly worn by gentlemen, but now restricted to domestic servants. (See Aiglet.)

Ependytes, Chr. (ἐπενδύτης, i. e. worn above). The “fisher’s coat” of St. Peter. A coarse cloak worn by the monks of the Middle Ages over another garment; it is also called, in the ancient MSS., superaria, superindum, and sagus rusticus. It is frequently described, especially in the East, as made of skins (μηλωτὴς, pelliceus).

Epergne (Fr. épargne, economy). An ornamental stand, with dish and branches, for the centre of a table.

Epernay Ware. At Epernay were specially made glazed wares in relief for the service of the table, in shapes such as a hare, a fowl, &c., in half relief; also surprise or puzzle jugs.

Epha or Ephah, Heb. A measure of capacity, about 3 pecks and 3 pints.

Ephebeum, Gr. (ἐφηβεῖον). The large hall of a gymnasium, situated in the centre of the building, in which the youths (ephebi) practised gymnastic exercises.

Ephippium, Gr. (ἐφίππιον, i. e. for putting on a horse). A saddle. Among the Greeks and Romans it was a kind of pad, square or round in shape, and regularly stuffed. Saddle-cloths hung from it, but it had no stirrups. The word sella, or sella equestris, became common in later times.

Ephod, Hebrew. A short upper garment worn by the Jewish priests. The ephod, which was also worn by the Jewish judges and kings, was made of fine linen; that of the high priest consisted of a sleeved tunic, woven with gold thread, purple, hyacinth, and twisted flax. Two sardonyx stones set in gold adorned the clasps by which this tunic was fastened round the shoulders.

Epi or Girouette, Fr. The complicated iron ornament with which steeples and pointed roofs were surmounted in the architecture of the Renaissance period, replaced in modern times by the weathercock. A similar spiked ornament, of pottery or metal, is still common on the gables of houses in Normandy.

Epic. In Art, the graphic representation of an “epos,” or event, cardinal in history.

Epichysis, Gr. and R. (ἐπίχυσις, i. e. that which pours in). A Greek pitcher with a long neck and a handle; it was used for pouring wine into cups.

Epicopus, Gr. and R. (ἐπίκωπος, i. e. furnished with oars). A vessel with oars. (See Navis.)

Epicrocum, Gr. and R. A woman’s garment, of a saffron yellow (crocus), whence its name.

Epicycloid. “A curve described by the movement of the circumference of one circle on the convex or concave part of the circumference of another.” (Stormonth.)

Epideipnis, Gr. (i. e. following the dinner). The last course of a dinner or any kind of banquet.

Epidemia, Gr. (lit. among the people). Festivals held at Argos in honour of Juno, and at Delos and Miletus in honour of Apollo. They received their name from the fact that these deities were supposed to be present at them, and to mingle with the people (ἐπὶ, among; δῆμος, people).

Epidote. A mineral of a green or greyish colour: of the garnet family.

Epidromos, Gr. (1) The mizen, or sail on the mast nearest to the stern, in vessels with several masts. (2) A part of the oil-press. (3) A running rope passing through the rings of a large net for catching birds, by means of which the huntsman, who was on the watch, closed the net when the game had found their way into it.

Epigonation, Gr., Chr. An ornament peculiar to the Eastern Church; a lozenge-shaped piece of some stiff material, hanging from the girdle on the right side as low as the knee (whence its name).

Epigrus. (See Epiurus.)

Epiphany, Chr. This festival is known by various names in the different European languages; and the names are either (1) mere reproductions of the Latin name, or renderings of it; or (2) refer to the manifestation to the Magi as the three Kings, as the Dutch Drie-Koningendag, &c.; or (3) indicate it as the final day of the Christmas festivity, Twelfth Day, &c. (See Smith and Cheetham’s Dictionary of Christian Antiquities.)

Epiphi, Egyp. The third month of summer, called the season of harvests.

Epirhedium, R. (ἐπὶ Gr., and rheda Gallic). A kind of chariot. The word was formed by the Romans as above, and is explained as Ornamentum rhedarum, aut plaustrum. (See Rheda, Plaustrum.)

Episcenium, Gr. and R. (ἐπι-σκήνιον, i. e. above the stage). A room situated above the stage, in ancient theatres, for the machinery.

Episcopalia, Chr. The ring and the pastoral staff, the distinctive marks of the authority of a bishop.

Episotron (ἐπί-σωτρον). (See Canthus.)

Epistle Side (of a church). The south side.

Epistomium, R. (στόμα, a mouth). The cock of a vessel or water-pipe, which let out only a little water at a time.

Epistylium, Gr. and R. (ἐπι-στύλιον). An epistyle; literally, on the column (ἐπὶ, on, and στῦλος, a column); that is, the architrave or lower beam of an entablature laid horizontally upon columns. By analogy the term is used to denote the entire Entablature (q.v.).

Epitaph (ἐπιτάφιος). (1) A eulogy pronounced at a funeral. (2) Memorials of art in churches, in remembrance of the dead. (3) Inscriptions on tombs.

Epithalamium, Gr. A nuptial song. A fragment of verses from one of these songs, written by Hesiod, has come down to us.

Epithedes or Sima, Arch. The upper member of the cornice of an entablature.

Epitoga, R. A cloak worn over the toga.

Epitoxis, Gr. and R. That part of the catapult in which the missile was laid.

Epitrachelion, Chr. (i. e. on the neck). The Greek name for the stole. (See Stole.)

Epiurus, R. (ἐπίουρος). A wooden peg used as a nail.

Epoch. A fixed and important period of novelty or change, which gave a new and distinctive character to Art. (Fairholt.)

Epomadion, Gr., Chr. The cord or ribbon by which relics, or crosses (ENCOLPIA), were suspended from the neck.

Eques, R. Generally, any one on horseback, a rider, and by analogy a knight, that is, a patrician or man of distinguished family. Eques alarius was the name given to the cavalry of the allies; eques cataphractus was a knight whose horse, as well as himself, was clad in complete armour; eques extraordinarius were the picked cavalry in the service of the consuls; eques legionarius, eques prætorianus, the prætorian cavalry; eques sagittarius, the mounted archers.

Equipped, Her. Fully armed, caparisoned, or provided.

Equiria, R. (equus). Games instituted by Romulus, and celebrated at Rome in the Field of Mars on the third of the calends of March (27th February). These games, held in honour of Mars, consisted of chariot races. There were two festivals of this name; the second was on the eve of the ides of March (14th March).

Equuleus or Eculeus, R. (lit. a colt, a young horse). This was an instrument of torture on which slaves were placed astride. The law prescribed that all slaves called as witnesses should be examined under torture.

Equus, R. A horse; properly a stallion, as opposed to cauterius, a gelding, and equa, a mare.

Eradicated, Her. Torn up by the roots.

Erased, Her. Torn off with a ragged edge.

Eremites, Gr., Chr. Hermits.

Ergastulum, R. (ἐργάζομαι, to work). A private prison attached to a farm or villa rustica, in which insubordinate and ill-conducted slaves were kept in chains; they were under the superintendence of a gaoler, who was himself a slave, and who was called Ergastularius. Ergastula were built underground, and thus formed subterranean dungeons.

Ergata, Gr. and R. (ἐργάτης, i. e. worker). A strong capstan used for moving heavy weights; among other things, for hauling vessels on shore.

Ericius, R. (lit. hedgehog). A military engine, a cheval-de-frise or long beam studded with iron spikes, whence its name. It was placed across a door or other opening to which it was desired to bar ingress.

Fig. 295. The Ermine. Arms of Anne of Brittany.

Ermine, Ermines, Erminois, Her. The animal, the ermine, sometimes appears in blazon, and an ermine spot is borne as a charge. Generally the ermine is an emblem of royalty, purity, and honour. The illustration (Fig. 295) is of the arms of Anne of Bretagne, the Queen of Charles VIII.

Erotidia, Gr. (ἐρωτίδια). Festivals held every fifth year at Thespiæ in Bœotia, in honour of Eros, the principal divinity of the Thespians.

Erpa, Egyp. A title in use among the Egyptians implying authority generally; the crown prince was so designated, and the high priest was, in the same manner, called erpa of the priests.

Fig. 296. Escallop.

Escallop or Scallop Shells were emblems worn by pilgrims, and of St. James the Great, from the 13th century.

Escape, Arch, (or Apopyge). The small curvature given to the top and bottom of the shaft of a column where it expands to meet the edge of the fillet above the torus of the base, and beneath the astragal under the capital.

Fig. 297. Escaufaille, or portable brazier.

Escaufaille, Fr. A small portable brazier on wheels, which was taken from room to room as required.

Eschelles, Fr. “A stomacher laced or ribboned in the form of a ladder.” (Ladies’ Dict., 1694.)

Escoinson, Med. Fr. The interior edge of the window-side or jamb. This was often decorated with a pilaster called the “pilastre des écoinsons.”

Escroll, Her. A ribbon charged with a motto; also a ribbon, coiled at its extremities, borne as a charge.

Fig. 298. Escutcheon of the Sforzas.

Escutcheon. (1) The heraldic shield. (2) Metal plates on doors. Escutcheons are abundantly used in Gothic architecture, and are frequently carved on the bosses of ceilings and at the ends of weather mouldings, &c. Sometimes. instead of armorial bearings, escutcheons have the instruments of the Crucifixion or other devices carved on them.

Escutcheon of Pretence, Her. A shield charged upon the field of another shield of larger size, and bearing a distinct coat of arms.

Espadon. A long Spanish sword. It was the weapon used for decapitation of criminals.

Espietus, Expiotus, Med. Lat. A dart (1361).

Espringale, Springale, Espringold. A machine for throwing darts.

Esquire, Her. A rank next below that of knight.

Esseda, Essedum, R. (from the Celtic ess, a carriage). A chariot of Gaulish origin, drawn by two horses, which was used by the Britons and the Germans in war. It was mounted on two wheels, and was open in front, but closed behind. The pole was broad, and the rider used to run to and fro upon it in the battle. The Romans constructed carriages of a similar kind. A similar chariot drawn by one horse was called the cisium. (See Currus.)

Essonite. The cinnamon-stone, a variety of the garnet. It is of a reddish yellow tint, resembling the colour of cinnamon. These stones come principally from Ceylon, and are frequently sold for hyacinths or jacinths, from which, however, they differ in many important peculiarities. (H. Emanuel.)

Este. A manufactory in Italy of soft porcelain; also of fine faience and pipe-clay.

Estivation, Bot. The arrangement of the unexpanded leaves of the flower-bud which burst in Summer; as opposed to Vernation, the arrangement of the leaves of the bud which burst in Spring.

Estoc, Fr. (Med. Lat. estoquum). A short sword worn at the girdle; also called a “tuck” (temp. Elizabeth).

Estoile, Her. A star with wavy rays or points, which are six, eight, or sometimes more in number.

Estrade, Fr., Arch. A platform raised three or four inches above the rest of the floor of a chamber, upon which to place a bed or a throne, &c.

Estrif or Estref, Med. A kind of arrow for the balista.

Etching. In this process the copper plate is covered with an etching-ground, which is a preparation of bees’-wax, Burgundy pitch, black pitch, and asphaltum (or other ingredients); and the lines of the design are traced out with etching-needles, which remove the etching-ground from the copper wherever they pass, and slightly scratch the surface of the plate. Next, a border of banking-wax is put round the sides of the plate, making a trough of it. The banking-wax is made of bees’-wax, common pitch, Burgundy pitch, and sweet oil melted in a crucible and poured into cold water. The next operation is to pour in nitrous acid reduced with water to a proper strength (about one part acid to four parts water). When the acid has been on a sufficient time to corrode the fainter parts of the subject, it is to be poured off, the plate washed with water, and left to dry. These fainter parts are then to be varnished with a mixture called stopping-ground, made of lamp-black and Venice turpentine, applied with a camel’s-hair pencil. This stops the further action of the acid on these parts. When the surface is dry, fresh acid is poured on to bite in the bolder parts, and the processes of stopping and biting-in are alternated for every gradation of tint. The wax is removed from the plate by heat, and cleaned away with a rag moistened with olive oil; and the work is then complete, or it may be finished off with the graver. Etching-points or needles resemble common needles, fixed in handles four or five inches long; some are made oval to produce broader lines. The dry point is only a very fine-pointed needle for the delicate lines. Imitations of chalk and pencil drawings are sometimes produced by etching on soft ground. Etching on steel is done in the same way as on copper. For etching on glass, a ground of bees’-wax is laid on, and the design traced as above. Sulphuric acid is then poured on, and fluor-spar sprinkled on it, or fluoric acid may be at once used; this is allowed to remain four or five hours, and is then removed with oil of turpentine. (See also Stipple, Mezzotinto, Aquatinta.)

Eterea of Padua. One of the Italian literary academies. Their device, a charioteer in his car in the air, drawn by a white and black horse, the one endeavouring to touch the earth, the other to ascend. Motto, “Victor se tollit ad auras.”

Etiolation. The process of blanching to which plants are subject in dark places.

Ettwee. O. E. for Etui (q.v.).

Fig. 299. Etui.

Etui, Fr. (by contraction Twee, Boyer). A case formerly worn at the girdle by ladies. They were made of gold or silver, or ornamented with paintings in enamel. The richly-decorated example represented in Fig. 299 was the property of a granddaughter of Oliver Cromwell.

Euripus, R. (εὔριπος). An artificial canal or watercourse in the gardens of a Roman villa, generally stocked with fish and aquatic or amphibious animals. The same term was applied to a moat dug at the foot of the podium in an amphitheatre or circus, which was intended, in conjunction with the metal railings or trellis-work placed at the top of the podium, as a protection to the spectators, when wild beasts were exhibited in the arena. Euripus is also applied by Tertullian and other authors to the spina of a circus.

Eustyle, Arch. (εὔ-στυλος). An intercolumniation in which the columns are separated by a width of two diameters and a quarter, measured at the lower part of the column, excepting the central intercolumn, which is of three diameters. It is the form of columniation which, according to Vitruvius, satisfied the demands at once of solidity of structure, beauty of appearance, and general harmony of effect.

Euterpean. Pertaining to music: from the Muse Euterpe.

Everriculum, R. (everro, to sweep out). A fishing-net.

Ewery, Med. An office of household service, where the ewers, &c., were kept: our modern scullery.

Exacisculatus, R. Destroyed by means of a pick (acisculus). The term is of frequent occurrence in sepulchral inscriptions, its purpose being to serve as a notice to the thieves who broke into tombs.

Examen, R. (exigo, to examine). The tongue or index on the beam of a balance.

Exasciatus, R. Hewn or fashioned with the adze (ascia); whence the expression opus exasciatum for work which only required to be finished or polished.

Excalceatus, R. (lit. without shoes or boots). A comic actor or comedian who wore sandals. The tragic actor, on the other hand, who wore on the stage the laced boot or cothurnus, was called cothurnatus.

Excubitorium, R. The post or guard of the excubitores; of these there was one in each quarter of the city, or fourteen in all.

Fig. 300. Exedra.

Exedra, Gr. and R. An assembly-room or hall for discussion or conversation, forming part of a gymnasium, palæstra, or private house. In many cases exedræ were in the open air, consisting merely of circular marble benches. (Fig. 300.) When an exedra was covered in, one of the sides often terminated in a circular apse (absis). [Larger rooms were called “Leschai.”]

Exedrium, R. Diminutive of Exedra (q.v.).

Exequiæ. (See Exsequiæ.)

Exergue. The bottom space on a coin, where the date is engraved.

Exiteria, Gr. and R. (ἐξιτήρια, concerning departure or result). Sacrifices offered to propitiate the gods on the eve of an important enterprise, or in gratitude for success.

Exomis, Gr. and R. (ἐξ-ωμὶς, i. e. off the shoulders). A short tunic, of Greek origin, adopted by the Romans. It left the right shoulder and arm exposed, and had only a short sleeve for the left arm. The term was also applied to the pallium, when so arranged upon the person as to resemble the tunic just described.

Exonarthex. (See Narthex.)

Exostra, Gr. and R. (ἐξώστρα). (1) A flying bridge thrown from a movable tower (acrobaticon) on to the walls of a besieged town, by means of which the assailants made their way into the place. (2) A theatrical machine which was pushed to the front of the stage from behind a curtain which concealed it until it was wanted.

Expeditus (opposed to impeditus), R. Free, unencumbered; light-armed troops (velites) were thus called (expediti), [or any other troops, when they left their impedimenta behind for a forced march, &c.]

Expositories. (See Monstrances.)

Exsequiæ, R. (exsequor, to follow after). A funeral conducted with great pomp. (See Funus.)

Extispicium, R. (exta and inspicio, to inspect). Divination by inspection of the entrails of victims sacrificed on the altar; called also haruspicina.

Extra-dos, Arch. The exterior curve of an arch; opposed to the SOFFIT or INTRA-DOS.

Extremities. In Art, the head, feet, and hands: compare acrolithes.

Ex-voto, Gen. Offerings of any kind in fulfilment of a vow (ex voto).

Eye. In Christian art, the emblem of Providence. Attribute of St. Lucia, as a symbol, not of her martyrdom, but of the meaning of her name (“light”). (See Oudja, Oculus.)

F.

Fabaria, R. Offerings of bean-flour (faba) made by the Romans on the 1st of June to the goddess Carna; from these offerings the calends of June took the name of fabariæ.

Fabatarium, R. A large earthenware vessel in which bean-flour (puls fabacia) was served, boiled up with water or broth. It formed a kind of polenta.

Fabrica, R. (faber, an artisan). The shop in which an artisan works, chiefly a joiner’s or carpenter’s shop.

Fabrilia, R. A general term, including all the different kinds of tools used by an artisan.

Façade, Arch. The face or front of a building.

Face-guard. On a helmet, a bar or bars of iron protecting the face.

Face-painting, O. E. Portrait painting.

Facets (Fr. facette, a little face). The flat surfaces cut upon precious stones.

Facial Angle. The angle formed by two lines, one horizontal from the nostrils to the ear, the other perpendicular from the nostrils to the forehead.

Fac-simile (from Latin factum, made, and simile, like). A perfectly exact copy.

Factorium (sc. vas), R. A vessel containing exactly a factum, or quantity of grapes or olives proper to be placed under the press (torcular) at one factum or making.

Faculæ, R. Little torches.

Fig. 301. Faenza sweetmeat-dish.

Faenza. A manufacture of pottery considered by some writers to be the most ancient in Italy. Garzoni, writing in 1485, says, “The majolicas of F. are white and polished, and one can no more confound them with those of Treviso, than one would take puff-balls for truffles.” Vincenzo Lazari says they are distinguished by the softness of the tints, the correctness of the drawing, and the whiteness of the enamel at the back. For a long and interesting account of this most important botega, see Jacquemart, Hist. of the Ceramic Art. The name of Fayence is derived from Faenza, and not from the little town of Fayence in France. (Fig. 301.)

Faience. (See Fayence.)

Fairy Butter, O. E. (1) A fungous excrescence about the roots of trees, and (2) a species of tremella found on furze and broom are so called.

Fairy Circles. Circles of coarse green grass common in meadows, and attributed to the dancing of the fairies.

Fairy Dances = Fairy Circles (q.v.).

Fairy Darts. Small flints in the form of arrow-heads, possibly of the stone age.

Fairy Faces. Fossil echini or sea-urchins.

Fairy Groats. A country name for certain old coins. (See Harrison’s England, p. 218.)

Fairy Loaves. Fossils found in the chalk, called also fairy faces.

Fairy Money. Treasure trove was so called.

Fairy Pipes. Small old tobacco-pipes, frequently found in the north of England.

Fairy Rings. (See Fairy Circles.)

Fairy Sparks. Phosphoric light seen on various substances in the night time. (Halliwell.)

Fairy Stones. (See Fairy Loaves.)

Faith, in Christian art, is represented by a female figure holding the Eucharistic cup.

Fala, R. A wooden tower used in the siege of a fortified place, but the exact form of which is unknown; it differed from the Acrobaticon.

Falarica or Phalarica, R. A heavy spear, used by the Saguntines, which was generally discharged from a balista. Its shaft was sometimes enveloped with sulphur and resin, and with tow steeped in oil; and it was launched blazing against wooden towers for the purpose of setting them on fire.

Falbala. (See Furbelow.)

Falcastrum, R. (falx, a sickle). An agricultural tool with a curved blade for tearing up weeds.

Falcatus, R. Furnished with scythes (falces). (See Currus.)

Falchion. A broadsword, spelt “fawchon;” 14th century. (See Falx.)

Falcicula. Dimin. of falx.

Falcon, in mediæval art, is the attribute of a gentleman, in allusion to the restrictions of the sumptuary laws.

Falcula. Dimin. of falx.

Faldestol, O. E. An elbow-chair of state; modern “fauteuil.” (See Faldstool.)

Falding (A.S. feald). A kind of coarse cloth, like frieze.

Faldstool, Faldistory, O. E. A folding-stool, like a modern camp-stool, used in cathedral church services in Saxon times.

Fall or Falling-band. A large collar falling on to the shoulders; 16th and 17th centuries. (See Bands.)

Fallals, O. E. The falling ruffs of a woman’s dress.

False, Her. Said of any charge when its central area is removed; thus an annulet is a “false roundle.”

False Roof, Arch. The space between the ceiling of the garret and the roof.

Falx, R. A scythe, sickle, bill-hook, &c.; any instrument with a curved edge used for cutting grass, wood, or other objects. There were many different kinds, which were called respectively arboraria and sylvatica, denticulata, fænaria or veruculata, vinitoria, vineatica, and putatoria. The term falx was also applied to a falchion strongly curved at the end. Falx supina was a dagger with a keen and curved blade; falx muralis was an instrument employed in warfare, both by sea and land, either to cut the masts and rigging of a vessel, or to sweep the ramparts clear of defenders. [Culter is a knife with one straight edge; falx, one with the edge curved. Hence our falchion, &c.]

Familia, Med. Lat. An old term for a set of chessmen. Among the jewels in the wardrobe-book of Edward I. occur “una familia de ebore, pro ludendo ad scaccarium,” and “una familia pro scaccario de jaspide et crystallo.”

Fig. 302. Feather Fan—Italian.

Fan, Egyp. With the Egyptians, the fan of ostrich feathers for brushing away flies was looked upon as the insignia of princes and chieftains; the flabellum or umbellum (parasol) was carried by inferior officers. Both kinds of fan are frequently represented on the sacred barges. The use of the fan was first introduced into England in the 16th century; they were first made of feathers with long handles of gold, silver, or ivory of elaborate workmanship, and sometimes inlaid with precious stones. The engraving shows one from a portrait of Queen Elizabeth. The Greeks and Romans had fans of various elegant materials, often of peacock’s feathers; sometimes of wings of birds, or of linen stretched on a frame. Italian fans, mediæval, were square flags, as in Fig. 303. Folding fans were first introduced in the 17th century. Inventories of churches and monasteries of the 14th century include ecclesiastical fans or flabella. These are still used in the Catholic Church in the East. An illumination at Rouen represents the deacon raising the flabellum, a circular fan with a long handle, over the head of the priest at the altar. In the accounts of the churchwardens of Walberswick, Suffolk, of 1493, is the entry “for a bessume of pekok’s fethers, IVd.” (Figs. 302, 303.)

Fig. 303. Venetian lady, with a square fan of the 16th century.

Fan-crest, Her. An early form of decoration for the knightly helm.

Fandango. A Spanish dance.

Fane. (1) A vane or weathercock; “a fayne of a schipe,” i. e. a vane on the top of a mast. “Of sylver his maste, of golde his fane.” (2) Anglo-Saxon. A banner. (3) The white flower-de-luce. (Gerard.) (4) Enemies. (Halliwell.) (See also Fanum.)

Fanfare, Fr. A flourish of trumpets.

Fannel or Phannel, O. E. The Fanon (q.v.).

Fanon, Chr. The maniple or napkin worn by the priest at mass. It was originally nothing but a plain strip of linen worn on the left wrist. In later times it was highly decorated, and often made of the richest materials.

Fan-tao, Chinese. A fabulous peach-tree, which blossoms every 3000 years; represented on pottery as an attribute of Cheou-Lao, the god of longevity, who holds in his hand a fruit of it.

Fan-tracery. In Gothic architecture, elaborate carved work spread over an arched surface, like a fan with the handle resting on a corbel or stone bracket below.

Fanum, R. (fari, to speak); Eng. Fane. A term synonymous with Templum (q.v.), but implying also the idea of a place which had been consecrated by the solemn formula of the augurs. The fanum thus comprised not only the building itself, the temple, but also all the consecrated ground surrounding it [“locus liberatus et effatus.”]

Farrago, R. (i. e. made of far, spelt). Fodder for horses and cattle, consisting of the green ears of different kinds of grain.

Fig. 304. Farthingale of the time of Elizabeth.

Farthingale (Fr. vertugale) is first spoken of in 1547. It was a sort of cage made of whalebone worn under the petticoat, increasing the size of the hips. In Elizabeth’s reign it reached to a preposterous size, giving the wearer the appearance of “standing in a drum,” according to “Sir Roger de Coverley.” There were wheel-farthingales and tub-farthingales. Farthingales were worn during the reign of Charles I., but of more moderate dimensions; and in Charles II.’s reign the fashion vanished to reappear in the hoop of the 18th century. The engraving gives an example of a moderate farthingale. (Fig. 304.)

Fartura, R. (farcio, to stuff). The act of fattening poultry; and thence applied to a kind of structure, the centre of which was filled with rubble.

Fasces. (See Fascis.)

Fig. 305. Roman lictor carrying the fasces.

Fascia, R. Any strip of cloth used for a bandage; such as (1) the swathes (Gr. σπάργανον) in which newly-born children were wrapped; (2) a white band, or for women, a purple, worn as a diadem (DIADEMA); (3) (f. pectoralis) a bandage worn by young Roman girls to prevent excessive development of the breast; (4) (f. cruralis) a bandage wound closely round the leg from the ankle to the knee, &c.; these were adopted in Europe in the Middle Ages; (5) (f. pedulis, Gr. ποδεῖον) a sock; (6) see Zona. (7) In architecture the term fascia or facia is applied to three flat parallel bands of stone, introduced to break the monotony of architraves, more especially of the Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite Orders.

Fasciculus, R. (dimin. of fascis). A small bundle, or number of objects tied up into small bundles.

Fascina (fascinum = fascination). Amulets worn to avert the “evil eye.” “Nescio quis teneros oculus mihi fascinat agnos.” (Virgil.)

Fasciola (dimin. of fascia). A small bandage. (See Fascia.)

Fascis, R. A bundle; a small packet; a small faggot of wood, or fascine. In the plural fasces denoted the bundle of rods, with an axe in the middle, carried by the lictors before certain of the Roman magistrates. (See Fig. 305.) Fasces laureati were the fasces crowned with laurel leaves, which were carried before a victorious general; fasces versi, the reversed fasces, which were carried axe downwards, in token of mourning, at funerals. The fasces were carried by the lictors on their shoulders, as shown in Fig. 305; and when an inferior magistrate met a superior one, the lictors of the former lowered their fasces to him; hence the expression submittere fasces, to yield or confess inferiority.

Faselus. (See Phaselus.)

Fasti, R. (fas, divine law). Archives or calendars engraved on stone or marble; they were of two kinds. (1) The fasti sacri or kalendares, a kind of almanack or calendar, setting out the dies fasti, or lawful days on which certain kinds of business might be transacted without impiety; also the religious festivals, &c. The calendars were entirely in the keeping of the priests. (2) The fasti annales or historici, which contained the names of the consuls and magistrates, and a short account of the most remarkable events. Some important lists of this kind of the time of Tiberius are preserved in the capitol at Rome, and called the Fasti Capitolini.

Fastigium, R. (fastigo, to raise to a point). The top of a pediment, and thence the entire pediment itself. In a building this term also signifies the ridge, or top of a roof whose two sides rise up to a point.

Faun (Lat. Faunus). A woodland god, frequently represented with sharp ears and with the feet of a goat.

Fauteau, Fr. A military engine used in the Middle Ages; it was a kind of battering-ram suspended in a tower. (See Aries.)

Faux, R. Any narrow passage, lobby, corridor, or entrance to a house, in especial the passage which formed the communication between two blocks of a house. In the plural, fauces, like carceres, denoted stalls or stables for horses. (See Carcer.)

Favissæ, R. Pits or cellars under a temple, in which all the furniture and sacred implements which had become unfit for use were kept.

Favour, O. E. A love-gift; a ribbon or glove, &c., worn on the crest of the favoured knight at a tournament, &c.

Favourite, O. E. A lock of hair: “a sort of modish lock, dangling on the temples.” (Ladies’ Dictionary, 1694.)

Favus, R. A flagstone or tablet of marble cut into a hexagon, like the cell of a honeycomb (favus), whence its name. [Pavements of this pattern were called Sectilia.]

Fax, R. A torch. This consisted either of pieces of wood joined together and steeped in resin, or a metal tube filled with inflammable materials, such as resin, pitch, tallow, tow impregnated with wax, &c. [The early evening was hence called prima fax, and as marriages were celebrated at that time of day, the torch was made an attribute of Hymen, and a symbol of marriage. The torch was also carried at funerals to fire the pile with.]

Fayence. Pottery.

Feather. In Christian art (German) an attribute of St. Barbara; it is generally a peacock’s feather. This refers to an old German version of her legend, which relates that when St. Barbara was scourged by her father, angels changed the rods into feathers.

Featherings, in Architecture, are lacelike ornaments along the edges of arcs in windows, canopies, &c.

Fig. 306. Ostrich feathers. (An escroll for a coronet.)

Feathers, Her. The feathers borne as crests and badges are generally those of the ostrich, sometimes of the swan, the turkey, and a few other birds. Fig. 306 is a representation of an early plume of ostrich feathers, as they are carved, with an escroll in place of a coronet, in the Abbey Church of St. Albans. From the time of the accession of the House of Stuart to the crown of the United Kingdom, the coroneted plume of three ostrich feathers appears to have been regarded, as it is at this present day, as the special badge of the Princes of Wales.

Februa, Februales, R. A festival in honour of the dead instituted by Numa; it was celebrated every year on the ides of February.

Feet. In Christian art the feet of Our Lord, also of angels and of the Apostles, should always be represented naked, without shoes or sandals. (Fairholt.)

Felt (Fr. feutre). A sort of coarse wool, or wool and hair. Felt hats were first made in England by Spaniards and Dutchmen, in the beginning of the reign of Henry VIII. Felt was also used for the stuffing of garments.

Feminalia or Femoralia, R. (femur, the thigh). Short breeches or a kind of drawers which reached from the waist to about the knee. [Worn by Augustus Cæsar, who was very susceptible to cold.]

Fendace (armour). The old name for the gorget.

Fenestella, Chr. (lit. a small window). A niche made in the wall of a church, near the altar, and containing the stone basin in which the priest poured away the water in which he had washed the chalice.

Fenestra, Window. Fenestra biforis is a Gemel-window, formed by a double bay. Fenestra was the name given to the hole pierced in the ears to receive the ear-rings, as also to the loop-holes made in the walls of a fortress.

Fenestration, Arch. A term which expresses the disposition and arrangement of all the windows in a house.

Fengite. Transparent alabaster used for glass in windows.

Ferculum, R. (fero, to carry). Contracted form of fericulum, a tray, and thence the dishes carried upon a tray; a course or remove. In a triumphal procession the term was applied to a platform for displaying an enemy’s spoils, a rich booty, images of the gods, &c.; or the ashes of the dead in a funeral.

Fig. 307. Silver Feretory or Reliquary, of good English work, for the most part in repoussé.

Feretory, Chr. (1) A richly ornamented shrine, often of solid gold and set with jewels, in which the relics of saints are carried in Roman Catholic processions. (2) The enclosure or chapel in which the shrine was kept.

Feretrum or Pheretrum, Gr, R., and Chr. (Lat. capulus). A bier; sometimes a shrine. The term was used at a period when coffins were uncommon; more properly the Feretory, 1 (q.v.).

Feriæ, R. Days of festival among the Romans; they were classed as follows: (1) Feriæ statæ or stativæ, which were held regularly on the days indicated in the calendar; these were the immovable festivals, such as the Agonalia, Carmentalia, Lupercalia, &c. (2) Feriæ conceptæ or conceptivæ, which were held every year, but at uncertain intervals; these were the movable festivals, such as the Latinæ, Sementivæ, Paganalia, and Compitalia. (3) Lastly, there were the feriæ imperativæ or official festivals, which were held by order of the dictators, consuls, or prætors. All feriæ were dies nefasti, on which lawsuits, political transactions, &c. were impious, and slaves were relieved of their labour. The feriæ Latinæ were the most important of all Roman festivals.

Fermail, Her. A buckle.

Ferr, Her. A horse-shoe.

Ferrara. A manufactory of majolica in North Italy, described by Jacquemart as “one of the most brilliant in Italy;” established by Alfonso I. with artists imported from Faenza, circa 1495. (Jacquemart.)

Ferrea Solea. A horse-shoe. (See Solea and Hipposandalium.)

Ferriterium. A prison for slaves. Synonym of Ergastulum (q.v.).

Ferula, R. The fennel; a plant with which children were beaten for slight faults, and thence a cane or stick with which slaves were chastised.

Fig. 308. Fesse.

Fesse, Her. One of the ordinaries. A broad band of metal or colour crossing the shield horizontally.

Fesse-point, Her. The central point of an escutcheon.

Fesse-wise, In Fesse, Her. Disposed in a horizontal line, side by side, across the centre of a field, and over the fesse-point of a shield.

Fig. 309. Festoon of foliage.

Festoon, Arch. Garland of flowers. (Fig., 309.) (See Encarpa.)

Festra, R. An abbreviation anciently employed for Fenestra (q.v.).

Festuca or Vindicta, R. The rod which the lictor held over the head of a slave during the ceremony of manumissio, by which he was given his freedom. (See Manumissio.)

Fetter-lock, Her. A shackle, padlock; a Yorkshire badge.

Fibrinæ (vestes), Fibrinæ (lanæ). (See Castoreæ.)

Fig. 310. Fibula. Gallic.

Fig. 311. Fibula. Gallic.

Fibula, Gen. (figo, to fix). (1) A clasp, buckle, or brooch; any contrivance made of gold, silver, bronze, ivory, &c., used for fastening male or female attire. (2) The buckle of a head-band (tænia, vitta). Figs. 310 and 311 represent buttons and clasps belonging to the Gaulish and Merovingian periods. [The girdles of the Franks and Saxons, found in English tombs, were usually ornamented most profusely. Not only were the buckles (fibulæ) of the richest workmanship, and conspicuous for size and decoration, but they are sometimes supplemented by enchased plates, or plates set with precious stones. (Roach Smith.)] (See Figs. 105 to 113.)

Fictile Ware, Keremania, R. (fingo, to mould). Any object made of terra-cotta or pottery, such as tiles, bricks, vases, &c. (See Pottery.)

Fiddle (A.S. fithele), or Viol, is represented in an Anglo-Saxon MS. of the 11th century, of a pear-shape, with four strings. The fiddle-bow probably originated in Hindustan, where the Hindus claim that the ravanastron was invented about 5000 years ago by Ravanon, a king of Ceylon. Almost identical with this is the Chinese fiddle called urheen, which has only two strings, and its body consists of a small block of wood, hollowed out and covered with a snake-skin. A German fiddle of the 9th century, called lyra, has only one string. In the Nibelungen Lied Volker is described as dexterous in playing the fiddle. Interesting representations of performers on the fiddle are painted on the roof of Peterborough Cathedral. They are attributed to the 12th century.

Fidelia, R. An earthenware vessel or jar used as a receptacle for cement.

Fides or Fidis, R. A general term comprising all stringed or gut instruments (from sphidé, catgut).

Fidicula, R. (dimin. of fides). A very fine catgut string, a treble-string. The plural fidiculæ denotes an instrument of torture for slaves, the form of which is unknown.

Field. In Numismatics, the surface of a coin on which objects were engraved; in Heraldry, the entire surface of a shield or banner.

Figure-paintings. Paintings of the human figure.

Fig. 312. Silver Filigree. Reliquary, belonging to Lord Hastings, said to have been dug up in the foundations of St. Paul’s, London.

Filagree, Filigree, or Filigraine (It. filigrana = filum and granum, or granular network; so called because the Italians, who first introduced this style of work, placed beads upon it. [Ure.]). This work is of gold or silver wire plaited and soldered into delicate arabesques and flower patterns. In the 15th century the Spanish Moors “made admirable chiselled, enamelled, and gilt work, and applied filigree work on the surface, a system kept up at Salamanca and Cordova to the present day.” The Eastern nations have always been famous for filigree work.

File, Her. A label (from the Latin filum, a narrow ribbon).

Filfot, called also the Gammadion. (See Fylfot.)

Filigree Glass. (See Glass.)

Fillet, Her. A diminutive of a chief.

Fillets, Gen. Strips of linen employed for various purposes. The victims which were conducted by priests to sacrifice were adorned with sacred fillets. Among the Egyptians fillets were employed to swathe mummies, the strips being repeatedly wound by the embalmers round the corpse, till it reassumed the appearance it had presented before being dried. (See Diadem, Fascia.) In Architecture, a small round or rectangular moulding which separates two others which are larger and more prominent; the fillet also separates the flutings of columns. (See Tænia.)

Fimbria, R. The border or fringe of a cloth or garment. [These were more common among the Egyptians and Assyrians than the Greeks and Romans, and are mentioned in the Bible.]

Fig. 313. Cross fimbriated.

Fimbriated, Her. Bordered; the border (which is narrow) lying in the same plane with the object bordered. (Fig. 313.)

Fig. 314. Finial.

Finial. In Gothic architecture, an ornament of carved work representing foliage, on the apex of a spire or pinnacle. (See Crocket.) (Fig. 314.)

Fir-cone upon a stem was the form of vases special to the majolica manufactory of Deruba; “a form,” says Jacquemart, “quite special to that manufactory, and directly imitated from the extreme East and from Asia Minor.”

Fire. Flames of fire placed near St. Anthony signify his spiritual aid as patron saint against fire in all shapes, in the next world and in this. Tongues of fire are, of course, depicted on the heads of the Apostles, in representations of the Day of Pentecost.

Fire-dog. (See Andiron.)

Fire-lock. The musket fired by flint and steel, invented in France about the year 1630. (See Match-lock.)

Fire-stommer, O. E. A poker.

Fiscus, R. A wicker-work basket used for gardening purposes, especially for gathering in the olive and grape crops. The Romans also made use of this basket for transporting sums of money; hence fiscus came to mean a moneychest, and was the name given to that part of the revenue which was applied to the civil list of the emperors [opposed to ærarium, the property of the senate]; but at last the word was used to signify generally the property of the state.

Fish. In Christian art, the symbol of water and the rite of baptism. (See Acrostic and Vesica Piscis.)

Fistuca, R. A pavior’s ram or beetle; a wooden bar or pile used to consolidate floorings, masonry, and pavements.

Fistula, R. (1) A water-pipe of lead or earthenware. (2) A writing-pen made of reed, and thence a Pan’s pipe. (3) A rolling-pin for making pastry. (4) A probe. (5) A machine for bruising corn, which was called fistula farraria.

Fitch. The best of paint-brushes are made of the hair of the fitch or polecat. They are black, elastic, and firm though soft. They are made flat or round, and are used also for varnishing.

Fitchée, Her. Pointed at the base.

Flabelliform, Arch. (flabellum). Fan-shaped. The term is usually applied to an ornament composed of leaves and palms, which is of frequent occurrence on Romano-Byzantine monuments.

Flabellum, Gen. (flo, to blow). A fan. (See Fan.)

Flagellum, Gen. (flagrum). A whip or scourge made with thongs of leather, especially thongs of the ox’s hide, or twisted or knotted cords, &c., used in antiquity for punishing slaves or culprits. It was a terrible weapon, and the lash was often knotted with bones, or heavy metal hooks to tear the flesh (scorpio). Gladiators used to fight in the arena with flagella.

Flagon. A vessel with a long neck covered at top, and a spout. The flagons of the 15th and 16th centuries are the best in design and ornamentation.

Flail. A weapon like a flail, of wood and iron armed with spikes, temp. Henry VIII.

Flake-white. So called from its form, in commerce, of flakes or scales. As a pigment it possesses great body, and enters largely into numerous compound tints. (Fairholt.) (See Carbonate of Lead.)

Flamboyant (style), Mod. The style of French architecture peculiar to the 15th century, so called because the mullions and tracery of the windows in the monuments belonging to that period are curved and twisted like the waving of flames. This style was contemporary with that called “the perpendicular” in England.

Flamen, R. A priest devoted to the service of any one god; e. g. Flamen Martialis, the priest of Mars. Their characteristic dress was the Apex, the Læna, and a laurel wreath.

Flaming Heart, in Christian symbolism, expresses fervent piety and love.

Flammeolum (dimin. of flammeum). A term denoting a texture much finer than that of the flammeum.

Flammeum, R. A bridal veil worn by the bride on the day of her marriage; it was of light gauze, and in colour of a vivid and brilliant yellow, like a flame; whence its name. It covered the lady from head to foot, and was removed by the bridegroom on their arrival home after the ceremony.

Flammula, R. A small flame; a small banner borne by light cavalry regiments; it was of a vivid and brilliant yellow colour, like the bridal flammeum; whence its name. (Modern Oriflamme, q.v.)

Flanches, Flasques, Her. Subordinaries.

Fig. 315. Flat-heads.

Flat-heads, Projecting-heads, Mod. An ornament peculiar to the Romano-Byzantine period, which decorates archivolts. Fig. 315 gives an example of flat-heads; Fig. 316 of projecting-heads.

Fig. 316. Projecting-heads.

Flaying-knife. An attribute of St. Bartholomew, signifying the manner of his martyrdom. In Croyland Abbey it was anciently the custom to present all members of the community with small flaying-knives on St. Bartholomew’s Day (Aug. 24).

Fig. 317. Old Flemish Lace.

Flemish Lace. Flanders and Italy dispute the invention of pillow lace. It is certain, however, that lace of home manufacture was worn in the 15th century in the Low Countries, and from that time to the present lace-making has formed a source of national wealth to Belgium. The engraving shows a fine specimen of old Flemish lace composed of six different designs joined together, commonly known as “Trolle Kant.” A similar lace is made in some of our own counties, and called “Trolly.” (Fig. 317.)

Fig. 318. “Cosse de Genest,” showing a Cross fleurettée.

Fleur-de-lis (Fr.), the royal insignia of France, was first adopted by Louis VII. (about A. D. 1137) semée, or scattered over the field. This shield is blazoned as “France Ancient.” On the occasion of his marriage, in 1234, St. Louis instituted the order of the “Cosse de Genest” (Fig. 318), and, as an emblem of his humility, took for his badge the broom-flower with the motto Exaltat humiles. The collar of the order was composed of broom-flowers enamelled, intermixed with fleurs-de-lis. In the reign of Charles VI. four collars of the order of the Cosse de Genest were sent as presents to King Richard II. and his uncles the Dukes of Lancaster, Gloucester, and York. The fleur-de-lis entered the English insignia in 1275 with the marriage of Edmund with Blanche of Artois, and was erased on January 1, 1801.

Fleurettée, Her. Terminating in, or bordered with fleurs-de-lis, like the cross in Fig. 318.

Fleuron. A small full-blown rose placed in the centre of the abacus of the capital in certain orders of architecture.

Flexed, Her. Bowed, bent.

Flighted, Her. Feathered, as arrows are.

Flo, O. E. An arrow.

“Robin bent his joly bowe,
Therein he set a flo.”
(Wright’s Songs and Carols.)

Floralia, or Florales Ludi. A Roman festival in honour of Flora, said to have been instituted B.C. 238, to invoke the protection of the goddess upon the spring blossoms.

Florentine Fresco. A peculiar method of fresco-painting, by which the lime is kept moistened during the process.

Florentine Lake. (See Carminated Lakes.)

Florentine Mosaic. Inlaid-work in coloured stones, and precious stones combined into beautiful patterns.

Florid (style), Arch. This term, now disused, has been replaced by that of Flamboyant style (q.v.).

Florimontana. A literary society established at Annecy in 1606. They took for their device an orange tree, with the motto, “Flores, fructusque perennes.”

Fluor-spar or Derbyshire-spar. A mineral rock very common in Derbyshire, where it is made into ornaments, &c., with the lathe.

Flute, Gen. Said to have been invented by Apollo or Mercury. The simplest form of flute was made with an oat-stalk (avena) or a hollow reed (calamus); in the course of time it was made of ivory, bone, or the shin-bones of animals; whence its Latin name of Tibia (q.v.). The Greek flute (aulos) was held like a flageolet, and a vibrating reed was inserted into the mouthpiece. The single flute was called monaulos; the double one diaulos. A specimen of the last in the British Museum was found in a tomb at Athens. It is made of cedar, and the tubes, which are fifteen inches in length, have each a separate mouthpiece and six finger-holes, five of which are at the upper side, and one underneath. The flutes of the Etruscans were often of ivory; those used in religious ceremonies were of box-wood, ass’s bone, bronze, and silver. The Persian flute called “nay,” and the “surnay” a kind of oboe, are still popular in the East. In Mexico, the young man sacrificed to the god was taught to play the flute, and as he went to his death he broke a flute on each of the steps of the temple. The practice of making flutes of the bones of their enemies was common with many Indian tribes in America.

Fig. 319. Flutings.

Flutings or Flutes, Arch. Small semicircular indents or grooves cut perpendicularly, by way of ornament, in the shafts of columns and pilasters. Flutings may be either decorated or plain. When filled with a bead moulding, they are said to be cabled. Fig. 319 represents flutings decorated with leaves twined round a reed.

Fly, Her. The length and also the side of a flag furthest from the mast.

Fo, Chinese. (See Dog of Fo.) The “Hand of Fo” is a fragrant fruit, a kind of cédrat, generally styled the Chinese hand-plant, used to perfume apartments.

Focale, R. (fauces, the throat). A square piece of cloth which was wrapped round the neck, and covered the ears.

Fig. 320. Foculus.

Foculus, R. (dimin. of focus). A portable fireplace; a brazier or chafing-dish. (Fig. 320.)

Focus, R. The hearth or fireplace of a house, consecrated to the Lares or household gods.

Foil, in Architecture. (See Trefoil, Quatrefoil, &c.)

Fig. 321. Foliage of the Acanthus.

Foliage, Gen. Nearly every style of architecture has made use of foliage for purposes of ornamentation. In antiquity, the leaves of the acanthus, palm, laurel, olive, ivy, &c., were thus employed; the Romano-Byzantine, Byzantine, and Pointed styles utilized for the same purpose the vine, oak, cinquefoil, parsley, mahonia, mullein, thistle, &c. Foliage has been applied to the decoration of capitals, archivolts, bands, cornices, and friezes; and it has also been used to form Crockets (q.v.), crownings, pinnacles, &c. Architectural work thus enriched is said to be FOLIATED, and the ornament itself is called FOLIATION.

Fig. 322. Foliage on moulding.

Folliculus, R. A leather cap encircling the hole by which an oar protruded from a ship. The term is a diminutive of Follis (q.v.).

Follis, R. A small ball of leather inflated with air, which also went by the name of folliculus; used for a plaything.

Fong-hoang, Chinese. A fabulous bird which is immortal, lives in the highest regions of the air, and only approaches men to announce to them happy events and prosperous reigns. It is easily recognized (on pottery, &c.) by its carunculated head, its neck surrounded by silky feathers, and its tail partaking of the Argus pheasant and the peacock. (Jacquemart.)

Fig. 323. Pompeian fountain.

Fons, Fountain, Gen. In antiquity, natural springs and fountains were objects of religious worship. Fig. 323 represents a Pompeian fountain known as the Fountain of Abundance.

Fig. 324. Baptismal font (Romano-Byzantine).

Font, Chr. The vessel which contains the consecrated water used in the administration of baptism, by sprinkling or aspersion (Fig. 324), introduced in lieu of the original mode of immersion (Fig. 325). (Compare Piscina.)

Fig. 325. Early English Font.

Fig. 326. The Fontange Head-dress.

Fontange, Fr. “A modish head-dress,” deriving its name from Mademoiselle de Fontange, a lady of the court of Louis XIV., who invented it. (Fig. 326.)

Font-cloth, O. E. (1) The hanging with which the font was ornamented. (2) The Chrismale (q.v.).

Fools. In Church architecture and decoration, grotesque figures of men with fool’s cap and bells are frequently seen under the seats of choir-stalls and miserere seats. (See the article Obscœna.)

Foolscap. A fool’s cap was the device of the Italian society called the Granelleschi, formed at Venice in 1740 to oppose the corruption of the Italian language. A sheet of foolscap paper is 17 in. by 13½ in.

Forceps. Tongs or pincers, the attributes of some of the martyrs. (See Forfex.)

Foreshortening. The art of representing objects on a plane surface as they appear to the eye in perspective.

Fig. 327. Roman Forfex.

Fig. 328. Forfex.

Forfex, R. (1) Large scissors or shears used to cut hair or shear animals. (2) A clip, in the form of shears, for raising weights. (Fig. 327.) Fig. 328 represents a shears described by Vitruvius, which was used to raise stones.

Fori, R. This term, which is the plural of forus, denotes (1) the flooring of a ship; (2) the flooring of a bridge; (3) the standing-places on a temporary platform; (4) the shelves forming the divisions or different stories of a beehive; (5) the narrow parallel furrows drawn in a garden by means of the hoe.

Foricula. A little door. Dimin. of Foris (q.v.).

Foris, R. The door as distinguished from the frame in which it hung. In the plural, fores denotes a folding-door with two leaves, as, for instance, fores carceris, the door of the stalls in a circus.

Forks were not in general use earlier than the 14th century. One of the earliest occasions on which a fork is mentioned informs us that John, Duke of Brittany in 1306, had one “to pick up soppys.”

Forlon. A Spanish carriage with four seats.

Forma, R. (fero, to produce). A mould, form, or model; a mould for making bricks or other objects in clay, such as (1) antefixa, masks, &c.; (2) a shoemaker’s last; (3) the waterway of a subterranean aqueduct. Diminutive, Formella, R. A small shape or mould used especially by the Romans to give an artificial form to the fish which was served as one of the courses at dinner.

Fornacalia, R. A festival of bakers in honour of the goddess Fornax (oven-goddess). It took place in February, the day being given out by the curio maximus, who announced, in tablets which were placed in the forum, the part which each curia had to take in the festival. Those persons who did not know to which curia they belonged, performed the rites on the last day, called Stultorum feriæ (the feasts of fools).

Fornacula (dimin. of Fornax, q.v.). (1) A small furnace for smelting metals. (2) A small furnace for a bath-room.

Fornax, R. A furnace; an oven; a kiln for baking pottery: fornax calcaria, a lime-kiln; fornax æraria, a blast-furnace for smelting metals; fornax balnei, a hypocaust or bathfurnace; this was also called Fornacula (q.v.). Fornax is also the name of the goddess of ovens.

Fornix, R. A term having the same meaning as Arcus (q.v.). It also denotes (1) a triumphal arch (arcus triumphalis); (2) a vault or vaulted room; (3) a vaulted gate.

Forril. A kind of parchment, specially prepared for bookbinding.

Forulus, R. (dimin. of forus, a shelf). A cupboard, cabinet, or dwarf bookcase.

Fig. 329. Ground-plan of the Forum at Pompeii.

Forum, R. A large open space used by the Romans as a market; it answered to the Greek Agora (q.v.). Fig. 329 represents the forum civile of Pompeii, unquestionably one of the most complete examples bequeathed to us by antiquity. A is the principal entrance; B, a Corinthian temple; C, the public prison (carcer publicus); D is supposed to have been a horreum, or public granary; E, the temple of Venus, the guardian goddess of the city; F, the basilica; G, H, I, the curiæ, which were a kind of civil and commercial tribunals; K is a rectangular building which probably served the purpose of a shop for money-changers; L, a portico terminating in an absis; M, the temple of Mercury or Quirinus; N, a building with a large semicircular tribune, which probably formed the residence of the Augustales.

Forus. A synonym of Forum (q.v.). Forus aleatorius was the term applied to a dice-table.

Fossil Ivory. The tusks of the mammoth—the extinct elephas primigenius—found in great quantity in Siberia, are the material of which nearly all the ivory-turner’s work in Russia is made. The ivory has not undergone any petrifying change like other fossils, and is as well adapted for use as that procured from living species.

Fote (or Foot) Mantel. An outer garment of the petticoat kind, bound round the hips (of a woman on horseback) “to keep her gown or surcoat clean.” (Strutt.)

“A fote-mantel about hir hips large.” (Chaucer.)

Fountain, Her. A circular figure or ROUNDLE that is barry wavy arg. is so blazoned.

Fourchée, Her. Divided into two parts; said of a lion with a double tail.

Fraces, R. A kind of fuel made of the tan obtained from the residuum of oil-presses; it was thus the pulp of olives.

Frænum, Frenum, R. A horse’s bridle, including the bit and the reins. [The bit was called orea or Greek στόμιον.]

Framea, R. (1) A German spear, the iron head of which was short but very sharp; it was employed by them as a pike. (2) A weapon used by the Franks.

Francisca. A kind of battle-axe used by the Franks.

Frankfort Black. A German pigment prepared like blue black (q.v.).

French Ultramarine. (See Guimet’s Ultramarine.)

Fresco-Painting (i. e. al fresco, upon fresh or wet ground), generally employed for large pictures on walls and ceilings, is executed with mineral and earthy pigments upon a freshly-laid ground of stucco. It was known to the ancients, and must be distinguished from DISTEMPER PAINTING (q.v.) on plaster, which is a different process. “Buon (or genuine) fresco,” painted on the fresh surface of plaster, is distinguished from “fresco secco,” or a process of painting on dry plaster commonly practised in Italy and Munich. It is argued that the latter was the process used at Pompeii, and generally by the ancients, because (1) lime is found in nearly all the colours, and (2) the nature of the joinings in the work indicates that each compartment does not contain only one day’s work, as it must in buon fresco.

Fig. 330. Greek Fret.

Fig. 331. Greek Fret.

Fig. 332. Greek Fret.

Fret, Arch. An angular, interlaced architectural ornament of the Greek and Romano-Byzantine period, also known as broken batoon and Vitruvian scroll, and presenting some analogy with chevron or zigzag. There are crenelated or rectangular frets, triangular, nebulated, undulated frets, &c.

Fig. 333. Undulated Fret.

Fig. 334. Scroll Fret.

Fret, O. E. A caul of gold or silver wire.

“A fret of golde she had next her hair.” (Chaucer.)

Fig. 335. Badge of the Arundel family, with fret.

Fret or Frette, Her. One of the subordinaries. The illustration is one of the badges of the Arundel family: a chapeau or and gules, surmounted by a fret or, and an acorn leaved vert.

Frieze, Arch. That part of the entablature which is included between the architrave and the cornice. (See Fig. 184.) Another name for it is Zoophorus (q.v.). It was generally richly sculptured. The finest frieze ever found is that of the Parthenon, the ornamentation of which may be studied in the Elgin-marble room at the British Museum. (See Fig. 282.)

Frieze, Frize. A coarse woollen cloth, first mentioned 1399.

“Cloth of gold, do not despize
To match thyself with cloth of frize.
Cloth of frize, be not too bold,
Though thou be matched with cloth of gold.”

Frigidarium, R. (frigidus, cold). (1) A cool apartment in a bathing establishment. (2) A cool place used as a larder.

Frisquet. In wood-engraving, a piece of paper laid over the proof-paper in the act of printing, to keep clean the parts not intended to be exposed to the ink.

Fritillus, R. A dice-box of a cylindrical form, called also turricula or pyrgus (Greek φιμός).

Fig. 336. Frog. The device of Mæcenas.

Frog. An ancient emblem of silence and secrecy, from a legend quoted by Ælian that the frogs of Syriapha never croak in their own marshes. Hence it was adopted by Mæcenas, the friend of Augustus, for his device. (Fig. 336.)

Fig. 337. Frontale of a bridle.

Frontale, Gen. (frons, the forehead). (1) A frontlet or head-band worn by Greek women, and to be seen principally on the statues of goddesses. (2) A plate or band of metal placed across the forehead of horses (Fig. 337) as a protection for the frontal bone. The Medes, Persians, Greeks, and Romans made use of the frontale for their cavalry horses. For the ecclesiastical Frontal, Mediæval, see Antependium. Henry III. gave a FRONTAL to the high altar at Westminster Abbey, upon which, besides carbuncles in golden settings, and several large pieces of enamel, were as many as 866 smaller pieces of enamel.

Frontispiece. In Architecture, the façade or face of a building. The engraved title-page of a book was originally called the frontispiece.

Frote, O. E. To rub; to stir.

Frountere, O. E. Frontal (q.v.).

Fucus, Gr. Cosmetic paint, much used by the Greek and Roman ladies. They stained their eyebrows black with a preparation of sulphuret of antimony called stimmi, or of soot, asbolos. The Roman ladies, in addition to rouge and white for the complexion, used to trace out the veins on their temples with a blue paint, and they wore the patches of Queen Anne’s time (splenia). “From beef without mustard, a servant which overvalues himself, and a woman which painteth,—good Lord deliver us!” (Stubbes.)

Fuller’s Bat or Club. Attribute of St. James the Less, who was killed with such an implement.

Fullonica, Fullonum, R. (fullo, a fuller). A fuller’s establishment. An example of one, in perfect preservation, is preserved at Pompeii. The fullones acted as laundrymen to Greek and Roman families, washing linen as well as woollen clothes by treading in tubs (using urine for soap, which was unknown to them); hence saltus fullonicus, a fuller’s dance.

Fulmen. The thunderbolt of Jove. (See also Illapa.) It is generally represented as a double cone of flame, with lightnings on each side, or frequently with wings.

Fumarium, R. (fumus, smoke). A chamber in the upper part of a Roman house, into which the smoke from the fires was conducted. The smoke-room was used for drying wood and ripening wine. The “Rauchkammer” or smoke attic is still a common institution in good houses in Germany.

Funale, R. (funis, a rope). A link or torch made of various materials.

Funalis or Funarius (sc. equus). The tracehorse, so called because its traces, instead of being of leather, were of rope (funis).

Funarius. (See Funalis.)

Funda, Sling, Gen. The sling has been employed by most of the peoples of antiquity as a weapon of warfare for hurling stones, chiefly flints or leaden bullets (glandes). The slings of the Egyptians were made of leather thongs or plaited cord. The funaitores, or slingers, of the Greek and Roman armies carried each a provision of stones in the folds (sinus) of his pallium, a shield on his left arm, and brandished his sling in the right hand. The most celebrated slingers were the inhabitants of the Balearic Islands, which took their ancient name from this circumstance.

Fig. 338. Fundibalus—Onager.

Fundibalus, Fundibalum, R. (βάλλω, to throw). A machine for hurling stones; a kind of balista (q.v.). (Fig. 338.)

Fig. 339. Street at Pompeii.

Fundula, R. A blind alley or cul-de-sac. Fig. 339 represents one of the kind at Pompeii.

Fundulus, R. The piston of a hydraulic machine.

Funeral Ceremonies. 1. Greek. The expressions τὰ δίκαια, νομιζόμενα, or προσήκοντα, the just and lawful rites, are expressive of the Greek idea that the proper burial of the dead was a most sacred duty to them. The first act was to place in the mouth of the corpse an obolus, with which the spirit would pay the ferryman in Hades. This coin was then called danaké. The body was then washed and anointed, the head crowned with flowers, and the handsomest robes put on. All this was done by the women of the family. By the side of the bed upon which the corpse was then laid (πρόθεσις) were placed painted earthen vessels (lecuthoi; see Lecythus), which were afterwards buried with the corpse. (These vases are frequently disinterred in modern excavations.) A honeycake (melittouta) to throw to the dog Cerberus was laid on the bed. Before the door a vessel of water (ostracon or ardalion) was set, to be used, like the holy water of Catholic times, by persons leaving the house, for purification. On the third day after death, the ecphora, or carrying out for burial, took place in the morning before sunrise. The men walked before the corpse, and the women behind. Hired mourners (threnodoi) accompanied the procession, playing mournful tunes on the flute. The bodies were either buried or burned, until cremation gave way to a Christian prejudice. The body was placed for burning on the top of a pyre (Gr. πῦρ, fire); and, in remote ages, animals, prisoners, or slaves were burned with it. Oils and perfumes were thrown into the flames. Finally, the smouldering ashes were quenched with wine, and relatives and friends collected what remained of the bones. The bones were then washed with wine and oil, and placed in urns, often golden.

2. Roman. Funera justa conveys the same idea as the Greek dicaia of the right and title of the dead to a proper observance. With the Romans, the washing, anointing, &c. of the body was done by slaves (pollinctores) of the undertakers, who were called libitinarii, because they dwelt near the temple of Venus Libitina, in which all things requisite for funerals were sold and a mortuary register was kept. The coin having been duly placed in the mouth, the body was laid out in the vestibule dressed, of ordinary citizens in a white toga, and of magistrates in their official robes, and the couch was strewn with flowers, and a branch of cypress was placed at the door of the house. All funerals were, in ancient times, performed at night, but afterwards only those of the poor. At a great funeral the corpse was carried out on the eighth day, preceded by musicians (cornicines, &c.) and mourning women (præficæ), who chanted a funeral hymn (nænia); players and buffoons (histriones, scurræ) followed, and a procession of the freed slaves wearing the cap of liberty (pileati). Images of the deceased and of his ancestors were borne before the corpse, which was carried on a litter (feretrum). The common bier of the poor was called sandapila, and its bearers vespillones, because they bore it forth in the evening (vespere). The couches of the rich were of ivory, richly ornamented with gold and purple. The relations walked behind in mourning, sons with the head veiled, and daughters with dishevelled hair. At the forum a funeral oration (laudatio) was delivered, and thence the procession went to the place of burial or cremation. Those who were buried (as all were subsequently to the 4th century A. D.) were placed in a coffin (arca or loculus), often of stone. The Assian stone, from Assos in Troas, was said to consume all the body, with the exception of the teeth, in forty days, whence it was called sarcophagus (q.v.). For cremation the pyre, or rogus, was built like an altar, and the corpse in its splendid couch being placed on the top, the nearest relation, with averted face, fired a corner of the pile. Perfumes were forbidden by the Twelve Tables. Sometimes animals were slaughtered, and in ancient times, captives and slaves, but afterwards gladiators were hired to fight round the blazing pile. (Compare Bustum.) When the pyre was burnt down, the embers were soaked with wine, and the bones and ashes collected into urns. (See Urna.) The solemnities continued for nine days after the funeral, at the end of which time a sacrifice was performed called the novemdiale. Men wore black for mourning, and women white; but at all banquets given in honour of the dead the guests were clothed in white.

Fig. 340. Covered urn of red pottery. Ohojepore.

Funeral Urns of Indian pottery are found of extremely ancient date. That represented in Fig. 340 is a covered jar, of primitive make, with an inscription in ancient characters; its date is probably from 260 to 240 B.C. (Jacquemart.)

Fur. Strutt says that “the furs of sables, beavers, foxes, cats, and lambs were used in England before the Conquest; to which were afterwards added those of ermines, squirrels, martens, rabbits, goats, and many other animals.” In the Middle Ages the more precious furs, as ermine and sable, were reserved for kings, knights, and the principal nobility of both sexes. Inferior ranks used “vair” and “gris,” or gray; while citizens, burgesses, and priests wore the common squirrel and lamb-skins. The peasants wore cat-skins, badger-skins, &c. In after times were added the skins of badgers, bears, beavers, deer, fitches, foxes, foynes (or martens), grays, hares, otters, sables, squirrels, weasels, wolves, &c. The mantles of our kings and peers, and the furred robes of municipal officers are the remains of this fashion, which in the 13th century was almost universal.

Fig. 341. Shield with Ermine.

Fur, Her. The furs are of comparatively rare appearance in heraldry, and do not appear in the best ages. Vair and ermine are common. In Fig. 341 is an example of the treatment of ermine from the monument of Edward III.

Furbelow, O. E. An ornament on the petticoat of a woman’s dress, described as a “puckered flounce,” to display which it became the fashion to roll back the skirts of the gown. “The Old Mode and the New, or the Country Miss with her Furbelow,” is the title of an old play, temp. William and Mary.

Furca, R. A fork with two teeth (bidens), or two prongs; a hay-fork: furca carnarii, a fork used for taking down the meat hung up in the carnarium. The term furca was further applied to a kind of fork by aid of which a foot-traveller carried his baggage, but the more usual name for this kind of fork was ærumna (q.v.). Also, a wooden fork placed for punishment across the shoulders of slaves and criminals, to the prongs of which the hands were tied. Reversed it formed a cross upon which criminals were executed, either by scourging or by crucifixion with nailing. The patibulum was a similar instrument of punishment formed like the letter H.

Furgon, O. E. (Fr. fourgon). A fork for putting faggots and sticks on to the fire.

Furnus, R. (1) A baker’s oven. (2) A baker’s shop. (See Fornax.)

Fuschan in Appules, O. E. Fustian of Naples. (See Fustian.)

Fuscina, R. (1) A fork with three prongs used for spearing fish. (2) The trident of the retiarius. Originally it was called tridens, and used as a goad to drive horses. Neptune always carries one.

Fuscinula (dimin. of Fuscina, q.v.). A carving-fork.

Fusée, Fr. A gun with a wide bore, like a blunderbuss.

Fusiform (fusus, a spindle). In the form of a spindle.

Fig. 342. Fusil. Device of Philip of Burgundy (D. 1467).

Fusil, Fr. The steel for striking fire from a flint; an ancient device of the Dukes of Burgundy, the motto inculcating the worthlessness of latent virtues never brought into action.

Fusi-yama. The sacred mountain of the Japanese, often depicted on their porcelain.

Fustian. “A species of cotton cloth much used by the Normans, particularly by the clergy, and appropriated to their chasubles.” (Strutt.) It was originally woven at Fustat, on the Nile, with a warp of linen thread, and a woof of thick cotton, so twilled and cut that it showed on one side a thick but low pile. In the 14th century Chaucer says of his knight,—

“Of fustian he wered a gepon.”

In the 15th century Naples was celebrated for fustian. An old English account of this date has “Fuschan in Appules” (for Fustian from Naples).

Fustibalum, R. A pole about four feet long, furnished with a sling (funda) in the middle. It was wielded by both hands, and was used to hurl huge stones to a distance.

Fusus (Gr. ἄτρακτος). A spindle. It was generally made of wood; but some nations, as for instance the Egyptians, had spindles of pottery.

Fygury, O. E. An old name for silks diapered with figures of flowers and fruit. A cope in the York fabric rolls is described “una capa de sateyn fygury.”

Fig. 343. Fylfot.

Fylfot or Filfot. This mysterious ornament exactly resembles the Hindu arani of remote antiquity, i. e. the instrument of wood by which fire was obtained by friction; which is the symbol of Agni. This symbol has never been lost, and occurs sixty times on an ancient Celtic funereal urn; also on monumental brasses and church embroidery of the Middle Ages. It is generally called the Gammadion.

G.

Gabardine or Gallebardine, It. “A rough Irish mantle, or horseman’s coat; a long cassock.” It was, and is, a favourite outer garment of the Jews.

Gabion, Fortification. A basket filled with earth, used in the construction of earthworks for defensive purposes.

Gable, Arch. (German Giebel, point). The triangular end of a house from the eaves to the top.

Gablet. Diminutive of gable—applied to furniture and niches.

Gadlyngs, O. E. Spikes on the knuckles of gauntlets, like the modern “knuckle-dusters.”

Gæsum, R. A weapon of Celtic origin. It was a strong, heavy javelin with a very long barbed iron head, used rather as a missile than a spear.

Gage, Med. A glove or cap thrown to the ground as a challenge to combat.

Galages, O. E. (modern, goloshes). Clogs fastened with latchets.

Galaxia, Gr. (Γαλάξια). Festivals in honour of Apollo, who was surnamed Galaxios; they were so called because the principal offering consisted of a barley cake cooked with milk (γάλα).

Galaxy (Gr. γάλα, milk). In Astronomy, the Milky Way. It passes between Sagittarius and Gemini, dividing the sphere into two parts.

Galbanum, R. (galbus, yellow). A yellow garment worn by women; men who adopted this kind of dress were looked upon as foppish and effeminate.

Galbe, Fr. The general contour or outline of any member of architecture; in especial, the shaft of a column. (See Contractura.) It also denotes the lines of a vessel, console, baluster, &c.

Galea, R. A helmet; especially one of skin or leather, in contradistinction to Cassis, which denoted a metal helmet.

Galeated. In Heraldry, wearing a helmet.

Galeola, R. A very deep vessel in the shape of a helmet. It was used for holding pure wine, and was a kind of Acratophorum (q.v.).

Galerus, Galerum, R. A peasant’s cap made of fur, and thence a wig. It was a round leather cap, ending in a point, originally peculiar to the priesthood.

Galgal, Celt. A Celtic or megalithic monument, more commonly called Tumulus.

Galiot, Galliot (dimin. of galère). A ship moved by both sails and oars.

Gall (A.S. gealla). In an animal, a bitter yellowish green fluid secreted by the gall-bladder. Ox-gall, clarified by boiling with animal charcoal and filtering, is used in water-colour and in ivory painting to make the colours spread more evenly upon the paper, ivory, &c.: mixed with gum-arabic it thickens, and fixes the colours. A coating of it sets black-lead or crayon drawings. This word is also applied to anything exceedingly bitter, especially to the bitter potion which it was customary among the Jews to give to persons suffering death under sentence of the law, for the purpose of rendering them less sensible to pain. ὄξος μετὰ χολῆς, “vinegar to drink mingled with gall.” (Matt. xxvii. 34.)

Galle (Tours de), Celt. A name applied to certain ancient monuments in France, built by the Gauls.

Galleon (Sp. galeon). A large Spanish ship, formerly used in trading to America as a war vessel.

Gallery, Gen. A covered place much longer than it is wide. In Christian archæology it is a kind of tribune situated above the side aisles, and having bays over the nave; it is also called Triforium (q.v.).

Fig. 344. Device of Cardinal Richelieu, from the Galerie d’Orléans, Palais Royal.

Galley (Icelandic galleyda). A one-decked vessel, navigated with sails and oars, in Heraldry called a Lymphad (q.v.). The prow of a galley (Fig. 344), one of the devices adopted by Cardinal Richelieu, may still be seen among the architectural decorations of his palace.

Galloon (Sp. galon). A narrow kind of lace made of silk woven with cotton, gold, or silver; or of silk only.

Gallow-balk, O. E. (See Galows.)

Gally-gascoynes, O. E. Broad loose breeches; 16th century.

“His galligaskins were of corduroy,
And garters he had none.”
(The Weary Knife-grinder.)

Galows, O. E. An iron bar fastened inside an open chimney, from which the reeking-hook was hung, for suspending pots and vessels over the fire.

Galvanography. (See Electrography, Electrotype.)

Gamashes. “High boots, buskins, or startups.” (Holme, 1688.)

Gambeson (Saxon wambe, the belly). A quilted tunic, stuffed with wool. It answered the purpose of defensive armour, and was subsequently called a pourpoint.

Gamboge. A gum-resin of a forest tree called Garcinia Cambogia, generally imported in cylindrical rolls. It forms a beautiful yellow pigment, used for water-colour; it is used to stain wood in imitation of box, and the tincture enters into the composition of the gold-coloured varnish for lacquering brass; it also gives a beautiful and durable stain to marble. (E. B.)

Gamelion. The seventh month of the ancient Athenian year, corresponding to our January. It was so called because it was a favourite season for marriages (γάμη).

Gammut. (See Gamut.)

Gamut. The musical scale; so called from the first tone, UT (our DO), of the model scale of Guido, which was represented by the Greek gamma.

Ganoid (γάνος, brightness). A name applied to an order of fishes, having angular scales, composed of bony plates, covered with a strong shining enamel.

Gantlet. (See Gauntlet.)

Garb, Her. A sheaf of wheat, or of any other grain to be specified.

Fig. 345. Garde de Bras.

Garde de Bras. An additional protection for the left arm, to the elbow-piece of which it was fastened by straps and a screw. It was used only for jousting, and first appears at the end of the 15th cent. The example shown is of the 16th cent., from the Meyrick collection. (Fig. 345.)

Fig. 346 Gargoulette. Arab.

Gargoulette. An Arab vase, or water-cooler, with one handle, furnished with a spout adapted for drinking through. The piece in the illustration is from the Arabian potteries of Maghreb in Africa. This pottery is described by M. Jacquemart as “covered with a pinkish grey enamel of rose colour, and heightened by a polychrome decoration in zones, generally consisting of bands of scrolls, flowers, denticulations, rosettes, &c.; where citron, yellow, manganese brown, green, and blue form the most charming harmony.”

Fig. 347. Gargoyle, Antique.

Fig. 348. Gargoyle, Gothic.

Gargoyle, Mod. The projecting extremity of a gutter. In antiquity terra-cotta masks were used for the purpose. (Fig. 347.) During the Gothic period any kind of representation was employed. Fig. 348 shows an upright gargoyle from the church of St. Remy at Dieppe.

Garland, Arch. A term employed by some authors as synonymous with foliage; but it denotes rather heavy festoons tied with fillets, and consisting of leaves, fruits, and flowers, as shown in Figs. 287 and 309, taken from the temple of Vesta at Tivoli. (See Encarpa, Festoons.)

Garnet. This gem, on account of its brilliant colour and hardness, is much used in jewellery, and although an abundant supply renders it of little value, the gem nevertheless possesses every quality necessary for ornamental purposes. It occurs in many colours—red, brown, yellow, white, green, black; the streak is white; the diaphaneity varies from transparent to sub-translucent, or nearly opaque, and it has a subconchoidal or uneven fracture. The varieties used in jewellery are called carbuncle, cinnamon-stone (or essonite), almandine, and pyrope or Bohemian garnet. Garnets are not much used for engraving, being of splintery, bad grain under the tool. (A. Billing, Science of Gems, &c.; H. Emanuel, Diamonds and Precious Stones.)

Garnished, Her. Adorned in a becoming manner.

Fig. 349. Order of the Garter. Lesser George.

Garter, Order of the, instituted by Edward III. in 1350, consists of the Sovereign and twenty-five knights companions, of whom the Prince of Wales always is one. Knights of the Garter place K.G. after their names; and these letters take precedence of all other titles, those of royalty alone excepted. The stalls of the knights are in the choir of St. George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle, where their garter-plates are fixed and their banners are displayed. The insignia are the garter itself, the badge of the order; the collar, and the Lesser George or jewel. (Fig. 349.) It was this jewel that Charles I., immediately before he suffered, delivered to Archbishop Juxon, with the word “Remember!” The ribbon of the order is dark blue; it passes over the left shoulder, and the Lesser George hangs from it under the right arm.

Garter King of Arms, Her. The chief of the official heralds of England, and officer of arms of the Order of the Garter.

Gastrum, R. An earthenware vessel with a round belly; whence its name.

Gaulus, R. A vessel used for drinking and other purposes. The same term was also applied to a broad-built ship employed by the Phœnicians and by pirates.

Fig. 350. Gauntlet.

Gauntlet. The knight’s gauntlet was made of leather covered with plates of steel. It was not originally divided into fingers. (Fig. 350.)

Gausapa, Gausape, Gausapum, R. (γαυσάπης). (1) A garment introduced from Egypt into Rome, in the time of Augustus; it was made of a woollen cloth with a long nap on one side, and was worn on leaving the bath; it was white or dyed purple. Gausapa was used not only for articles of dress, but for table linen, napkins, dusters, and mattings. (2) A wig made of human hair, worn at Rome during the Empire.

Gauze. A light, transparent silk texture, supposed to have been invented at Gaza in Palestine; whence the name.

Gavotte (It. gavotta). A lively dance-tune in two-fourth time, consisting of two sections, each containing eight measures.

Gehenna (Heb. Ge-hin-nom, i. e. the valley of Hinnom). In this place, on the north of Jerusalem below Mount Zion, is a place called Tophet, where children were sacrificed to Moloch. King Josiah made it the common receptacle for rubbish and carcases, and a fire was kept constantly burning there; hence the Jews used this term to signify “hell.” (Compare Hades.)

Gemellar, R. (gemellus, twin). A case for holding oil; it was called gemellar from the fact of its being divided into two compartments.

Gemelled, Arch. Double; thus a gemelled bay is one divided into two parts; gemelled arches, those which are joined two and two.

Gemelles, Her. In pairs. (See Bars-gemelles.)

Gemmæ, Lat. (1) Precious stones, esp. cut or engraved. (2) Drinking-vessels or objects made of precious stones. (3) Pearls. (4) The eyes of a peacock’s tail. The original meaning of the word is a bud, eye, or gem on a plant; anything swelling and bright.

Gemoniæ, or Gemoniæ Scales, R. (i. e. steps of sighs). Steps leading to the prison in the forum, on the stairs of which the corpses of criminals were exposed for several days.

Gems. Precious stones, especially when carved. (See Cameos.)

Genet, Her. A spotted animal, something like a marten.

Genethliaci, Gr. and R. (γενέθλη, birth). Astrologers who cast “nativities.”

Genius, R. (geno, to beget). The Romans believed the existence of a good genius, or guardian angel, born with every mortal, and which died at the same time with him. Genius loci was the name given to the guardian spirit of a place. [See Junones, Lares, Penates, &c. The superstition has many forms in Christian as well as in pagan art.]

Fig. 351. Genoa Point Lace—Pillow-made.

Genoa Lace. Mention is made of Genoa Lace as early as the 15th century. Genoa was as celebrated for its pillow lace as Venice for its needle-made. The characteristic of this lace was its design, a kind of barleycorn-shaped pattern, radiating into rosettes from a centre. It was particularly adapted for the large turnover collar of Louis XIII., and was produced by plaiting, and made entirely on the pillow.

Genouillières, Fr. (1) Steel coverings for the knees. From the 13th century. They were often richly ornamented. (2) In Fortification, the sill of the embrasure.

Genre Pictures. Those representing scenes of every-day life and manners.

Geodes. In Mineralogy, hollow lumps of chalcedony found deposited in the cavities of flints, formed by the chemical action of water.

Fig. 352. “George” Gold Noble, Henry VIII.

George. A gold noble of the time of Henry VIII. (Fig. 352.)

George, Saint, Her. The patron saint of England. His red cross on a silver field first appears in English heraldry in the 14th century. (See Fig. 349.)

George, The, Her. A figure of St. George on horseback, worn as a pendant to the collar of the Order of the Garter. (See Garter.)

Georgic (γεωργικὸς, rustic; from γῆ, earth, and ἔργον, work). Poems on the subject of husbandry.

German Silver. An alloy of nickel, zinc, and copper. The proportions recommended are nickel 25, zinc 25, copper 50.

Gerrhæ. Persian shields made of wicker-work.

Ghebres, Pers. Fire-worshippers.

Ghibellines. An Italian faction, 13th century, who supported the German Emperors against the Guelphs, who stood by the Pope. The war-cry of the Guelphs was taken from the name of Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, of the house of Wolf; that of the Ghibellines from Weiblingen, a town of Würtemberg, the seat of the Hohenstauffen family, to which Conrad, Duke of Franconia, belonged. These two dukes were rivals for the imperial throne of Germany.

Ghoul, Ghole, Pers. A demon who fed on dead bodies of men.

Giallo, Giallolino, Gialdolino, It. Pale yellow. (See Massicot.)

Giaour, Turkish. An unbeliever in Mohammed.

Gigantomachia, Gr. A favourite subject of Greek art, representing the War of the Giants, sons of Cœlus and Terra, against Jupiter. They “heaped Ossa on Pelion” to scale heaven, and were defeated by Hercules. They are represented as of vast stature and strength, having their feet covered with scales. A beautiful cameo in the Naples Museum represents Jove in his chariot subduing the giants. In 1875 the German expedition found among the ruins of a temple at Pergamus a series of sculptures of almost colossal proportions, representing, as Pliny describes them, the Wars of the Giants. These sculptures are now in the Berlin Museum.

Gillo, R. A wine-cooler, of earthenware.

Fig. 353. Gimmel Rings. The device of Cosmo de’ Medici.

Gimmel Ring, Her. Two, sometimes three annulets interlaced. (Fig. 353.)

Gingham (Javanese ginggan). Cotton cloth, woven from dyed yarns; distinguished from cloth printed or dyed after weaving.

Ginglymus, R. (γίγγλυμος). A hinge moving in a socket.

Gingrinus, R. (γίγγρας). A flute used at funerals.

Fig. 354. Gipcière.

Gipcières. Richly ornamented leather purses of the 14th and 15th centuries. They were often engraved with religious mottoes. (Fig. 354.)

Gipon. Probably the same as gambeson.

Girandole. A large kind of branched candlestick.

Girdled, Girt, Her. Encircled or bound round.

Fig. 355. Girdle of a Flemish lady of the 15th century.

Girdles. These were the most beautiful and costly articles of dress during the Middle Ages. They were frequently made entirely of gold or silver, decorated with cameos, precious stones, &c. Besides the knightly sword; the purse, dagger, rosary, or penner and ink-horn and other objects were suspended from the girdle. From this word the waist was called the girdlestead, or place (sted) of the girdle. The girdles of ladies were equally splendid, and frequently depended nearly to the ground, as in Fig. 355. The girdle is an attribute of St. Thomas, from a legend that the Virgin, pitying his weakness of faith, threw down to him her girdle, after her assumption into heaven.

Girgillus, R. A roller turned by a windlass, for drawing up the bucket of a well. (See Jack.)

Girouette. (See Epi.)

Girt, Her. (See Girdled.)

Gisarme. A scythe-shaped weapon with a pike, fixed on a long staff.

Gittern, O. E. A small guitar, strung with catgut.

Givre. (See Wyvern.)

Glabrous (Lat. glaber). Smooth, bald.

Glade (Norman glette, a clear spot among clouds). An opening or passage in a wood through which the light may shine.

Gladiators were first exhibited at Rome, B.C. 264, at a funeral. The practice had its origin in that very ancient one of slaughtering slaves and captives on such occasions. Subsequently it became more general. The different classes of gladiators, distinguished by their arms and other circumstances, were: Andabatæ, who wore helmets without any opening for the eyes, and therefore fought blindfold; Essedarii, who fought from chariots (Essedæ); Hoplomachai, who wore heavy defensive armour; Laqueatores, who carried a sort of lasso or noose; Meridiani, who fought in the middle of the day, and were very slightly armed; Mirmillones, so called from their having the image of a fish (mormyr) on their helmets; Retiarii, armed with a trident and a net. Others, as Samnites, Thraces, &c., were named from the nation whose fashion of armour they adopted. The fights of gladiators were favourite subjects of Roman art, and it is assumed that in cases where no actual combats took place at a funeral, they were represented on the walls of tombs in sculpture or paint. The most celebrated statues of the kind are the so called “Dying Gladiator” in the museum of the capitol at Rome, and the Gladiator of the Borghese collection.

Gladiolus. Diminutive of Gladius, and synonym of Ligula. (See both words.)

Fig. 356. Roman sword.

Fig. 357. Gallic swords.

Gladius, R. A general term, including all the different kinds of swords or glaives, but denoting more particularly the two-edged swords used by the Greeks, Romans, and Gauls. Fig. 357 represents two Gaulish swords, the form of which may easily be guessed, even though they are in the scabbard; Fig. 356 is a Roman gladius.

Glaive. A blade on a pole having its edge on the outside curve, used by foot-soldiers in the 15th century.

Glans, Gr. and R. (lit. an acorn). A large leaden slug, of long oval form, which was hurled by a sling in place of stones.

Fig. 358. Venetian Glass Vase, 16th century.

Glass. The discovery is lost in remote antiquity. Pliny gives a legend which ascribes it to chance. Glass bottles in Egypt are represented upon monuments of the 4th dynasty (at least 2000 years B.C.). A vase of greenish glass found at Nineveh dates from B.C. 700. Glass is found in the windows at Pompeii; and the Romans stained it, blew it, worked it on lathes, and engraved it. Pliny mentions, as made by the Romans in his time, glass coloured opaque, red, white, black (like obsidian), or imitating jacinths, sapphires, and other gems; also murrhine glass. This last was either an imitation of fluor-spar, or a kind of agate, or fluor spar. The Romans also made mosaic or millefiori, in which the threads of colour are melted into a rod, so that at every section the whole pattern appears; and cameo glasses, in which a paste of one colour is laid over another, and the whole then carved into the required design; gold leaf was also worked into the substance or fixed on the surface. A gate at Constantinople took its name from the glass works near it, but little is known of the Byzantine art, nor of earlier European art than the 13th century. In mediæval times stained glass windows, in leaden frames, were constructed with great success in England, France, and Flanders. In the 13th century they appear in Italy. The Venetian art took its impulse from the capture of Constantinople in 1204. Its peculiar beauty is derived from the curved forms and tenuity of substance obtained in blowing. (Fig. 358.) There are six kinds of Venetian glass. (1) Vessels of colourless or transparent glass, or of single colours, generally blue or purple. (2) Gilt or enamelled glass. (3) Crackled glass, having a surface rough and divided irregularly into ridges. (4) Variegated or marbled opaque glass, called schmeltz; the most common variety is a mixture of green and purple, sometimes resembling jasper, sometimes chalcedony; other varieties are imitations of lapis lazuli and tortoise-shell; and avanturine, which is obtained by mingling metallic filings or fragments of gold leaf with melted glass. (5) Millefiori, or mosaic glass, in imitation of the old Roman process. (6) Reticulated, filigree, or lace glass. The varieties contain fine threads of glass, generally coloured, but sometimes milk-white, included in their substance. The lightness and strength of the Venetian glass are due to its not containing lead like our modern flint glass. Venetian mirrors were for a long period widely celebrated. The oldest example of the German drinking-cups, ornamented with paintings in enamel, is of the date of 1553. The designs are commonly armorial bearings. From the beginning of the 17th century the Bohemian manufactories supplied vases enriched with ornamental subjects, particularly with portraits engraved upon the glass. The art of wheel engraving upon glass flourished in France under Louis XVI. In modern times this kind of ornamentation is produced by the agency of hydrofluoric acid. “Coarse glass-making in England was, in Sussex, of great antiquity.” (Fuller.) “The first making of Venice glasses in England began in London, about the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, by one Jacob Vessaline, an Italian.” (Stow.)

Glass-glazed Wares. (See Glazed Wares.)

Glaucous (γλαυκός). Of a sea-green colour, or a greyish blue.

Fig. 359. Flemish stone-ware Cruche, 17th century.

Glazed Wares. Almost immediately after the invention of Ceramic manufacture, the application of glaze or coloured enamel must have improved it. What we term glaçure is a light varnish which enlivens and harmonizes the porous surface of terra-cotta. In its simple state it is a mixture of silex and lead, and in this state it is transparent, as we find it on antique vases; when vitrifiable, and mixed with tin, as in the case of majolicas, it is called enamel; and when of vitrifiable and earthen substance, such as can only be melted at the temperature required for the baking of the paste itself, it is known as Glaze, or couverte, and can be identified in the Persian faiences and Flemish stone-ware. (Figs. 359, 360.) (See Burty, Chefs-d’œuvre of the Industrial Arts.)

Fig. 360. German enamelled stone-ware Cruche, date first half of the 16th century.

Glazing. In oil painting, the application of thin layer of colour to finally modify the tone. In pottery, a vitreous covering over the surface. (See Glazed Wares.)

Globe, held in the hand, is the emblem of power.

Globus, R. A military manœuvre employed by a body of Roman soldiers when surrounded by superior forces; it consisted in forming a circle facing in every direction.

Fig. 361. Glory. Vesica Piscis in Ely Cathedral.

Glory, Nimbus or Aureole, the Christian attribute of sanctity, is of pagan origin, common to images of the gods, and Roman, even Christian, emperors. Satan in miniatures of the 9th to 13th century wears a glory. The earliest known Christian example is a gem of St. Martin of the early part of the 6th century. The glory round the head is properly the nimbus or aureole. The oblong glory surrounding the whole person, called in Latin “vesica piscis” (Fig. 361), and in Italian the “mandorla” (almond) from its form, is confined to figures of Christ and the Virgin, or saints who are in the act of ascending into heaven. When used to distinguish one of the three divine Persons of the Trinity, the glory is often cruciform or triangular: the square nimbus designates a person living at the time the work was executed. In other instances it is circular. Coloured glories are variously symbolical. (Mrs. Jameson, “The Poetry of Sacred and Legendary Art.”)

Gloves. In the 14th century already gloves were worn, jewelled on the back, as a badge of rank. “They were worn in the hat,” says Steevens, “as the favour of a mistress, or the memorial of a friend, and as a mark to be challenged by an enemy.” A glove of the 17th century is described “of a light buff leather, beautifully ornamented with spangles and needlework in gold and silver threads, with a gold lace border, and silk opening at the wrist.” Gloves were called “cheirothecæ,” hand-coverers, by the Greeks and Romans; they were made without separate fingers, the thumb only being free. A legend current at Grenoble affirms that St. Anne, the mother of the Virgin Mary, was a knitter of gloves.

Gluten. In wax painting, the compound with which the pigments are mixed.

Glyphs, Arch. The flutings of an ornament or grooving forming the segment of a circle. (See Diglyph, Triglyph.)

Glyptics. The art of engraving on precious stones.

Glyptotheca, Gr. and R. (1) A gallery for sculpture. (2) A collection of engraved stones.

Gnomon, Gr. and R. The iron pin or index, which, by the projection of its shadow, marks the hour upon a sun-dial.

Goal. (See Meta.)

Goat. The emblem of lasciviousness.

Gobelins. Celebrated Royal French manufactory of tapestry, named from the successors of Jean Gobelin, who brought the art to Paris in the 15th century from Rheims. [See Burty, Chefs-d’œuvre of Industrial Art.]

Godenda, O. E. A pole-axe, having a spike at its end; 13th century.

Goderonné, Gouderonné (Needlework). A fluted pattern of embroidery in vogue in the 16th century.

Fig. 362. Egyptian Diadem of gold and lapis lazuli of the ancient Empire, found in the tomb of Queen Aah-Hotep.

Gold. It is probable that the earliest recorded mark upon units of value was the image of a sheep or an ox; hence money in Latin is called pecunia, from pecus, cattle, the original form of barbaric wealth, for which gold was the substitute. The wealth of Abraham in silver and gold, as well as in cattle, is mentioned in Genesis. No coins of gold or silver have been found in Egypt or Nineveh, although beautiful specimens of the goldsmith’s art have been recovered from the tombs of both countries. The Hebrews, taught by the Egyptians, made their ark, mercy-seat, altar of incense, seven-branched candlestick, and other golden ornaments, even in the desert of Sinai. The seven-branched candlestick is represented in sculpture on the arch of Titus at Rome. At Babylon and Nineveh gold is said to have been lavishly applied in gilding sculpture, and even walls; but it is suggested that an alloy of copper, the aurichalcum of the Greeks, was the metal in reality used for this purpose. The heroes of the Greek epic had golden shields and helmets; breastplates and other large pieces of golden armour are among the recent discoveries at Mycenæ; at Kourioum in the island of Cyprus also great stores of golden ornaments of a very early age have been discovered. In Scythian tombs in Russia also, about Kertch, beautiful relics of Grecian work in gold have been found, showing that in the very earliest ages the skill and taste applied to this art were not less than those of later times. The gold jewellery of ancient India also excelled that of modern date, but none, before or since, ever equalled the great age of Greek art. Pausanias describes a statue of Athene, made by Pheidias, and kept in the Parthenon at Athens, of ivory and gold—chryselephantine—delicately worked all over; and a still larger statue of Jupiter, of the same materials. Native gold alloyed with one-fifth silver was greatly prized by the Greek artists, who gave it the name of electrum. Examples of this electrum are rare; there is a vase at St. Petersburg. The Romans used to pay enormous prices for their household plate; for an example, the bowl of Pytheas, on which were represented Ulysses and Diomed with the palladium, fetched 10,000 denarii, or about 330l. per ounce. Few specimens of Roman art have escaped destruction. (Fig. 7.) Of the age of Byzantine splendour we are told that the Emperor Acadius, early in the 5th century, sat on a throne of massive gold, his chariot being also of gold, &c. In the 9th century the throne of Theophilus was overshadowed by a tree of gold, with birds in the branches, and at the foot two lions all gold. The lions roared and the birds piped in the branches. A remarkable wealth of ancient goldsmith’s work has been found in Ireland, consisting principally of personal ornaments. In the 9th and 10th centuries the Irish workmanship was unsurpassed in Europe. It consisted principally of objects for religious use, and is characterized by a filagree of extraordinary richness, akin to the intricate traceries of the Irish illuminated work on MS. of the same date and derivation. In the 10th and 11th centuries there was a great revival of art throughout Europe. In Germany, the abbey of Hildesheim, under Bishop Bernward, became the centre of a school of goldsmiths, and some beautiful specimens of hammered gold, by the bishop’s hand, are preserved.

Fig. 363. Greek Ear-ring of gold, and part of a necklace. (See also Fig. 276.)

Gold, in Christian art. (See Yellow.)

Gold, Cloth of, is mentioned in the Pentateuch, and was common throughout the East in all ages. It was originally wrought, not in rounded wire but flat, as the Chinese, the Indians, and the Italians (their lama d’oro) weave it now. The early Roman kings wore tunics of gold, and the Romans used it as a shroud for burial. King Childeric, A. D. 482, was buried at Tournai in a mantle of golden stuff. It was much favoured in England for church vestments, and by royalty, especially by Edward IV. and Henry VIII. and the nobility of their time. (The different varieties are described in their order. See Acca, Areste, Batuz, Chryso-clavus, Ciclatoun, Dorneck, Samit.)

Goldbeater’s Skin, prepared from a membrane found in the stomach of the ox, is used to separate leaf-gold in the process of gold-beating.

Golden Fleece. An Order of Knighthood instituted on the 10th of January, 1429, by Philip, Duke of Burgundy. The Collar is composed of double steels, interwoven with flint-stones, emitting sparks of fire, at the end whereof hangs on the breast a Golden Fleece. The fusils are joined two and two together, as if they were double BB’s (the cyphers of Burgundy). The flint-stones are the ancient arms of the Sovereigns of Burgundy, with the motto “Ante ferit quam flamma micet.” (See Fig. 342.) The motto of the Order is “Pretium non vile laborum.” There are four great officers, viz. the Chancellor, Treasurer, Register, and a King of Arms, called Toison d’Or. The Badge consists of a Golden Fleece, suspended from a flint-stone, which is surrounded with flames of gold.

Golden Spur. An Order of Knighthood said to have been instituted by Pius IV., at Rome, in 1559. They are sometimes spoken of as the Chevaliers Pies or Piorum, and must be distinguished from those who are created knights on the coronation or marriage days of Emperors and Kings, and who receive at the same time the Spurs of Honour. These alone are entitled to the appellation of Equites Aurati. [Cf. Peter de Bellet, Favin, &c.]

Golden Stole of Venice. (See Stola d’Oro.)

Golione, O. E. A kind of gown.

Gondola, It. A Venetian pleasure-boat or barge.

Gonfalon or Gonfanon, Fr. (1) A richly-worked pointed banner carried upon a lance; 13th century. (2) An ecclesiastical banner.

Gonfalonier. The bearer of a gonfalon.

Goniometer (γωνία, an angle, &c.). An instrument for measuring the angles of crystals.

Gonjo, O. E. (14th century). Said to be the gorget.

Gopouras, Hind. The pyramid-shaped door of the Hindoo temples. Dwararab’ha, or door of splendour, was the name given to a door with one or two tiers; dwarasala, or door of the dwelling, a door with two or four tiers; dwaraprasada, or propitious door, a door with three to five tiers; dwaraharmya, or door of the palace, a door with five to seven tiers; lastly, dwaragopouras, or door-tower with seven to sixteen tiers.

Gorged, Her. Wearing a collar.

Gorget, Fr. A defence or covering for the neck.

Fig. 364. Gorgoneia.

Gorgoneia. Masks of the Gorgon’s head, which were fixed as bosses upon walls or shields.

Gossamer, O. E. (properly God’s summer). The name is attributed to an old legend that the fine filaments so called are the fragments of the winding-sheet of the Virgin Mary, which fell away from her as she was taken up to heaven.

Gothamites, O. E. The inhabitants of the village of Gotham in Northumberland, renowned for their stupidity. A reprint of the tale called “The Wise Men of Gotham” appeared in 1840.

Gouache, Fr. This term is applied to the use in water-colour painting of opaque colours more or less mixed and modified with white. The process is extremely ancient, known to the Chinese and Indians of the earliest times, and to the Greeks and Romans. It was the method used by mediæval illuminators. Its result is a velvety reflection of the light.

Fig. 365. Gourd-shaped bottle. Anatolian.

Gourd of Noah. A piece of ancient blue faience from Asia Minor. According to the tradition current in the country, these vessels, which are in great veneration, would go back to such remote antiquity that it was by one of them that Noah was betrayed into the first act of inebriety recorded in history. (Jacquemart.)

Gouttée, Guttée, Her. Sprinkled over with drops of gold, silver, blue (tears), red (blood), or black (poix).

Gown (British gwn, Norman gunna). The men wore gowns in the Middle Ages, the women at all times.

Grabatus, R. (κράβατος). A sort of low framework, consisting of a network of cords, used to support a mattress; it was the least comfortable kind of bed; whence the French word grabat to denote a sorry kind of bed.

Gradient, Her. Walking.

Gradus, R. A flight of steps leading to a temple; the tiers of seats in a theatre or amphitheatre, &c.

Græcostasis. A part of the Roman forum, where the Greek ambassadors stood to hear the debates.

Graffiti, It. Lines drawn with a graver upon clay or plaster. (See Sgraffiti.)

Grafted, Her. Inserted and fixed.

Grand-garde, Plate armour to cover the breast and left shoulder, worn outside the usual armour in jousting at tournaments.

Grand Quarters, Her. The four primary divisions of a shield when it is divided per cross or quarterly.

Graphite. Plumbago.

Graphometer. A mathematical instrument, called also a semicircle.

Graphotype. A method of producing book illustrations for printing along with type, without the art of an engraver.

Grass-green. (See Chrysocolla.)

Graver or Burin. An engraving-tool. (See Chalcography.)

Grazioso, It. In Music, an intimation to perform the music smoothly and gracefully.

Greaves. Plate armour for the legs.

Grece, O. E. A step, or flight of stairs. (See Gryse.)

Greeces, Her. Steps.

Greek Lace. A kind of cutwork, described under Lace (q.v.).

Green, in Christian art, or the emerald, is the colour of spring; emblem of hope, particularly hope in immortality; and of victory, as the colour of the palm and the laurel.

Green. (See Carbonates of Copper, Oxides of Copper, Scheele’s Green, Sap Green, Chrome Green, &c.)

Green Bice. Green cinnabar. (See Chrome Green.)

Green Earth (burnt terra verde) is a brown pigment, very useful for landscape painting in oil colours; it is not affected by exposure to strong light or impure air.

Green Lakes. (See Purple Lakes.)

Green Verditer. (See Verditer.)

Gregorian Calendar. The calendar as reformed by Pope Gregory XIII. in 1582.

Gregorian Music. A collection of chants, originally compiled by Gregory I. (the Great), A. D. 600. “It was observed by St. Gregory, a great musician of his time, that the Ambrosian Chants, handed down traditionally to a great extent, had become corrupted; he therefore subjected them to revision, and added other modes and scales to those four which Ambrose had retained. This was done by taking away the upper tetrachord from the Ambrosian scales, and placing it below the lower tetrachord.” (See Music, by the Rev. J. R. Lunn, B.D., in Dictionary of Christian Antiquities.)

Grey, in Christian art, the colour of ashes, signified mourning, humility, and innocence accused.

Greybeards, O. E. Stone-ware drinking-jugs, with a bearded face on the spout.

Gridiron (It. la graticola). The attribute of St. Lawrence.

Griffin. (See Gryphus.)

Grinding. Pigments are generally ground in poppy or nut oil, which dry best and do not deaden the colours. It is essential that these oils be in the purest state, bright and clear. A good oil ought to be so dry in five or six days that the picture can be repainted.

Griphus, Gr. and R. (γρῖφος). Literally, a fishing-net, and thence a riddle propounded by guests at a banquet.

Grisaille, Fr. A style of painting in grey, by which solid bodies are represented as if in relief; adapted for architectural subjects.

Fig. 366. Groat of Edward III.

Groat. An old English silver coin, equal to 4d. In England, in the Saxon times, no silver coin larger in value than a penny was struck, nor after the Conquest till the reign of Edward III., who about 1351 coined grosses or great pieces, which went for 4d. each; and so the matter stood till the reign of Henry VII., who in 1504 first coined shillings.

Grogram (Fr. gros-grains). A coarse woollen cloth with large woof and a rough pile. Grogram gowns were worn by countrywomen, 15th to 17th centuries. Fairholt says that the mixed liquor called grog obtained its name from the admiral who ordered it to be given to the sailors; who from wearing a grogram coat was called “Old Grog.”

Groin, Arch. The angular curve formed at the intersection of a vaulted roof; the line made by the intersection of arched vaults crossing each other at any angle. (See Fig. 173.)

Grolier Scroll. A beautiful and elaborate style of decoration for bookbinding, introduced by Grolier, a celebrated patron of bookbinding, in the 15th century.

Groma and Gruma, R. A quadrant; an instrument used by land-surveyors. In the plural, grumæ denotes the intersection of two roads cutting each other at right angles.

Fig. 367. Grotesque from a stall in Rouen Cathedral.

Grotesques, Arch. (It. grottesco, the style in which grottoes were ornamented). Figures of a monstrous, comic, or obscene character, which were spread in profusion over the façades of churches by mediæval artists (ymaigiers); in stone and in wood; on choir-stalls and the wood-work and wainscoting of interiors. Figs. 367, 368 represent figures upon the stalls and columns in Rouen Cathedral.

Fig. 368. Grotesque decoration from the Cathedral at Rouen.

Grounds or Priming. In painting, the first coat of colour laid all over the canvas, upon which the picture is to be painted.

Grus, Lat. (a crane). A constellation of the southern hemisphere.

Gry. A measure containing ⅒ of a line. A line is ⅒ of a digit, a digit is ⅒ of a foot, and a (philosophical) foot is ⅓ of a pendulum whose vibrations, in the latitude of 45°, are each equal to one second of time, or ¹⁄₆₀ of a minute.

Fig. 369. Heraldic Griffin.

Gryphus, Griffin, Gen. (γρύψ). A fabulous animal, represented with the body of a lion, and the head and wings of an eagle. In ancient art it was applied in the decoration of friezes, one of the finest specimens being that at the temple of Antoninus and Faustina at Rome. It was a heraldic symbol among the Scythians, and is the ancient crest of the city of London. As an emblem this monster symbolizes the destroying power of the gods.

Gryse, Grece, Tredyl, or Steyre, O. E. A step, a flight of stairs.

Guacos or Huacos, Peruv. The consecrated burial-places of the ancient Peruvians.

Fig. 370. Passant guardant.

Guardant, Her. Looking out from the field, as the lions in Fig. 370.

Guazzo, It. A hard and durable kind of distemper painting, used by the ancients, calculated to resist damp and to preserve the colours.

Fig. 371. Gubbio Cup, 1519. Louvre Museum.

Gubbio. A celebrated Italian botega of ceramic art, founded in 1498 by Giorgio Andreoli, the reputed inventor of the secret of metallic lustres. Fig. 371 is a cup bearing upon a fillet the inscription “Ex o Giorg.,” “of the fabric of Giorgio.”

Gubernaculum, R. (guberno, to direct). A rudder; originally an oar with a broad blade, which was fixed, not at the extremity, but at each side of the stern. A ship had commonly two rudders joined together by a pole.

Guelfs or Guelphs. (See Ghibellines.)

Fig. 372. Badge of the Gueux.

Gueux, Badge of the. The celebrated Netherlandish confraternity of the Gueux (or Beggars), which had its origin in a jest spoken at a banquet, assumed not only the dress, but the staff, wooden bowl, and wallet of the professional beggar, and even went so far as to clothe their retainers and servants in mendicant garb. The badge represents two hands clasped across and through a double wallet.

Guidon, Fr. (1) The silk standard of a regiment; (2) its bearer.

Guige, Her. A shield-belt worn over the right shoulder.

Guild, O. E. (Saxon guildan, to pay). A fraternity or company, every member of which was gildare, i. e. had to pay something towards the charges. Merchant guilds first became general in Europe in the 11th century. (See Anderson’s History of Commerce, vol. i. p. 70.)

Fig. 373. Base ornamented with guilloche.

Guilloche. A series of interlaced ornaments on stone, resembling network.

Fig. 374. Band with the guilloche ornament.

Guilloched. Waved or engine-turned.

Guimet’s Ultramarine. A valuable substitute for the more costly preparation. It is transparent and durable.

Guimet’s Yellow is the deutoxide of lead and antimony, useful in enamel or porcelain painting.

Guinea. An English coin first struck temp. Car. II., and so called because the gold was brought from the coast of Guinea (the Portuguese Genahoa). It originally bore the impress of an elephant. The sovereign superseded it in 1817.

Guisarme. An ancient weapon of the nature of a pike or bill. (See Meyrick.)

Guitar (Spanish guitarra). A stringed musical instrument, played as a harp with the fingers.

Gules, Her. (Fr. gueules). Red, represented in engraving by perpendicular lines.

Gum-arabic dissolved in water constitutes the well-known vehicle for water-colour painting—gum-water.

Gunter’s Line. A line of logarithms graduated on a ruler, for practical use in the application of logarithms to the ordinary calculations of an architect, builder, &c. Other similar instruments invented by the great mathematician (+ 1626) are Gunter’s Quadrant and Gunter’s Scale, used by seamen and for astronomical calculations.

Gurgustium, R. A cave, hovel, or any dark and wretched abode.

Gussets were small pieces of chain mail at the openings of the joints beneath the arms.

Guttæ, Arch. (drops). Small conical-shaped ornaments, used in the Doric entablature immediately under the mutule beneath the triglyph. (See Fig. 265.)

Guttée, Her. (See Gouttée.) Sprinkled over.

Gutturnium, R. (guttur, the throat). A water-jug or ewer; it was a vessel of very elegant form, and was used chiefly by slaves for pouring water over the hands of the guests before and after a meal. (See Ablutions.)

Guttus, R. (gutta, a drop). A vessel with a very narrow neck and mouth, by means of which liquids could be poured out drop by drop; whence its name. It was especially used in sacrifices, and is a common object upon coins of a religious character.

Gutty, Her. Charged or sprinkled with drops.

Gwerre, O. E. The choir of a church.

Gymmers, O. E. Hinges. (The word is still used.)

Gymnasium, Gr. (γυμνάσιον; γυμνὸς, stripped). A large building used by the Greeks, answering to the Roman palæstra, in which gymnastics were taught and practised. There were also attached to it assembly rooms for rhetoricians and philosophers.

Gynæceum, Gr. (from γυνὴ, a woman). That part of the Greek house which was set apart for the women. (See Domus.)

Gypsum (Gr. γύψος). The property of rapid consolidation renders gypsum very available for taking casts of works of art, &c. It is much employed in architectural ornaments. The gypsum of Paris is called Montmartrite, and forms the best Plaster of Paris, as it resists the weather better than purer sorts. It contains 17 per cent. of carbonate of lime. (See also Alabaster.)

Gyron, Her. A triangular figure, one of the subordinaries.

Fig. 375. Gyronny.

Gyronny, Her. A field divided into gyrons.

H.

H, as an old Latin numeral, denotes 200, and with a dash above it (H̅) 200,000.

Habena, R. (habeo, to hold). A term with numerous meanings, all of which were connected more or less with the idea of a thong or strap. In the singular, it signifies a halter; in the plural, habenæ, reins.

Habergeon. A coat of mail, or breastplate.

Habited, Her. Clothed.

Hackbut or Hagbut. Arquebus with a hooked stock.

Hackney Coach (from the French coche-à-haguenée). The haguenée was a strong kind of horse formerly let out on hire for short journeys.

Hadrianea, R. Small buildings in which Christians were allowed to meet, in virtue of an edict granted in their favour by the Emperor Hadrian.

Hæmatinon, R. (αἱμάτινον, of blood). A kind of glassy substance of a beautiful red, and susceptible of taking a fine polish. It was used to make small cubes for mosaic or small works of art.

Hagiographa (sacred writings). A name applied to those books of Scripture which, according to the Jewish classification, held the lowest rank in regard to inspiration. These are the books of Ruth, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Lamentations, Daniel, Esther, Ezra, and Chronicles.

Hair. The Assyrian monarchs are represented with beard elaborately plaited, and hair falling in ringlets on the shoulder, which may have been partly artificial, like that of the Persian monarchs, who, according to Xenophon, wore a wig. Both the hair and beard were dyed, and the eyes blackened with kohl, &c. (Layard.) The Egyptians kept the head shaved, and wore wigs and beard-boxes. The Hebrews generally wore the hair short, but the horse-guards of King Solomon “daily strewed their heads with gold dust, which glittered in the sun.” (Josephus.) The ancient Greeks wore their hair long. The Athenians wore it long in childhood, had it cut short at a solemn ceremony when they became eighteen years of age, and afterwards allowed it to grow, and wore it rolled up in a knot on the crown of the head, fastened with golden clasps (crobylus, corymbus). Women wore bands or coifs (sphendone, kekryphalus, saccus, mitra). Youths and athletes are represented with short hair. The favourite colour was blonde (xanthus); black was the most common. The ancient Romans also wore long hair; about 300 B.C. the practice of wearing it short came in (cincinnus, cirrus). The Roman women anciently dressed their hair very plainly, but in the Augustan period adopted some extravagant fashions. Each of the gods is distinguished by his peculiar form of hair: that of Jupiter is long and flowing; Mercury has close curling hair, &c. The Danes, Gauls, and Anglo-Saxons wore long flowing hair, and the shearing of it was a punishment: when Julius Cæsar conquered the Gauls, he cut off their long hair. Among the early Frankish kings long hair was the privilege of the blood royal. From the time of Clovis the French nobility wore short hair, but as they grew less martial the hair became longer. François I. introduced short hair, which prevailed until the reign of Louis XIII., which was followed by the period of periwigs and perukes of Louis XIV. The variations from the Conquest to the last generation in England are so striking and frequent that each reign may be distinguished by its appropriate head-dress. (Consult Fairholt’s Costume in England, Planché’s Cyclopædia of Costume, &c.)

Hair-cloth. (See Cilicium.)

Hair Pencils or Brushes are made of the finer hairs of the marten, badger, polecat, camel, &c., mounted in quills or white iron tubes. The round brushes should swell all round from the base, and diminish upwards to a fine point, terminating with the uncut ends of the hair. (See Fitch.)

Halbert. A footman’s weapon in the form of a battle-axe and pike at the end of a long staff.

Halcyon. The ancient name of the Alcedo or king-fisher; hence—

Halcyon Days, i. e. the calm and peaceful season when the king-fisher lays its eggs in nests close by the brink of the sea; i. e. seven days before and as many after the winter solstice.

“Seven winter dayes with peacefull calme possest
Alcyon sits upon her floating nest.”
(Sandy’s Ovid, Met. b. xi.)

Hall-marks. The Goldsmiths of London formed their company in 1327, and were incorporated by charter in 1392. The hall-marks, in the order of their introduction, are as follows:—1. The leopard’s head, called the king’s mark. 2. The maker’s mark, originally a rose, crown, or other emblem with or without initials. 3. The annual letter, in the order of the alphabet from A to V, omitting J and U. This mark is changed every twenty years. 4. The lion passant, added in 1597. 5. Instead of the leopard’s head (1) for the king’s mark, the lion’s head erased, introduced in 1697 when the standard was changed, and, 6, a figure of Britannia substituted for the lion passant (4) at the same time. Plate with this mark is called Britannia plate. The old standard (of 11 oz. 2 dwt. pure gold in the lb.) was restored in 1719. 7. The head of the reigning sovereign in profile, ordered in 1784, when a fresh duty was laid upon plate.

Halling, O. E. Tapestry.

Hallowmas, Chr. The feast of All Souls, or the time about All Souls’ and All Saints’ Days, viz. the 1st and 2nd of November; and thence to Candlemas, or the 2nd of February.

Halmos, Gr. and R. A vessel of round form, supported on a raised stand entirely distinct from the vessel itself; it was used as a drinking-cup.

Halmote or Halimote. The Saxon name for a meeting of tenants, now called a court baron.

Halteres (Gr. ἁλτῆρες), in the gymnastic exercises of the Greeks and Romans, were masses of lead, iron, or stone held in the hands to give impetus in leaping, or used as dumb-bells.

Ham (Scotch hame). A Saxon word for a place of dwelling, a home; hence “HAMLET.” “This word,” says Stow, “originally meant the seat of a freeholder, comprehending the mansion-house and adjacent buildings.”

Hama, Gr. and R. (ἄμη or ἅμη). A bucket used for various purposes.

Hamburg White. (See Carbonate of Lead, Barytes.)

Hames or Heames, Her. Parts of horses’ harness.

Hammer or Martel, Her. Represented much like an ordinary hammer.

Hamus or Hamulus. A fish-hook.

Fig. 376. Hanaper.

Hanaper, O. E. (Mod. hamper). A wicker basket. (Fig. 376.) Writs in the Court of Chancery were thrown into such a basket (in hanaperio), and the office was called from that circumstance the Haniper Office. It was abolished in 1842.

Handkerchiefs embroidered in gold were presented and worn as favours in the reign of Elizabeth. Paisley handkerchiefs were introduced in 1743.

Fig. 377. Bronze door-handle. Roman.

Handle, Gen. In antiquity the leaves of a door were fitted with handles like those of our own day. Fig. 377 represents a bronze handle consisting of a double ring. Of these, the inner one could be raised so as to allow a person’s hand to take hold of it, and draw the door his own way. This work of art is at the present time in the Museum of Perugia.

Handruffs, O. E. Ruffles.

Handseax. The Anglo-Saxon dagger.

Hanger, O. E. A small sword worn by gentlemen with morning dress in the 17th century.

Hangers or Carriages, O. E. Appendages to the sword-belt from which the sword hung, often richly embroidered or jewelled.

Hanselines (15th century). Loose breeches. (See Slop.)

Haphe, Gr. and R. (ἁφὴ i.e. a grip). The yellow sand with which wrestlers sprinkled themselves over after having been rubbed with oil. The object of this sprinkling was to enable the wrestlers to take a firmer grasp one of the other.

Hara, Gr. and R. A pig-sty, especially for a breeding sow. The term also denoted a pen for geese.

Hare, Chr. In Christian iconography the hare symbolizes the rapid course of life. Representations of this animal are met with on lamps, engraved stones, sepulchral stones, &c.

Harlequin (It. Harlequino, or little Harlay). The name is derived from that of a famous Italian comedian, who appeared in Paris in the time of Henri III., and from frequenting the house of M. de Harlay was so called by his companions. (Ménage.)

Harmamaxa, Gr. and R. (ἁρμ-άμαξα). A four-wheeled carriage or litter covered overhead, and enclosed with curtains. It was generally large, and drawn by four horses, and richly ornamented. It was principally used for women and children.

Harmonica. A musical instrument consisting of a number of glass cups fixed upon a revolving spindle, and made to vibrate by friction applied to their edges. These “musical glasses” are described in a work published in 1677. A harpsichord-harmonica is a similar instrument, in which finger-keys like those of a pianoforte are used. (See the article in Encyl. Brit., 8th edition.)

Harmonium. A musical instrument having a key-board like a pianoforte, and the sounds (which resemble those of organ pipes) produced by the vibration of thin tongues of metal.

Harp. The Egyptians had various kinds of harps, some of which were elegantly shaped and tastefully ornamented. The name of the harp was buni. Its frame had no front pillar. The harps represented on the monuments varied in size from 6½ feet high downwards, and had from 4 to 28 strings. A beautiful Egyptian harp, in the Louvre collection, is of triangular shape with 21 strings, but, like all the harps represented on the monuments, it has no fore-pillar. The strings were of catgut. Assyrian sculptures also represent harps. These also had no front pillar, and were about 4 feet high, with ornamental appendages on the lower frame. The upper frame contained the sound-holes and the tuning-pegs in regular order. The strings are supposed to have been of silk. The Greek harp, called kinyra, resembled the Assyrian, and is represented with 13 strings: it is an attribute of Polyhymnia. The Anglo-Saxons called the harp the gleo-beam, or “glee-wood;” and it was their most popular instrument. King David playing a harp is represented on an A.S. monument of the 11th century. It was the favourite instrument of the German and Celtic bards, and of the Scandinavian skalds. It is represented with 12 strings and 2 sound-holes, and having a fore-pillar. A curious Irish harp of the 8th century, or earlier, is represented in Bunting’s “Ancient Music of Ireland,” having no fore-pillar. The Finns had a harp (harpu, kantele) with a similar frame, devoid of a front pillar. In Christian art a harp is the attribute of King David and of St. Cecilia. St. Dunstan is also occasionally represented with it. In Heraldry the harp is the device and badge of Ireland. The Irish harp of gold with silver strings on a blue field forms the third quarter of the royal arms.

Harpaga, Harpago, Gr. and R. A general term, including any kind of hook for grappling; more particularly a military engine invented by Pericles, and introduced into the Roman navy by Duillius. It consisted of a joist about two yards and a half long, each face of which was coated with iron, and having at one end a harpoon of iron or bronze; the other end was fitted with an iron ring, to which a rope was attached, so as to enable it to be drawn back when it had once grappled a ship or its rigging. Harpago or wolf was the term applied to a beam armed with a harpoon, which was employed to break down the tops of walls, or widen a breach already made. [A flesh-hook used in cookery to take boiled meat out of the caldron.]

Harpastum, R. A small ball employed for a game in which the players formed two sides. They stationed themselves at some distance from a line traced on the ground or sand where the harpastum was placed. At a given signal each player threw himself upon the ball, in order to try and send it beyond the bounds of the opposite party.

Harpies, Gen. (Ἅρπυιαι, i. e. the Snatchers). Winged monsters, daughters of Neptune and Terra, three in number, viz. Aëllo (the tempest), Ocypetê (swift-flying), and Cêlêno; representing the storm-winds. They had the faces of old women, a vulture’s body, and huge claws; they were the representatives of the Evil Fates, and the rulers of storms and tempests. In Christian iconography the Harpies symbolize the devil and repentance. [In the so called “Harpy tomb” in the British Museum they are represented carrying off Camiro and Clytia, the daughters of Pandarus of Crete, as a punishment for his complicity with Tantalus in stealing ambrosia and nectar from the table of the gods.]

Harpsichord. A musical instrument intermediate between the spinet, virginals, &c., and the pianoforte, which supplanted it in the 18th century. It may be described as a horizontal harp enclosed in a sonorous case, the wires being struck with jacks armed with crow-quills, and moved with finger-keys.

Harquebus. An improvement of the hand-gun introduced in the 15th century, applying the invention of the trigger.

Hart. A stag in its sixth year.

Hart or Hind, in Christian art, originally typified solitude and purity of life. It was the attribute of St. Hubert, St. Julian, and St. Eustace.

Fig. 378. Heraldic Hart.

Hart, Her. A stag with attires; the female is a hind.

Fig. 379. Hasta—Roman ceremonial spear.

Hasta (Gr. ἔγχος). A spear used as a pike for thrusting, or as a missile for hurling from the hand, or as a bolt from an engine. Homer defines the spear as “a pole heavy with bronze.” The hasta amentata, for hurling, had a leathern thong for a handle (amentum) in the middle; hasta pura was a spear without a head, and was a much-valued decoration given to a Roman soldier who had saved a citizen’s life; hasta celibarium was a spear which, having been thrust into the body of a gladiator as he lay dead in the arena, was afterwards used at marriages to part the hair of the bride. A spear was set up before a place where sales by auction were going on, and an auction-room was hence called Hastarium. Different kinds of spear were the lancea of the Greeks; the pilum, peculiar to the Romans; the veru, verutum, or “spit,” of the Roman light infantry; the gæsum, a Celtic weapon adopted by the Romans; the sparrus, our English spar or spear, the rudest missile of the whole class; and many others mentioned under their respective headings in this work.

Hasta Pura. In Numismatics, a headless spear or long sceptre, an attribute of all the heathen deities; a symbol of the goodness of the gods and the conduct of providence, equally mild and forcible.

Hastarium, R. A room in which sales were made sub hasta publica, that is, by public auction, under the public authority indicated by the spear. The term also denoted a list or catalogue of sale.

Hastile, R. (hasta). The shaft of a spear, and thence the spear itself, a goad, &c.

Fig. 380. Costume of a nobleman in Venice (16th century), showing the Hat of the period.

Hat (A.S. haet, a covering for the head). Froissart describes hats and plumes worn at Edward’s court in 1340, when the Garter order was instituted. Hats were originally of a scarlet-red colour, and made of “a fine kinde of haire matted thegither.” A remarkable series of changes in the fashion of hats is given in Planché’s Encyclopædia of Costume. Our illustration represents a young Venetian noble of the Middle Ages. (See also the illustrations to Pourpoint, Biretta, Bombards, Calash, Capuchon, Chapeau, Coronets, &c.)

Hatchment, Her. (for atchievement). An achievement of arms in a lozenge-shaped frame, placed upon the front of the residence of a person lately deceased, made to distinguish his rank and position in life.

Hauberk (Germ. Hals-berg, a throat-guard). A military tunic of ringed mail, of German origin, introduced in the 12th century.

Haumudeys, O. E. A purse.

Fig. 381. Hauriant.

Hauriant, Her. Said of fishes upright, “sucking the air.” (Fig. 381.)

Hautboy. A wind instrument of the reed kind.

Haversack (Fr. havre-sac). A soldier’s knapsack.

Hawk, Egyp. This bird symbolizes the successive new births of the rising sun. The hawk is the bird of Horus. It stood, at certain periods, for the word God, and, with a human head, for the word soul. The sun (Ra) is likewise represented with a hawk’s head, ornamented with the disk.

Head-piece. An ornamental engraving at the commencement of a new chapter in a book.

Head-rail. The head-dress worn by Saxon and Norman ladies.

Healfang, A.S. The pillory, or a fine in commutation. “Qui falsum testimonium dedit, reddat regi vel terræ domino HEALFANG.”

Heang-loo, Chinese. An incense-burner.

Fig. 382. Inscription, with hearts, found at Alise.

Heart. On numerous Christian tombs hearts maybe seen sculptured. Many archæologists have attempted to explain their meaning as symbols, but without entering on an unprofitable discussion of that question, it may be noticed that, in many cases, what archæologists have supposed to be hearts were nothing but ivy-leaves, which served as marks of separation between different words or sentences. Fig. 382 represents an inscription at Alise in which ivy-leaves figure, together with an ornament which some would insist were flames, if they were to take the leaves for hearts. When inscriptions, however, are defaced, the shape of the leaves is not nearly so distinguishable as in the figure. [One of the most frequent methods in which this emblem is introduced in Christian art is that the Saviour, or the Virgin Mary, is represented opening the breast to display the living heart—the natural symbol of Love, Devotion, or Sorrow. The Heart is an attribute of St. Theresa, St. Augustine, and other saints. The flaming heart is the emblem of charity. The heart pierced by seven daggers symbolizes the “seven sorrows” of Mary.]

Hecatesia, Gr. (Ἑκατήσια). Festivals held at Athens in honour of Hecatê.

Hecatomb, Gr. and R. (ἑκατόμβη). A sacrifice offered in Greece and Rome under special circumstances, and at which a hundred head of cattle (ἑκατὸν) were slain; whence the name of the festival. [The term was generally applied to all great sacrifices, of much less extent than that implied by its etymological meaning.]

Hecatompylæ, Gr. (ἑκατόμ-πυλαι). The city with a hundred gates; a name given to the Egyptian Thebes.

Hecatonstylon, Hecatonstyle, Gr. and R. (ἑκατὸν and στῦλος). A portico or colonnade with a hundred columns.

Hecte or Hectæus, Gr. = a sixth (R. modius). In dry measure, the sixth part of the medimnus, or nearly two gallons English. Coins of uncertain value bore the same name; they were sixths of other units of value.

Hegira (Arabic hajara, to desert). The flight from Mecca, 16th July, A. D. 622, from which Mohammedan chronology is calculated.

Helciarius, R. One who tows a boat. He was so called because he passed a rope round his body in the way of a belt, the rope thus forming a noose (helcium).

Helepolis, Gr. and R. (ἑλέ-πολις, the taker of cities). A lofty square tower, on wheels, used in besieging fortified places. It was ninety cubits high and forty wide; inside were nine stories, the lower containing machines for throwing great stones; the middle, large catapults for throwing spears; and the highest other machines. It was manned with 200 soldiers. The name was afterwards applied to other siege engines of similar construction.

Helical, Arch. (ἕλιξ, a wreath). A spiral line distinguished from spiral. A staircase is helical when the steps wind round a cylindrical newel; whereas the spiral winds round a cone, and is constantly narrowing its axis. The term is applied to the volutes of a Corinthian capital. (See Helix.)

Heliochromy (Gr. ἥλιος, the sun, and χρῶμα, colour). Process of taking coloured photographs.

Heliopolites, Egyp. One of the nomes or divisions of Lower Egypt, capital An, the sacred name for Heliopolis near Cairo.

Heliotrope. The Hæmatite or blood-stone; a siliceous mineral of a dark green colour, commonly variegated with bright red spots.

Heliotropion, Gr. A kind of sun-dial. (See Horologium.)

Helix, Arch. (ἕλιξ, anything spiral). A small volute like the tendril of a vine placed under the Corinthian abacus. They are arranged in couples springing from one base, and unite at the summit.

Hellebore. A famous purgative medicine among the ancient Greeks and Romans. Philosophers prepared for work by drinking an infusion of the black hellebore, like tea. The best grew in the island of Anticyra in the Ægean Sea, and the gathering of it was accompanied by superstitious rites.

Fig. 383. Helm of a Gentleman or Esquire.

Helm, Helmet, Her. Now placed as an accessory above a shield of arms. Modern usage distinguishes helms according to the rank of the wearer. The term helm was applied by both Saxons and Normans, in the 11th century, to the conical steel cap with a nose-guard, which was the common head-piece of the day, and is depicted in contemporary illuminations, sculptures, and tapestries. Afterwards it was restricted to the casque, which covered the whole head, and had an aventaile or vizor for the face. The use of the helm finally ceased in the reign of Henry VIII.

Fig. 384. Helmet or Burgonet of the 16th century.

Helmet. The diminutive of Helm, first applied to the smaller head-piece which superseded it in the 15th century. (See Galea, Armet, Bascinet, Burgonet, Casque, Chapelle le Fer, &c.)

Hemi- (Gr. ἡμι-). Half; used in composition of words like the Latin semi or demi.

Hemichorion (ἡμιχόριον). (See Dichorea.)

Hemicyclium, Gr. and R. (ἡμι-κύκλιον). A semicircular alcove, to which persons resorted for mutual conversation. The term was also used to denote a sun-dial.

Hemina, Gr. and R. (ἡμίνα, i. e. half). A measure of capacity containing half a sextarius (equal to the Greek cotyle = half a pint English).

Hemiolia, Gr. and R. (ἡμι-ολία, i. e. one and a half). A vessel of peculiar construction employed especially by Greek pirates.

Fig. 385. Sun-dial (Hemisphærium).

Hemisphærium, R. A sun-dial in the form of a hemisphere; whence its name. (Fig. 385.)

Hemlock, the Conium maculatum of botanists, was the poison used by the ancient Greeks for the despatch of state prisoners. Its effects are accurately described in Plato’s description of the death of Socrates.

Heptagon (Gr. ἑπτὰ, seven, and γώνη, an angle). A seven-sided figure.

Hepteris, Gr. and R. (ἑπτ-ήρης). A ship of war with seven ranks of oars.

Heræa. Important Greek festivals, celebrated in honour of Hera in all the towns of Greece. At Argos, every fifth year, an immense body of young men in armour formed a procession, preceded by a Hecatomb of oxen, to the great temple of Hera, between Argos and Mycenæ, where the oxen were slaughtered, and their flesh distributed to the citizens.

Herald (Germ. Herold). An officer of arms. The heralds of England were incorporated by Richard III. The college now consists of three kings of arms, six heralds, and four pursuivants. The office of Earl Marshal, the supreme head of the English heralds, is hereditary in the family of the Duke of Norfolk. There is another herald king styled “Bath,” who is specially attached to that order; he is not a member of the college. The chief herald of Scotland is styled Lord Lyon King of Arms; that of Ireland, Ulster King of Arms. Chester herald is mentioned in the reign of Richard II., Lancaster king of arms under Henry IV. (See Marshal, Kings of Arms, &c.)

Heralds’ College. A college of heralds was instituted in Rome by Numa Pompilius, and the office was held sacred among the most ancient Oriental nations. The institution was imported into England in the Middle Ages from Germany, a corporation of heralds, similar to the collegium fetialium of Rome, having been established in England in 1483 by Richard III. (See Pitiscus, tom. i., and Hofmann, tom. ii.)

Hermæ, Gr. and R. (Ἑρμαῖ). Hermæ, a kind of pedestals surmounted only by the head, or, in some cases, the bust of Hermes. Great reverence was felt for these statues. Houses at Athens had one before the doors; they were also placed in front of temples, near tombs, at street corners, or as mile-stones on the high roads. Hermuli, or small Hermæ, were a common ornament of furniture, as pilasters and supports. The same name is applied to similar statues having a man’s head. This statue was probably one of the first attempts of art at plastic representation. The phallus and a pointed beard originally were essential parts of the symbol. In place of arms there were projections to hang garlands on. Then a mantle was introduced from the shoulders. Afterwards the whole torso was placed above the pillar; and finally the pillar itself was shaped into a perfect statue. All these gradations of the sculptor’s art are traceable in existing monuments.

Hermæa. Festivals of Hermes, celebrated by the boys in the gymnasia, of which Hermes was the tutelary deity.

Hermeneutæ, Chr. (ἑρμηνευταί). Literally, interpreters. In the earliest ages of the Church, these were officials whose duty it was to translate sacred discourses or portions of Holy Scripture.

Herne-pan, O. E. (for iron-pan). Skull-cap worn under the helmet.

Heroum, Gr. (ἡρῷον, i. e. place of a hero). A kind of Ædicula (q.v.), or small temple, which served as a funeral monument. Several representations of Roman Heroa may be seen in the British Museum, representing funeral feasts in a temple, carved on the face of a sarcophagus (in the Towneley collection).

Herring-bone Masonry. Common in late Roman or early Saxon walls, where the ornamental lines take a sloping, parallel, zigzag direction.

Herygoud, O. E. A cloak with hanging sleeves.

Heuk or Huque, O. E. (1) Originally a cloak or mantle worn in the Middle Ages; then (2) a tight-fitting dress worn by both sexes. (Fairholt; see also Planché, Encyclopædia.) There appears to be great uncertainty as to the character of this garment.

Hexaclinon, Gr. and R. (ἑξά-κλινος). A dining or banqueting couch capable of holding six persons.

Hexaphoron, Gr. and R. (ἑξά-φορον). A litter carried by six porters.

Hexapterygon, Chr. (ἑξα-πτέρυγον). A fan used by Greek Catholics, and so named because it has on it figures of seraphim with six wings. (See Fan and Flabellum.)

Hexastyle, Arch. (ἑξά-στυλος). A façade of which the roof is supported by six columns.

Hexeris, Gr. (ἑξ-ήρης). A vessel with six ranks of oars.

Hiberna or Hyberna, R. A winter apartment. The halls in a Roman country house were built to face different ways according to the seasons; verna and autumnalis looked to the east; hyberna, to the west; æstiva, to the north.

Hidage, Hidegild, A.S. A tax payable to the Saxon kings of England for every hide of land. The word is indifferently used to signify exemption from such a tax.

Hidalgo (Span. hijo d’algo, son of somebody). An obsolete title of nobility in Spain.

Hieroglyphics, Egyp. (ἱερὸς, sacred, and γλύφω, to carve). Characters of Egyptian writing, the letters of which are figurative or symbolic. There are three kinds of Egyptian writing, the hieroglyphic, the hieratic, and the demotic. Clement of Alexandria says that in the education of the Egyptians three styles of writing are taught: the first is called the epistolary (enchorial or demotic); the second the sacerdotal (hieratic), which the sacred Scribes employ; and the third the hieroglyphic. Other nations, as for instance the ancient Mexicans, have likewise employed hieroglyphics.

Hieromancy, Gr. and R. Divination from sacrifices.

Hieron, Gr. (ἱερὸν, i. e. holy place). The whole of the sacred enclosure of a temple, which enclosed the woods, the building, and the priests’ dwelling-place.

High-warp Tapestry. Made on a loom, in which the warp is arranged on a vertical plane,, as the Gobelins. Low-warp tapestry is made on a flat loom, as at Aubusson, Beauvais, and other places. It is made more rapidly, and is inferior in beauty to the former.

Hilaria. A great Roman festival in honour of Cybele, celebrated at the vernal equinox. It consisted chiefly of extravagant merry-making to celebrate the advent of spring.

Hippocampus, Gr. and R. A fabulous animal, which had the fore-quarters of a horse ending in the tail of a dolphin. [It is imitated from the little “sea-horse” of the Mediterranean, now common in aquariums; and in mural paintings of Pompeii is represented attached to the chariot of Neptune.]

Hippocentaur. A fabulous animal, composed of a human body and head attached to the shoulders of a horse. (See also Centaur.)

Hippocervus, Chr. A fantastic animal, half horse and half stag; it personifies the pusillanimous man who throws himself without reflection into uncertain paths, and soon falls into despair at having lost himself in them.

Hippocratia, Gr. Festivals held in Arcadia in honour of Neptune, who, by striking the earth with his trident, had given birth to the horse.

Fig. 386. Ground-plan of a Hippodrome.

Hippodromus, Gr. and R. The Greek name for an arena for horse and chariot races, in contradistinction to the stadium, which served for foot-racing. Fig. 386 represents the hippodrome at Olympia, taken from Gell’s Itinerary of the Morea. The following is the key to the plan:—1, 2, and 3 are carceres; A, the space included between the stalls or carceres; B, starting-place for the chariots; C, the colonnade; D, the arena; E, the barrier; F, the goal; G, the space occupied by the spectators. [The word was also applied to the races themselves.] (See also Circus.)

Hippogryph. A mythical animal represented as a winged horse with the head of a gryphon.

Hippopera, Gr. and R. (ἱππο-πήρα). A saddle-bag for travellers on horseback. (See Ascopera.)

Hippotoxotes (ἱππο-τοξότης). A mounted archer. The Syrians, Persians, Medes, Greeks, and Romans had mounted archers among their light cavalry.

Histrio. An actor. The Greek dramas were originally represented on the stage by one performer, who represented in succession the different characters. Æschylus introduced a second and a third actor. The actors were all amateurs, and it was not until a later period that the histrionic profession became a speciality. Sophocles and Æschylus both probably acted their own plays. The Roman name for an actor, histrio, was formed from the Etruscan hister, a dancer. The earliest histriones were dancers, and performed to the music of a flute; then Roman youths imitating them introduced jocular dialogue, and this was the origin of the drama. After the organization of the theatres, the histriones were subjected to certain disabilities; they were a despised class, and excluded from the rights of citizenship. The greatest of histriones in Rome were Roscius and Æsopus, who realized great fortunes by their acting.

Hobelarii, Med. Lat. (See Hoblers.)

Hoblers, A.S. Feudal tenants bound to serve as light horsemen in times of invasion.

Hob-nob, O. E. (Saxon habban, to have; næbban, not to have). “Hit or miss;” hence a common invitation to reciprocal drinking.

Hock-day, Hoke-day, or Hock Tuesday. A holiday kept to commemorate the expulsion of the Danes. It was held on the second Tuesday after Easter. Hocking consisted in stopping the highway with ropes, and taking toll of passers-by.

Hocus-pocus. Probably a profane corruption of the words hoc est corpus used in the Latin mass.

Holocaust. A sacrifice entirely consumed by fire.

Holosericum (Gr. ὅλον, all; σηρικόν, silk). A textile all silk.

Holy Bread, Holy Loaf, or Eulogia (Lat. panis benedictus). This was not the eucharistic bread (which was used in the wafer form for the Communion), but ordinary leavened bread, blessed by the priest after mass, cut up into small pieces and given to the people.

Holy-bread-skep, O. E. A vessel for containing the holy bread.

Holy Water Pot, Chr. A metal vessel frequently found at the doors of Roman Catholic churches, to contain the consecrated water, which was dispensed with the aspergillum.

Holy Water Sprinkler or Morning Star, O. E. A military club or flail set with spikes, which sprinkled the blood about as the aspergillum sprinkles the holy water.

Fig. 387. Holy Water Stone (Renaissance).

Holy Water Stone or Stoup, Chr. A stone receptacle placed at the entrance of a church for holding the holy water.

Honeysuckle Pattern. A common Greek ornament, fully described by its name. (See Fleuron.)

Fig. 388. Honiton Guipure.

Honiton Guipure. Lace was made in Devonshire, as well as in other parts of England, of silk and coarse thread until 1567, when the fine thread now used was introduced, it is said, by Flemings, who had escaped from the persecutions of the Duke of Alva. (See Old Devonshire.) Honiton lace owes its great reputation to the sprigs made separately on a pillow, and afterwards either worked in with the beautiful pillow net or sewn on it. This net was made of the finest thread from Antwerp, the price of which in 1790 was 70l. per pound. (See Mechlin Lace, 18th century.) Heathcoat’s invention, however, dealt a fatal blow to the trade of the net-makers, and since then Honiton lace is usually made by uniting the sprigs on a pillow, or joining them with a needle by various stitches, as shown in the engraving.

Honour, Legion of. Instituted 3rd June, 1802, by Napoleon I. as first consul.

Hoodman-blind. Old English for Blindman’s Buff (q.v.).

Hoods (A.S. Hod) were probably introduced by the Normans. They are constantly represented, with great variation of fashion, in illustrations of the 11th to 18th century, as a part of the costume of both sexes. They were finally displaced by caps and bonnets in the reign of George II. (See Chaperon, Cowl.)

Hoops, in ladies’ dress, were introduced in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, displacing the FARTHINGALE; and were finally abandoned in that of George III.

Hop-harlot, O. E. A very coarse coverlet for beds.

Horatia Pila, R. A pillar erected at the west extremity of the Roman forum to receive the trophy of the spoils of the three Curiatii brought back by Horatius.

Horns. A portion of a lady’s head-dress, mentioned in the 13th century. They appear to have been formed by the foldings of the gorget or wimple, and a disposition of the hair on each side of the head into the form of rams’ horns. For the horned head-dress of the 15th century, see the illustration to Coronet.

Horologium. (1) Sundials preceded all other instruments for the measurement of time. The gnomon or stocheion of the Greeks was a perpendicular staff or pillar, the shadow of which fell upon a properly marked ground; the polos or heliotropion consisted of a perpendicular staff, in a basin in which the twelve parts of the day were marked by lines. (2) The clepsydra was a hollow globe, with a short neck, and holes in the bottom; it measured time by the escape of water, and was at first used like an hour-glass to regulate the length of speeches in the Athenian courts. The escape of water was stopped by inserting a stopper in the mouth, when the speaker was interrupted. Smaller clepsydrata made of glass and marked with the hours were used in families. A precisely similar history applies to the horologia of Rome.

Horreum (dimin. horreolum), R. (1) Literally, a place in which ripe fruits were kept; a granary, or storehouse for grain; horreum publicum was the public granary. (2) Any storehouse or depôt; horrea subterranea, cellars. (3) It was applied to places in which works of art were kept, and Seneca calls his library a horreum.

Horse. In Christian art, the emblem of courage and generosity; attribute of St. Martin, St. Maurice, St. George, and others. The Chinese have a sacred horse, which is affirmed to have appeared from a river to the philosopher Fou-hi, bearing instruction in eight diagrams of the characters proper to express certain abstract ideas.

Horse-shoe, Arch. A form of the stilted arch elevated beyond half the diameter of the curve on which it is described. (See Arch.)

Hortus (dimin. hortulus), R. A pleasure-garden, park, and thence a kitchen garden; horti pensiles were hanging gardens. The most striking features of a Roman garden were lines of large trees planted in regular order; alleys or walks (ambulationes) formed by closely clipped hedges of box, yew, cypress, and other ever greens; beds of acanthus, rows of fruit-trees especially of vines, with statues, pyramids, fountains, and summer-houses (diætæ). The Romans were fond of the art of cutting and twisting trees, especially box, into figures of animals, ships, &c. (ars topiaria). The principal garden-flowers seem to have been violets and roses, and they had also the crocus, narcissus, lily, gladiolus, iris, poppy, amaranth, and others. Conservatories and hot-houses are frequently mentioned by Martial. An ornamental garden was also called viridarium, and the gardener topiarius or viridarius. The common name for a gardener is villicus or cultor hortorum. (Consult Smith’s Dict. of Ant.)

Hospitium, R. (hospes, a guest). A general term to denote any place in which a traveller finds shelter, board, and lodging. [The word had a very wide meaning of hospitality, regulated in all its details by the religious and social and politic sentiments of the nations.]

Hostia, R. (hostio, to strike). A victim offered in sacrifice.

Hot Cockles, O. E. A game common in the Middle Ages.

Hot-houses, O. E. The name for Turkish baths; 16th century.

Houppeland, O. E. A very full loose upper garment with large hanging sleeves; 14th century. It was probably introduced from Spain, and was something like a cassock.

House. (See Domus.)

Houseling Bread, O. E., Chr. (See Singing-Bread, Howsling Bell.)

Housia or Housse, O. E. An outer garment, combining cloak and tunic; a tabard.

Howsling Bell, O. E. The bell which was rung before the Holy Eucharist, when taken to the sick.

Howve (Saxon, from the old German hoojd). A hood. A common phrase quoted by Chaucer, “to set a man’s howve,” is the same as to “set his cap,” cap him or cheat him.

Huacos. (See Guacas.)

Huircas or Pinchas, Peruv. Subterranean aqueducts of the ancient Peruvians, distinct from the barecac or open conduits.

Hullings or Hullyng. Old English name for hangings for a hall, &c.

Humatio, R. (humo, to bury). The act of burying, and thence any mode of interment whatever.

Hume’s Permanent White. Sulphate of Barytes (q.v.).

Humerale. (See Anabologium, Amice.)

Humettée, Her. Cut short at the extremities.

Fig. 389. Hunting Flask of Jaspered Ware, 1554–1556. Louvre Museum.

Hunting Flask. M. Jacquemart thinks that that represented in Fig. 389 may be reasonably attributed to Palissy. It is glazed in green, and diapered with little flames of a deeper shade. Upon the body, in relief, is the escutcheon of the celebrated Anne de Montmorency, round it the collar of St. Michael, and on each side the Constable’s sword supported by a mailed arm and the motto of his house, “A Planos” (unwavering). A mask of Italian style and rayonnated suns complete the decoration of this curious sealed earthenware.

Hurst, Her. A clump of trees.

Hurte, Her. A blue roundle.

Hutch, O. E. (Fr. huche). A locker, which generally stood at the foot of the bed, to contain clothes and objects of value. It was commonly used for a seat.

Huvette, Fr. A close steel skull-cap.

Hyacinth. (1) A precious stone of a violet colour. (2) The colour formed of red with blue, blue predominating. (3) The flower hyacinth among the ancient Greeks was the emblem of death.

Hyacinthia, Gr. A national festival, celebrated annually at Amyclæ by the Amyclæans and Spartans, in honour of the hero Hyacinthus, who was accidentally killed by Apollo with a quoit.

Hyalotype (ὕαλος, glass, and τυπεῖν, to print). An invention for printing photographs from the negative on to glass, instead of paper.

Hycsos, Egyp. (lit. impure). A people of unknown origin, nomad tribes, but not savages, as has hitherto been believed, who came from Sinai, Arabia, and Syria. They are known as Poimenes (the Shepherds), Mentiou Sati, Asian Shepherds, and even Scourges, from their invasion of some part of Eastern Egypt.

Fig. 390. Hydra with seven heads.

Hydra, Gr. (a water-serpent). A hundred-headed monster of Greek mythology, sprung, like the Chimæra, from Typhon and Echidna; he was killed by Hercules. In Heraldry the hydra is represented with only nine heads. The illustration (Fig. 390) is of the device adopted by Curtio Gonzaga, an Italian poet, to symbolize the constancy of his love, with the motto, “If I kill it, more strong it revives.”

Hydraletês, Gr. (1) A mill for grinding corn, driven by water. (2) A waterfall or current of water.

Hydraulis, Gr. (ὕδρ-αυλις). A water-organ. The hydraulic organ, invented about B.C. 200, was really a pneumatic organ; the water was only used to force the air through the pipes. It is represented on a coin of Nero in the British Museum. Only ten pipes are given to it, and there is no indication of any key-board. It had eight stops, and consequently eight rows of pipes; these were partly of bronze, and partly of reed. It continued in use so late as the 9th century of our era.

Fig. 391. Hydria, or Water-jug, in black glaze.

Hydria, Gr. A large, heavy vessel, used principally for holding a store of water. It is represented urn-shaped, with a broad base and a narrow mouth, sometimes with one and sometimes with two handles at the top, and smaller ones on the belly. The name is applied to other pails of bronze or silver, &c. (Fig. 391.)

Hydriaphoria, Gr. (water-bearing). (1) Funereal ceremonies performed at Athens in memory of those who had perished in the deluges of Ogyges, Deucalion, &c. (2) A service exacted from married alien women in Athens by the female citizens, when they walked in the great procession at the Panathenaic feasts, and the former carried vessels of water for them.

Hydroceramic (vessels), Gr. Vessels made of a porous clay, in which liquids were put for the purpose of cooling them; they were a kind of alcarazas.

Hydroscope. Another name for the clepsydra. (See Horologium.)

Hypæthral, Gr. and R. (lit. under the sky, or in the open air). The term was applied to any building, especially a temple, the cella of which had no roof. On the roofs of Egyptian temples, hypæthral temples are arranged with regard to astronomical observations, by which the calendar was regulated.

Fig. 392. Hypæthrum.

Hypæthrum, Gr. and R. A grating or claustra placed over the principal door of a temple for the purpose of admitting light into a part of the cella. Fig. 392 shows one of the bronze doors of the Pantheon at Rome, with its hypæthrum.

Hyperthyrum, Gr. and R. (over the door). A frieze and cornice arranged and decorated in various ways for the decoration of the lintel of a door.

Hypocastanum. Greek for Chesnut Brown (q.v.).

Fig. 393. Hypocausis of a Roman villa at Tusculum.

Hypocaust, Gr. and R. (ὑπό-καυσις and ὑπό-καυστον). A furnace with flues running underneath the floor of an apartment or bath, for heating the air. Fig. 393 represents the sectional elevation of a bath-room discovered in a Roman villa at Tusculum. Fig. 394 represents a hypocausis discovered at Paris in the old Rue de Constantine, near Notre Dame.

Fig. 394. Hypocausis discovered at Paris.

Hypogeum, Arch. A building underground; a sepulchral vault. They form a principal part of Egyptian architecture of every period. The Greek term is a synonym of the Latin Conditorium (q.v.)

Hyporchema, Gr. A lively dance, accompanied by a mimic performance, at the festivals of Apollo among the Dorians. A chorus of singers danced round the altars, and others acted comic or playful scenes.

Hypotrachelium or Cincture, Arch. The part of the Doric capital included between the astragal and the lower annulets or fillets.

Hysteria, Gr. (from ὗς, a pig). Greek festivals, in which swine were sacrificed in honour of Venus.

I.

Ich Dien. I serve. The popular belief that Edward the Black Prince adopted this motto and the “Prince of Wales’s feathers,” at the battle of Cressy, from the blind King of Bohemia, is not sustained by investigation. It was at the battle of Poitiers that he first adopted this crest, joining to the family badge the old English word Ic den (Theyn), “I serve,” in accordance with the words of the Apostle, “The heir, while he is a child, differeth nothing from a servant.” (Mrs. Palliser; Historic Devices.)

Ichnography. The art of making maps or plans.

Iconic (sc. statues), Gr. and R. (εἰκονικὰ, i. e.) Portrait-statues; especially statues raised in honour of athletes who had been victorious in the contests.

Iconoclasts, Chr. Image-breakers. The name originated in the 8th or 9th century in the Eastern Empire, from which finally Theophilus banished all the painters and statuaries in 832. It has been since generally applied to those who, at various outbreaks of fanaticism, have destroyed ecclesiastical objects of art, and is especially applicable to the disciples of Savonarola in 1497, and to the Puritans of Scotland and England during the civil wars.

Iconography (i. e. image-description). The science that deals with statues and images, bas-reliefs, busts, medals, &c. Thus we have an Egyptian, Greek, Roman, mediæval iconography, &c. The best work on this science is “Christian Iconography; or the History of Christian Art in the Middle Ages,” by M. Didron. The second volume contains a manual on the subject by a painter of the 12th century.

Iconostasis, Chr. The screen of the chancel in ancient churches, so called because it was there that images (εἰκόνες) were displayed for the adoration of the faithful.

Ideal and Real. “Any work of art which represents, not a material object, but the mental conception of a material object, is in the primary sense of the word ideal; that is to say, it represents an idea, not a thing. Any work of art which represents or realizes a material object is, in the primary sense of the term, un-ideal.” (Modern Painters, vol. ii. chap. 13.) In a practical sense an ideal picture or statue (e. g. the Medici Venus) is not the portrait of an individual model, but the putting together of selected parts from several models. Raphael said, “To paint a beautiful woman I must see several, and I have also recourse to a certain ideal in my mind;” and Guido said, “The beautiful and pure idea must be in the mind, and then it is no matter what the model is.”

Ides, Idus, R. One of the monthly divisions in the Roman year; it fell on the 15th in months of thirty-one days, excepting January, August, and December; in months with only twenty-nine or thirty days, the ides fell on the 13th. The kalends are the first of every month; the nones are the 7th of March, May, July, and October, and the 5th of all the other months; and the ides always fall eight days later than the nones; and the days are reckoned backwards: thus the 13th of January is the ides of January, and the 14th of January the 19th day ante diem (or before) the February kalends. The morrow of the ides was looked upon as an unlucky day (nefas).

Illapa, Peruv. One of the divisions of the temple of the Sun (Inti) among the ancient Peruvians, so called because it was dedicated to the thunder (Illapa). (See Inti.)

Illumination. This art originated simply in the application of minium (or red lead) as a colour or ink, to decorate a portion of a piece of writing, the general text of which was in black ink. The term was retained long after the original red lead was superseded by the more brilliant cinnabar, or vermilion. Ornaments of all kinds were gradually added, and the term includes the practice of every kind of ornamental or ornamented writing. From the 3rd century Greek and Roman specimens exist of golden lettering upon purple or rose-coloured vellum, and the art prevailed wherever monasteries were founded. Anglo-Saxon and Irish MSS. of the 6th and 7th centuries exhibit a marvellous perfection, characterized by wonderfully minute interlacements of the patterns. Nearly all the best specimens of illumination were destroyed on the dissolution of monasteries. (Consult “The Art of Illuminating,” by W. R. Timms.)

Imagines a vestir, It. Wooden images set up in Italian churches, with the heads and extremities finished, and the bodies covered with real drapery.

Imagines Majorum, R. Portraits of ancestors, or family portraits; they usually consisted of waxen masks, which were kept in the cases of an armarium or in an ædicula; or small statues which were carried before the corpse in a funeral procession.

Imbrex, R. A ridge-tile of semi-cylindrical form, and thus distinct from the tegula, which was a flat tile. It was called imbrex from its collecting the rain (imber). Imbrex supinus was the name given to a channel or gutter formed of ridge-tiles laid on their backs.

Imbrications. Architectural ornaments which take the form of fishes’ scales, or of segmental ridge-tiles (imbrices) which overlap; whence the name given to them.

Imbricatus, R. Covered with flat and ridge-tiles (tegulæ and imbrices).

Imbrothered, O. E. Embroidered.

Imbrued, Her. Stained with blood.

Immissarium, R. (immitto, to send into). A stone basin or trough; any receptacle built upon the ground for the purpose of containing water supplied from the castellum.

Fig. 395. Device of Philip and Mary. Arms of Tudor and Aragon Impaled (Rayonnant).

Impale, Her. To conjoin two separate coats of arms on one shield (as a husband’s and wife’s, &c.). The device of Queen Mary (Fig. 395) is the impalement of the double Tudor rose with the arms of Catherine of Aragon.

Impannata, It. Oiled paper.

Impasto, It. The thickness of the body of pigment laid on to a painting. Rembrandt, Salvator Rosa, and others used a thick impasto; Raphael, Guido, and others, one extremely thin.

Imperial. Anything adapted by its excellence for royal uses, or distinguished in size, is generally so called. (1) O. E. A sort of precious silk, wrought partly with gold, used by royalty and for ecclesiastical purposes, brought to England from Greece in the 12th century. (2) The largest kind of slate for roofing. (3) Paper 27 inches by 23. (4) Sp. The roof of a coach; hence, in English, a trunk made to fit the top of a carriage. (5) Russian. A gold coin of 10 silver roubles.

Impluviata, R. A cloak of square shape and brown in colour, worn as a protection against rain.

Impluvium, R. (1) A cistern on the floor of the atrium in a Roman house, into which the rain was conducted. (2) The aperture in the roof of the atrium. (See Domus.)

Impost, Arch. The horizontal mouldings on a pillar, from which an arch is projected.

In antis, Arch. A name given to those temples, the pronaos or entrance porch of which was formed by two antæ or pilasters, and two columns. (See Antæ.)

Inauguratio, R. Generally the term applies to the ceremony by which the sanction of the gods was invoked upon any decree of man, such as the admission of a new member into a corporation or college, or the choice of the site of a theatre, city, or temple, &c.

Inaures, R. (auris, the ear; Gr. enotion). Ear-rings. Among the Greeks and Romans they were worn only by women. (See Ear-rings.)

Incensed, Inflamed, Her. On fire. (See Foculus.)

Incisura, R. (incido, to cut). Hatchings made by means of a brush.

Incitega, R. A kind of tripod or stand for vessels rounded or pointed at the bottom.

Incle, Inkle. A sort of tape used as a trimming to a dress.

Incrustation. The word has a general signification, “a coat of one material applied to another.” Technically it should be applied to marble alone; thus a thin slab of marble is incrusted upon a body of slate or stone, metals are DAMASCENED, fused pigments are ENAMEL, and woods are VENEERED.

Incubones, R. Genii who were supposed to guard treasure hidden under the earth.

Incunabula. (1) Swaddling clothes for infants. (2) Ancient specimens of printing are so called.

Incus, R. (incudo, to beat on). An anvil.

Fig. 396. Indented.

Indented, Her. One of the dividing and border lines. It resembles the teeth of a saw.

Fig. 397. Printed Calico (Indian) illustrating the treatment of flowers.

Indian Art. The study of the forms and principles of Indian Art is indispensable to an appreciation of the true principles of ornamental design in general. The excellence of Indian manufactures is due to the system of Guilds rigidly adhered to for ages, which has resulted in the production of a race of hereditary craftsmen unequalled for their skill and taste in execution and design. Their pottery is distinguished above all others for purity and simplicity of form, obvious fitness to purpose, and individual freedom of design. Its origin antedates the Institutes of Manu, and is lost in antiquity. Indian gold and metal work is supposed by Dr. Birdwood to owe its origin to Greek influence, but has acquired in its development a purely Oriental character. The Hindoos exhibit the greatest skill in the Oriental arts of damascening and enamelling, as well as in lacquer work and wood and ivory carving. All their designs are deeply symbolical, and closely interwoven with the primitive religious impulses of humanity. India was probably the first country in which the art of weaving was brought to perfection, and the fame of its cloudy gauzes and its gold and silver brocades is more ancient than the Code of Manu. The art is repeatedly mentioned in the Vedas. The purity of Indian Art is endangered in modern days by the introduction of machine-made goods and European design. (Consult Dr. Birdwood’s Handbook of Indian Art.)

Indian Ink or Chinese Ink. A black pigment for water-colour painting, made from oil and lamp-black, thickened with some vegetable gum, and scented with musk or camphor. Many cheap and poor imitations of it are made.

Indian Ochre. A red pigment. (See Red Ochres.)

Indian Paper. A delicate yellowish paper used for proof impressions in engraving. A Japanese paper of a similar quality is now frequently used.

Indian Red or Persian Red. A purple earth commonly sold under this name is the peroxide of iron. It is of a deep hue, opaque and permanent, and useful both in oil and water-colour painting; mixed with white it forms valuable flesh-tints. (Fairholt.) (See Ochre, Amatita.)

Indian Rubber, Caoutchouc. An elastic gum; the sap of the Siphonia elastica, and several of the fig tribe in India and South America. It was brought into use early in the 18th century. In its natural state it is of a pale yellow brown.

Indian Yellow. A golden yellow pigment and dye, said to be procured from the urine of the cow, or else from camel’s dung. It is used in water-colour painting, but is not usually permanent. In some parts of the East it is called Purree.

Indigetes (sc. Di), R. Indigenous gods. Heroes who were deified and worshipped as protectors of a place. The term is derived from inde and genitus, meaning born in that place. Æneas, Faunus, Romulus, &c., were indigenous gods.

Indigo. A deep blue pigment prepared from the leaves and branches of a small shrub; it is transparent, tolerably permanent, and mixes well with other pigments, forming excellent greens and purples. A deep brown, known as indigo brown and a deep red resin, known as indigo red, may be extracted by purifying the blue colour obtained from this dye. The old blue dye of the aboriginal Britons was produced from woad (isatis tinctoria). (Fairholt.) (See Intense Blue.)

Inescutcheon, Her. An heraldic shield borne as a charge.

Inferiæ, R. Sacrifices or offerings made at the tombs of the dead.

Infiammati. A literary society of Padua in Italy. Device: Hercules upon the funeral pile on Mount Œta. Motto: “Arso il mortal al ciel n’ andrà l’ eterno.”

Infocati. One of the Italian literary societies. Device: a bar of hot iron on an anvil, beaten by two hammers. Motto: “In quascunque formas.”

In Foliage, Her. Bearing leaves.

Infrenatus (sc. eques), R. A horseman who rides without a bridle (frenum), controlling his horse solely by the voice or the pressure of the knees upon its side. (Fig. 282.)

Infula, R. A flock of red and white wool worn by priestesses and vestals and other Romans on festive or solemn occasions. In sacrificing also an infula was tied with a white band (vitta) upon the victim. Hence—

Infulæ, Chr. Ribands hanging from a bishop’s mitre.

In Glory, In Splendour, Her. The sun irradiated.

Inlaying. Inserting ornaments in wood-work for decorative furniture. (See Boule, Marquetry.)

In Lure, Her. Wings conjoined, with their tips drooping.

Inoa. Greek festivals in honour of Ino, esp. on the Corinthian Isthmus; they consisted of contests and sacrifices. (See Matralia.)

In Pretence, Her. Placed upon, and in front of.

Fig. 398. Peacock in pride.

In Pride, Her. Having the tail displayed, as a peacock’s. The illustration is the device of Joan of Castile: “A peacock, in his pride, upon the terrestrial globe.” (Fig. 398.)

Insensati of Perugia. One of the Italian literary academies. Their device was a flock of cranes, arranged in order, flying across the sea, each with a stone in its foot and sand in its mouth. Mottoes, “Vel cum pondere” (even with this weight), or “Iter tutissimum,” in allusion to Pliny’s statement that the cranes used stones and sand for ballast, “wherewith they fly more steadily and endure the wind.”

Insignia, R. (in, and signum, a mark). Generally, any object which serves as a mark or ornament for distinguished persons; a ceremonial badge, a badge of office, &c. (See Ensigns.)

Insubulum, R. A weaver’s beam or roller, round which he rolled the cloth as it was made.

Insula, R. A house, or block of houses, having a free space all round them. [Under the emperors the word domus meant any house, detached or otherwise, where a family lived; and insula meant a hired lodging.]

Intaglio, It. A stone in which the engraved subject is sunk beneath the surface, and thus distinguished from a cameo, which is engraved in relief.

Intaglio-relievato (It.), or cavo-relievo. Sunk-relief, in which the work is recessed within an outline, but still raised in flat relief, not projecting above the surface of the slab; as seen in the ancient Egyptian carvings.

Intense Blue. A preparation of indigo, very durable and transparent.

Intense Madder Purple. (See Madder.)

Intercolumniation, Arch. The space between two columns. This space varies according to the orders of architecture and the taste of the architect. According as the space is greater or less between the columns of a temple, the latter is called aerostyle, eustyle, systyle, and pycnostyle. Generally speaking, in the monuments of antiquity, whatever be the intercolumniation adopted, the space comprised between the two columns which face the door of the building is wider than the intercolumniation at the sides.

Intermetium, R. The long barrier running down the arena of a circus between the two goals (metæ). (See Meta.)

Intermodillions, Arch. The space included between two modillions (projecting brackets in the Corinthian order). This space is regular, and often decorated with various ornaments. In the Romano-Byzantine and Renaissance styles, modillions are often united by arcades.

Intertignium, R. The space between the tie-beams (tigna) in the wood-work of a roof.

Interula, R. (interior, inner). An undertunic; a kind of flannel chemise worn by both men and women.

Intestinum (opus), R. (intus, within). The inner fittings or work of any kind in the inside of a house, and thence wood-work, Joinery.

Fig. 399. Part of the Façade of the Peruvian temple Inti-huasi.

Inti or Punchau, Peruv. The Sun or supreme god, inferior deities being called conopa and canopa. The temple of the Sun was called Inti-huasi (house of the Sun); it comprised seven principal divisions; the inti or sanctuary, situated in the centre of the temple; the second division was called mama-quilla, from the fact of its being dedicated to the moon, which was thus named; the third was dedicated to the stars, called cayllur; the fourth to the thunder, and called illapa; the fifth to the rainbow, and called ckuichi; the sixth division was occupied by the chief priest (huilacuma); the seventh and last division formed the dwelling of the priests.

Intronati of Siena. One of the Italian literary academies. Their device was a gourd for containing salt, with the motto, “Meliora latent” (the better part is hidden).

Iodine Scarlet (pure scarlet). A pigment more brilliant than vermilion, very susceptible to metallic agency.

Iodine Yellow. A very bright yellow pigment, very liable to change.

Fig. 400. Ionic capital. From the Erechtheium, Athens.

Ionic, Arch. One of the orders of Grecian architecture, distinguished principally by the ornaments of its Capital, which are spiral and are called Volutes, four in number. The Ionic Shaft is about nine diameters high, including the Base (which is half a diameter) and the Capital, to the bottom of the volute. The Pedestal is a little taller and more ornamented than the Doric. The Bases used are very various. The Attic base is very often used, and, with an astragal added above the upper torus, makes a beautiful and appropriate base for the Ionic. The Cornices are (1) plain Grecian, or (2) the dentil cornice, or (3) the modillon cornice. The Ionic shaft may be fluted in twenty-four semicircular flutes with fillets between them. The best Ionic example was the temple on the Ilissus at Athens. The temple of Fortuna Virilis at Rome is an inferior specimen. (See also Figs. 69, 184.)

Irish Cloth, white and red, in the reign of King John was much used in England.

Iron. Indian red, Venetian red, Mars red, Mars orange, Mars yellow are all coloured by iron (see Mars), and are valuable for their great durability. (See Metallurgy.)

Irradiated, Her. Surrounded by rays of light.

Iseia, Gr. and R. (Ἴσεια). Festivals in honour of Isis. Among the Romans they degenerated into mere licentiousness, and were abolished by the senate.

Iselastici Ludi, Gr. and R. Athletic contests which gave the victor the right of returning to his native city in a chariot (εἰσελαύνειν); whence the name iselastici. These contests formed part of the four great games of Greece, viz. the Olympic, Pythian, Isthmian, and Nemean games.

Fig. 400 a. Isodomum opus.

Isodomos or Isodomum, Gr. and R. (ἰσόδομος, i. e. equal course). A structure built in equal courses, that is, in such a way that the surface of each stone is of one uniform size, and that the joints of one layer are adjusted with those of another so as to correspond symmetrically.

Isokephaleia (Gr. ἴσος, equal; κεφαλὴ, head). A rule in Greek sculpture by which the heads of all the figures on a bas-relief were of the same height from the ground.

Isometrical Perspective, used for representing a bird’s-eye view of a place, combines the advantages of a ground-plan and elevation; only the lines of the base are made to converge, leaving the whole figure cubical, and without the expression of distance from the point of sight.

Ispahan Tiles, of the period of Shah-Abbas—16th century—are remarkable for exquisite design.

Italian Earth. Burnt Roman ochre; resembles Venetian red in colour; and, mixed with white, yields valuable flesh-tints. (Fairholt.)

Italian Pink, or yellow lake. A transparent bright-coloured pigment, liable to change. (See Yellow Lake, Pinks.)

Italian Varnish. A mixture of white wax and linseed oil, used as a vehicle in painting. It has good consistency, flows freely from the pencil, and is useful for glazing.

Ivory Black. A pigment prepared by heating ivory shavings in an iron cylinder; when from bone, it is called bone black (q.v.). The real ivory black is a fine, transparent, deep-toned pigment, extremely valuable in oil and water-colour painting. The bone black (commonly sold as ivory black) is much browner.

Fig. 401. Ivory carving. Sword-hilt of the 16th century.

Fig. 402. Ivory carving. Spoon of the 16th century.

Ivory Carving. This art, in considerable perfection, was known to prehistoric man at the period of the so called stone age. Egyptian and Assyrian specimens of the art are of a date at least as early as that of Moses. From the year 1000 B.C. down to the Christian era, there was a constant succession of artists in ivory in the western Asiatic countries, in Egypt, in Greece, and in Italy. From the time of Augustus, ivory carving shared in the general decline of art. Increasing in number as they come nearer to the Middle Ages, we can refer to carved ivories of every century, preserved in museums in England and abroad. The most important ivories up to the 7th century are the consular diptychs, originally a favourite form of presents from newly-appointed consuls to eminent persons; subsequently adapted to Christian uses, or as wedding presents, &c. In the Middle Ages, from the 8th to the 16th century, the use of ivory was adopted for general purposes. The favourite subjects of the carvings are those drawn from the romances of the Middle Ages—especially the romance of the Rose—and in the 15th century, scenes of domestic life, illustrating the dress, armour, and manners and customs of the day. Combs of every date, from the Roman and Anglo-Saxon period, and earlier, are found in British graves. In short, from the time when the first prehistoric carvings of antediluvian animals were made to the present, every age of human civilization appears to be more or less fully illustrated in carvings upon ivory and bone. (See also Chessmen.) The earliest material was found in the tusks of the mammoth: from Iceland we have beautiful carvings of the 7th century in the teeth of the walrus. Fossil tusks of the mammoth are found in great quantities in Siberia, and are almost the only material of the ivory-turner’s work in Russia. African and Asiatic elephant ivory are the best, and differ, the former, when newly cut, being of a mellow, warm, transparent tint. Asiatic ivory tends to become yellow by exposure. A fine specimen of carving in ivory is given in Fig. 403 from a Mirror-case of the 15th century. (See also Fig. 185, and illustrations to Pyx, Triptych, &c.)

Fig. 403. Ivory carving, 15th century.

Ivy, Chr. The symbol of eternal life.

Iwbwb, Celt. The ancient military cry, which has given name to many places; as Cwm Iwbwb, in Wales, the Jujupania of Ptolemy. (Meyrick.)

Izeds, Persian. Beneficent genii of the mythology of Zoroaster. Ormuzd, the supreme god, created twenty-eight of them to be the attendants of the amchaspands.

J.

Jacinth. A precious stone. (See Hyacinth.)

Jack-boots (O. E.) were introduced in the 17th century.

Jackes, O. E. (1) Towels. (2) The roller for a well-rope.

Jacket or Jack, Jerkin, &c., O. E.; worn over the doublet; but the names are applied indiscriminately to a great variety of such garments.

Jacob’s Staff, O. E. A pilgrim’s staff.

Jacobus. An English coin of James I., value 25s., weighing 6 dwt. 10 grains. The Carolus, a similar coin, value 23s., weighed 5 dwt. 20 grains.

Jaculatores, R. Soldiers armed with a javelin (jaculum), who formed part of the light troops of the Roman army.

Jade. Spanish piedra de la yjada. A green stone, closely resembling jasper, much used by prehistoric man, and to which supernatural virtues have in all ages been attributed, especially by the ancient Mexicans. Fine specimens of jades are carved in China, where they are of a whitish colour, and are called Yu. The clear white and green specimens are the most prized by collectors. (See Nephrite, Saussurite.)

Jagerant. (See Jazerine.)

Jamb, Arch. The side of any opening in a wall.

Jambe, Gambe, Her. The leg of a lion or other beast of prey.

Jambes. Armour for the legs; 14th century.

Janua, R. (Janus). The front door of a house opening on the street. The inner doors were called ostia, in the singular ostium, while the city gates were called portæ.

Januales, Janualia, R. Festivals held at Rome, in honour of Janus, on the first or kalends of January in each year; the offerings consisted of incense, fruits, and a cake called janual.

Japanese Paper of a creamy tint is frequently used for proof impressions of etchings, &c.

Japanning. A species of lac-varnishing, in imitation of the lacquered ware of Japan. (See Lac, Lacquer.)

Jasper. A kind of agate, the best known description of which is of a green colour. Many colours and varieties are used for gem-engraving, such as agate-jasper, striped jasper, Egyptian red and brown, and porcelain jasper. In the Christian religion the jasper symbolizes faith; its hardness expresses the firmness of faith; its opaqueness the impenetrability of the mysterious.

Jasponyx. An onyx mixed with jasper.

Javelin. A light hand-spear. (See Hasta.)

Jayada. (See Vimana.)

Jazel. A precious stone of an azure blue colour.

Jazerine (It. ghiazerino). A jacket strengthened with overlapping plates of steel, covered with velvet or cloth, and sometimes ornamented with brass; 13th century.

Jennet. A Spanish or Barbary horse.

Jerkin, O. E. The jerkin was generally worn over the doublet; but occasionally the doublet was worn alone, and in many instances is confounded with the jerkin. Either had sleeves or not, as the wearer pleased.

“My jerkin is a doublet.” (Shakspeare.)

Jessant, Her. Shooting forth, as plants growing out of the earth.

Fig. 404. Jessant-de-lys.

Jessant-de-lys, Her. A combination of a lion’s face and a fleur-de-lys.

Jesse, O. E. A large branched chandelier.

Jesse, Tree of, Chr. An ornamental design common in early Christian art, representing the genealogy of our Lord in the persons of his ancestors in the flesh.

Jesseraunt. (See Jazerine.)

Fig. 405. Hawk’s bells and Jesses.

Jesses. Straps for hawk’s bells. (See Fig. 405.)

Jet. A variety of soft bituminous coal, admitting of a fine polish, which is used for ornaments. It is, in its natural state, soft and brittle, of a velvet-black colour, and lustrous. Ornaments of jet are found in ancient tumuli.

Jet d’Eau, Fr. A fountain. That at Chatsworth springs 267 feet in the air, and is the highest in existence.

Jew’s Harp or Jew’s Trump (from the French jeu and trompe). A small musical instrument, known for centuries all over Europe, consisting of a metal frame with two branches, and a vibrating tongue of steel in the middle. It has suggested a number of modern instruments, including the Harmonium.

Jew’s Pitch. A kind of asphaltum used as a brown pigment. It attracts dust, and never dries perfectly.

Jewes Light, O. E. (See Judas Light.)

Jogues or Yugs. In Hindoo chronology, eras or periods of years. (1) The Suttee Yug, or age of purity, lasted 3,200,000 years; the life of man being then 100,000 years, and his stature 21 cubits. (2) The Tirtar Yug, in which one-third of man was corrupted, lasted 2,400,000 years; the life of man being then 10,000 years. (3) The Dwapaar Yug, in which half the human race became depraved, lasted 1,600,000 years; the life of man being 1000 years. (4) The Collee Yug, in which all mankind are corrupt, is the present era, ordained to subsist 400,000 years (of which about 5000 have elapsed); the life of man being limited to 100 years. There are, however, conflicting accounts of the duration of the different Jogues. (See Halhed’s Preface to the Gentoo Laws.)

Joinery (in Latin, intestinum opus) has to deal with the addition in a building of all the fixed wood-work necessary for convenience or ornament. The most celebrated work on the subject is Nicholson’s Carpenter’s Guide, and Carpenters and Joiner’s Assistant, published in 1792. The modern art of joinery properly dates from the introduction of the geometrical staircase, or stair supported by the wall only, the first English example of which is said to have been erected by Sir Christopher Wren in St. Paul’s. [See Joinery in Ency. Brit. 8th ed.]

Joseph, O. E. A lady’s riding-habit, buttoned down the front.

Jousting-helmets were made wide and large, resting on the shoulders, and decorated with a crest. It was common to make them of comical, fantastic designs; such as weathercocks with the points of the compass, immense figures of birds and beasts, &c.

Jousts or Justs. Duels in the tilting-ground; generally with blunted spears, for a friendly trial of skill.

Jousts à Outrance. Jousts in which the combatants fought till death ensued.

Jousts of Peace (hastiludia pacifica; Fr. joutes à plaisance). These differed from real jousts or tournaments in the strength of the armour worn, and the weapons used. The lance was topped with a coronel instead of a steel point; the sword was pointless and blunted, being often of whalebone covered with leather silvered over.

Fig. 406. Chinese vase decorated with signs of longevity.

Jouy (wishes of good fortune). Chinese porcelain vases so called, used for birthday and other presents. In the vase represented on Fig. 406, the handles form the word expressive of the greeting above mentioned.

Jowlopped, Her. Having wattles and a comb, as a cock.

Joys of the Virgin, Chr. The seven joys and seven sorrows are frequently painted together in churches. The joys are, (1) The Annunciation. (2) The Visitation. (3) The Nativity. (4) The Adoration of the Three Kings. (5) The Presentation in the Temple. (6) The finding of Christ, by his mother, in the Temple. (7) The Assumption and Coronation of the Virgin. The seven sorrows are, (1) The prophecy of Simeon. (2) The Flight into Egypt. (3) The loss of the child in the Temple. (4) The Betrayal. (5) The Crucifixion. (6) The Deposition from the Cross. (7) The Ascension.

Jubé (Arch. Mod.). A structure of carved stone-work, separating the chancel from the choir in a church. From this position the daily lessons were chanted, preceded by the words “Jube, Domine, benedicere;” hence its name. In English it is called indifferently, the rood-loft, holy-loft, rood-screen, or jubé.

Jubilee. (1) Heb. (from jobel, a ram’s horn (trumpet); or from jabal, to recall). A Jewish festival celebrated every fifty years, when slaves were restored to liberty, and exiles recalled. (2) Chr. A commemoration ceremony at Rome, during which the Pope grants plenary indulgences; held at irregular intervals.

Judas Light, Judas Candlestick, Jewes Light, O. E. The wooden imitation of a candlestick which held the Paschal candle.

Jugalis (sc. equus). A horse harnessed to a yoke (jugum), instead of traces (funalis).

Jugerum. A Roman superficial measure, 240 feet by 120 feet. In the original assignment of landed property, two jugera were allotted to each citizen, as heritable property.

Jugum (Gr. ζυγόν). (1) A yoke for draught cattle. (2) Metaphorically, subjugation—“sub jugum mittere” = to pass under the yoke, as nations conquered by the Romans were made to. This ceremonial yoke was constructed of a horizontal supported by two upright spears, at such a height that those passing under it had to stoop the head and shoulders. (3) In a general sense the word signifies that which joins two things together, a cross-beam, &c.

Jugumentum. Door-head, transverse beam on the uprights (limen superius).

Jumps, O. E. (1) A loose bodice for ladies.

“Now a shape in neat stays, now a slattern in jumps:
Now high on French heels, now low in your pumps;
Like the cock on the tower that shews you the weather,
You are hardly the same for two days together.”
(Universal Magazine, 1780.)

(2) A jacket or loose coat reaching to the thighs, buttoned down before, with sleeves to the wrist. A precisely similar lounging-coat, still in vogue at Cape Colony, is called a jumper.

Junones. Tutelary genii of women, as the genii were of men. They are represented as females, clothed in drapery, having bats’ wings.

Jupon, Fr. Another name for a pourpoint, or close tunic, worn over the armour by knights in the Middle Ages. (See Fig. 463.)

Juruparis (Amer. Indian). A mysterious trumpet of the Indians, an object of great veneration. Women are never permitted to see it; if any does so, she is put to death by poison. No youths are allowed to see it until they have passed through an ordeal of initiatory fastings and scourgings. It is usually kept hidden in the bed of a stream, deep in the forest; and no one dares to drink of the water of that stream. It is brought out and blown at feasts. The inside of the instrument is a tube made of slips of the Paxiaba palm, wrapped round with long strips of bark. A specimen is preserved in the museum at Kew Gardens.

Juvenalia, R. Scenic games instituted by Nero in commemoration of his shaving his beard for the first time. They consisted of theatrical performances in a private theatre erected in a pleasure-ground (nemus). The name was afterwards given to the Janualia.

K.

For Greek words not found under this initial, see C.

Kalathos, Gr. (κάλαθος). Literally, made of wicker-work. A drinking-cup, so called because it resembled the wicker-work basket of the Greek women. It was usually furnished with a ring, through which a finger might be put in order to lift it. The word is also written calathos.

Kaleidoscope (καλὸς, beautiful; εἶδος, a form; σκοπέω, to see). An optical instrument invented in 1814 by Sir David Brewster, which by means of mirrors inserted in it exhibits repetitions of objects placed within it, in certain symmetrical combinations. There are several different kinds, called polycentral, tetrascopes, hexascopes, polyangular, &c., according to their construction.

Kang, Hind. A bracelet or ring; kang-doy, a bracelet for the wrist or arm; kang-cheung, a bracelet or ring worn by the Khmers above the ankle.

Kaolin. The name first applied by the Chinese to the fine white porcelain earth derived from the decomposition of the feldspathic granites; used for fine pottery.

Kayles (Fr. quilles). Modern ninepins, represented in MSS. of the 14th century.

Keep of a castle. The Donjon (q.v.).

Keeping in a picture. Harmony and the proper subordination of parts.

Kendal. A kind of green woollen cloth or baize, first made at the town of Kendal, in Westmoreland; 16th century.

“Misbegotten knaves in Kendal green.”
(Shakspeare.)

Kerchief of Pleasaunce. An embroidered cloth worn by a knight for the sake of a lady, in his helmet, or, in later times, round his arm; which is the origin of crape being so worn for mourning.

“Moreore there is ykome into Enlond a knyght out of Spayne wyth a kercheff of plesunse i-wrapped about hys arme, the gwych knyght wyl renne a course wyth a sharpe spere for his sov’eyn lady sake.” (Paston Letters, vol. p. 6.)

Kerchiefs or Coverchiefs (chief = the head), O. E. Head-cloths of fine linen worn by ladies.

Kermes (Arabic = little worm). An insect produced on the Quercus coccifera. The dead bodies of the female insect produce a fine scarlet dye stuff.

Kern. The Irish infantry were formerly so called.

Kersey. A coarse narrow woollen cloth; hence “Kersey-mere,” so called from the mere (or miry brook) which runs through the village of Kersey in Suffolk, where this cloth was first made.

Kettle-drum. A drum with a body of brass.

Fig. 407. Kettle-hat.

Kettle-hat, O. E. The iron hat of a knight of the Middle Ages; also the leather burgonet of the 15th century.

Kettle-pins, O. E. (See Kayles.)

Key-note. In Music, the foundation or lowest note of the scale. Whatever note this is, the intervals between the third and fourth notes, and between the seventh and eighth above it, must be semi-tones.

Key-stone, Arch. The central stone of an arch.

Keys. In Christian art, the attribute of St. Peter, signifying his control over the entrances of Heaven and Hell; hence the insignia of the Papacy. They also denote, in heraldry, office in the State, such as that of chamberlain of the court.

Khan, Orient. The name used by Eastern nations to denote a caravanserai.

Kher, Egyp. The quarter of tombs; the whole number of burial-places or hypogæa collected together at one spot.

Fig. 408. Khmer Architecture. Base of a pillar in a Temple of Cambodia, showing the god Brahma with four faces.

Khmers, Hind. The ancient inhabitants of Cambodia, a territory in South-East Asia, who had attained a high stage of civilization, to judge by the artistic remains of the Khmer nation which survive.

Khopesh, Egyp. The dagger of the Egyptian kings; its curved blade bore some resemblance to the thigh of an ox, which was called in Egyptian khopesh or khopesk.

Kin-chung, Chinese. A golden bell.

King-fisher. (See Halcyon.)

King-post. The central upright post supporting the gable of a roof.

King’s Yellow. (See Orpiment.)

Kings of Arms. Officers of Heralds’ College. There are three—Garter, Clarenceux, and Norroy.

Kinnor, Heb. A stringed instrument of the Hebrews; it had eight, ten, or twenty-four strings, which were played either with the fingers or a plectrum.

Kinschall. A small curved Turkish dagger.

Kiosk, Kiosque. A Turkish pleasure-house.

Kircher, Kirchowe, O. E. A kerchief.

Kirtel, O. E. A loose gown, a tunic or waistcoat; also a monk’s gown.

Kiste, O. E. A chest.

Kistvaen, Celt. A Celtic monument more commonly known as a Dolmen (q.v.).

Kit-cat. Canvas for portraits—28 or 29 inches by 36—of the size adopted by Sir Godfrey Kneller, in painting the portraits of the Kit-cat Club. The club had taken its name from Christopher Cat, a pastrycook, who supplied them at their meetings with mutton-pies. Addison, Steele, Walpole, Marlborough, and other staunch Whigs were the principal members. It dissolved about 1720.

Klaft, Egyp. A royal head-dress of striped cloth forming a kind of hood, and terminating in two flaps which fall over the breast. A great many Egyptian statues are represented with the klaft. It is suggested by M. Soldi that the invention of this ornament was for the purpose of strengthening the figure, by avoiding the thinness of the shape of the neck.

Knapsack. A case for a foot-soldier’s stores, carried at the back. Knap means a protuberance.

Knife, Chr. (See Flaying-knife.) This is also the attribute of Sts. Agatha, Albert, and Christina; and a sacrificing-knife of St. Zadkiel the Angel.

Knighthood. The principal English orders are of the Garter, established 1343, and the Bath shortly afterwards; of St. Patrick for Ireland, established in 1783; and the Order of the Thistle, at least as ancient as Robert II. of Scotland. There is a French order of the Thistle, founded in 1463; but the most ancient French order is the Gennet, in 706. In France are also the orders of St. Michel and of St. Louis; but these French orders are now all superseded by the Legion of Honour. [See An Accurate Historical Account of all the Orders of Knighthood.]

Knight-service, O. E. A tenure of lands formerly held by knights, on condition of performing military service

Knol, Hind. A road or high road which frequently passes over very low bridges.

Knop, O. E. A button.

Knop, Knob, Arch. A boss.

Fig. 409. Architectural Knop or Boss.

Knop and Flower Pattern. An ornament of remote antiquity, original basis of a great branch of decorative art in all nations, common on early Indian monuments, and with different variations in the art of Assyria, Egypt, Greece, and Rome. The variations are regulated according to the flora of the various countries, the knop (or bud) and flower being always the radical idea.

Fig. 410. Bourchier Knot.

Fig. 410 a. Dacre Knot and Badge.

Knot, Her. An intertwined cord, borne as a badge. Cords intertwined about other figures and devices form so called compound badges, which significantly declared the union of two houses; thus the Dacre knot is entwined about the Dacre escallop and the famous “ragged staff” of Beauchamp and Neville. An Order of the Knot was established at Naples in 1252. The badge of silk, gold, and pearls was tied in a knot upon the arm, and those who were invested with it made a vow to untie it at Jerusalem. (Fig. 410 and 410 a.)

Knuckle-bones. (See Talus.)

Koope, O. E. A cope.

Koukim, Heb. Kilns for the cremation of the dead, such as are occasionally found in the ancient tombs of the Valley of Hinnom (Gehenna).

Kourganes, Or. Grassy mounds, such as are frequently met with in Russia in Europe, and which bear a strong resemblance to tumuli and barrows. (See Tumulus.)

Krems White or Vienna White. A pigment manufactured at Krems in Austria. It is the finest white lead used in oils.

Krouts, Hind. An ornament resembling embroidery. The monuments of Khmer art are adorned with krouts of a rich ornamentation, somewhat similar to certain ornaments of the French Renaissance. (See Fig. 408.)

Krumhorn. An old musical instrument of the cornet kind.

Kufic. (See Cufic.)

Kussier. A Turkish musical instrument, consisting of five strings, stretched over a skin that covers a kind of basin.

Kymbium. (See Cymbium.)

Kyphi, Egyp. A perfume which was burnt before the statues of the gods; it was composed of sixteen different ingredients.

L.

Labarum, Chrism, R. The standard of the Roman emperors from the time of Constantine; in form it resembled the vexillum of the cavalry. The Labarum is the banner of the Chrism, or sign that appeared to Constantine, viz. the Greek letters XP in a monogram (the two first letters of the Name ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ); sometimes followed by the Roman letters IHSV, or the motto in full, “in hoc signo vinces.” It is, under several variations, a common ecclesiastical emblem.

Labellum. Dimin. of Labrum (q.v.).

Heraldic Labels.
Fig. 411. Labels of 3 points.       Label of 5 points.

Labels, in heraldry, are marks of cadency. (1) A band crossing the shield, with three points depending, marks the coat of an eldest son. (2) Broad ribands hanging from a knight’s helmet. (3) In mediæval architecture and church decoration, images of saints and angels bear labels inscribed with texts and mottoes.

Labis. (See Spoon.)

Labrum, R. (lit. a lip). A general term to denote any kind of vessel the brim of which turned over on the outside like the lip of the human mouth; a wide flat basin which stood in the thermal chamber or Caldarium (q.v.) of the Roman baths.

Fig. 412. Labyrinth.

Labyrinth, Gen. (λαβύρινθος). A building of considerable size, usually underground, containing streets and cross-roads, like the catacombs, &c. The term is also applied to intricate designs executed on the grass-plots of gardens, and on the mosaic or glazed tiles in pavements. (Fig. 412.) (See Minotaur.)

Lac or Gum Lac (Arabic, lakah). A resin produced on an East Indian tree by the punctures of the Coccus lacca insect. It forms a brittle substance of a dark red colour, and when in grains is called seed lac, and in thin flat plates shell-lac. (See Lacquer.) The chief use of lac in Europe is for making sealing-wax, and as a basis for spirit varnishes and French polish.

Fig. 413. Point de France (pillow-made), 17th century.

Lace was originally of a heavy texture, more like embroidery. It was of two kinds, lacis, or “darned netting,” and “cutwork.” Lacis, often worked in coloured silks and gold thread, was also called “opus araneum” or “spider-work.” In “cutwork,” a net of threads was laid on to cloth, and the cloth sewn to it in parts, and the other parts cut away; or, by another method, the threads were arranged on a frame, all radiating from a common centre, and then worked into patterns. This was the old convent lace of Italy, called “Greek lace.” Point laces are lace made with a needle on a parchment pattern. The principal are the ancient laces of Italy, Spain, and Portugal; and the modern point d’Alençon of France. Pillow laces are made by the weaving, twisting, and plaiting of the threads with bobbins on a cushion; such are Mechlin, Lille, Valenciennes, Honiton, Buckingham, and many manufactories in France. Brussels lace is both point and pillow. The thread is scarcely visible for fineness, and costs 240l. per pound. This lace is called in France point d’Angleterre, or English point. (Fig. 414.)

Fig. 414. Old Brussels or Point d’Angleterre.

Lace Glass. (See Glass.)

Lacerna, R. An open cloak worn by the Romans over the toga, and fastened on the right shoulder with a brooch or fibula. It frequently had a cowl attached. (See Abolla, Pænula, Pallium.)

Lachrymatory. A tear-bottle; so called from the use attributed to it of holding tears consecrated to the dead. These phials are made of glass or earthenware, with a long neck, and the mouth formed to receive the eye-ball. The figure of one or two eyes has sometimes been found impressed upon them.

Lacinia, R. The two excrescences, like a divided dewlap on the throat of a goat, which were represented on the necks of fauns and satyrs.

Laciniæ, Gr. and R. The hanging corners of the toga and chlamys, and the metal knobs attached to make them hang straight.

Lacis. A kind of embroidery, of subjects in squares, with counted stitches (called also “point conté,” darned netting, &c.). (See Lace.)

Laconicum, R. A semicircular termination to a room in a set of baths (caldarium), so called because of Spartan origin. Under the word Balneæ will be found the laconicum of Pompeii, restored. (Fig. 56.)

Lacquer (Fr. laque) is made of a solution of shell-lac and alcohol, coloured with saffron or other colouring matters. Specimens of ancient Chinese red lacquer deeply carved with figures of birds, flowers, &c., and generally made in the form of trays, boxes, and sometimes vases, are met with in the more northern Chinese towns, and are much prized. What is called the old gold Japan lacquer is also esteemed by Chinese connoisseurs, and the specimens of this are comparatively rare at the present day. (Fortune.)

Lacs d’amour, Fr. True lovers’ knots.

Lacuna, R. (lacus, a hollow). An ash-pit placed beneath a lime-kiln to receive the ashes from the kiln.

Lacunar, Arch. A flat roof or ceiling, in contradistinction to a camera, vaulted roof.

Lacunaria, Arch. Panels in a flat ceiling (lacunar), formed by the rafters crossing one another at right angles. The edges of these panels are often decorated with carved and gilt ornaments, and the centres filled in with paintings.

Lacus, R. (λάκκος). A lake, and thence a large, shallow, open basin, or artificial reservoir; also, a pit made below the level of a wine-cellar (cella vinaria), or of an oil-cellar (cella olearis), to receive the wine or oil as it comes from the presses.

Lady. A word of Saxon origin, generally supposed to signify “loaf-giver,” from klaf, a loaf. As a title it belongs to the daughters of all peers above the rank of a viscount, but is extended by courtesy to the wives of knights.

Lady Day, Chr. The 25th of March. Festival of the Annunciation.

Læna, R. (1) A cloth with a long nap. (2) A thick woollen cloak worn over the toga for the sake of warmth. In later times the læna was often worn as a substitute for the toga.

Lagena, Gr. and R. An earthenware vessel with a swelling body, used for holding wine or vegetables and dried fruits.

Laid Papers. Papers with a ribbed surface; as cream-laid, blue-laid, &c.

Lake, Cloth of, O. E. Linen for under-garments.

Lakes. (See Carmine.) Pigments of a fine crimson red colour, of which there are several kinds; they are prepared from cochineal, kermes, lac, and the best from madder-root. Common lake is obtained from Brazil wood, which affords a very fugitive colour. (See Yellow Lake, Purple Lakes, Green Lakes, Carminated Lakes, Drop Lake, Red Lake, Mineral Lake, Madder, &c.)

Lakes of Florence, Paris, Vienna, &c. (See Carminated Lakes.)

Lamb. The peculiar symbol of the Redeemer, generally the emblem of innocence, meekness, modesty. It is properly called the Paschal Lamb, and with a flag, or between two stars and a crescent, was the badge of the Knights Templars. (See Agnus Dei.)

Lamboys (Fr. lambeau). A kind of skirt over the thighs, worn over the armour. (See Fig. 463.)

Lambrequin. A covering for the helmet. (See Mantling.)

Lamb’s-wool, O. E. A drink of ale with the pulp of roasted apples in it.

Lames, Fr. Flexible plates or blades of steel, worn over the hips.

Lametta. Brass, silver, or gold foil or wire.

Lamiæ, Gr. and R. Vampires who fed at night on the flesh of human beings. The Lamiæ of Pliny are animals with the face and head of a woman, and the tail of a serpent, inhabiting the deserts of Africa.

Laminated. Disposed in layers or plates.

Lammas, O. E. The 1st of August.

Fig. 415. Roman Lamp.

Lamp, Lantern, or Taper, in Christian art, was an emblem of piety; an attribute of St. Lucia. (See Lucerna, Lychnus, Lantern.)

Lampadephoria, Gr. (torch-bearing). A game common throughout Greece, in which the competitors raced, either on foot or horseback, six stadia (about three-quarters of a mile), carrying lamps prepared for the purpose. (See Lampas.)

Lampas, Gr. and R. A general term denoting anything which shines or affords light; a torch, a lamp, and especially a link. The word was frequently used for lampadephoria, the torch-race.

Lamp-black. A soot used as a pigment. It is very opaque, and dries slowly in oil. It is also the basis of all printing and lithographic inks.

Fig. 416. Device of Catherine de’ Medicis.

Lance. In Christian art, the attribute of St. Matthias, in allusion to the method of his martyrdom. (See Amentum, Lancea, Hasta.) A shivered lance with the motto “Lacrymæ hinc, hinc dolor,” was a device adopted by Catherine de’ Medicis after the fatal accident to her husband, Henry II., in a tournament. (Fig. 416.)

Lance-rest. A projecting iron fixed to a breastplate to support the end of the lance in a joust or tournament.

Lancea, R. A long, light spear, serving both as a pike and a missile.

Lanceola. Dimin. of Lancea (q.v.).

Lanceolated, Arch. Having the form of a spear-head. The term is applied to lancet windows, arches, and members of architecture forming a rose.

Fig. 417. Lancet Arch. 13th century.

Lancet Arch. A pointed arch, obtuse at the point, resembling a surgeon’s lancet, from which a style of architecture, common in England in the 13th century, is named. (Fig. 417.) (See Early English Architecture.)

Fig. 418. Lancula.

Lancula, R. (dimin. of Lanx). The scale which was placed, when necessary, at one of the ends of a Roman steelyard (statera). (Fig. 418.)

Landgrave (Germ. Land, Graf). A title given to those Counts of Germany who take their rank from a large tract of land. The first Landgraves were those of Thuringia, Hesse, Alsace, and Leuchtenberg.

Langue-de-bœuf, Fr. A blade fixed to a pikestaff; named after its shape.

Langued, Her. To denote the tincture of an animal’s tongue.

Laniarium, Laniena, R. (lanius, a butcher). A slaughter-house or butcher’s shop.

Laniers, O. E. Leather straps for various uses; as armlets to a shield, or as garters or bands, &c.

Lanipendia, R. (lana, wool, and pendere, to weigh). A woman whose duty it was to weigh the wool for spinning, and distribute it among the slaves for their daily tasks.

Lanista, R. A man who trained gladiators for the Roman circus. They were frequently his own property, and he let them out for hire; or he received them from their owners into his school (ludus) for training.

Lansquenet, Fr. A game at cards.

Fig. 419. Old English Horn Lantern.

Lantern. In Christian art, the attribute of St. Gudula, in allusion to the legend of her miraculous lantern, which her prayers rekindled as often as Satan extinguished it. In Architecture, a small turret above the roof of a building, having windows all round it.

Fig. 420. Lanterne des Morts.

Lanterne des Morts or Churchyard Beacon, Arch. A small tower raised upon a base, and generally round, but sometimes square or polygonal; with windows at the top to emit the shining rays from the lamp inside. Fig. 420 represents a “lanterne des morts” at Ciron, France.

Lanx, R. This term denotes (1) a circular dish of silver or other metal, often embossed, used especially at banquets. (2) The scale of a balance (libra). (3) A salver for handing fruits or other dainties at dessert.

Laocoon. A magnificent sculpture, found in 1506 among the ruins of the palace of Titus, now in the Vatican. It represents Laocoon and his two sons struggling in the folds of two monster serpents. According to Pliny it is the work of three Rhodian sculptors, Agesander, Polydorus, and Athenodorus, and stood in the palace of Titus. He said that it was made of one stone, but the joining of five pieces has been detected. [See Lessing’sLaokoon.”]

Laphria, Gr. An annual festival, celebrated at Patræ in Achaia, in honour of Artemis, surnamed Laphria.

Lapidary. An artist who cuts, grinds, and polishes gems and stones. In the lapidary’s scale of hardness of minerals there are 10 standard degrees, represented as follows:—No. 1, talc, which is very easily cut; No. 2, compact gypsum; No. 3, calc-spar; No. 4, fluor-spar; No. 5, apatite; No. 6, felspar; No. 7, quartz; No. 8, topaz; No. 9, sapphire; No. 10, diamond. Diamonds are for the most part cut at Amsterdam.

Lapis Lazuli. A beautiful blue mineral stone of various shades of colour. (See Ultramarine.)

Laquear, Laqueare. Synonym of Lacunar (q.v.).

Laqueatores, R. An order of gladiators who used a noose to catch their adversaries.

Laqueatus, R. A ceiling decorated with panels (lacunar).

Lararium, R. A small shrine consecrated to the gods called Lares; a room in which the images of the Lares or tutelary genii of the house were placed. It is said to have been customary for religious Romans, immediately after they rose in the morning, to pray in the Lararium.

Larentalia, Larentinalia, or Laurentalia, R. A Roman festival in honour of Acca Larentia, the nurse of Romulus and Remus; or, according to another tradition, a festival instituted by Ancus in honour of a wealthy courtezan named Larentia, who had bequeathed all her property to the Roman people. It was celebrated on the 10th of December.

Lares, R. The Lares Privati, Domestici, or Familiares, were the guardian deities of the house. The spot peculiarly sacred to them was the focus, or hearth, in the Atrium, where the altar for domestic sacrifice stood, and near it was a niche, containing little images of these gods, to whom offerings of flowers, frankincense, and wine were made from time to time, and regularly on the kalends of each month. There were many classes of Lares Publici: (1) The Lares rurales, who presided over the flocks, herds, &c. (2) The Lares compitales, worshipped where two cross-roads met, &c. [Cf. Ovid, Fasti, v. 129.]

Larghetto, It. In Music, less slow than largo.

Largo, It. In Music, a slow movement, one degree quicker than adagio.

Latch, O. E. A cross-bow.

Lateen Sail. A triangular mainsail on a tall sloping yard, which reaches down to the deck.

Later, R. A brick; the πλίνθος of the Greeks. Among the Romans bricks were of various forms; the largest was called pentadorum; the next size, tetradorum. Later coctus, coctilis was the term applied to a baked brick; later crudus was an unbaked brick, i. e. one dried in the sun. Pliny calls the brick-field Lateraria.

Latericium (opus), R. A structure built of bricks.

Laterna, Lanterna. A Lantern (q.v.).

Laton or Latten, O. E. An alloy of brass, of which candlesticks, sepulchral monuments, crosses, &c., were made in the Middle Ages. White Laton was a mixture of brass and tin.

Latrunculi, R. (Gr. πεσσοί). The ancient game of draughts. It is mentioned by Homer. The Romans often had twelve lines of squares (mandræ) on the draught-board. The number of pieces varied from five to twelve, and in later times the game was played with the tesseræ or dice.

Lattice, Arch. A trellis or cross-barred work; a network window.

Laura, Chr. The origin of the name is obscure. It signifies a collection of separate cells in a wilderness, where a community of monks lived each in his own cell, meeting together only during two days of the week. The most celebrated lauras were in Palestine.

Laurel, Gen. The emblem of glory and victory. Sacred also to Apollo. In modern times an emblem of peace.

Lautumiæ, R. (λα-τομία). A stone-quarry, and thence a prison hewn out of a quarry, more particularly the public prison of Syracuse, hewn into the solid cliff, but roofless. The Tullianum at Rome was called Lautumiæ also.

Lava. The scoria from an active volcano, which is well adapted to ornamental carving.

Lavabo. (See Lavatorium.)

Lavacrum, R. (lavo, to wash). A bath of hot or cold water, in contradistinction to a vapour bath (caldarium).

Lavatorium, R. (lavo, to wash). A small building in a monastery, in which the monks washed their hands before and after a repast. The lavatorium was usually placed near the refectory.

Lawn. This fine linen fabric was introduced in the reign of Queen Elizabeth.

Lay Figure. A large wooden jointed doll, used by artists to display drapery.

Lead-glazed Wares. (See Pottery.)

Fig. 421. Stamped gilt and painted leather hangings illustrating a pictorial arrangement of pattern.

Leather was used instead of tapestry for the hangings of rooms in the 16th century, and was beautifully gilded and chased. (Consult “L’Art de travailler les Cuirs dorés ou argentés,” by M. Fougeroux de Bondary, in “Description des Arts et Metiers,” 1762.) (Fig. 421.)

Leaves, Her. Their peculiarities are blazoned as laurel leaf, oak leaf, &c.

Leaves, Leafage. (See Foliage.)

Lebes, Gr. (λέβης; λείβη, to pour out). A brass saucepan or caldron (pelvis, ahenum); it was a deep vessel with swelling sides. It was sometimes made with a pointed bottom to fit into a stand, which was called Incitega.

Lebiton, Lebitonarium. (See Colobium.)

Lecanê, Gr. A drinking-bowl used by the Etrurians (basin-shaped, with a lid).

Lectern. A reading-desk in a Christian church; most frequently of brass in the form of an eagle, but often decorated with more elaborate emblems.

Lectica, R. (lectus, a couch). A couch or litter carried by bearers, used both by men and women; it was introduced from the East, and was quickly adopted in Greece and Rome. The Greek litter had a roof made of the skin of an ox, and the sides covered with curtains. Among the Romans it was seldom used excepting for travelling, until the luxurious days of the empire, when the lectica became a very splendid affair. It was sometimes constructed with gold and ivory, and instead of curtains it was closed at the sides, with windows of transparent stone (lapis specularis). When standing, it rested on four feet. It was borne upon poles (asseres) by two or more slaves, and was called hexophron, octophron, &c., according to the number of lecticarii employed to carry it.

Lecticula. Dimin. of lectica; it denoted a litter for the conveyance of the sick, or a bier on which a dead body was carried out.

Lectisternium, R. (lectus, and sterno, to spread out). A religious ceremony consisting of a banquet offered to the gods, at which the statues of the latter were present stretched out on couches, with tables and viands before them as if they were partaking of the feast.

Lectorium, Chr. (lector, a reader). An old term afterwards replaced by that of Ambo (q.v.).

Lectrin, Chr. An old term now replaced by jubé or rood-loft and desk.

Lectrum, Chr. An old term denoting a praying-desk.

Lectus, R. (lego, to put together). A bed or couch complete; lectus cubicularis, a sleeping-couch; lectus genialis, a nuptial bed; lectus adversus, a symbolical marriage-bed; lectus triclinaris, a dining-couch, a couch for three persons, placed in the triclinium or dining-room; lectus funebris, a funeral bier. The diminutive of this term is lectulus. The lectus cubicularis resembled an old-fashioned sofa with a high back; being of considerable height, it was reached by means of a footstool (scamnum), or a set of steps (gradus). The lectus genialis (Gr. εὐνὴ) or marriage-bed was still higher, larger, and handsomely decorated; it is represented with a flight of steps at the foot. The lectus adversus was a symbolical marriage-bed, and stood in the atrium, opposite to the entrance of the house, and was, as it were, the throne or seat of office, from which the housewife superintended the spinning, weaving, and similar duties of the servants. The lectus triclinaris used at meals is described under the article. Lectus funebris is the name of the bier upon which the dead were borne to burial or the pyre.

Fig. 422. Lecythus.

Lecythus, Gr. A cylindrical vase made to contain oil or perfumes. It often figures in the hands of goddesses, or of females at the toilet; and is mostly ornamented with delicate paintings and choice subjects. (Fig. 422.)

Ledger, Arch. A stone slab.

Ledger Lines. In Music, extra lines above or below the five ruled lines.

Ledgment, Arch. A horizontal course of stone or mouldings, particularly the base moulding.

Leet, O. E. An ancient Anglo-Saxon court of justice; a manor court.

Legato, It. Literally, “bound;” in Music signifies “in a smooth and gliding manner.”

Legend. In Numismatics, the words round the edge of a medal or coin.

Leghorn. A kind of straw plait, first invented at Leghorn.

Legio, R. (lego, to collect). A Roman legion; a division of the army consisting of from three to six thousand heavy-armed soldiers, who were called legionarii. Twelve thousand legionaries were required to make up a consular army. The legion contained troops of all arms; infantry, cavalry, and the ancient substitutes for artillery; and was an army complete in itself. The numbers varied, as well as the organization, at different periods. Livy speaks of legions of 5000 infantry and 300 horse. The subject is one demanding voluminous description. The legion was subdivided into Cohortes, Manipuli, Centuriæ, Signa, Ordines, Contubernia.

Leice, Celt. Also called meanal leice. The stone of destiny; a large crystal kept by the Druids for soothsaying.

Leister or Lister, Scotch. A trident or many-pronged spear for striking fish.

Leming Star, O. E. (from A.S. leme, brightness). A comet.

Lemman (A.S. leof=loved, and man). A sweetheart, &c.

Lemnian Reddle. An ochre of a deep red colour and firm consistence, used as a pigment.

Lemniscus, R. (λημνίσκος; λῆνος, wool). A fillet or ribbon awarded, as a mark of honour, to a person who had distinguished himself in any way. The person who wore it was called lemniscatus. It hung down from crowns or diadems at the back of the head. Lemnisci were also worn, without coronæ, by ladies for ornament. Hence, in Geometry, a curve of the form of the figure 8 is called lemniscata.

Lemon Yellow. A bright pigment, brighter and clearer than Naples yellow or masticot, and not liable to change.

Lemures or Manes, R. The souls of the dead, who, according to the religious belief of the Romans, were transformed into beneficent or evil genii, according as the individual had been during his life good or bad, virtuous or worthless. “Lares si meriti boni sint; Lemures sive Larvas si mali; Manes autem cum incertum est,” says St. Augustine.

Lemuria. Festivals in honour of the Lemures celebrated at Rome, at night and in silence, on the 9th, 11th, and 13th of May. During them the temples of the gods were closed, and marriage was considered unlucky; hence the proverb, Mense Maio male nubent. Those who celebrated the Lemuria walked barefooted, washed their hands three times, and threw black beans nine times behind their backs. On the second of the three days there were games in the circus in honour of Mars, and on the third day the images of the thirty Argei, made of rushes, were thrown from the Pons Sublicius into the Tiber by the Vestal virgins. On the same day there was a festival of merchants.

Lenn or Linn, Celt. A woollen wrap with a long nap, or simply the skin of some animal, worn in severe weather as a kind of upper garment by the poorer class of Gauls.

Lens (lit. a lentil). A convex or concave glass, which, by changing the direction of rays of light, magnifies or diminishes objects.

Lent (A.S. lencten, Spring), Chr. The forty days’ fast preparatory to Easter. Pope Gregory the Great speaks of this fast as of thirty-six days’ duration; i. e. six weeks, not counting the Sundays, which, it is suggested, amounts to one-tenth, or a tithe of the year.

Lent Rose or Lent Lily, O. E. The daffodil.

Lentiform. Shaped like a double convex lens.

Lentiner, O. E. A hawk taken in Lent.

L’Envoy. “The conclusion of a ballet, or sonnet, in a short stanzo by itselfe, and serving oftentimes as a dedication of the whole.” (Cotgrave.)

Leonine Verses. Rhyming Latin compositions, very popular in the Middle Ages. In the 3rd century a piece of 1200 such verses was written by Commodianus. St. Augustine and the venerable Bede also wrote some. The proper leonine consists of a couplet rhyming at the end; but the rhymes may be otherwise distributed: e. g.—

“O miseratrix! O dominatrix! præcipe dictu;
Ne devastemur, ne lapidemur, grandinis ictu.”

Leontarium, Chr. A fountain of lions spouting water; frequently placed in the courtyard or atrium of basilican churches.

Leopard, Her. A lion in any other attitude than “rampant” was blazoned by the early heralds as a “leopard.” Till the 14th century the lions of the Royal Shield of England were designated leopards.

Leou, Chinese. (1) A building of many stories, like a pagoda. (2) An upper floor in a Chinese house.

Lepastê, R. (λεπὰς, a limpet; Lat. patella). A large vessel, in form like the cylix, but resting on a broad stand; employed from the earliest times for holding pure wine.

Leporarium, R. (lepus, a hare). A hare warren; a walled paddock in which four-footed game were preserved.

Fig. 423. The Leschê at Delphi.

Leschê, Gr. (λέσχη, i. e. a place for talking). A public place of assembly and conversation, or a small exchange for transacting business, &c. The leschê of Delphi (Fig. 423) was celebrated for the painting which it contained by Polygnotus (470 B.C.). At Athens there were 360 leschai, small buildings or porticoes furnished with seats and exposed to the sun, where the poor could rest in warmth and shelter.

Lesina, It. An awl. The device of the Lesina Academy, with the motto, “L’assotigliar la più, meglio anche fora.”

Lettern, Arch. The Lectern of a church is often so called, when made of Latten or brass. The word is used instead of Latten.

Letters of the Alphabet are sometimes used as charges in heraldry. The practice of weaving letters into the ornamentation of textile fabrics is very ancient in the East. Pliny says, “Parthi literas vestibus intexunt.” Fanciful designs imitating or copying oriental letters without meaning were worked in church textiles in early Christian times; and the artists of Italy up to the middle of the 16th century represented such devices on the hems of the garments of great personages in their paintings.

Leucite (λευκὸς, white). White spar, or white garnet; a white stony substance found among volcanic productions.

Leucomb, O. E. A dormer window.

Leucopyrite. A mineral used in the production of artificial orpiment.

Levacion, O. E. The elevation of the host in the mass.

Levant. The Eastern shores of the Mediterranean.

Levecel, O. E. A pent-house or projecting roof over a door or an open shed.

Levesele, O. E. A lattice. The original of the chequers on the door-posts of inns.

Levitonarium. (See Colobium.)

Lew, O. E. (modern lea). Sheltered from the wind; hence Lewe Water (modern luke-warm water).

Lewins, O. E. A kind of bands put about a hawk.

Libbard, O. E. A leopard.

Libella, R. (libra, a level or balance). (1) A level, or instrument employed by masons, joiners, and carpenters, in the same way as with us, for testing the evenness of the surface of their work. (2) A small Roman silver coin, afterwards substituted by the As, which it equalled in value.

Libellus or Libellulus, R. A small book, pamphlet, letter, or notice.

Liber (literally, the rind of the papyrus; Gr. βιβλίον, from the Egyptian word byblos, the papyrus plant). A book.—Parchment (membrana) was invented by Eumenes, king of Pergamos; hence its name of pergamentum. The paper (charta) or parchment was only written upon on one side; the other side was stained yellow. Writings were frequently washed off, and the parchment used again was called palimpsestus. The sheets forming a book were joined together and rolled round a staff, and then called a volume (volumen). The stick was usually ornamented with balls or bosses, ornamented or painted, called umbilici. The ends of the roll, carefully cut, polished with pumice-stone, and coloured black, were called geminæ frontes. The reader held the staff in his left hand to unroll the sheet (evolvere librum), as he proceeded, with his right. The roll, if valuable, was kept in a parchment case, which was stained with a purple colour, or yellow. The title of the book (titulus or index) was written on a small strip of papyrus or parchment with a light red colour (coccum or minium); and this practice was the origin of the art of illumination.

Liber Pontificalis, seu de gestis Romanorum pontificum. A work of the 15th century, of great value to the student of early Christian art work, and in particular of textiles and embroidery.

Libra, R. (1) A balance with two scales (lanx), depending by chains from the ends of the beam (jugum); in the centre of the latter was a handle (ansa). (2) The As or pound; the unit of weight. (See As.)

Libretto, It. The words of an opera, oratorio, &c.

Librile, R. (libra). A term denoting the ends of the beam (jugum) in a balance, and thence the balance itself; it is thus synonymous with Libra (q.v.).

Liburna, Liburnica, R. A vessel of war so called from the fact that it was built on a model invented by the Illyrian pirates, or Liburni.

Lichanos, Gr. (forefinger string). The note below the Mese of the seven-stringed lyre. (See Mese.)

Lich-gate. A shed over the gate of a churchyard to rest the corpse under. (See Corpse-gate.) (Fig. 197.)

Lich-stone—near a churchyard gate, for resting coffins on—is generally raised about three feet from the ground, shaped like a coffin, and has stone benches round it for the bearers to rest upon.

Liciæ, Med. Lat. (Fr. lices), from the Italian lizza, palings. The lists; an enclosed space surrounding a camp or castle.

Licium, R. A leash, or thick thread, employed to divide in two a set of threads in a warp, in order to allow the shuttle to pass through them. By analogy, any kind of thread or cord used for fastening.

Lictor, R. (See Fasces.)

Lieberkuhn. A reflecting mirror on a microscope, named after the inventor.

Lierne Rib (in a vault), Arch. (From lier, to bind.) “Any rib that does not arise from the impost, and is not a ridge rib, but crosses from one boss or intersection of the principal ribs to another. Vaults in which such liernes are employed are termed LIERNE VAULTS.” (Parker’s Glossary.)

Light Red. A pigment of a russet orange tint, produced from burnt ochre.

Lights. The openings between the mullions of a window. (See Days.)

Fig. 424. Ligula.

Ligula, R. (1) A small tongue-shaped sword. (Fig. 424.) The term is derived from lingua, a tongue. (2) A liquid measure, a large spoonful, distinguished from cochlear, which is a small spoonful. (3) The leather tongue of a shoe.

Lilies, in Christian art, are the symbols of purity; the special attribute of the Virgin Mary. They are frequent in the catacombs on the tombs of Christian virgins.

Lily or Iris Green (It. verde giglio). A pigment anciently used in Italy. It was prepared by dipping linen rags into the juice of plants, and then preserving them dry.

Lima, R. (1) A file or rasp, applied to the same purposes as at the present day. (See Scobina.) (2) In Med. Lat., a tool or weapon worn by archers in the French service, either as a kind of sword or for sharpening arrows with. (Meyrick.)

Limbeck, O. F. An alembeck.

Limbo, O. E. Hell.

“Beholde now what owre Lord Jhesu dide one the Saturday, as sune as he was dede. He went downe to helle to owre holy fadyrs that ware in lymbo to tyme of his Resureccione.” (MS. Lincoln. A. i. 17, f. 186.)

Limbus, R. An ornamental band or border resembling scroll-work or architectural foliage, employed as an ornament on dress, vases (especially on Etruscan vases), &c.; and thence (1) a ribbon worn as an ornament in the hair; (2) the zodiacal circle described on a globe (see Fig. 48); (3) a stout cord forming the main rope in a fishing-net; (4) in Med. Latin, a military tunic—the German Wapenrock; or a wrapper worn by soldiers round the head, temp. John, usually termed cargan. (Meyrick.)

Lime. Slaked lime, alone or mixed with pulverized white marble, was a white pigment used in fresco-painting.

Lime-hound, O. E. A sporting-dog in a lime or leash.

Limen, R. The threshold or step laid down before the entrance of a door; the same term is also applied to the lintel. Limen superius is the lintel, and limen inferius the threshold properly so called.

“Limen superum inferumque, salve!” (Plautus.)

Limer, O. E. A bloodhound. “A dogge engendred betweene an hounde and a mastyve, called a lymmer, or a mungrell.”

Limitour, O. E. A begging friar.

Limning, O. E. Painting, especially portrait painting.

Limoges Enamel. A kind of incrusted enamel on the system called champlevé; perfected at Limoges, in France, in the 15th century, and hence called Opus de Limogia. (See Enamel.) The enamels and METAL WORK of Limoges, in furniture, decoration of armour, and church utensils, are very important. The monument of Aylmer de Valence in Westminster Abbey is Limoges workmanship.

Limus, R. A kind of apron bordered with a purple hem, worn by the popa or attendant who killed the animal offered at a sacrifice.

Lincei. An academy for natural history, founded in Rome in 1603. They adopted the lynx for their device “because the academicians should have the eyes of a lynx to penetrate the secrets of nature.” (Mrs. Bury Palliser.)

Line of Beauty. A curve like an elongated S. (See Hogarth’s Analysis of Beauty.)

Line of Life. One of the lines in the hand; a term in palmistry.

Linea, R. (linum, a flax-thread). A line or any kind of string; linea alba, a rope whitened with chalk and stretched across the arena in a circus for the purpose of giving a fair start to runners, chariots, or riders.

Lined, Her. (1) Having a cord attached. (2) Having a lining.

Lineleon. Linseed oil. “Lineleon ex semine lini fiet.

Linen. Painting on linen was largely practised in England during the 14th century; and a drawing sent by Albert Durer to Raphael is described by Vasari as having been painted “in water-colours on a fine linen cloth, which showed the transparent lights on both sides, without white; water-colours only being added, while the cloth was left for the lights; which thing appeared wonderful to Raphael.” (Vasari, Vita di Raffaello.)

Linen-scroll. A decorative ornament, common in German wood-carving of the 15th and 16th centuries. It resembles a napkin stood on end, and partly opened into scroll-shaped cylinders.

Linset, O. E. The stool on which women sat while spinning.

Linsey-woolsey (O. E. Lylse-wulse). Coarse woollen stuff first made at Linsey in Suffolk.

Linstock, O. E. (15th century). A pike, with branches on each side to hold a lighted match for firing artillery.

Lintel. The stone or beam placed across a door or window overhead (limen superius).

Linteolum, R. and Chr. (linteum). Any small piece of linen, such as a napkin or handkerchief.

Linter, R. A flat boat, frequently formed of the trunk of a tree, used in shallow waters for the transport of produce; it was also used in the construction of bridges of boats.

Linum, R. (λίνον). Flax, and thence anything made of that fibre.

Lion, O. E. (from lie on). The main beam of a ceiling.

Fig. 425. Heraldic Lions.

Lion. In Heraldry, the lion couchant represents sovereignty; rampant, magnanimity; passant, resolution; guardant, prudence; saliant, valour; seiant, counsel; and regardant, circumspection. (See Leopard, Marzocco.)

Lioncel, Her. A lion drawn to a small scale, generally rampant.

Lions, in Christian art, typify the resurrection of the Redeemer; because, according to an oriental fable, the lion’s cub was born dead, and in three days its sire licked it into life. The lion also typifies solitude, and is therefore the attribute of hermits; and as the type of fortitude and resolution it was placed at the feet of martyrs.

Lip Moulding, Arch. So called from its resemblance to an overhanging lip. It is common in the Perpendicular period.

Liquid Madder Lake or Rubiate. A brilliant rose-coloured pigment, used in oil or water-colour painting.

Fig. 426. Liripipes. Italian, 16th century.

Liripipes, O. E. The long tails of hoods, which hung down the back. Worn also by the Italians. (Fig. 426.)

List, Arch. A straight upright ring encircling the lower part of a column, just above the torus, and next to the shaft.

Fig. 427. Listels.

List, Listel, Arch. A small square moulding, also called a fillet. Fig. 427 represents a base, the ornamentation of which is made up of numerous listels or fillets.

Litany Stool. In a church, a small low desk at which the Litany was sung.

“The priest goeth from out of his seat into the body of the church, and (at a low desk before the chancel door, called the faldstool) kneels and says or sings the Litany.” (Eliz. xviii. 1559.)

Literatus or Litteratus, R. (litera, a letter). In general, anything that is marked with letters; and thence (1) a slave who has been branded on the forehead with a hot iron, also called inscriptus, notatus, stigmatus. (2) A grammarian, learned man, or commentator.

Litharge. An ingredient of drying oil (q.v.).

Lithochrome. Another name for Chromolithography, or colour-printing.

Lithography, or drawing on stone, was invented by Aloys Senefelder of Munich in 1796. Drawings are made on a polished surface of calcareous stone, with ink and chalk of a soapy nature. The lithographic ink is made of tallow-soap, pure white wax, lamp-black, and a small quantity of tallow, all boiled together, and, when cool, dissolved in distilled water; the ingredients for the lithographic chalk are the same, with a small quantity of potash added during the boiling. After the drawing on the stone is perfectly dry, a very weak solution of sulphuric acid is poured over it, which takes up the alkali from the ink or chalk, and leaves an insoluble substance behind it, while it lowers in a slight degree the surface of the stone not drawn upon, and prepares it for the free absorption of water. Weak gum-water is next applied to close the pores of the stone, and to keep it moist. The stone is then washed with water, and the printing-ink applied in the ordinary way. It then passes through the press, the washing with water and daubing with ink being repeated after every impression. As many as 70,000 copies have in this way been taken from one stone, the last being nearly as good as the first. Copper-plate and steel engravings can be transferred to stone. (See the article “Lithography” in the Encyclopædia Britannica, 8th ed.)

Lithostrotum, R. (λιθό-στρωτον). The pavement of a Roman road, and thence any ornamental pavement, mosaic, incrusted marble, coloured inlaid-work, &c.

Litmus or Lacmus. The red, violet, and blue colours known as archil, cudbear, and litmus, are derived from certain lichens; litmus from the roccella tinctoria.

Liturgy (λειτουργός). The printed formulary according to which the public services in a church are performed.

Lituus, R. (an Etruscan word, signifying crooked). (1) A brass trumpet formed of a long, straight tube, but curved and opening out wide at the end like a tobacco-pipe. The tuba was straight, the cornu spiral. (2) An augur’s staff curved into the form of a crook, with which they divided the expanse of the sky into regions in their divinations.

Livery (Fr. livrée). Literally, the distribution; that is to say, of clothes to be worn by the servants of palaces, &c. (See Badges.)

Livery Colours. In the Middle Ages all great houses had their own livery colours. Thus those of the House of York were blue and crimson, those of the House of Lancaster white and blue, of the House of Tudor white and green, of the House of Stuart scarlet and gold.

Loaves, in Christian art, are the emblems of charity to the poor; the attribute of St. Philip the Apostle and other saints.

Lobe (of an arch), Fr.; Anglicé foil; e. g. a trefoil arch is arc trilobé.

Local Colour is the real fundamental colour of an object, considered apart from all accidental variations of light and reflexion.

Locellus, R. A box or casket; this term is a diminutive of Loculus.

Lochaber Axe. A short pole with a sharp axe at one end, an ancient weapon of the Highlanders of Scotland.

Locker, Chr. Arch. A cupboard for sacred vessels generally left in the thickness of the wall on the north side of the altar of a church. (See Secretarium.)

Locking up. Any process by which a colour, liable to be affected by damp, can be rendered durable.

Loculamentum, R. (loculus, a little place). Any box, chest, or case, the interior of which is divided into compartments.

Loculus, R. (dimin. of locus, a place). (1) A coffin, generally of stone. (See Sarcophagus.) (2) A compartment in the manger of a stable. (3) A small chest fitted with compartments.

Locutorium, Chr. Of a convent, &c., the parlour.

Figs. 428, 429. Badge of Richard II. in Westminster Hall.

Lodged, Her. Said of animals of the chase in repose. The illustration shows the favourite badge of Richard II.: a white hart chained, and in an attitude of rest. “This device is repeated in Westminster Hall 83 times; and all are equally consistent with heraldic truth and accuracy, without any of them being an exact counterpart of any other.” (Boutell, English Heraldry.) (Fig. 428.)

Loegria, O. E. England. (Geoffry of Monmouth.)

Logan Stones (properly logging stones, from O. E. log, to oscillate). Rocking stones (q.v.).

Logeum, Gr. (λογεῖον). A Greek term synonymous with Pulpitum (q.v.).

Loggia, It. The gallery, or corridor, of a palace.

Lombard Architecture. “A style invented by the Lombards (Longobardi) in the 7th century in imitation of the Roman. It continued in use till the 10th century, and gave place to the Norman style. It is rude, heavy, and massive, with small narrow windows.” (Parker.) The above is only one application of the term, which is applied by different writers to a great number of different styles. The Lombardesque style (It. lo stile Lombardesco) applies to the architectural works of the family of Pietro Lombardo (15th century). The Lombard Gothic is still another style (of the 12th century).

Loops, Loups, Arch. Another name for Crenels (q.v.), or embrasures.

Lord. The word is Saxon; from hlaf or klaf, a loaf of bread; and ford, to give; hence it means originally bread-giver.

Fig. 430. Gallic cuirass in the Louvre.

Fig. 431. Fragment of a Gallic cuirass.

Lorica, Gr. and R. (lorum, a thong). A cuirass; it was made either for officers, of two γύαλα, the breast and back-pieces; or, for the soldiers, of a number of small metal scales or bands, fastened together with rivets or rings, and flexible. Among the Asiatics the cuirass was frequently made of cotton; and among the Sarmatians, and other nations, of horn.

Lorimers, O. E. Bit-makers.

Lorraine Cross. A cross with two projecting arms on each side.

Lorraine Glass for painted windows; obtained from the Vosges as early as the 13th century, and then called Burgundy glass. “When any one means to paint, let him choose the Lorraine glass, which inclines to the white yellow because that bears the fire best, and receives the colour better than any other.” (Félibien, 1619.)

Lota. A sacred utensil in India, used in ceremonial and other ablutions. It is a globular bowl with a low narrow neck, sometimes chased or engraved and incrusted.

Fig. 432. Lotus-flowers.

Lotus (λωτός). The lotus is a frequently recurring cyma in Hindoo architecture. In Egyptian archæology, the lotus, of which two partially opened buds may be seen in Fig. 432, was the symbol of the rising of the sun, of fertilization, life, and resurrection. The lotus appears in the ornamentation of the largest as well as of the smallest monuments of Egyptian art; and is the motive of many of the columns and capitals of the temples and palaces of a certain period, as well as of the decoration of vases and other small objects. Three lotus-stems issuing from a basin symbolized Upper Egypt.

Louis d’Or, Fr. A gold coin, value about 20s., first struck in 1640.

Louis Treize Style (Arch.), a French version of Italian art, prevailed from 1625 to 1650, and produced Jean le Pautre, the ornamentist, and the following styles:—

Fig. 433. Heraldic Decoration at Versailles—Louis Quatorze.

Louis Quatorze, Arch. A style of ornament developed towards the close of the 17th century (1643–1715). It is described as “essentially an ornamental style, its chief aim being effect by a brilliant play of light and shade; colour, or mere beauty of form in detail, having no part in it. This style arose in Italy, and the Chiesa del Gesù at Rome is mentioned as its type or model. The great medium of the Louis Quatorze was gilt stucco-work, which, for a while, seems to have almost wholly superseded decorative painting; and this absence of colour in the principal decorations of the period seems to have led to its more striking characteristic,—infinite play of light and shade.” (Wornum, Analysis of Ornament.) In this style symmetry was first systematically avoided. In the Furniture of the period the characteristic details are the scroll and shell. The classical ornaments and all the elements of the Cinque-cento, from which the Louis Quatorze proceeded, are admitted under peculiar treatment, as accessories; the panels are formed by chains of scrolls, or a combination of the scroll and shell. Versailles is the great repertory of the Louis Quatorze (Fig. 433), and the designs of Watteau its finest exemplification.

Louis Quinze, Arch. This style (1715–74) is the exaggeration of the Louis Quatorze, rejecting all symmetry, and introducing the elongation of the foliations of the scroll, mixed up with a species of crimped conventional coquillage or shell-work. The style found its culmination in the bizarre absurdities of the Rococo.

Louvre, Arch. The open turret in the roofs of ancient halls, through which the smoke escaped before the introduction of modern chimneys.

Louvre-boarding or Luffer-boarding, Arch. A series of overlapping boards sloping from the top downwards, and from within outwards, and fixed in a framework of timber. They are placed in the apertures of towers and belfries for the sake of ventilating the timbers, and are sloped to prevent rain and snow from penetrating within, and to direct the sound of the bells downwards. Sometimes the wooden boardings are covered with lead, slate, or zinc, in order to preserve them.

Louvre-window, Belfry-arch, Arch. The large lights fitted with louvre-boarding in belfries.

Love-apple. The tomato is so called.

Love-feast. An annual feast celebrated in some parishes in England on the Thursday before Easter. (See Edwards’s Old English Customs.)

Love-in-Idleness, O. E. The heart’s-ease.

Love-knot. A complicated figure by which an interchange of affection is supposed to be figured.

Love-lies-bleeding, O. E. A flower; a kind of amaranth.

Love-lock. A long ringlet of hair worn on the left side of the head, and allowed to stream down the shoulder sometimes as far as the elbow. The love-lock is mentioned in Queen Elizabeth’s reign. “Will you be Frenchified, with a love-lock down to your shoulders, wherein you may weave your mistress’s favour?” (Quip for an Upstart Courtier.)

“Why should thy sweete love-locke hang dangling downe,
Kissing thy girdle-stud with falling pride?
Although thy skin be white, thy haire is browne;
Oh, let not then thy haire thy beautie hide.”
(The Affectionate Shepheard.)

Lovel, O. E. A dog.

“The Ratte, the Catte, and Lovell our dogge.
Rule all England under the hogge.” (1484.)

Low Side-window, Arch. A peculiar small window found in many churches near the west end of the chancel, and very near the ground. It was never glazed, but closed with wooden or iron gratings. Its object has never been ascertained. Most of the examples are of the 13th or 14th century. (See Archæological Journal, vol. iv. p. 314.)

Low Sunday, Chr. The Sunday next after Easter.

Lozenge. In Heraldry, the diamond-shaped figure used for a shield to display the arms of spinsters and widows. The lozenge is always placed upright on the shield, and its true proportions are as 5 to 4. (See Mascle.)

Lozenge Moulding or Lozenge Fret. An ornament used in Norman architecture, presenting the appearance of diagonal ribs, enclosing diamond-shaped panels.

Lozenges. A term in wood-engraving for a class of fine gravers used for outlines and very fine shading.

Fig. 434. Shield of Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent.

Lozengy, Her. A field divided lozenge-wise. (Fig. 434.)

Lucariæ, R. Festivals instituted at Rome to commemorate the refuge which the Roman army had once found in a wood (lucus) between the Via Salaria and the left bank of the Tiber. At the time of the invasion of the Gauls in the year 365 B.C., the Roman army would have been entirely cut to pieces but for this refuge.

Lucarne, Fr. Arch. A dormer or garret window.

Luce, Her. The fish now called a pike. (Fig. 380.)

Fig. 435. Bronze Lucerna. Roman.

Lucerna, R. (luceo, to shine). An oil lamp of terra-cotta or bronze. (Fig. 435.) On one side they had a handle, and on the other one or more places for wicks (myxæ). The oil was poured in through an opening in the centre. Lucerna bilychnis, trilychnis, polylychnis, and lucerna bimyxos, trimyxos, or polymyxos, were respectively lamps with two, three, or several nozzles, or with two, three, or several wicks; lucerna pensilis was a hanging lamp. (See Fig. 435.)

Lucidæ, Med. Lat. Lustrous varnishes.

Lucifer (lux, light; fero, to bring). The morning or evening star.

Lucta, Luctamen, Luctatio (Gr. πάλη, πάλαισμα, παλαισμοσύνη, or καταβλητική). Wrestling. In the Homeric age the wrestlers contended naked, excepting the perizoma round the loins; about B.C. 720 (the 15th Olympiad) this was discarded. The Cretans and Lacedæmonians, and afterwards the Greeks, anointed the body with oil, and then strewed it over with sand or dust. The Lucta or Palé differed from the Pancratium. In the latter, boxing and wrestling were combined, and the contest continued until one party was killed, or unable to continue. In wrestling, on the other hand, the victory was awarded to the man who first threw the other three times. The most famous wrestler of antiquity was Milo of Crotona, who flourished B.C. 509, and was seven times crowned at the Pythian games, and six times at Olympia.

Lucullite. A variety of black marble, first brought to Rome from an island at Assouan on the Nile by Lucullus.

Ludi. Games at festivals, or a general name for such festivals as consisted entirely of games and contests. Ludi circenses were games held in the circus, gladiatorial and other. (See Circus.) Ludi scenici were theatrical representations. Ludi stati, like the Feriæ statæ, were those held regularly on certain days marked in the calendar. Ludi imperativi, on the other hand, were held by special appointment, and votivi in fulfilment of vows. The games were superintended by the Ædiles. The principal games will be found described under the headings Apollinares, Augustales, Capitolini, Circenses, Compitalia, Floralia, Funebres, Liberales or Dionysia, Megalesia, Plebeii, Sæculares, &c.

Ludus, R. A game or pastime; ludus litterarius, or ludus simply, was a school for the instruction of youth; ludus duodecim scriptorum, a kind of backgammon played by the ancients; ludus fidicium, a music school; ludus gladiatorius, a school for gladiators directed by a lanista.

Lumachel (It. lumachella, a little snail). A marble full of fossil shells, and of beautiful iridescent colours, sometimes a deep red or orange; called also fire marble.

Luna, R. (lit. moon). An ivory or silver shoe-buckle worn by Roman senators. (Compare Lunula.)

Lunated. Crescent-shaped.

Lunette. (1) In Fortification, a work with two faces and two flanks, i. e. a Redan to which flanks or lateral wings have been added; in form, therefore, it resembles a Bastion. (2) In Architecture, a crescent or semicircular window, or space above a square window beneath a rounded roof. Hence the paintings on such a space are called lunettes; e. g. those of Raffaelle in the Vatican.

Lunula, R. (dimin. of luna). (1) An ornament in the form of a crescent worn by women round the neck. (2) The white moon-shaped marks at the roots of the finger-nails. (Cf. Menis.)

Lupatum, R. A jagged bit with teeth like a saw (lupus); whence its name.

Lupercalia, R. Festivals held at Rome on the fifteenth of the calends of March (15th of February), in the Lupercal, a sacred enclosure or cave on the Palatine, regarded as the den of the she-wolf who nursed Romulus and Remus. The luperci assembled together and sacrificed goats and young dogs, with the skins of which they ran through the streets half naked. [Lupercus, or Februus, was the god of fertility. The festival was originally a shepherd festival; the ceremony was symbolical of a purification of shepherds, and commemorated the time when Rome was a nation of shepherds.]

Lupus, R. (lit. wolf). (1) A hand-saw. (2) Lupus ferreus, a huge iron hook, lowered from the walls of a besieged place to catch the point of the battering-ram. (See Harpaga.)

Lura, R. Literally, the mouth of a large leathern sack for wine and oil, and thence the sack itself.

Fig. 435 a. Hawk’s Lure.

Lure. A falconer’s decoy, made of feathers on a cord, to attract a hawk back to the wrist. The illustration is a heraldic lure. (See Fig. 91. See also In Lure.)

Lusiad. The great epic of the Portuguese poet Camoens.

Lustratio (Gr. κάθαρσις). A purification, originally by water, afterwards by solemn ceremonies of sprinkling, or the smoke of sacrifice; made privately after deaths or accidental pollutions, and publicly on the occasion of public disasters, prodigies, or the like; and at certain fixed periods, especially at the close of every lustrum.

Lustricus (sc. dies), R. (lustrum, a lustration). The day of purification for a new-born infant, when it received its name.

Lustrum, R. (luo, to wash). A solemn purification performed by the censors on laying down their office, that is to say, every five years; whence the term was used to denote that space of time.

Lute (Arabic, el oud). A stringed instrument of great antiquity, first mentioned in Persia in 682 A. D. Before the 10th century the lute had only four strings, or four pairs producing four tones, each tone having two strings tuned in unison. About the 10th century a string for a fifth tone was added. The strings were made of silk neatly twisted. The neck of the instrument was provided with frets of string, regulated according to the system of seventeen intervals to an octave. The Chinese god of music is represented playing on a lute with four strings. The lute was very popular in England in Elizabeth’s time. Originally it had eight catgut strings, arranged in four pairs, each pair being in unison. The number of strings varied from time to time, and in the 17th century they were twenty-four. The size of the lute also varied; the treble lute was the smallest, and the bass lute the largest. There were also the Archlute, the Chitarrone, Theorbo, &c. (Consult Thomas Mace’s Musick’s Monument, 1676.)

Lycæa. A festival of the Arcadians in honour of Zeus Λυκαῖος.

Lyceium. A sacred enclosure at Athens, dedicated to Apollo Lycius, where the polemarch originally held his court. It was decorated with fountains, plantations, and ornamental edifices by Peisistratus, Pericles, and Lycurgus. Here Aristotle delivered his lectures, as he walked about with his followers, hence called “Peripatetics.”

Fig. 436. Lychnus.

Lychnus, Lychnuchus, R. (λύχνος, λυχνοῦχος). The former of these terms is of by far the most frequent occurrence. It denotes a kind of lantern or candlestick made to support oil lamps (lucernæ). Fig. 436 represents a lychnus supporting three lucernæ.

Lydian. Of music, soft and slow; generally effeminate.

Lydian Stone (Lydius lapis or Heraclius lapis) was a kind of flinty slate used by the ancients as a touchstone for the trial of gold and silver.

Fig. 437. Lymphad.

Lymphad, Her. An ancient galley, the feudal ensign of the house of Lorn, and as such quartered by the Dukes of Argyle. It is borne also by the Prince of Wales as “Lord of the Isles.” (Fig. 437.)

Lynx Sapphire. A lapidary’s term for dark-grey or greenish-blue varieties of the sapphire.

Lyon King at Arms. The Scotch Herald, Lord Lyon. The regalia of this officer are, a crown of gold, with a crimson velvet cap, &c.; a velvet robe reaching to his feet, with the arms of the kingdom embroidered thereon, both before and behind, in the proper tinctures; a triple row of gold chains round his neck, with an oval gold medal pendent thereto, on one side of which is the royal bearing, and on the other St. Andrew with his cross enamelled in proper colours, and a baton of gold enamelled green, powdered with the badges of the kingdom.

Lyra, Gr. and R. (λύρα). A lyre; a stringed instrument which assumed various forms. On Assyrian monuments the lyre occurs in three different forms, and is held horizontally in playing. Its front bar was generally either oblique or slightly curved. It was played with a plectrum or with the fingers. The Hebrew lyre is represented on coins of Judas Maccabæus. Some have three strings, others five, and others six. The two sides of the frames appear to have been made of horns of animals. The Hebrew square-shaped lyre is probably the Psalterion, the Kinnor, a lyre of triangular shape, the instrument of King David, is named in the Bible as the oldest stringed instrument, the invention of Jubal. The Rabbis record that King David used to suspend his over his pillow at night. On Egyptian monuments, at Beni Hassan, a Hebrew lyre is represented, probably of the date of Joseph, 1700 B.C. The Greeks had lyres of many kinds, distinguished by different names; Lyra, a generic term, and also the lyre oval at the base, to be held in the lap; Kithara, with a square base, to be held against the breast; Chelys, a small lyre with body made of tortoise-shell; Phormix, a large lyre, &c. Some lyres have a bridge, others have none; the largest were probably held on or between the knees, or were tied by a band to the left arm. The strings of catgut or sinew were twanged with a plektron or short stem of ivory or metal, pointed at both ends. The lyre was the most favourite instrument of the Romans, under various names. The Cornu had a frame ending at the top in two long horns; the Barbitos was a lyre with a large body; the Psalterium was of an oblong square shape, &c. The lyre is represented in early Christian monuments of the 4th century. In one of them the Saviour is represented as Apollo touching the lyre. Anglo-Saxon MSS. of the 9th century also represent the lyre. A German fiddle of the 9th century, with only one string, is called lyra in the MS. In Christian symbolism the lyre represented “the attractive power of the Lord.” (See Mese.)

Lysis, Arch. A plinth, or step above the cornice of the podium which surrounds the Pedestal.

M.

M-roof, Arch. A roof formed by the junction of two common roofs, with a valley between them.

Macabre. (See Dance of Death.)

Macaronic Verses. A burlesque of Latin, chequered with Italian, Tuscan, and plebeian words, described by the author:—

“Ars ista poetica nuncupatur Ars Macaronica, a Macaronibus derivata; qui Macarones sunt quoddam pulmentum, farina, caseo, butyro compaginatum, grossum, rude et rusticanum. Ideo Macaronica nil nisi grossedinem, ruditatem, et Vocabulazzos debet in se continere.”

Macchia, It. (lit. a spot or stain). “The blocking out of the masses of light and shade.” (See Eastlake’s Materials, &c., ii. 355.)

Mace (Fr. masse or massue). A military club or staff, generally of iron with a wooden handle, useful for breaking defensive armour. The mace was generally worn at the saddle-bow; and was subsequently perforated to form a pistol, and finally superseded by the pistol. In the Middle Ages the mace became an emblem of office; and is so still—usually surmounted by a crown. (See Clava, Club.)

Macellarius, R. (macellum, a market). A keeper of a shop for the sale of fruit and cooked provisions. His shop was called taverna macellaria.

Macellum, Gr. and R. (μάκελλον). A covered market in which were sold all kinds of provisions, such as fish, poultry, and game; it was distinct from the open market called Forum (q.v.).

Fig. 438. Maceria.

Maceria, R. (1) A rough wall formed of materials of every description, and having no facing. (2) An enclosed place unroofed. (Fig. 438.)

Machæra, Gr. and R. (μάχαιρα). A sword with only one edge, made rather for cutting than thrusting.

Machærium, Gr. and R. (μαχαίριον). Dimin. of machæra, a knife employed chiefly by fishermen.

Machærophorus, Gr. and R. (μαχαιρο-φόρος). Literally, armed with the hunting-knife, the machærium; an epithet of the so called barbarous nations, such as the Egyptians, Persians, Medes, Thracians, and Gauls.

Machicolated, Arch. Furnished with machicolations.

Machicolations (Fr. machicoulis), Arch. Openings or grooves made under the parapet of a fortified place, through which stones, pitch, boiling water, or hot sand were thrown down.

Macrochera, Gr. (μακρό-χειρ, long-armed). A tunic with long sleeves, called by the Romans Chiridota.

Macrocolum, Macrocollum, R. Paper of the largest size, that is to say, in sheets formed of a number of pieces of parchment or papyrus glued together.

Macula, R. The mesh of a net; in the plural maculæ.

Madder. The root of “rubia tinctoria” (Fr. garance), from which a number of valuable pigments are made, which are transparent and permanent, working equally well in oil and in water-colours. They vary from the lightest and most delicate rose to the deepest purple, and are known as rose madder, pink madder, madder-carmine, purple madder, brown madder, intense madder purple, and orange madder lake.

Madonna, It. The Virgin Mary. (See Joys.)

Mæander, Gr. (Μαίανδρος). An ornamental design so called from the numerous windings it described, like the river Mæander. Its proper name is the Greek Fret. (Figs. 334 to 336.)

Mælium. (See Melium.)

Mæmacteria, Gr. (μαιμακτήρια). Festivals held at Athens in honour of the boisterous or stormy Zeus (Μαιμάκτης), with the object of obtaining a mild winter.

Mænad, Gr. (μαινάς). Literally, a frenzied woman, and thence a bacchante. (See Baccha.)

Mænhir. (See Menhir.)

Mænia Columna, R. A column situated in the Roman forum, near which certain magistrates (triumviri criminales) judged criminals, slaves, and vagrants.

Mæniana, Mænianæ Scholæ, R. Celebrated schools of Gaul founded by Augustus at Autun (Augustodunum or Bibracte), so called because the buildings were furnished with balconies (mæniana). (See Mænianum.)

Mænianum, R. A structure supported on corbels; a balcony projecting from the wall of a house; in a theatre or amphitheatre, one range of seats comprised between two landing-places (præcinctiones). Originally a balcony erected round the Roman forum, B.C. 318, to give accommodation to the spectators of gladiatorial contests. Afterwards balconies in general were so called.

Maes, Celt. A Welsh word for a field of battle, common in topographical nomenclature.

Mafil. (See Mahfil.)

Mafors or Mavors (Gr. μαφώριον) was a short veil covering the head and neck and flowing down on the shoulders, such as nuns wear in imitation of the Virgin Mary.

Magadis, Gr. (μάγαδις). A musical instrument invented by the Lydians; it was a kind of harp, which changed its form and was afterwards called Sambuca (q.v.). (See Lyra.)

Maghreb Pottery. (See Gargoulette.)

Magi. The adoration of the Magi (commemorated on Christmas Day) is the subject of some of the earliest specimens of Christian art. A fresco in the catacomb of St. Agnes, representing the Magi before Herod, is attributed to the 2nd century, and the mosaics of St. Maria Maggiore at Rome, in which the same subject occurs, are of the 5th century.

Magnase Black. A colour which dries rapidly when mixed with oil, and is of intense body.

Mahfil, Arab. A raised seat in a mosque, for the imaum mocri who reads the Koran, and for the imaum khatib, who recites prayer, preaches, and acts as the minister of the services generally.

Mahl-stick. A stick with a pad at the end, upon which the painter rests the wrist of his right arm while working.

Mahogany. Wood of the Swietenia mahogoni of Jamaica and Honduras. Satin-wood, or green mahogany, is the Chloroxyllon; mottled, or African mahogany, is the Khaya; Indian mahogany is the Cedrela toona.

Mahoitres, O. E. The name of a singular fashion of the 15th century—“of prankyd gownes, and shoulders up set, moss and flocks sewed within”—of padding up the shoulder to give a broad appearance to the chest. (See Figs. 51, 355, and 469.)

Mail (from the Fr. maille, the meshes of a net). Applied to chain or ringed armour. “Rich mayles that ronke (strong) were and round.”

Mainefaire, O. E. The covering for a horse’s mane. It was made of overlapping plates, like a lobster’s tail; and was fastened to the testière by buttons, and round the animal’s neck by straps. (Meyrick.)

Maintenance, Cap of, Her. (See Chapeau.)

Fig. 439. Majolica Plate (Urbino Ware).

Maiolica or Majolica. The Italian name for the glazed earthenware introduced by Moorish potters from the island of Majorca. Originally these terms were only applied to “lustre wares,” but from the 16th century they were generally applied to the glazed earthenware of Italy. A coarser lead-glazed lustred ware was known as mezza-majolica. The distinguishing characteristics of the Majolica ware are “coarseness of ware, intricacy of pattern, and occasionally prismatic glaze.” It is also named Faience, from the botega at Faenza, and, when decorated with subjects after designs of Raphael, “Raffaelle-ware.” Fayence, terraglia, as distinct from Porcelain, is formed of potter’s clay (hence its English name Pottery) mixed with marl and sand, and is soft or hard according to the nature of the composition, and the degree of heat under which it is fired in the kiln. English earthenware is soft, while stone-ware, Queen’s ware, &c., are hard. Soft wares are either unglazed, or lustrous, or glazed, or enamelled. The Italian lustrous ware is properly, and the glazed ware improperly, but generally called Majolica.

Majesty (It. Maesta), Chr. A conventional representation of the Saviour in glory, on a throne, encompassed by a nimbus, and surrounded by cherubim, and the four evangelistic symbols, and the letters Α and Ω. “The only existing document relating to Cimabue shows that he was employed in 1301 on a mosaic ‘Majesty’ in the tribune of the Duomo at Pisa.” (Eastlake.)

Mala Pioba. Irish (mala, a bag). The bagpipe.

Malachite. A native carbonate of copper, forming a beautiful and permanent green pigment, used for oils and water-colours. Incrusted upon other materials it is used for articles of ornament. Blue malachite is pure carbonate of copper; green malachite is green carbonate of copper; emerald or royal malachite is dioptase of copper, a still rarer green and the best of all, which is a mixture of copper and silica; false or pseudo-malachite is phosphate of copper, soft and silky, and of a rich velvet green marred by black spots or lines, and not so rich as the three kinds of true malachite.

Malchus, R. An old term for a confessional having only one stool for penitents; it signified that which has only one ear, from the fact that Malchus, Caïaphas’ servant, was deprived of his right ear by Peter.

Malleability. The property of extension under the hammer (malleus). Gold is the most malleable of metals. The art of rendering glass malleable was discovered by an architect in the reign of Tiberius. Buried treasures of glass vessels have been found to be malleable when first disinterred, but to harden quickly on exposure to the air.

Malleus, R. (1) A hammer. (2) Med. The Maule (Gothic Miölner), Thor’s hammer; a military weapon.

Malluvia, Malluvium. R. A wash-hand basin.

Fig. 440. Malus of an Amphitheatre.

Malus, R. (malus, an apple-tree). (1) The mast of a vessel. (2) In theatres and amphitheatres (Fig. 440) mali were the poles over which the velarium was stretched.

Malveisin, Med. (Fr. malvoisin, a disagreeable neighbour). A military engine for projecting stones or arrows.

Mama-quilla, Peruv. One of the divisions of the temple of the Sun, Inti (q.v.); so called because it was dedicated to the moon, Mama-quilla.

Mamillare, R. (mamilla, the breast). (1) A broad band made of soft leather, a kind of small stays, used by the Roman ladies to support the breasts. (2) In Mediæval Latin, circular plates on the surcoat with rings from which two chains depended, one of which was attached to the sword and the other to the sheath. The fashion was introduced under Edward I., and continued until Henry V.

Mancop Oly, Dutch. Poppy oil, “a very white oil used by the painters in the Netherlands, who execute delicate works requiring lively colours, such as the vases of flowers of De Ghein, &c.” (Eastlake.)

Mandorla, Chr. (lit. an almond). (See Aureole and Vesica Piscis.)

Mandra, Chr. (lit. a fold). A favourite appellation for monastic establishments in the East.

Manducus, R. (mando, to chew). A comic masked character, distinguished by his ugliness and voracity (whence his name). (See Persona.)

Mandyas, Chr. In the Greek Church, an outer garment worn by monks. It is a long cloak, reaching almost to the feet, and fastened at the throat. It is originally a Persian dress, and is frequently mentioned as worn by emperors and kings.

Manefaire, O. E. A covering of armour for a horse’s mane.

Manes, R. The shades of the dead. (See Lemures.)

Manganese Brown. A rich semi-opaque brown pigment, permanent and drying well. (See Cappagh.)

Manger, Chr. The boards of the manger in which the Infant Saviour was laid, are said to be preserved in the crypt of the church of St. Maria Maggiore at Rome. They are called the culla, and are the object of a solemn procession on Christmas Eve.

Mangonell, Med. A military machine for hurling stones; the spelling is frequently varied:—

“Vous peussez bugles, mangoniaux
Veoir pardessus les carniaux.”
(Roman de la Rose.)

Manica, R. (manus, a hand). (1) An armlet, or piece of armour which protected the arm of the gladiator. (2) A leather glove worn by barbarous nations. In the plural, manicæ denotes (1) manacles; (2) a grappling-iron called Harpaga (q.v.).

Fig. 441. Manicore.

Manicora, Manicore, Chr. In Christian iconography, the manicora is a hybrid animal with a human head, and a globular body ending in a serpent. It is a symbol of the World, the Flesh, and the Devil. (Fig. 441.)

Maniple, Chr. A short stole held in the left hand, originally used as a napkin by the officiating priest. Afterwards it was worn pendent from the wrist, and richly decorated. (See Fanon.) The word is derived from—

Manipulus, R. (lit. a handful). (1) A maniple, the earliest ensign of the Roman legion; it consisted of a handful of hay attached to the end of a pole. (2) A body of infantry in a legion, consisting of about 180 to 200 men.

Mansard Roof, Arch, (so called from Mansard, the French architect, who introduced it), or Curb Roof (from the French courber, to bend). A roof with two sets of rafters, of which the upper part is, as it were, broken off, and not so steep as the lower. According to Mesanges, Mansard took the idea of his roof from a frame composed by Segallo, and Michael Angelo employed it in the construction of the dome of St. Peter’s. The houses in Lower Brittany were covered with these roofs in the end of the 15th century.

Manse, O. E. The parsonage-house.

Mansio, R. (maneo, to remain). Stations placed at intervals along the high roads, to serve as halting-places for the troops on a march. (See Mutatio.)

Mantapa, Hind. A porch to a temple.

Mantel-piece, Arch. (formerly mantil). A cloak or covering; hence the slab which covers a part of the fireplace; the canopy over a shrine (Latin mandualis).

Mantelet or Mantlet. A shed used for protecting soldiers from missile weapons. (See Pluteus.)

Mantica, R. (manus, the hand). A double wallet serving as a portmanteau for riders or pedestrians.

Mantle. A flowing robe worn over the armour, as shown in the costume of the knights in the ivory mirror-case. (Fig. 463.)

Mantling or Lambrequin. A small mantle, of some rich materials, attached to the helmet, and worn hanging down, and ending in tassels. (See Fig. 177.) It is usually represented, in Heraldry, with jagged ends, to represent the cuts it would be exposed to in actual battle.

Manuale, R. (manus, the hand). A wooden case for a book.

Manuballista, R. A hand-ballista. (See Arcuballista.)

Manubrium, R. (i. e. what is borne in the hand). A general term for a handle of any kind. (See Fig. 377.)

Manus Ferrea, R. Literally, a hand of iron; an iron hook which served as a grappling-iron, differing from the harpaga, as it was launched at the end of a chain, while the harpaga was fixed on a long beam (asser).

Marble. The finest for statuary, from Carrara, is of a pure white; that from Paros is of a waxy cream colour; others coloured with metallic oxides are available for ornamental purposes. Many cements have been produced as “artificial marble.” (See Scagliola.)

Marble Silk had a weft of several colours so woven as to make the whole web look like marble stained with a variety of tints. On the 6th of November, 1551, “the old qwyne of Schottes rod thrught London; then cam the lord tresorer with a C. great horsse and ther cotes of marbull.” Its use prevailed for three centuries.

Marbling “is an art which consists in the production of certain patterns and effects by means of colours so prepared as to float on a mucilaginous liquid. While so floating they form into patterns, which are taken off on to a sheet of paper (for book-covers), or to the smoothly cut edges of a book, by dipping.” (Woolnough, The Whole Art of Marbling, 1881.)

Marcus, R. A blacksmith’s hammer; a sledge-hammer. (See Malleus.)

Mardelles, Margelles, or Marges, Celt. Excavations met with in several parts of Europe, supposed to be Celtic.

Mark, O. E. An ancient coin, value 13s. 4d.; formerly the equivalent of 30 silver pennies.

Marmouset, Arch. Fr. (monkey). A grotesque figure introduced into architectural decoration in the 13th century.

Marouflage, Fr. (maroufler, to line). A method of house-painting in France, upon a lining of prepared canvas fixed upon the surface to be decorated.

Fig. 442. Marquess’s coronet.

Marquess, Marquis, Her. The second order of the British peerage, in rank next to that of duke, was introduced into England in 1387 by Richard II. The coronet, apparently contemporary in its present form with that of the dukes, has its golden circlet heightened with four strawberry-leaves and as many pearls arranged alternately.

Fig. 443. Shaft ornamented with Marquetry.

Marquetry. Inlaid-work of ornamental woods and stones of various colours put together and mixed with metals. The art has existed from the earliest ages; but no nation has brought it to a higher degree of perfection than the Italians of the 15th century. The Florentines especially have produced work of this kind which is unapproached; the Medici chapel at Florence may be particularly instanced. Figs. 443 and 444 represent specimens of antique work. The Venetian marquetry, derived from Persia and India, is a fine inlay of ivory, metal, and woods, stained to vary the colour. This work is in geometric patterns only. In France, in the early marquetry designs, picturesque landscapes, broken architecture, and figures are represented. Colours are occasionally stained on the wood. Ivory and ebony are the favourite materials. In England, it is an art imported from Holland in the reign of William and Mary. The older designs on Dutch marquetry represent tulips and other flowers, foliage, birds, &c., all in gay colours, generally the self colours of the wood used. Sometimes the eyes and other salient points are in ivory and mother-of-pearl. (Compare Boule, Certosina Work, Emblemata, Musivum Opus, Reisner-work, &c.)

Fig. 444. Marquetry.

Fig. 445. Marra.

Marra, R. A kind of hoe with indented teeth, used for tearing up weeds. (Fig. 445.)

Mars Brown. A brown pigment.

Mars (Reds, &c.). Calcined earths of which the brightness of the redness is regulated by the duration of the roasting.

Fig. 446. Teapot of Marseilles faience.

Marseilles Faience. This ancient city has at all times been celebrated in the ceramic arts. Fig. 446 gives a representative specimen of modern polychrome work, decorated with flowers easily recognized by the disposition of their long stalks. These flowers are, in other specimens, accompanied by marine landscapes. Other polychrome services are called from their designs “services aux insectes.”

Marsupium, R. (μαρσύπιον). A purse for containing money; it was made of leather and shaped like a pear, being confined at the top with a string. (Hence the adjective marsupial applied to the kangaroo, &c.)

Martel de Fer, Med. A weapon which had at one end a pick, and at the other a hammer, axe-blade, half-moon, mace-head, or other fanciful termination. (Meyrick.)

Fig. 447. Early Heraldic Martlet.

Fig. 448. Heraldic Martlet.

Martlet, Her. Bird, usually represented without feet. (Figs. 447, 448.)

Martyrium, Chr. An altar erected over the tomb of a martyr.

Fig. 449. Il Marzocco, the bronze Lion now in the Bargello at Florence. By Donatello (about A. D. 1420).

Marzocco, It. The Lion of Florence. The heraldic emblem of the city. (Fig. 449.)

Fig. 450. Etruscan Mask in terra-cotta.

Mascaron, Arch. Fr. A mask; the face of a man or animal employed as an ornamentation for decorating the key-stones of arches or vaults, or the stones of an arch, &c. (Fig. 450.)

Mascle, Her. The central lozenge of a diapered surface; it is drawn with right angles.

Maser or Mazer, O. E. A bowl of maple-wood. The name is applied to similar bowls or goblets of other woods.

“The mazers four,
My noble fathers loved of yore,”

are mentioned by Scott in “The Lord of the Isles.” They were richly ornamented, frequently with legends on the rim, such as

“In the name of the Trinitie
Fille the kup and drinke to me,”

and the rim was often covered with silver or gold.

Massicot. The name of an ancient pigment of a dull orange colour.

Mastaba, Mastabê, Egyp. An outer chapel attached to Egyptian burial-places; it was generally a small quadrangular building, the door of which faced the East.

Master Arch, O. E. The central or widest arch of a bridge.

Mastic. A resin used for varnish. (Dissolve one part of mastic resin in two of oil of turpentine.) (See Varnish.) In France, the term is applied to a cement used to fill up joints in masonry; in joinery, to a composition of wax, resin, and pounded brick, applied to fill up knots and chinks in the wood. Putty is also so called.

Mastigophorus, Gr. and R. (μαστιγο-φόρος). A slavedriver, and thence an officer who fulfilled the same functions as our policemen. The mastigophori were so named because they carried a whip (μάστιγα φέρειν), in order to put down any crowding or tumult; it was also part of their duty to repress any infringement of the regulations at the public games.

Match-lock. A gun which was exploded by means of a match, before the introduction of the flint and steel. (See Fire-lock.)

Materiatio, R. (materia, materials). The timber-work of a roof, consisting of two principal rafters (canterii), a tie-beam (tignum), a ridgepiece (calcimen), beams (trabes), struts (capreoli), purlines (templa), and common rafters (asseres).

Materis, R. A Celtic javelin with a broad head.

Matralia, R. (i. e. pertaining to a mother). The festival of Matuta (the Ino of the Greeks), which was held at Rome every year on the third of the ides of June (11th of June). Prayers were offered by the Roman matrons on behalf of their nephews, they being afraid to pray for their own children, since those of Matuta had turned out so unfortunately.

Matronalia, R. A festival of the Roman matrons held on the calends of March, at which matrons offered sacrifices to Mars and Juno Lucina.

Mattucashlash. An ancient Scotch weapon, sometimes called the armpit dagger, being worn on the arm ready to be used on coming to close quarters.

Maule. (See Malleus.)

Maunde, O. E. A basket.

Fig. 451. Mausoleum of Hadrian at Rome. In its original state.

Mausoleum, R. The tomb of Mausolus, king of Caria, at Halicarnassus, ranked among the seven wonders of the world. The name was afterwards applied to tombs of an imposing size and splendour, such as the tomb of Augustus in the Field of Mars, and that of Hadrian, on the banks of the Tiber, now known as Fort St. Angelo. A representation of it, in its original state, is shown in Fig. 451.

Mauve is the colour of a peach blossom; obtained as a dye from aniline found in gas tar.

Maze, Chr. Labyrinthine figures in the pavements of churches and on the turf of greens. To trace the former kneeling was a species of penance.

Mazmorra, Sp. A tank lined with cement, sunk in the ground and used for storing grain. (See Murray’s Handbook, Spain, p. 361, Granada, &c.)

Mazonum, Gr. (μαζο-νομεῖον; μᾶζα, barley-bread). A wooden platter for domestic use, and thence a salver of bronze or gold on which perfumes were burnt in the religious processions of Bacchus.

Fig. 452. Old Mechlin Lace, 17th century.

Fig. 453. Mechlin Lace, 18th century.

Mechlin Lace is fine, transparent, and effective. It is made in one piece on the pillow; its distinguishing feature is the flat thread which forms the flowers, and gives to the lace the character of embroidery. In 1699—when Charles II.’s prohibition to the introduction of Flanders lace was removed—Mechlin lace became the fashion in England, and continued so during the succeeding century. In the 17th century the Beguinage nuns were celebrated for their lace-making, and they supported their house by their work. Previous to 1665 the name of Mechlin was given to all pillow lace, and much of it was made like our modern insertion. The engraving shows a specimen of old Mechlin lace formerly in great favour as head-dresses and other trimmings.

Medallion. (1) A medal of a larger size than the ordinary coinage. (2) In Architecture, a circular or oval tablet on the face of a building.

Mediæval. (See Middle Ages.)

Medimnus, Gr. (μέδιμνος). The principal Greek measure of capacity, holding as much as six Roman modii. It was especially used for measuring corn.

Meditrinalia, R. (medeor, to remedy). Roman festivals in honour of Meditrina, the goddess of healing, celebrated on the 11th of October, at which new wine was tasted, it being looked upon by the Romans as a preservative of health.

Medium. The liquid in which pigments are ground. The best are linseed oil and nut oil.

Fig. 454. Medusa Head on a shield.

Medusa Head was frequently used as an ornament for the centre of a shield. (Cf. Gorgoneia.)

Megalartia, Gr. (μεγαλάρτια). Festivals held at Delos in honour of Ceres, who was called Megalartos (Μεγάλαρτος) from her having bestowed bread on mankind.

Megalesian (games), R. (Ludi megalenses). Festivals celebrated annually on the 4th of April in honour of Cybelê, who was called the Great (Μεγαλεῖα), in which the people went in procession to the Field of Mars to witness scenic spectacles. The magistrates attended these spectacles in a purple toga, or “toga prætexta;” hence the expression “Purpura Megalensis.”

Megylp. A vehicle used by some oil-painters, condemned as tending to destroy the permanency of the picture.

Melides, Gr. Nymphs of fruit-trees. (Cf. Hamadryades.)

Melina, R. A pouch made out of the skin of a marten (or a badger, meles).

Melium, R. A collar for sporting-dogs, studded with nails and iron spikes (clavulis, capitatis).

Mell. (See Malleus.)

Melotte, O. E. A garment worn by monks during laborious occupation. (Halliwell.)

Membrana, R. (membrum, skin). Parchment for writing on was introduced as a substitute for the Egyptian papyrus by Eumenes II., king of Pergamus. It was usually written over on one side, and the back was stained with saffron. The writings were frequently erased, and the paper or parchment used again. It was then called a palimpsest. All the sheets used for one work were joined together into a long scroll, which was folded round a staff, and then called volumen; usually there were ornamental balls or bosses, projecting from the ends of the staff, called umbilici or cornua. The ends of the roll were carefully cut and blackened; they were called geminæ frontes. The roll itself was kept in a parchment case, which was stained purple or yellow. (See also Liber.)

Membranula, R. (dimin. of membrana). A small strip of parchment on which the title or contents of a volume were inscribed in minium.

Menat, Egyp. An Egyptian amulet worn on a necklace. The menat evidently formed some symbol, the meaning of which has hitherto not been discovered.

Menehis or Minihis, Fr. This term, derived from the Celtic menech-ti (house of a monk), or manach-li (free spot of earth), was formerly used in Brittany to denote a place of asylum which had been consecrated in any way.

Menhir, Celt. A Celtic monument consisting of a huge stone fixed upright in the ground. Menhirs are found associated with dolmens, tumuli, and circles of stones. (Consult Bertrand, Archéologie Celtique et Gauloise, p. 84.)

Menis, Meniscus, Gr. and R. (μηνίσκος; μήνη, the moon). A crescent-shaped piece of metal which was placed on statues of the gods to hinder birds from settling on them. The same term was used to denote an ornament, likewise in the shape of a crescent, placed by the Romans at the beginning of their books; hence the expression a menide, from the beginning. (Cf. Luna.)

Mensa, R. (Gr. τράπεζα). A board, tablet, or table; mensa escaria, or mensa simply, a dining-table; mensa prima, secunda, the first, second course of a meal; mensa tripes, a table with three feet, in contradistinction to monopodium, a table with a single leg; mensa vinaria, a drinking-table (see Delphica); mensa sacra, an altar-table; mensa vasaria, a table for holding vessels; mensa publica, a public bank; hence mensarii, bankers.

Mensao, Celt. A Celtic monument more usually called Menhir (q.v.).

Mensole, Arch. A term denoting the key-stone of an arch.

Menzil, Orient. Houses in the East for the reception of travellers, in places where there are neither caravanserais nor khans.

Mereack, Hind. A sort of thick black varnish employed by the Khmers to coat over statues made of any soft stone, which are exposed to the changes of the weather. This varnish was, in many instances, itself covered with gold leaf.

Merkins, O. E. A name given to ringlets of false hair, much worn by ladies temp. Charles I.

Merlons, Arch. The Cops or raised parts of a battlement. Figures of warriors or animals are sometimes carved on the tops. (See Battlement.)

Fig. 455. Mermaid and Pillars of Hercules. Arms of the Colonna family.

Mermaid. An ancient device of the Colonna family was the mermaid between the pillars of Hercules, with the motto Contemnit tuta procellas.

Mesaulæ (μέσ-αυλα). (1) The narrow passage or corridor which, in a Greek house, connected the andron with the gynæceum. (2) The door in this passage.

Mese (the middle, sc. χορδή). The central note of the seven-stringed lyre. The Greeks had no names to distinguish musical notes. They were expressed by the names of the strings of the lyre. Thus, Nete, d; Paranete, c; Paramese, b flat; and Mese, a, in the treble or upper tetrachord; and Lichanos, g; Parhypate, f; and Hypate, e, in the base or lower tetrachord.

Mesjid, Arab. A small mosque. These exist in great numbers. The Sultan Mohamet II. alone consecrated 170 mesjids in Constantinople.

Messe, A.S. The Mass.

Messle-house or Meselle-house, O. E. (from the obsolete word measle, a leper). A hospital or lazar-house.

Fig. 456. Meta of a Roman race-course.

Meta, R. (metior, to measure). Any object with a circular base and of conical shape; in a circus the term meta, or rather metæ (for there were two sets of goals), was applied to a set of three cones placed together upon a pedestal, as shown in Fig. 456, to mark the turning-points of the race-course. In a mill for grinding corn the name of meta was applied to the lower part of the mill, which was hewn into the form of a cone. (See Circus, Ovum, Spina, &c.)

Metal, Tech. (1) A mass of glass in the state of paste, adherent to the pipe and already blown; it may be regarded as the first stage in the production of a piece. (2) Broken glass. (3) Broken stones for repairing roads.

Metal, Her. The tinctures or and argent.

Metallic Canvas. A combination of metal and canvas; waterproof for various uses.

Metallic Lava. A composition of gravel, pounded chalk, tar, and wax, forming an artificial stone to be cast into ornamental shapes in moulds. The vestibule of the Euston Station is paved with this preparation. (Builder, vi. 502.)

Metallurgy. It was at a comparatively late period of human civilization that the art of working in iron was brought to perfection. The ancient Egyptians, probably aware of its resources, had a superstitious objection to its use; but they hardened bronze to a degree unknown to later ages, and their bronze statuary of the most ancient period is worthy of any age. The bronze-work of Britain and Ireland is as ancient as any; and, in beauty of form and perfection of casting, rivals the best modern work. Of the work in Greece we are told that Athens alone contained 3000 bronze statues in the year 130 B.C., and vast treasures of metallurgy have been discovered in Herculaneum and Pompeii. In mediæval times Ireland was famous for metallurgy, and of its admirable copper-works of the 11th century many splendid relics remain, especially the so called Bell of St. Patrick. Oriental bronzes, of characteristic design, are plentiful from all ages; especially beautiful and perfect in execution are those of China and Japan. The best period of workmanship in Iron is the Middle Ages; gates and hinges, keys, and especially weapons and defensive armour being the chief objects produced. (Consult Pugin, Digby Wyatt.) (See also Bronze, Copper, Damascening, Gold, &c.)

Fig. 457. One of the carved Metopes of the Parthenon, representing the War of the Centaurs and the Lapithæ.

Metope, Arch. (μετ-όπη, i. e. the space between the ὀπαί). A kind of panel between the triglyphs in the Doric frieze (Fig. 458); in some Greek examples quite plain, in others ornamented with sculpture. The metopes of the Parthenon in the British Museum are carved with representations of the war of the Centaurs and Lapithæ. (Fig. 457.) (See Elgin Marbles.) In Roman buildings the metopes are usually carved, and are exact squares; but in the Greek Doric this was not necessary.

Fig. 458. Metopes and Triglyphs (Doric).

Metreta, Gr. (μετρητὴς, i. e. measurer). The unit in the Greek measures of capacity; it held two cotylæ, or about eight gallons.

Meurtrière, O. E. “A black knot, that unties and ties the curles of the hair.” (Ladies’ Dict., 1694.)

Mews, O. E. Originally a courtyard for “mewing” (i. e. moulting) hawks.

Fig. 458 a. Mexican temple—Teocalli.

Mexican Architecture. The principal monuments of the valley of Mexico are situated in a small tract in the centre of the table-land of Anahuac. These consist of pyramidal temples (teocallis) formed in terraces, with flat tops, and always surmounted by a chamber or cell, which is the temple itself. In Yucatan there are more architectural remains than anywhere in the world, with palaces of all dates, generally pyramidal, and often rich with elaborate carvings. (See Stephens’s Incidents of Travel in Yucatan.) (Fig. 458 a.)

Mezza-majolica was the coarser majolica ware formed of potter’s earth, covered with a white “slip,” upon which the subject was painted, then glazed with the common lead glaze, over which the lustre pigments were applied; the majolica, on the other hand, being the tin-enamelled ware similarly lustred. (See Majolica.)

Mezzanine, Entresole, Half-story, Arch. A small story intermediate between two others of larger size. A mezzanine or Flemish window was a window either square or broader than it was long, made in an attic, or in a lower story lying between two higher stories.

Mezzo-relievo, It. Sculpture in relief, in which one half of the figure projects; sometimes called Demi-relievo.

Mias, Hind. A commemorative monument.

Mica, Micatio, R. (mico, to move quickly). A game called by the Italians of the present day mora; two players simultaneously stretching out one or more fingers, and each guessing the number held up by his adversary.

Middle Ages. The mediæval period—of transition between ancient and modern times—between the 10th and the 15th centuries is one of the grandest periods in art. It begins with the decay of Rome, and merges into the Renaissance.

Middle Distance, in a landscape:—between the foreground and the background. Great skill is displayed in the expression of distance by the effects of intervening atmospheres, and by the design of intermediate plans carrying the eye onward and suggesting space.

Middle Ground in a landscape. (See Middle Distance.)

Middle Pointed Period of Architecture is a name given to that period of Gothic architecture in England, which is generally described as “the Decorated Period.”

Middle Post. The King-Post in the truss of a roof.

Fig. 459. Jardinière—Milan Faience.

Milan Faience. Fig. 459 is an illustration of the Oriental imitations for which Milan was famous. “It is,” says M. Jacquemart, “of such beautiful enamel that it might be taken for porcelain. The upper and lower edges are decorated with shells, scrolls, and rocailles in relief, heightened with gold; the whole surface has a decoration of peonies and sprigs in blue, red, and gold, which rival in beauty the richest specimens of old Delft.”

Fig. 460. Milan Reticella Lace.

Milan Lace. The engraving shows a specimen of Old Milan Point or Reticella from the convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie in that city. (See Reticella.) (Fig. 460.)

Miliarium, R. (1) A tall narrow copper vessel employed in baths for heating the water. (2) The column of an olive-press (trapetum), which rose from the centre of the mortar (mortarium).

Military Architecture. The science of building fortresses and fortifying town walls, &c. [See Viollet le Duc, “Essai sur l’Architecture militaire au Moyen Age.”]

Milled Money, with grooved edges, was first coined in this country in 1561.

Millefiori. Mosaic glass. (See Glass.)

Fig. 461. Roman Mile-stone at Nic-sur-Aisne in France.

Milliarium, R. (mille, a thousand, sc. paces). A column placed at intervals of a mile (1618 English yards) along a Roman road to indicate the distance. (Fig. 461.) It was also called lapis. Milliarium aureum was the name given to the golden mile-stone erected by Augustus in the Forum, where the principal roads of the Empire terminated. A stone, called the “London Stone,” in Cannon Street, E.C., is supposed to have marked the centre of the Roman roads in Britain.

Mill-rind, Fer-de-Moline, Her. The iron fixed to the centre of a millstone.

Millstone-grit. The name of a good building stone, plentiful in the north of England. It is supposed to be formed by a re-aggregation of the disintegrated materials of granite. (See the Builder, vol. ix. 639.)

Millus, R. (See Melium.)

Mimbar, Arabic. A pulpit in a mosque. A finely-carved mimbar is in the South Kensington Museum.

Minah, Minar, Hind. A tower or pillar. The Surkh Minar and Minar Chakri, among the topes at Cabul, are almost the only pillars existing in India. They are generally ascribed to Alexander the Great, but are probably Buddhist monuments of the 3rd or 4th century of our era.

Minaret (Arabic menarah, a lantern). A feature peculiar to Mohammedan architecture. A tall, slender shaft or turret, rising high above all surrounding buildings of the mosque to which it is attached; in several stories, with or without external galleries, but usually having three. From these galleries the muezzin summon the faithful to prayer. Blind men are generally selected for this duty, because the minaret commands a view of the house-tops used as sleeping-chambers in the East.

Mineral Black. A native oxide of carbon.

Mineral Blue. A native carbonate of copper which is liable to change its tint to green, if mixed with oil. (Fairholt.)

Mineral Brown. (See Cappagh.)

Mineral Green. Malachite (q.v.). (See Carbonates of Copper.)

Mineral Lake is a French pigment, a kind of orange chrome.

Mineral Yellow. A pigment of chloride of lead, which becomes paler by time. The name has also been applied to Yellow Ochre and Yellow Arsenic (q.v.).

Minerval, R. A present or fee which Roman scholars took to their masters every year, on the fourteenth of the calends of April (19th of March), that is, on occasion of the festivals of Minerva.

Minever, O. E. (1) Either the pure white fur with which the robes of peers and judges are trimmed—“minever pure;” or (2) the ermine with minute spots of black in it—minutus varius—in lieu of the complete tails; or (3) the fur of the ermine mixed with that of the small weasel. (Consult Planché’s Cyclopædia; see also Vair.)

Miniature. Literally, a painting executed in minium (vermilion). Now used for any small picture, and especially for a small portrait.

Ministerium, Chr. All the sacred ornaments and utensils of a church taken collectively.

Minium. A kind of red lead obtained by exposing lead or its protoxide to heat, till it is converted to a red oxide. It is a fine orange pigment, but fugitive and liable to decomposition when mixed with other pigments. The ancient minium was cinnabar, or vermilion. (See Illuminating.)

Minnim, Heb. Stringed musical instruments of the lute or guitar kind.

Fig. 462. Minotaur. Device of Gonzalvo Perez.

Minotaur, R. A monster, half man, half bull, confined in the labyrinth constructed by Dædalus in Crete. It was assumed as a device by Gonzalvo Perez, with the motto from Isaiah xxx. 15. (Fig. 462.)

Minster, Abbey-church, O. E. (Germ. Münster). A church to which a monastery was attached; a cathedral. The name survives in “West-minster.”

Minstrel Gallery, O. E. The LOFT in a church was so called.

Minuscule. (See Semi-uncials.)

Minute, It. A subdivision of the module in the measurement of architectural proportion. It is the twelfth, the eighteenth, or the thirtieth part of the Module.

Mirador, Sp. A belvedere, or overhanging bow-window.

Fig. 463. Mirror-case of carved ivory—14th cent.

Mirror. In the Middle Ages mirrors were often enclosed in cases of metal or carved ivory. The example (Fig. 463) gives a representation of the Siege of the Castle of Love from one of the romances of the period. (See Glass.)

Mirror, Arch. A small oval ornament cut into the deep mouldings, and separated by wreaths of flowers.

Miserere. A projecting bracket, on the sellette of a church stall, on which, when the seat was turned up, there was a leaning-space, available to the infirm during the parts of the service required to be performed standing. (See Sellette.)

Misericorde. The narrow-bladed dagger used to put the victory with sword or lance to the test, by obliging a fallen antagonist to cry for mercy, or by despatching him.

Mis’rha, Hind. Hindoo temples built with two kinds of materials; whence their name of mixed (mis’rha). (See Sud’ha, Vimana, and Sancira.)

Missilia, R. (i. e. things thrown). Presents of cheques or tickets thrown by the emperor and wealthy persons among the people. The cheques were payable to the bearer at the magazine of the donor. (See Congiarium.)

Mistarius, Mixtarius, R. Any vessel of large size used for mixing water with wine.

Mitella, Gr. (dimin. of mitra). (1) A head-band or coif of peaked form worn by Greek women. (2) A scarf used as a bandage or support for a broken arm.

Mithriatic (Festivals), Pers. and R. Festivals held in honour of Mithras, the Persian sun-god.

Mitis Green. (See Emerald Green.)

Mitra, Gr. and R. (μίτρα). (1) A mitre or head-dress of the Galli or priests of Cybelê; it was a Phrygian cap of felt, which was tied under the chin by lappets; it was also called a Phrygian tiara. (2) A cable fastened round the hull of a vessel to strengthen the timbers.

Fig. 464. Mitre. Arms of St. Alban’s Abbey.

Mitre, Chr. Her. The ensign of archiepiscopal and episcopal rank, placed above the arms of prelates of the Church of England, sometimes borne as a charge, and adopted by the Berkeleys as their crest. The contour of the mitre has varied considerably at various times, growing continually higher and more pointed. It was first worn by bishops about the close of the 10th century. Bishops had three kinds of mitres: the simplex, of plain white linen; the aurifrigata, ornamented with gold orphreys; and the pretiosa, enriched with gold and jewels, for use at high festivals. (Fig. 464.) In Architecture, the corner line formed by the meeting of mouldings intercepting each other at an angle.

Mitten, Mitaine, Anglo-Norman. A glove; not restricted to gloves without fingers. “Gloves made of linnen or woollen, whether knit or stytched: sometimes also they call so gloves made of leather without fingers.” (Ray.) (See Muffetee.)

Moat, Mote. (1) Originally a heap or hillock; the dune on which a tower was built, forming the original castle. The Saxons assembled on such moats or mounds to make laws and administer justice; hence their word witten-mote for parliament. (2) Mod. Usually applied to the fosse of a rampart, the side next the fortress being the scarp, and the opposite the counterscarp.

Mobcap, O. E. A cap tying under a woman’ chin by an excessively broad band, generally made of the same material as the cap itself. (H.)

Moccinigo. A small Venetian coin, worth about 9d. (H.)

Mochado, Mokkado, O. E. (1) A silk stuff, commonly called “mock velvet,” much used in the 16th and 17th centuries. (Fairholt.) (2) A woollen stuff of the same kind. (Halliwell.) It was probably a mixture of silk and wool. (Planché.)

Modena Pottery. The antique pottery of Modena is referred to by Pliny and Livy, but there is no exact record or marked example of wares produced there during the Renaissance. The manufacture flourishes now at Sassuolo, a town ten miles south of Modena.

Modesty Bit or Piece, O. E. “A narrow lace which runs along the upper part of the stays, before, being a part of the tucker, is called the modesty piece.” (Guardian.) “Modesty bits—out of fashion” is an announcement in the London Chronicle, vol. xi. 1762.

Fig. 465. Modillion.

Modillions, Arch. Small brackets under the coronæ of cornices; when square they are called Mutules. In the Corinthian order they have carved leaves spread under them. Fig. 465 is taken from the temple of Mars the Avenger, at Rome.

Modius, R. (modus, a measure or standard). The largest Roman measure of capacity.

Module, Arch. A measure adopted by architects to determine by the column the proportions of the different parts of a work of architecture. It is usually the diameter or the semi-diameter of the shaft of the column.

Mœnia, R. A term synonymous with Murus (q.v.); but more comprehensive, in that it implies not merely the idea of walls, but also of the buildings attached to them.

Mœnia lata videt, triplici circumdata muro.” (Virgil.)

Mogul Architecture is that of the buildings erected in the reigns of the Mogul emperors, kings of Delhi, from A. D. 1531 to the present century.

Moilon (Fr. moellon), Arch. Rubble-masonry.

Mokador, Mocket, O. E. A napkin, handkerchief, or bib.

“Goo hom, lytyl babe, and sytt on thi moderes lap,
And put a mokador aforn thi brest,
And pray thi modyr to fede the with the pappe.”
(Twentieth Coventry Mystery.)

Fig. 466. Mola versatilis.

Mola, R. (molo, to grind). A mill; mola manuaria, a hand-mill; mola buxea, a box-wood mill, or mill for grinding pepper; mola aquaria, a water-mill; mola asinaria, a mill worked by a beast of burden; mola versatilis, a grindstone (Fig. 466 represents Love sharpening his arrows, from an engraved gem); mola olearia, a mill for crushing olives.

Mold, O. E. (for mould). Earth; ground. The word is constantly applied to the ground in works of art. (See Degrevant, 1039; Halliwell.)

Moline, Her. A cross terminating like the Mill-rind. In modern cadency it is the difference of the eighth son.

Mollicina, Molochina (sc. vestis), R. (μολόχινα, i. e. mallow-coloured). A garment made from the fibres of a mallow (hibiscus).

Mona Marble. A beautiful marble of a greenish colour, obtained in the Isle of Anglesea.

Monastic Orders consisted of Benedictine or black monks, and Cistercian or white monks. There were the Regular Orders, the Military Orders, the Conventual Orders, Colleges, &c.

Monaulos, Gr. and R. (μόν-αυλος, single-flute). A Greek pipe made of a reed, of Egyptian origin, blown at the end without a reed mouthpiece, and remarkable for the sweetness of its tone.

Monelle, Monial, Moynel, Arch. (See Mullions.)

Moneris, Gr. (μον-ήρης, single). A galley or ship with a single bench of rowers.

Fig. 468. Monile. A Gaulish collar.

Fig. 467. Monile. Details of ornament.

Monile, Gr. and R. A necklace or collar. Fig. 468 represents a bronze necklace belonging to the Gaulish period, and Fig. 467 a part of the same necklace on a larger scale. By analogy the term was applied to the ornaments worn by horses about the neck. (See Necklaces.)

Monks, Chr. In the religious iconography of the Gothic period, especially the 14th and 15th centuries, there frequently occur grotesque representations of monks. (See Fig. 351.)

Monmouth Cap, O. E. A cap worn by soldiers and sailors.

Monochord. A one-stringed musical instrument, much used for measuring the proportions of length which yield the various sounds within an octave.

Monochrome Painting. (1) Painting in a single colour, as, for instance, red upon a black ground, or white upon a red ground. The most numerous class of specimens of this kind of painting are upon terra-cotta, as the Etruscan vases. (2) The term is applied to paintings in tints of one colour, in imitation of bas-reliefs.

Monogram. A combination of two or more letters into one design, illustrated especially in ecclesiastical decoration of the 14th and 15th centuries, &c. The abbreviation IHS is said to have been invented by St. Bernardino of Siena about 1437. For Artists’ monograms, see Stellway, Heller, Brulliot (Dictionaries of Monograms).

Monolith (μονό-λιθος). An object formed of a single block of stone.

Monolium, Monolinum, R. A necklace formed with a single string of pearls. (See Monile.)

Monoloris, R. (Gr. μόνος, one, and Lat. lorum, a thong. A hybrid word). Decorated with a single band of purple and gold, like the Paragauda (q.v.).

Monopodium (sc. mensa), R. (μονο-πόδιον). A table with a single foot.

Monopteral, Arch. (μονό-πτερος). With a single wing; a circular temple or shrine, consisting of a roof supported on columns, without any cella.

Monostyle, Arch. (1) Piers of a single shaft are sometimes distinguished by this name from compound piers, then called for distinction polystyle. (2) A building which is of one style of architecture throughout; or (3) surrounded by a single row of pillars.

Monota, Gr. A vase with one ear (or handle).

Monotriglyph, Arch. The intercolumniation in the Doric order, which embraces one triglyph and two metopes in the entablature. (Parker’s Glossary of Architecture.)

Monoxylos, Monoxylus, Gr. and R. (μονόξυλος). Literally, hewn or made out of a single piece of wood.

Monsters, in Architecture. (See Centaur, Griffin, Grotesques, Sphinx, &c.)

Monstrance, Expositorium, Chr. (monstrare, to show). An ornamental vessel of gold, silver, silver-gilt, or gilded or silvered copper, representing usually a sun with rays, in the centre of which is a lunule or glass box in which the consecrated wafer is carried and exposed on the altars of churches. The earliest monstrances, which are now called expositories, do not date beyond the 12th century. Very ancient specimens exist at Rheims, Namur, &c.

Montem. An annual custom at Eton; a procession of boats ad montem. (See Brand, i. 237.)

Montero. “A close hood wherewith travellers preserve their faces and heads from frostbiting and weather-beating in winter.” (Cotgrave.)

Monteth, O. E. A vessel used for cooling wine-glasses in. (Halliwell.)

Mont-la-haut. “A certain wier (wire) that raises the head-dress by degrees or stories.” (Ladies’ Dict., 1694.)

Montmorency Escutcheon. (See the illustration to Hunting flask.)

Monumentum, R. (moneo, to remind). In general, any token, statue, or monument intended to perpetuate the memory of anything. Monumentum sepulchri is the name given to a tomb. The Monument of the Great Fire of London, erected by Sir Christopher Wren, is of the Italo-Vitruvian-Doric order, of Portland stone, and consists of a pedestal about 21 feet square, with a plinth 27 feet, and a fluted shaft 15 feet at the base; on the abacus is a balcony encompassing a moulded cylinder, which supports a flaming vase of gilt bronze, indicative of its commemoration of the Great Fire. Defoe describes it as “built in the form of a candle with a handsome gilt frame.” Its entire height is 202 feet, and it is the loftiest isolated column in the world. Its interior contains a spiral staircase of 345 black marble steps. (See Cochlis.)

Monyal, O. E. for Mullion (q.v.).

Moorish Architecture, or Arabian or Mohammedan architecture, arose at the beginning of the 7th century in the East, and in Spain, Sicily, and Byzantium in Europe. The style originated in a free adaptation of different features of Christian architecture, and their earliest mosques were built by Christian architects. The horse-shoe arch is a very early characteristic of their style, and the pointed arch appears at Cairo and elsewhere three centuries earlier than in Europe. The most perfect specimen of the luxury of decoration of which this style is capable is found in the Alhambra. (See Alhambraic Architecture; consult the Essai sur l’Architecture des Arabes et des Mores, by Girault de Prangy, 1841.)

Moor-stone. A very coarse granite found in Cornwall and some other parts of England, and of great value for the coarser parts of building; it is also found in immense strata in Ireland. Its colours are chiefly black and white.

Moot-hall, O. E. A public assembly-house; a town hall, &c. (See Moat.)

Mora, R. (mora, an obstacle). A projection or cross-bar on a spear to prevent its penetrating too far.

Mordaunt, Fr. The catch for the tongue of the buckle of a belt.

Moresco-Spanish, or Saracenic Textiles wrought in Spain, are remarkable for an ingenious imitation of gold, produced by shreds of gilded parchment cut up into narrow flat strips and woven with the silk.

Moresque or Moresco-Spanish Architecture is the work of Moorish workmen, executed for their Christian masters in Spain. The most remarkable examples are in the city of Toledo (described by Street, Gothic Architecture in Spain).

Morion. A head-piece of the 16th century, introduced by the Spaniards, who had copied it from the Moors, to the rest of Europe about 1550. It was worn as late as the reign of Charles I. There were peaked morions, coming to a point at the top; and high combed morions, surmounted by a kind of crest or ridge.

Moriones, R. (1) Idiots, dwarfs, or deformed persons, used as slaves, to afford amusement in the houses of the great. (2) A dark-brown gem; perhaps the smoky topaz.

Morisco, O. E. (See Morris Dance.)

Moristan, Arab. A hospital.

Morne, Mornette. The head of a blunted tilting-lance, the point being turned back.

Morning Star, O. E. A club called also a Holy Water Sprinkler (q.v.).

Morris Dance, O. E. (or Moorish). A very ancient dance, of masked and costumed performers, with bells, &c.

Morris Pike, O. E. (for Moorish). Long pikes copied from those of the Moors, the staves of which were covered with little nails.

Morse, Chr. (Fr. mordre, to bite). The clasp or brooch which fastened the cope on the breast. (See the illustration to Pope.)

Mort, O. E. (death). The notes blown on the horn at the death of a deer.

Mortuary Palls, in the Middle Ages, for the covering of the biers of dead people were richly decorated. One at Amiens is decorated, upon white stripes on a black ground, with skulls and bones and the words “memento mori” interspersed.

Mosaic, or more correctly Musaic Work. Opus Musivum, glass mosaic; Opus Tesselatum, clay mosaic; Opus Lithostrotum, stone mosaic.

Mosaic Glass, Millefiori. (See Glass.)

Mose. (1) Probably a dish (“Dyschmete” made of apples was called “Appulmoce”). (2) For Morse (q.v.).

Moton, O. E. A piece of armour intended to protect the right armpit, used in the reigns of Henry VI., Edward IV., and Richard III.

Mottoes, in Heraldry, are words, or very short sentences, sometimes placed above the crest, but generally below the shield. Mottoes are sometimes emblematical or allusive, and frequently punning, as the “Set on” of the Setons, the “Tight on” of the Tittons, and the “Est hic” of the Eastwicks. (See Labels [2].)

Mould. (See Mold.)

Mouldings. A general term for the varieties of outline given to subordinate parts of architecture, such as cornices, capitals, bases, &c. These (described in their places) are principally: the Fillet or List, the Astragal or Bead, the Cyma Reversa or Ogee, the Cyma Recta or Cyma, the Cavetto or hollow moulding, the Ovolo or quarter round, the Scotia or Trochilus. These are frequently enriched by foliage, egg and tongue and other ornaments, &c. (See the article in Parker’s Glossary of Architecture for a history of the diversities of the mouldings in the different styles.)

Moulinet. A machine for winding up a cross-bow.

Mound, Her. A globe encircled and arched over with rich bands, and surmounted by a cross-patée; an ensign of the royal estate. (See Crown, Orb, Regalia.)

Mountain or Mineral Blue (Green). (See Carbonates of Copper.)

Fig. 469. Mug of Moustiers make.

Moustiers Faience. Moustiers in Provence is one of the most important of the French ceramic centres. The mug represented in Fig. 469 is coloured with varied enamels, and ornamented with medallion and wreaths.

Muckinder, Muckinger, O. E. A pocket-handkerchief (sc. dirty).

Mueta, Med. Lat. (Old Fr. muette). A watch-tower.

Muffler. A handkerchief covering the chin and throat, and sometimes used to cover the face (muffle or muzzle).

“I spy a great peard under her muffler.” (Shakspeare.)

Muffs were introduced into England from France in the reign of Charles II. They were previously known in England, but were subsequently more common, and used by both sexes. Very little variation has occurred in their manufacture.

Muglias, Arab. A kind of pastilles; a substance employed in the Middle Ages for making odoriferous beads; they were burnt for fumigations.

Mulctra, Mulctrale, Mulctrum, R. and Chr. (mulgeo, to milk). A milk-pail for milking cows. In Christian archæology it is a pastoral vessel which is a eucharistic symbol.

Fig. 470.

Fig. 471.

Mullets, Her. Stars generally of five, but sometimes of six or more rays. Fig. 470 is of the date 1295, and Fig. 471 its development in 1431.

Mulleus, Mule, R. (mullus, a red mullet). A red half-boot, which only certain magistrates had the right of wearing, viz. the ancient dictators, consuls, prætors, censors, and ædiles.

Mullions or Munnions, Arch. The slender piers which separate a window into several compartments.

Multifoiled, Arch. Having many Foils (q.v.). This term is synonymous with POLYFOILED.

Mummy. This pigment should be made of the pure Egyptian asphaltum, ground up with drying oil or with amber varnish.

Mummy-cloths (Egyptian) were of fine unmixed flaxen linen, beautifully woven, of yarns of nearly 100 hanks in the pound, with 140 threads in an inch in the warp, and about 64 in the woof.

Muniment-rooms, to be strong and fire-proof, were erected over porches, gateways, &c. They contained charters, archives, &c. (See Charter-house.)

Munnions, Arch., for Mullions (q.v.).

Mural. Generally, on a wall; as—

Mural Arch. An arch against a wall, frequent in the aisles of mediæval buildings.

Fig. 472. Mural crown.

Mural Crown (Her.) represents masonry, and is embattled. (See Corona.)

Mural Monument. A tablet fixed to a wall, &c.

Mural Painting. (See Fresco, Tempera, &c.)

Murex, R. (1) A Triton’s horn or conch; (2) murex ferreus, a caltrap, thrown down to hinder the advance of cavalry, its long spikes being so arranged as to pierce into the horses’ feet, and so disable them. (See Caltraps.)

Murrey, O. E. A reddish purple or mulberry colour. The livery of the House of York.

Murrhina, Murrhea, and Myrrhina, R. Murrhine vases; they are spoken of by Pliny, and have given rise to interminable treatises and discussions, with the sole result that no light whatever has been thrown on the nature of these vases.

Murrhine Glass. (See Glass.)

Fig. 473. Walls of Megalopolis.

Murus, R. Walls as defences and fortifications, in contradistinction to paries, the wall of a building. Fig. 473 represents a portion of the walls of Megalopolis. (See Mœnia.)

Muscarium, R. (musca, a fly). (1) A fly-flap. Hence (2) The tail of a horse. (3) A case in which papers were shut up in order to preserve them from fly-stains.

Muses, the personifications of the liberal arts, are represented conventionally as follows:—

Calliope. The Muse of epic poetry; a tablet and stylus, sometimes a roll.

Cleio. The Muse of history; seated in an arm-chair with an open roll of paper, sometimes with a sun-dial.

Euterpe. The Muse of lyric poetry; with a double flute.

Melpomene. The Muse of tragedy; with a tragic mask, the club of Hercules, and sword; crowned with the vine-leaves of Bacchus, and shod in the cothurnus; often heroically posed with one foot on a fragment of rock.

Terpsichore. The Muse of choral dance and religious song; with lyra and plectrum. As the Muse of religious poetry, her expression is dignified and earnest.

Erato. The Muse of erotic poetry and soft Lydian music; sometimes has the lyre, sometimes is represented dancing, always gentle and feminine in expression.

Polyhymnia. The Muse of the sublime hymn and divine tradition; usually appears without any attribute, in an attitude of meditation; sometimes the inscription ΜΥΘΟΥΣ (of the myth).

Urania. The Muse of astronomy; points with a staff to a celestial globe. (Lachesis, one of the Parcæ, has the same attributes.)

Thaleia. The Muse of pastoral life, of comedy, and of idyllic poetry; appears with the comic mask, a shepherd’s staff, and a wreath of ivy, or basket; sometimes dressed in a sheepskin.

The Muses are sometimes represented with feathers on their heads, alluding to their contest with the Sirens, whom they stripped of their wing feathers, which they wore as ornaments. (Hirt. Mythologisches Bilderbuch, p. 203.)

Museum, Gr. and R. (Μουσεῖον). Literally, a temple of the Muses. The term was afterwards applied to an establishment founded by Ptolemy I., called Soter, at Alexandria in Egypt, in which scholars and literary men were maintained at the public expense. In a villa, it was a grotto or retreat to which people retired for meditation.

Fig. 475. Opus musivum.

Fig. 474. Opus musivum.

Musivum (opus), R. (μουσεῖον). This term was used by the Romans to denote a mosaic of small cubes of coloured glass or enamel, in contradistinction to Lithostrotum (q.v.), which was a pavement made of real stones and marbles of different colours; but in a more extended sense, the term Musivum denotes any kind of mosaic. Figs. 474 and 475 show examples of various kinds. Fig. 476 is a mosaic forming a border.

Fig. 476. Opus musivum—bordering.

Muslin, originally esteemed for the beauty with which gold was woven in its warp, took its name from the city of Mousull in Turkey in Asia.

Musquet. A long heavy match-lock gun, introduced from Spain in the Dutch wars of the 16th century, which eventually displaced the harquebus. (See Snaphaunce and Wheel-lock.)

Musquet-rest. A staff with a forked head required to support the musquet. It was trailed by a string from the wrist.

Mustarde Villars, O. E. Either (1) a kind of cloth, probably so named from Moustier de Villiers, near Harfleur; or else (2) (as Stowe says) “a colour, now out of use.” Mustard was a favourite colour for liveries and official dresses in the 15th century.

Mutatio, R. Literally, change. The Romans gave the name of mutationes to the posthouses for relays of horses established along the high roads for the service of the state.

Mutch, O. E. An old woman’s close cap. (Fairholt.)

Mute, Fr. This term, derived from the Latin muta, is employed by ancient authors as a synonym for belfry, turret, or bell-tower.

Mutule, Arch. In a general sense, any stone or wooden projection which stands out beyond the surface of a wall, such as a rafter, for instance. In a more restricted sense, it denotes an architectural ornament characteristic of the Doric order, consisting of a square block placed at equal intervals above the triglyphs and metopes in a Doric cornice. In the Corinthian order mutules are replaced by modillions.

Mynchery, A.S. A nunnery. The word survives in local dialects, and is applied to the ruins; e. g. of the ancient mynchery at Littlemore, near Oxford.

Myrtle Crown for bloodless victors. The myrtle was sacred to Venus. It flourished on the sea-coast of Italy and Greece. The wood is very hard, and is used for furniture, marquetry, and turning. Another myrtle wood from Van Diemen’s Land is beautifully veined for cabinet-work.

Myth, Gen. (μῦθος, lit. that which is spoken). The name given to obscure traditions handed down from remote antiquity, antecedent to written or precise history; opposed to legendary record (which can be read).

N.

Nablia, Nablum. A stringed musical instrument; a kind of cithara in the shape of a semicircle.

Nacre, Fr. Mother-of-pearl, the iridescent inner lining of the pearl mussel or oyster.

Nacreous Shells. Iridescent shells. Several kinds are used for manufactures, as some species of Meleagrina, Turbo, Nautili, &c.

Nadir (Arab. nadhir, opposite). The part of the heavens directly under our feet; opposite to the Zenith.

Nænia. (See Nenia.)

Naga, Malay. Jars with the figure of a dragon traced on them.

Naga Architecture (Hind. naga, a poisonous snake). Temples dedicated to the worship of the seven-headed snakes are found in Cashmere, remarkable for their identity of style with the Grecian Doric, unlike anything found in any other part of India. [Consult Fergusson, History of Architecture, ii. 703–732.]

Nagara. A Hindoo name for a music-gallery in front of the Jain temples.

Nahinna. A Persian manufacture of majolica. The Comte de Rochechouart says that the ancient faience of Persia is as admirable as the modern is detestable, though it retains a degree of oriental elegance.

Naiad. A water-nymph.

Nail. In cloth measure, 2¼ inches.

Nail-head Moulding, Arch. An ornament formed by a series of projections resembling round or angular nail-heads.

Nainsook, Hind. A thick sort of jaconet muslin.

Naipes, Sp. Playing-cards. The word is supposed to be derived from the initials of Nicolao Pepin, the inventor. (Diccionario de la Lengua Castellana.) Hence the Italian naibi.

Naked Flooring, Arch. The timber-work which supports a floor.

Namby-pamby. Affectedly pretty. The term originated in criticism of an English poet of the 17th century—Ambrose Phillips.

Nancy Biscuit. A peculiar porcelain made at Nancy. The faïencerie was established in 1774 by Nicolas Lelong.

Nankeen. A buff-coloured cotton cloth, introduced from the province of Nankin, in China.

Nân-mo, Chinese. A beautiful wood, resembling cedar, used for temples, palaces, and houses of state.

Nantes. Manufactories of white faience were established here in 1588 and 1625; and that of Le Roy de Montilliée and others in the 18th century.

Naology. The science of temples. (See Dudley’s Naology, or a Treatise on the Origin, Progress, and Symbolical Import of the Sacred Structures of the World.)

Naos, Gr. The interior apartment of a Greek temple; the cella of the Roman temple.

Napery. A general term for made-up linen cloth.

Naphthar, Heb. (lit. thick water). The name given by Nehemiah to the substance that they found in the pit where the sacred fire of the temple had been hidden during the Captivity. This “thick water, which” (the legend says) “being poured over the sacrifice and the wood, was kindled by the great heat of the sun and then burnt with an exceedingly bright and clear flame,” was the naphtha of modern commerce.

Napiform (Lat. napus, a turnip). Turnip-shaped.

Napkin (little nape). A pocket-handkerchief.

“Your napkin is too little.” (Othello.)

Napkin Pattern. A decorative ornament very common in German wood-carving of the 15th and 16th centuries. (See Linen-Scroll.)

Naples Majolicas were already celebrated early in the 16th century. M. Jacquemart describes some vases of colossal size, evidently constructed for “la grande décoration,” being painted on only one face; handles in the form of caryatids add to the majestic appearance of these vases; the subjects are scriptural, executed in blue camayeu picked out in black; the design is free, elegant though rather straggling, and the touch is bold and spirited.

Naples Yellow (It. giallolino). A compound of the oxides of lead and antimony, having a rich, opaque, golden hue. As a pigment for oil painting and for porcelain and enamel, it is now superseded by chromate of lead. As a water-colour pigment it is liable to blacken upon exposure to damp or bad air.

Napron. An apron used by mediæval masons. Limas was another kind of apron worn by them.

Nard (Lat. nardus). Ointment prepared from the spikenard shrub.

Nares, Lat. (the nostrils). (1) The perforations in the register-table of an organ, which admit air to the openings of the pipes. (2) The issue of a conduit.

Fig. 477. Narghilly—Persian.

Nargilé or Narghilly, Persian. A tobacco-pipe with an arrangement for passing the smoke through water. The illustration is the bowl of a Persian pipe of this description, in Chinese porcelain. (Fig. 477.)

Nariform (Lat. naris, the nostril). Nose-shaped.

Narthex, Chr. The vestibule of a church; sometimes within the church, sometimes without, but always further from the altar than the part where the “faithful” were assembled. Hence it was a place for the catechumens. The narthex communicated with the nave by the “beautiful gates,” and with the outside by the “great gates.” In monastic churches the narthex was the place for the general public.

Nasal, O. E. The bar of a helmet which protected the nose.

Nask, Hind. A quoin, or coin-stone.

Natalitii Ludi, R. Games in the circus in honour of an emperor’s birthday.

Natatorium. A cold swimming-pool in the baths. That at Pompeii is of white marble twelve feet ten inches in diameter, and about three feet deep, with three marble steps, and a seat round it raised about ten inches from the bottom. There is a platform or ambulatory round the bath, also of marble. (See Sigma.) The ceiling is vaulted, with a window in the centre. (See Baptisterium.)

Natatorium, Chr. A baptismal font; Gr. κολυμβήθρα (piscina probata).

Natinz. A Persian manufacture of majolica. (See Nahinna.)

Nativity. While the Adoration of the Magi is one of the commonest subjects of early Christian art, the Nativity is one of the rarest. It is not found in any catacomb frescoes, or the mosaics of any basilicas or churches. The only examples are sculptural, and this on ivories, gems, &c. On these generally the Child is seen wrapped in swaddling clothes as the central object, the star appears above, the Virgin on a rude couch, and sometimes St. Joseph rapt in thought, his head resting on his hand; the ox and the ass appear behind, and shepherds with curved staves stand by adoring.

Natural. In Music, a character marked ♮ used to correct the power of a previous sharp or flat. A natural scale is a scale written without sharps or flats.

Naturalisti, It. Artists who work on the principle of a close adherence to the forms and colours actually combined in natural objects. The epithet was particularly applied as a term of reproach to the founders of the modern Dutch school of painting. (See Ideal.)

Fig. 478. Naumachia, from a coin of Domitian.

Naumachia (ναῦς, a ship, and μάχη, a battle). (1) A spectacle representing a sea-fight, a subject frequently represented on coins and sculptures. (2) A building erected for such shows. Napoleon I. had a theatre at Milan filled with water for a sea-fight.

Fig. 479. Nautilus. Device of the Affidati Academy.

Nautilus. A shell-fish that sails on the surface of the sea in its shell. Its spiral univalve shell is a common motive in ornamental design.

“Learn of the little nautilus to sail,
Spread the thin oar, and catch the driving gale.”
(Pope.)

The illustration is the device of the Affidati, an Italian literary Academy, with the motto “Safe above and below.”

Fig. 480. Naval crown.

Navalis Corona. (See Corona Navalis.) (Fig. 480.)

Nave, Arch. (so called from its vaulted roof resembling in shape an inverted ship (navis); or from nave, the centre of anything). The middle part or body of a church between the aisles, extending from the choir to the principal entrance. The Germans call this part of a church “Schiff.”

Navette, Navicula, Chr. The vessel, in the shape of a boat, in which incense is placed for the supply of the thurible.

Navicella, Chr. A celebrated mosaic, at Rome, of a ship tossed by storms and assailed by demons; emblematic of the Church.

Neanderthal. A valley near Dusseldorf, in which bones and skulls were found of men asserted to have been præadamite.

Neat-house, O. E. A cattle-shed.

Nebris, Gr. (from νεβρὸς, a fawn). A fawn’s skin, worn originally by hunters; an attribute of Dionysus, and assumed by his votaries. It is represented in ancient art as worn not only by male and female bacchanals, but also by Pans and Satyrs. It was commonly put on in the same manner as the ægis, or goat’s skin, by tying the two fore-legs over the right shoulder, so as to allow the body of the skin to cover the left side of the wearer.

Nebular (Lat. nebula, a mist). Belonging to the nebulæ, or clusters of stars only visible as a light, gauzy appearance or mist in the skies.

Fig. 481. Nebule Moulding.

Nebule Moulding. A decorated moulding of Norman architecture, so called from the edge forming an undulating or waving line. (See Fig. 481.)

Fig. 482. Nebulée.

Nebulée, Her. A dividing and border line, as represented in Fig. 482.

Nebulous. Cloudy or hazy.

Nebuly, Her. Ornamented with light wavy lines.

Neck, Arch. The plain part at the bottom of a Roman Doric or other capital, between the mouldings and the top of the shaft. (See Hypotrachelium.)

Fig. 483. Necklace. Costume of a Roman lady of the 16th century.

Necklaces. An ornament common to all ages and nations. The ancient Egyptians of both sexes wore them of gold or beads, generally with a large drop or figure in the centre, and strung of the various religious emblems; amethysts, pearls, gold or cornelian bottles, imitations of fish, shell, and leaves; finally, an infinite variety of devices. (See Wilkinson’s Ancient Egyptians, ii. 343.) An illustration of a common form of Greek necklaces is given under Crotalium. The British women of the earliest ages wore necklaces of jet, ivory, and amber, beads, shells, &c., besides gold links hooked together. (See also Monile, Torque.) The Anglo-Norman ladies do not appear to have worn necklaces, and no mediæval examples are found earlier than the 15th century. (See Figs. 303, 304, 483.)

Neck-mouldings, Arch. The mouldings at the bottom of the capital, in Gothic architecture.

Necrodeipnon, Gr. A feast after a funeral; a common subject on tombs. A horse’s head is usually placed in one corner of the representation, as an emblem of death as a journey.

Necrologium, Chr. A book kept in religious houses for the names of the founders and benefactors to be mentioned in the prayers.

Necromancy (Gr. νεκρὸς, the dead, and μαντεία, prophecy). Calling up the spirits of the dead for divination; hence generally applied to conjuring. Necromancy was practised in two ways: by inspection of the entrails, and by invoking the dead.

Necropolis, Gr. A city of the dead; a cemetery.

Nectar, Gr. The drink of the gods.

Necysia, Gr. Offerings of garlands of flowers and other objects made at the tombs of deceased relatives on the anniversary of the day of death, or, as some suppose, on their birthdays. (See Genesia.)

Needfire, or Fire of St. John Baptist (Old Germ. Nodfyr, Niedfyr). A superstitious practice of the ancients, derived from a pagan source, of celebrating the birthday of St. John Baptist at the midsummer solstice (St. John’s Eve) by lighting fires, carrying about firebrands, or rolling a burning wheel. The practice is one of many examples of the caution with which the evangelizing ecclesiastics of the Middle Ages refrained from abruptly disturbing the deeply-rooted superstitions of the ancient Germans. [Consult Grimm’s German Mythology; Brand, Popular Antiquities.]

Needle, Arch. An obelisk (q.v.)

Fig. 484. Needle Point Lace.

Needle Point in relief. To Venice belongs the invention of the two most perfect productions of the needle—“Point coupé,” and Venetian point in relief. Various other wonderful products of the needle are included under the general nam