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The so-called Kasta Tomb, also known as the Amphipolis Tomb (Greek: Τάφος της Αμφίπολης), is an ancient Macedonian tomb that was discovered inside the Kasta mound (or Tumulus) near Amphipolis, Central Macedonia, in northern Greece in 2012 and first entered in August 2014.[2] The first excavations at the mound in 1964 led to exposure of the perimeter wall, and further excavations in the 1970's uncovered many other ancient remains.[3]

The recently discovered tomb is dated to the last quarter of 4th century B.C. The tumulus is the largest ever discovered in Greece and by comparison dwarfs that of of Philip II of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great, in Vergina.[2][4]

The Abduction of Persephone by Pluto, Amphipolis, Kasta Tomb

Identity

It is not yet known who is buried in the tomb, but the initial public speculation that it could be the tomb of Alexander the Great, because of its size and estimated cost of construction, was dismissed by the experts community when commenting on the published findings, as the available historical records mention Alexandria in Egypt as the last known location of Alexander's body; it has been supported instead, that a likely occupant could be either a wealthy Macedonian noble or a late member of the royal family.[2]

The skeletal remains of 5 people were unearthed within a corresponding tomb, in the lower levels of the third chamber in November 2014. The dead of the burial are: A woman at the age of 60, 2 men aged 35–45, a newborn infant and a fifth person represented by minimum fragments.[5] Further examination is underway with regards to the dating of the skeletal remains, as well as DNA cross examination between the dead of the burial as well as other skeletons from the neighboring tombs in the area.
Findings

Kasta tumulus and Amphipolis location map

In the 1970's a building of 10m width was found on top of the centre of the mound, and is thought to have been a grave marker. This, together with other evidence, supported the likelihood of a large funerary complex within. The tumulus was also found to have covered earlier cemeteries with at least 70 graves from the nearby "Hill 133" settlement predating Amphipolis.[3]

Illustration of Caryatids according to findings

Archaeologists have made a number of important discoveries on the site since August 2014. Apart from the sheer size of the monument, which experts say bears the handprint of Dinocrates of Rhodes, the chief architect of Alexander the Great,[4] archaeologists have so far unearthed:

Two marble sphinxes approximately 2 m (7 ft) tall that guard the main entrance to the tomb,[1] missing their heads and wings.

A fresco, paint still visible, that mimics an Ionian peristyle, on top of which the sphinxes sit[6][7]
Two female statues of the Caryatid type in the antechamber, which support the entrance to the second compartment of the tomb[8] The height of each Caryatid is 2.27 m (7.5 ft).[9] The Caryatids are on a pedestal 1.40 m tall (4.5 ft), making the total height of the statues 3.67 m (12 ft).[10]

A marble door, typical of Macedonian tomb doors, broken into pieces in front of the doorway to the third chamber[11]

A mosaic—3 m (10 ft) wide and 4.5 m (15 ft) long—in the third chamber, which seems to depict Persephone abducted by the god Pluto (Greek: Πλούτων, Ploutōn), ruler of the underworld, wearing a laurel wreath and driving a chariot drawn by horses led by the god Hermes, the conductor of souls to the afterlife.[12][13] The depiction of the abduction of Persephone in the mosaic floor implies links with the cluster of royal tombs in Vergina (Aigai), as a mural representing the same scene decorates one of the tombs where King Philip II, Alexander the Great's father, is buried.[14]

The head of the eastern sphinx in the third and last chamber[15]

Fragments of the wings of the sphinxes in the third chamber[16]

An eight square metre vault and a marble door in the third chamber[17]

The skeletal remains of 5 unidentified people[18]

In response to the magnitude of the finds, the authorities of Central Macedonia have requested and were granted a heavy 24-hour police guard of the dig site, and have also begun procedures to have the Kasta Tomb included in UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites as a "top priority."[19]

Amphipolis Tomb by Greektoys.org (update #2) by Greektoys.org on Sketchfab

Gallery

References

"Συνέχιση ανασκαφικών εργασιών στον Τύμβο Καστά στην Αμφίπολη". www.yppo.gr. Ministry of Culture and Sport. 20 August 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
Andrew Marszal (7 September 2014). "Marble female figurines unearthed in vast Alexander the Great-era Greek tomb". www.telegraph.co.uk. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
"Amphipolis", Ministry of Culture: ISBN 960-214-126-3
Kate Müser (9 September 2014). "Greece's largest ancient tomb: Amphipolis". www.dw.de. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
http://www.huffingtonpost.gr/2015/01/19/culture-nees-apokalipseis-gia-tin-amphipoli-_n_6495220.html. Missing or empty |title= (help)
"Συνέχιση ανασκαφικών εργασιών στον Τύμβο Καστά στην Αμφίπολη". www.yppo.gr. Ministry of Culture and Sport. 21 August 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
"Συνέχιση ανασκαφικών εργασιών στην Αμφίπολη". www.yppo.gr. Ministry of Culture and Sport. 24 August 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
"Συνέχιση ανασκαφικών εργασιών στον Τύμβο Καστά στην Αμφίπολη". www.yppo.gr. Ministry of Culture and Sport. 7 September 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
"Συνέχιση ανασκαφικών εργασιών στον Τύμβο Καστά στην Αμφίπολη". www.yppo.gr. Ministry of Culture and Sport. 21 September 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
"Συνέχιση ανασκαφικών εργασιών στον Τύμβο Καστά στην Αμφίπολη". www.yppo.gr. Ministry of Culture and Sport. 21 September 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
"Συνέχιση ανασκαφικών εργασιών στον Τύμβο Καστά στην Αμφίπολη". www.yppo.gr. Ministry of Culture and Sport. 2 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
"Greece archaeologists uncover Amphipolis floor mosaic". www.bbc.com. BBC. 12 October 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
"Amphipolis tomb: Archeologists reveal figure of Persephone in mosaic - The discovery also suggests that the bearded man is the god Pluto, ruler of the underworld". www.tovima.gr. TO BHMA. 16 October 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.co.uk/2014/10/amphipolis-mosaic-portrays-abduction-of.html#.Vayr_M6ARBw
"One of the sphinxes' heads found at Kasta". www.newstomb.gr. newstomb. 22 October 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
"Amphipolis: Sphinxes’s wings discovered; Video from inside the tomb released". www.keeptalkinggreece.com. Keep Talking Greece. 28 October 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
"Eight Square Meter Vault and Marble Door Found in Amphipolis Tomb". greece.greekreporter.com. Greek Reporter. 31 October 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
www.huffingtonpost.gr. Huffingtonpost http://www.huffingtonpost.gr/2015/01/19/culture-nees-apokalipseis-gia-tin-amphipoli-_n_6495220.html. Retrieved 19 January 2015. Missing or empty |title= (help)

"Αμφίπολη: Προς ένταξη στα μνημεία της UNESCO – Εντυπωσιακό βίντεο από ελικόπτερο". www.euronews.com. Euronews. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.

External links

Official site about history of Amphipolis
ANCIENT AMPHIPOLIS AND THE GREAT TOMB
Video from inside the tomb, provided by the Ministry of Culture and Sports, Greece, 28/10/2014
Interactive version of the 3D model
Photographic material of the findings
A representation of a restored version of the mosaic
A virtual tour of the monument

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