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George Hatsopoulos is a Greek American mechanical engineer noted for his work in thermodynamics. In 1965, he and Joseph Keenan published their famous textbook Principles of General Thermodynamics, which restates the second law of thermodynamics in terms of the existence of stable equilibrium states.[1] Their formulation of the second law of thermodynamics states that:
“ When an isolated system performs a process after the removal of a series of internal constraints, it will reach a unique state of equilibrium: this state of equilibrium is independent of the order in which the constraints are removed. ”

The Hatsopoulos-Keenan statement of the Second Law has been rigorously shown[2] to entail the well-known Clausius, Kelvin-Planck, and Carathéodory statements of the Second Law. Moreover, it has provided a basis to extend the traditional definition of entropy to the non-equilibrium domain.

In 1976, Hatsopoulos also contributed to a pioneering formulation of a unified theory of mechanics and thermodynamics, which can be viewed as a precursor of the emerging field of quantum thermodynamics.[3]


In 1965, Hatsopoulos was president of the Thermo Electron Engineering Corporation and Senior Lecturer in Mechanical Engineering at M.I.T..

In 1996, Hatsopoulos won the John Fritz Medal, which is the highest American award in the engineering profession and presented each year for scientific or industrial achievement in any field of pure or applied science. And in 1997 he was awarded the 3rd Annual Heinz Award in Technology, the Economy and Employment.[4] Mr. Hatsopoulos is also a recipient of The International Center in New York's Award of Excellence.
See also

History of thermodynamics


^ Hatsopoulos, George, N.; Keenan, Joseph, H. (1965). Principles of General Thermodynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. CCN 65-12709.
^ Gyftopoulos, Elias, P.; Beretta, Gian Paolo (2005). Thermodynamics. Foundations and Applications. Dover Pu., Inc.. ISBNN 0-486-43932-1.
^ See, e.g., http://www.quantumthermodynamics.org
^ The Heinz Awards, George Hatsopoulos profile

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