Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols. It publishes original research as well as scientific and literature reviews on all aspects of physics. It is published by the American Physical Society (APS). The journal is in its third series, and is split in several sub-journals each covering a particular field of physics. It has a sister journal, Physical Review Letters, which publishes shorter articles of broader interest.


Physical Review commenced publication in July 1893, organized by Cornell University professor Edward Nichols and helped by the new president of Cornell, J. Gould Schurman. The journal was managed and edited at Cornell in upstate New York from 1893 to 1913 by Nichols, Ernest Merritt, and Frederick Bedell. The 33 volumes published during this time constitute Physical Review Series I.

The American Physical Society (APS), founded in 1899, took over its publication in 1913 and started Physical Review Series II. The journal remained at Cornell under editor-in-chief G. S. Fulcher from 1913 to 1926, before relocating to the location of editor John Torrence Tate, Sr.[note 1] at the University of Minnesota. In 1929, the APS started publishing Reviews of Modern Physics, a venue for longer review articles.

During the Great Depression, wealthy scientist Alfred Loomis anonymously paid the journal's fees for authors who could not afford them.[1]

After Tate's death in 1950, the journals were managed on an interim basis still in Minnesota by E. L. Hill and J. William Buchta until Samuel Goudsmit and Simon Pasternack were appointed and the editorial office moved to Brookhaven National Laboratory on Eastern Long Island, New York. In July 1958, the sister journal Physical Review Letters was introduced to publish short articles of particularly broad interest, initially edited by George L. Trigg, who remained as editor until 1988.

In 1970, Physical Review split into sub-journals Physical Review A, B, C, and D. A fifth member of the family, Physical Review E, was introduced in 1993 to a large part to accommodate the huge amount of new research in nonlinear dynamics. Combined, these constitute Physical Review Series III.

The editorial office moved in 1980 to its present location across the expressway from Brookhaven National Laboratory. Goudsmit retired in 1974 and Pasternack in the mid-1970s. Past Editors in Chief include David Lazarus (1980–1990; University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign), Benjamin Bederson (1990–1996; New York University), Martin Blume (1996–2007; Brookhaven National Laboratory), and Gene Sprouse (2007–2015; SUNY Stony Brook). The current Editor in Chief is Michael Thoennessen, whose term began in September 2017.[2]

To celebrate the hundredth anniversary of the journal, a memoir was published jointly by the APS and AIP.[3]

In 1998, the first issue of Physical Review Special Topics: Accelerators and Beams was published, and in 2005, Physical Review Special Topics: Physics Education Research was launched. In January 2016 the names of both journals were changed to remove "Special Topics".[4] Physical Review also started an online magazine, Physical Review Focus, in 1998 to explain and provide historical context for selected articles from Physical Review and Physical Review Letters. This was merged into Physics in 2011. The Special Topics journals are open access; Physics Education Research requires page charges from the authors, but Accelerators and Beams does not. Though not fully open access, Physical Review Letters also requires an author page charge, although this is voluntary. The other journals require such a charge only if manuscripts are not prepared in one of the preferred formats.[5] Since 2011, authors can pay an article processing charge to make their papers open access.[6] Such papers are published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC-BY).[7] Physical Review Letters celebrated their 50th birthday in 2008.[8] The APS has a copyright policy to permit the author to reuse parts of the published article in a derivative or new work, including on Wikipedia.[9]

The APS has an online publication entitled Physics,[10] aiming to help physicists and physics students to learn about new developments outside of their own subfield. This now includes the general-interest articles that appeared as Physical Review Focus. A short-lived journal, also called Physics, was published by Pergamon Press and Physics Publishing Co. from 1964 through 1968, with the goal of printing "a selection of papers which are worth the attention of all physicists."[11] The four volumes of this journal were eventually made freely available online by the APS under the alternative title Physics Physique Физика, reflecting how the title was originally printed on the journal covers and how it was sometimes referred to in the years since.[12][13][14]

It also publishes Physical Review X,[15] an online-only open access journal. It is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes, as timely as possible, original research papers from all areas of pure, applied, and interdisciplinary physics. In 2014 Physical Review Applied[16] began publishing research across all aspects of experimental and theoretical applications of physics, including their interactions with other sciences, engineering, and industry. In 2016 the APS launched Physical Review Fluids "to include additional areas of fluid dynamics research",[17] and in 2017 it launched Physical Review Materials "to fill a gap" in the coverage of materials research.[18] In 2019 Physical Review Research was launched to provide a broad fully open-access journal at about the same selectivity level as the older A - E journals.[19]

Journal ISO 4 abbreviation Editor(s) Impact factor (2019) Published Scope ISSN Website
Physical Review Letters Phys. Rev. Lett. Hugues Chaté
Robert Garisto
Samindranath Mitra
Reinhardt B. Schuhmann
8.385 1958–present The full range of applied, fundamental, and interdisciplinary physics research topics ISSN 0031-9007 (print)
ISSN 1079-7114 (web)
Physical Review X Phys. Rev. X Jean-Michel Raimond
M. Cristina Marchetti
Ling Miao
12.577 2011–present PRX covers the full spectrum of subject areas in physics and pays particular attention to innovative interdisciplinary research of wide impact ISSN 2160-3308 (web)
Reviews of Modern Physics Rev. Mod. Phys. Randall Kamien
A. H. Castro Neto
45.037 1929–present The full range of applied, fundamental, and interdisciplinary physics research topics ISSN 0034-6861 (print)
ISSN 1539-0756 (web)
Physical Review A[note 2] Phys. Rev. A Jan Michael Rost
Thomas Pattard
Gordon W. F. Drake
2.777 1970–present Atomic, molecular, and optical physics, foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information ISSN 1050-2947 (print)
ISSN 1094-1622 (web)
Physical Review B[note 2] Physical Review B Laurens W. Molenkamp
Anthony M. Begley
3.575 1970–present The full range of condensed matter, materials physics, and related subfields ISSN 1098-0121 (print)
ISSN 1550-235X (web)
Physical Review C Phys. Rev. C Benjamin F. Gibson
Christopher Wesselborg
2.988 1970–present Experimental and theoretical results in all aspects of nuclear physics ISSN 0556-2813 (print)
ISSN 1089-490X (web)
Physical Review D Physical Review D Mirjam Cvetič
Urs M. Heller
4.833 1970–present Experimental and theoretical results in all aspects of particle physics, field theory, gravitation, and cosmology ISSN 1550-7998 (print)
ISSN 1550-2368 (web)
Physical Review E Phys. Rev. E Eli Ben-Naim
Dirk Jan Bukman
2.296 1993–present Statistical, nonlinear, biological and soft matter physics ISSN 1539-3755 (print)
ISSN 1550-2376 (web)
Physical Review Research Phys. Rev. Res. Nicola Spaldin
Jian-Wei Pan
Raissa D’Souza
Juan-José Liétor-Santos
2019–present All research topics of interest to the physics community ISSN 2643-1564 (web)
Physical Review Accelerators and Beams Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams Frank Zimmermann
Francesco Ruggiero
1.623 1998–present All topics in accelerator science, applications, and technology ISSN 2469-9888 (web)
Physical Review Applied Phys. Rev. Appl. Stephen R. Forrest
Julie Kim-Zajonz
4.194 2014–present All aspects of experimental and theoretical applications of physics ISSN 2331-7019 (web)
Physical Review Fluids Phys. Rev. Fluids John Kim
L. Gary Leal
2.512 2016–present All aspects of fluid dynamics research ISSN 2469-990X (web)
Physical Review Materials Phys. Rev. Mater. Chris Leighton
Athanasios Chantis
3.337 2017–present Wide range of topics on materials research ISSN 2475-9953 (web)
Physical Review Physics Education Research Phys. Rev. Phys. Ed. Res. Charles Henderson
Paula Heron
1.811 2005–present Experimental and theoretical physics education research ISSN 2469-9896 (web)
Physics Physics Jessica Thomas 2008–present All of Physics ISSN 1943-2879 (web)
Physical Review, Series I Phys. Rev. 1893–1912 All of Physics
Physical Review, Series II[note 2] Phys. Rev. 1913–1969 All of Physics
Physics Physique Физика[note 3] Philip Warren Anderson
B. T. Matthias
1964–1968 https://

See also

List of fluid mechanics journals


Not to be confused with his son, the number theorist John Torrence Tate Jr.
Volumes 133-140 of the Series II in years 1964 and 1965 were split into issues A and B. Later they were unified into a single series again.[20] They are different from Phys. Rev. A and B of the third series. For example "Phys. Rev. 133 A1 (1964)" is an article of Ser. II, while "Phys. Rev. A 1 1 (1970) is of Phys. Rev. A.

Perhaps most noteworthy for publishing Bell's theorem in 1964.


Conant, Jennet (2002). Tuxedo Park. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-684-87287-2.
Voss, David (June 2017). "Michael Thoennessen Appointed New APS Editor in Chief". American Physical Society.
Hartman, Paul (1994). A Memoir on The Physical Review: A History of the First Hundred Years. New York: American Physical Society & American Institute of Physics. p. 212. ISBN 978-1-56396-282-0.
[1] Renaming the APS Special Topics Series, American Physical Society, December 31, 2015
"Submission guidelines". March 2008.
[2] APS Open Access announcement, American Physical Society, 15 February 2011
[3] Details of Creative Commons license
"Physical Review Letters Celebrates 50 Years". American Physical Society. 2014-02-13.
Gene D. Sprouse (1 October 2008). "APS now leaves copyright with authors for derivative works". American Physical Society.
"Physics". American Physical Society.
Anderson, P. W.; Matthias, B. T. (1964-07-01). "Editorial foreword". Physics Physique Fizika. 1 (1): i. doi:10.1103/PhysicsPhysiqueFizika.1.i. ISSN 0554-128X.
Wick, David (1995), "Bell's Theorem", The Infamous Boundary, Springer New York, pp. 92–100, doi:10.1007/978-1-4612-4030-3_11, ISBN 978-0-387-94726-6
"Physics. Physique. Fizika". Physics. Physique. Fizika. 1964. ISSN 0554-128X. OCLC 1370169.
Kaiser, David (2014-11-14). "Opinion | Is Quantum Entanglement Real?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-02-09.
"Physical Review X". American Physical Society.
"Physical Review Applied". American Physical Society.
"Physical Review Fluids". American Physical Society.
"Physical Review Materials". American Physical Society.
"Physical Review Research". American Physical Society.

"The Physical Review. Second Series. A". American Physical Society. 1964. "The Physical Review. Second Series. B". National Institute of Informatics. 1964. Retrieved 2016-12-28.

External links

American Physical Society
Journals of the APS
APS online publication Physics
Online archive of all back issues of Physical Review (subscription required)

Index of freely available volumes

The term of copyright on volumes published before 1924 has expired. Most of these volumes are available online for free in their entirety:

"Physical Review, Vol. 1 (1893-1894)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 2 (1894-1895)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 3 (1895-1896)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 4 (1896-1897)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 5 (1897)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 9 (1899)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 10 (1900)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 11 (1900)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 12 (1901)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 13 (1901)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 14 (1902)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 16 (1903)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 17 (1903)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 18 (1904)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 19 (1904)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 21 (1905)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 22 (1906)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 23 (1906)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 24 (1907)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 25 (1907)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 26 (1908)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 27 (1908)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 28 (1909)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 29 (1909)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 30 (1910)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 32 (1911)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 33 (1911)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 34 (1912)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 35 (1912)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 1 (1913)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 2 (1913)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 3 (1914)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 4 (1914)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 5 (1915)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 6 (1915)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 7 (1916)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 9 (1917)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 10 (1917)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 11 (1918)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 13 (1919)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 16 (1920)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 17 (1921)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 18 (1921)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 19 (1922)". Internet Archive.
"Physical Review, Vol. 20 (1922)". Internet Archive.


American Physical Society

Fellows (1921–1971) Fellows (1972–1997) Fellows (1998–2010) Fellows (2011–)


Full list of awards Abraham Pais Prize Andrei Sakharov Prize Aneesur Rahman Prize Arthur L. Schawlow Prize Dannie Heinemann Prize David Adler Lectureship Award Davisson–Germer Prize Earle K. Plyler Prize Einstein Prize Fluid Dynamics Prize Frank Isakson Prize George E. Pake Prize Hans A. Bethe Prize Herbert P. Broida Prize Herman Feshbach Prize I. I. Rabi Prize Irving Langmuir Award James C. McGroddy Prize James Clerk Maxwell Prize John H. Dillon Medal Joseph F. Keithley Award Lars Onsager Prize Leo Szilard Lectureship Award LeRoy Apker Award Lilienfeld Prize Maria Goeppert-Mayer Award Max Delbruck Prize Oliver E. Buckley Prize Panofsky Prize Sakurai Prize Tom W. Bonner Prize


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