Calydon (Greek Καλυδών) was an ancient Greek city in Aetolia, situated on the west bank of the river Evenus.
According to Greek Mythology, the city took its name from its founder Calydon, son of Aetolus. Close to the city stood Mount Zygos, the slopes of which provided the setting for the hunt of the Calydonian Boar.
Calydonian Boar Hunt, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford
The city housed the important Aetolian sanctuary known as the Laphrion, dedicated to Artemis Laphria and Apollo Laphrios.
In 31 BC the Roman Emperor Octavian removed the population of the city to the new colony of Nicopolis, founded to commemorate his victory at the Battle of Actium earlier that year. At the same time the Romans removed most of the art and treasures of the city to Patras, including the gold and ivory cultic statue of Artemis.
Strabo, in his Geographia, comments on the former beauty of Calydon, which by his time lay desolate: '...Calydon and Pleuron, which are now indeed reduced, though in early times these settlements were an ornament to Greece.'
Calydon, Taphiassos Hill (Strabo: Here, also, is the hill Taphiassos, on which are the tombs of Nessus and the other Centaurs, from whose putrefied bodies, they say, flows forth at the base of the hill the water which is malodorous and clotted; and it is on this account, they add, that the tribe is also called Ozolian [from 'ozein' meaning to smell)
The period must, further, not be completed until the sense is complete: it must not be capable of breaking off abruptly, as may happen with the following iambic lines of Sophocles—
Calydon’s soil is this; of Pelops’ land
By a wrong division of the words the hearer may take the meaning to be the reverse of what it is: for instance, in the passage quoted, one might imagine that Calydon is in the Peloponnesus.
Medieval Greece / Byzantine Empire
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