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LEMPRIERE’S CLASSICAL DICTIONARY.

A

CLASSICAL DICTIONARY

CONTAINING A COPIOUS ACCOUNT

OF ALL THE PROPER NAMES

MENTIONED IN ANCIENT AUTHORS

WITH

THE VALUE OF COINS, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES USED AMONG THE GREEKS AND ROMANS

AND

A CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE

BY

J. LEMPRIERE, D.D.

(‡ Colophon)

LONDON

GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS, Limited

NEW YORK: E. P. DUTTON AND CO.

1904

Printed by Ballantyne, Hanson & Co.
At the Ballantyne Press


PREFACE
TO THE ORIGINAL EDITION.

In the following pages it has been the wish of the author to give the most accurate and satisfactory account of all the proper names which occur in reading the Classics, and by a judicious collection of anecdotes and historical facts to draw a picture of ancient times, not less instructive than entertaining. Such a work, it is hoped, will not be deemed a useless acquisition in the hands of the public; and while the student is initiated in the knowledge of history and mythology, and familiarized with the ancient situation and extent of kingdoms and cities that no longer exist, the man of letters may, perhaps, find it not a contemptible companion, from which he may receive information, and be made, a second time, acquainted with many important particulars which time, or more laborious occupations, may have erased from his memory. In the prosecution of his plan, the author has been obliged to tread in the steps of many learned men, whose studies have been directed, and not without success, to facilitate the attainment of classical knowledge, and of the ancient languages. Their compositions have been to him a source of information, and he trusts that their labours have now found new elucidation in his own, and that, by a due consideration of every subject, he has been enabled to imitate their excellences, without copying their faults. Many compositions of the same nature have issued from the press, but they are partial and unsatisfactory. The attempts to be concise, have rendered the labours of one barren and uninstructive, while long and unconnected quotations of passages from Greek and Latin writers, disfigure the page of the other, and render the whole insipid and disgusting. It cannot, therefore, be a discouraging employment now, to endeavour to finish what others have left imperfect, and with the conciseness of Stephens, to add the diffuse researches of Lloyd, Hoffman, Collier, &c. After paying due attention to the ancient poets and historians, from whom the most authentic information can be received, the labours of more modern authors have been consulted, and every composition distinguished for the clearness and perspicuity of historical narration, or geographical descriptions, has been carefully examined. Truly sensible of what he owes to modern Latin and English writers and commentators, the author must not forget to make a public acknowledgment of the assistance he has likewise received from the labours of the French. In the Siècles Payens of l’Abbé Sabatier de Castres he has found all the information which judicious criticism, and a perfect knowledge of heathen mythology, could procure. The compositions of l’Abbé Banier have also been useful; and in the Dictionnaire Historique, of a literary society, printed at Caen, a treasure of original anecdotes, and a candid selection and arrangement of historical facts, have been discovered.

It was the original design of the author of this Dictionary to give a minute explanation of all the names of which Pliny and other ancient geographers make mention; but, upon a second consideration of the subject, he was convinced that it would have increased his volume in bulk, and not in value. The learned reader will be sensible of the propriety of this remark, when he recollects that the names of many places mentioned by Pliny and Pausanias occur nowhere else in ancient authors; and that to find the true situation of an insignificant village mentioned by Strabo, no other writer but Strabo is to be consulted.

This Dictionary being undertaken more particularly for the use of schools, it has been thought proper to mark the quantity of the penultimate of every word, and to assist the student who can receive no fixed and positive rules for pronunciation. In this the authority of Smethius has been followed, as also Leede’s edition of Labbe’s Catholici Indices.

As every publication should be calculated to facilitate literature, and to be serviceable to the advancement of the sciences, the author of this Dictionary did not presume to intrude himself upon the public, before he was sensible that his humble labours would be of some service to the lovers of the ancient languages. The undertaking was for the use of schools, therefore he thought none so capable of judging of its merit, and of ascertaining its utility, as those who preside over the education of youth. With this view, he took the liberty to communicate his intentions to several gentlemen in that line, not less distinguished for purity of criticism, than for their classical abilities, and from them he received all the encouragement which the desire of contributing to the advancement of learning can expect. To them, therefore, for their approbation and friendly communications, he publicly returns his thanks, and hopes that, now his labours are completed, his Dictionary may claim from them that patronage and that support to which, in their opinion, the specimen of the work seemed to be entitled. He has paid due attention to their remarks, he has received with gratitude their judicious observations, and cannot pass over in silence their obliging recommendations, and particularly the friendly advice he has received from the Rev. R. Valpy, master of Reading School.

For the account of the Roman laws, and for the festivals celebrated by the ancient inhabitants of Greece and Italy, he is particularly indebted to the useful collections of Archbishop Potter, of Godwyn, and Kennet. In the tables of ancient coins, weights and measures, which he has annexed to the body of the Dictionary, he has followed the learned calculations of Dr. Arbuthnot. The quoted authorities have been carefully examined, and frequently revised: and, it is hoped, the opinions of mythologists will appear without confusion, and be found divested of all obscurity.

Therefore, with all the confidence which an earnest desire of being useful can command, the author offers the following pages to the public, conscious that they may contain inaccuracies and imperfections. A Dictionary, the candid reader is well aware, cannot be made perfect all at once; it must still have its faults and omissions, however cautious and vigilant the author may have been; and in every page there may be found, in the opinion of some, room for improvement and for addition. Before the candid, therefore, and the impartial, he lays his publication, and for whatever observations the friendly critic may make, he will show himself grateful, and take advantage of the remarks of every judicious reader, should the favours and the indulgence of the public demand a second edition.


A
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE,

FROM

THE CREATION OF THE WORLD

TO

THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE

IN THE WEST, AND IN THE EAST


¹ In the following table, I have confined myself to the more easy and convenient eras of before (B.C.) and after (A.D.) Christ. For the sake of those, however, that do not wish the exclusion of the Julian period, it is necessary to observe that, as the first year of the christian era always falls on the 4714th of the Julian years, the number required either before or after Christ will easily be discovered by the application of the rules of subtraction or addition. The era from the foundation of Rome (A.U.C.) will be found with the same facility, by recollecting that the city was built 753 years before Christ; and the Olympiads can likewise be recurred to by the consideration that the conquest of Corœbus (B.C. 776) forms the first Olympiad, and that the Olympic games were celebrated after the revolution of four years.

Before
Christ.¹
The world created in the 710th year of the Julian period 4004
The deluge 2348
The tower of Babel built, and the confusion of languages 2247
Celestial observations are first made at Babylon 2234
The kingdom of Egypt is supposed to have begun under Misraim the son of Ham, and to have continued 1663 years, to the conquest of Cambyses 2188
The kingdom of Sicyon established 2089
The kingdom of Assyria begins 2059
The birth of Abraham 1996
The kingdom of Argos established under Inachus 1856
Memnon the Egyptian said to invent letters, 15 years before the reign of Phoroneus 1822
The deluge of Ogyges, by which Attica remained waste above 200 years, till the coming of Cecrops 1764
Joseph sold into Egypt by his brethren 1728
The chronology of the Arundelian marbles begins about this time, fixing here the arrival of Cecrops in Attica, an epoch which other writers have placed later by 26 years 1582
Moses born 1571
The kingdom of Athens begun under Cecrops, who came from Egypt with a colony of Saites. This happened about 780 years before the first Olympiad 1556
Scamander migrates from Crete, and begins the kingdom of Troy 1546
The deluge of Deucalion in Thessaly 1503
The Panathenæa first celebrated at Athens 1495
Cadmus comes into Greece, and builds the citadel of Thebes 1493
The first Olympic games celebrated in Elis by the Idæi Dactyli 1453
The five books of Moses written in the land of Moab, where he dies the following year, aged 110 1452
Minos flourishes in Crete, and iron is found by the Dactyli by the accidental burning of the woods of Ida, in Crete 1406
The Eleusinian mysteries introduced at Athens by Eumolpus 1356
The Isthmian games first instituted by Sisyphus king of Corinth 1326
The Argonautic expedition. The first Pythian games celebrated by Adrastus king of Argos 1263
Gideon flourishes in Israel 1245
The Theban war of the seven heroes against Eteocles 1225
Olympic games celebrated by Hercules 1222
The rape of Helen by Theseus, and, 15 years after, by Paris 1213
Troy taken, after a siege of 10 years. Æneas sails to Italy 1184
Alba Longa built by Ascanius 1152
Migration of the Æolian colonies 1124
The return of the Heraclidæ into Peloponnesus, 80 years after the taking of Troy. Two years after, they divide the Peloponnesus among themselves; and here, therefore, begins the kingdom of Lacedæmon under Eurysthenes and Procles 1104
Saul made king over Israel 1095
The kingdom of Sicyon ended 1088
The kingdom of Athens ended in the death of Codrus 1070
The migration of the Ionian colonies from Greece, and their settlement in Asia Minor 1044
Dedication of Solomon’s temple 1004
Samos built 986
Division of the kingdom of Judah and Israel 975
Homer and Hesiod flourished about this time, according to the marbles 907
Elias the prophet taken up into heaven 896
Lycurgus, 42 years old, establishes his laws at Lacedæmon, and, together with Iphitus and Cleosthenes, restores the Olympic games at Elis, about 108 years before the era which is commonly called the first Olympiad 884
Phidon king of Argos is supposed to have invented scales and measures, and coined silver at Ægina. Carthage built by Dido 869
Fall of the Assyrian empire by the death of Sardanapalus, an era placed 80 years earlier by Justin 820
The kingdom of Macedonia begins, and continues 646 years, till the battle of Pydna 814
The kingdom of Lydia begins, and continues 249 years 797
The triremes first invented by the Corinthians 786
The monarchical government abolished at Corinth, and the Prytanes elected 779
Corœbus conquers at Olympia, in the 28th Olympiad from the institution of Iphitus. This is vulgarly called the first Olympiad, about 23 years before the foundation of Rome 776
The Ephori introduced into the government of Lacedæmon by Theopompus 760
Isaiah begins to prophesy 757
The decennial archons begin at Athens, of which Charops is the first 754
Rome built on the 20th of April, according to Varro, in the year 3961 of the Julian period 753
The rape of the Sabines 750
The era of Nabonassar king of Babylon begins 747
The first Messenian war begins, and continues 19 years, to the taking of Ithome 743
Syracuse built by a Corinthian colony 732
The kingdom of Israel finished by the taking of Samaria by Salmanasar king of Assyria. The first eclipse of the moon on record March 19th, according to Ptolemy 721
Candaules murdered by Gyges, who succeeds to the Lydian throne 718
Tarentum built by the Parthenians 707
Corcyra built by the Corinthians 703
The second Messenian war begins, and continues 14 years, to the taking of Ira, after a siege of 11 years. About this time flourished the poets Tyrtæus and Archilochus 685
The government of Athens intrusted to annual archons 684
Alba destroyed 665
Cypselus usurps the government of Corinth, and keeps it for 30 years 659
Byzantium built by a colony of Argives or Athenians 658
Cyrene built by Battus 630
The Scythians invade Asia Minor, of which they keep possession for 28 years 624
Draco established his laws at Athens 623
The canal between the Nile and the Red sea begun by king Necho 610
Nineveh taken and destroyed by Cyaxares and his allies 606
The Phœnicians sail round Africa, by order of Necho. About this time flourished Arion, Pittacus, Alcæus, Sappho, &c. 604
The Scythians are expelled from Asia Minor by Cyaxares 596
The Pythian games first established at Delphi. About this time flourished Chilo, Anacharsis, Thales, Epimenides, Solon, the prophet Ezekiel, Æsop, Stersichorus 591
Jerusalem taken by Nebuchadnezzar, 9th of June, after a siege of 18 months 587
The Isthmian games restored and celebrated every first and third year of the Olympiads 582
Death of Jeremiah the prophet 577
The Nemæan games restored 568
The first comedy acted at Athens by Susarion and Dolon 562
Pisistratus first usurped the sovereignty at Athens 560
Cyrus begins to reign. About this time flourished Anaximenes, Bias, Anaximander, Phalaris, and Cleobulus 559
Crœsus conquered by Cyrus. About this time flourished Theognis and Pherecydes 548
Marseilles built by the Phocæans. The age of Pythagoras, Simonides, Thespis, Xenophanes, and Anacreon 539
Babylon taken by Cyrus 538
The return of the Jews by the edict of Cyrus, and the rebuilding of the temple 536
The first tragedy acted at Athens on the waggon of Thespis 535
Learning encouraged at Athens, and a public library built 526
Egypt conquered by Cambyses 525
Polycrates of Samos put to death 522
Darius Hystaspes chosen king of Persia. About this time flourished Confucius the celebrated Chinese philosopher 521
The tyranny of the Pisistratidæ abolished at Athens 510
The consular government begins at Rome after the expulsion of the Tarquins, and continues independent 461 years, till the battle of Pharsalia 509
Sardis taken by the Athenians and burnt, which became afterwards the cause of the invasion of Greece by the Persians. About this time flourished Heraclitus, Parmenides, Milo the wrestler, Aristagoras, &c. 504
The first dictator, Lartius, created at Rome 498
The Roman populace retire to mount Sacer 493
The battle of Marathon 490
The battles of Thermopylæ, August 7th, and Salamis, October 20th. About this time flourished Æschylus, Pindar, Charon, Anaxagoras, Zeuxis, Aristides, &c. 480
The Persians defeated at Platæa and Mycale on the same day, 22nd September 479
The 300 Fabii killed at Cremera, July 17th 477
Themistocles, accused of conspiracy, flies to Xerxes 471
The Persians defeated at Cyprus, and near the Eurymedon 470
The third Messenian war begins, and continues 10 years 465
Egypt revolts from the Persians under Inarus, assisted by the Athenians 463
The Romans send to Athens for Solon’s laws. About this time flourished Sophocles, Nehemiah the prophet, Plato the comic poet, Aristarchus the tragic, Leocrates, Thrasybulus, Pericles, Zaleucus, &c. 454
The first Sacred war concerning the temple of Delphi 448
The Athenians defeated at Chæronea by the Bœotians 447
Herodotus reads his history to the council of Athens, and receives public honours in the 39th year of his age. About this time flourished Empedocles, Hellanicus, Euripides, Herodicus, Phidias Artemones, Charondas, &c. 445
A colony sent to Thurium by the Athenians 444
Comedies prohibited at Athens, a restraint which remained in force for three years 440
A war between Corinth and Corcyra 439
Meton begins here his 19 years’ cycle of the moon 432
The Peloponnesian war begins, May the 7th, and continues about 27 years. About this time flourished Cratinus, Eupolis, Aristophanes, Meton, Euctemon, Malachi the last of the prophets, Democritus, Gorgias, Thucydides, Hippocrates, &c. 431
The history of the Old Testament finishes about this time. A plague at Athens for five years 430
A peace of 50 years made between the Athenians and Lacedæmonians, which is kept only during six years and ten months, though each continued at war with the other’s allies 421
The scene of the Peloponnesian war changed to Sicily. The Agrarian law first moved at Rome 416
Egypt revolts from the Persians, and Amyrtæus is appointed king 414
The Carthaginians enter Sicily, where they destroy Selinus and Himera, but they are repulsed by Hermocrates 409
The battle of Ægospotamos. The usurpation of Dionysius 405
Athens taken by Lysander, 24th of April. The end of the Peloponnesian war, and the appointment of 30 tyrants over the conquered city. About this time flourished Parrhasius, Protagoras, Lysias, Agathon, Euclid, Cebes, Telestes, &c. 404
Cyrus the younger killed at Cunaxa. The glorious retreat of the 10,000 Greeks, and the expulsion of the 30 tyrants from Athens by Thrasybulus 401
Socrates put to death 400
Agesilaus of Lacedæmon’s expedition into Asia against the Persians. The age of Xenophon, Ctesias, Zeuxis, Antisthenes, Evagoras, Aristippus of Cyrene, and Archytas 396
The Corinthian war begun by the alliance of the Athenians, Thebans, Corinthians, and Argives, against Lacedæmon 395
The Lacedæmonians, under Pisander, defeated by Conon at Cnidus; and, a few days after, the allies are defeated at Coronæa, by Agesilaus 394
The battle of Allia, July 17th, and the taking of Rome by the Gauls 390
Dionysius besieges Rhegium, and takes it after 11 months. About this time flourished Plato, Philoxenus, Damon, Pythias, Iphicrates, &c. 388
The Greek cities of Asia tributary to Persia, by the peace of Antalcidas, between the Lacedæmonians and Persians 387
The war of Cyprus finished by a treaty, after it had continued two years 385
The Lacedæmonians defeated in a sea-fight at Naxos, September 20th, by Chabrias. About this time flourished Philistus, Isæus, Isocrates, Arete, Philolaus, Diogenes the cynic, &c. 377
Artaxerxes sends an army under Pharnabazus, with 20,000 Greeks, commanded by Iphicrates 374
The battle of Leuctra, July 8th, where the Lacedæmonians are defeated by Epaminondas the general of the Thebans 371
The Messenians, after a banishment of 300 years, return to Peloponnesus 370
One of the consuls at Rome elected from the plebeians 367
The battle of Mantinea gained by Epaminondas, a year after the death of Pelopidas 363
Agesilaus assists Tachos king of Egypt. Some of the governors of Lesser Asia revolt from Persia 362
The Athenians are defeated at Methone, the first battle that Philip of Macedon ever won in Greece 360
Dionysius the younger is expelled from Syracuse by Dion. The second Sacred war begins, on the temple of Delphi being attacked by the Phocians 357
Dion put to death, and Syracuse governed seven years by tyrants. About this time flourished Eudoxus, Lycurgus, Ibis, Theopompus, Ephorus, Datames, Philomelus, &c. 354
The Phocians, under Onomarchus, are defeated in Thessaly by Philip 353
Egypt is conquered by Ochus 350
The Sacred war is finished by Philip taking all the cities of the Phocians 348
Dionysius recovers the tyranny of Syracuse, after 10 years’ banishment 347
Timoleon recovers Syracuse and banishes the tyrant 343
The Carthaginians defeated by Timoleon near Agrigentum. About this time flourished Speusippus, Protogenes, Aristotle, Æschines, Zenocrates, Demosthenes, Phocion, Mamercus, Icetas, Stilpo, Demades 340
The battle of Cheronæa, August 2nd, where Philip defeats the Athenians and Thebans 338
Philip of Macedon killed by Pausanius. His son Alexander, on the following year, enters Greece, destroys Thebes, &c. 336
The battle of the Granicus, 22nd of May 334
The battle of Issus in October 333
Tyre and Egypt conquered by the Macedonian prince, and Alexandria built 332
The battle of Arbela, October 2nd 331
Alexander’s expedition against Porus. About this time flourished Apelles, Callisthenes, Bagoas, Parmenio, Philotas, Memnon, Dinocrates, Calippus, Hyperides, Philetus, Lysippus, Menedemus, &c. 327
Alexander dies on the 21st of April. His empire is divided into four kingdoms. The Samian war, and the reign of the Ptolemies in Egypt 323
Polyperchon publishes a general liberty to all the Greek cities. The age of Praxiteles, Crates, Theophrastus, Menander, Demetrius, Dinarchus, Polemon, Neoptolemus, Perdiccas, Leosthenes 320
Syracuse and Sicily usurped by Agathocles. Demetrius Phalereus governs Athens for 10 years 317
Eumenes delivered to Antigonus by his army 315
Seleucus takes Babylon, and here the beginning of the era of the Seleucidæ 312
The conquests of Agathocles in Africa 309
Democracy established at Athens by Demetrius Poliorcetes 307
The title of kings first assumed by the successors of Alexander 306
The battle of Ipsus, where Antigonus is defeated and killed by Ptolemy, Seleucus, Lysimachus, and Cassander. About this time flourished Zeno, Pyrrho, Philemon, Megasthenes, Crantor, &c. 301
Athens taken by Demetrius Poliorcetes, after a year’s siege 296
The first sun-dial erected at Rome by Papirius Cursor, and the time first divided into hours 293
Seleucus, about this time, built about 40 cities in Asia, which he peopled with different nations. The age of Euclid the mathematician, Arcesilaus, Epicurus, Bion, Timocharis, Erasistratus, Aristyllus, Strato, Zenodotus, Arsinoe, Lachares, &c. 291
The Athenians revolt from Demetrius 287
Pyrrhus expelled from Macedon by Lysimachus 286
The Pharos of Alexandria built. The Septuagint supposed to be translated about this time 284
Lysimachus defeated and killed by Seleucus. The Tarentine war begins, and continues 10 years. The Achæan league begins 281
Pyrrhus of Epirus goes to Italy to assist the Tarentines 280
The Gauls, under Brennus, are cut to pieces near the temple of Delphi. About this time flourished Dionysius the astronomer, Sostratus, Theocritus, Dionysius Heracleotes, Philo, Aratus, Lycophron, Persæus, &c. 278
Pyrrhus, defeated by Curius, retires to Epirus 274
The first coining of silver at Rome 269
Athens taken by Antigonus Gonatas, who keeps it 12 years 268
The first Punic war begins, and continues for 23 years. The chronology of the Arundelian marbles composed. About this time flourished Lycon, Crates, Berosus, Hermachus, Helenus, Clinias, Aristotimus, &c. 264
Antiochus Soter defeated at Sardis by Eumenes of Pergamus 262
The Carthaginian fleet defeated by Duilius 260
Regulus defeated by Xanthippus. Athens is restored to liberty by Antigonus 256
Aratus persuades the people of Sicyon to join the Achæan league. About this time flourished Cleanthes, Homer junior, Manetho, Timæus, Callimachus, Zoilus, Duris, Neanthes, Ctesibius, Sosibius, Hieronymus, Hanno, Laodice, Lysias, Ariobarzanes 251
The Parthians under Arsaces, and the Bactrians under Theodotus, revolt from the Macedonians 250
The sea-fight of Drepanum 249
The citadel of Corinth taken by Aratus, 12th of August 243
Agis king of Sparta put to death for attempting to settle an Agrarian law. About this period flourished Antigonus Carystius, Conon of Samos, Eratosthenes, Apollonius of Perga, Lacydes, Amilcar, Agesilaus the ephor, &c. 241
Plays first acted at Rome, being those of Livius Andronicus 240
Amilcar passes with an army to Spain, with Annibal his son 237
The temple of Janus shut at Rome, the first time since Numa 235
The Sardinian war begins, and continues three years 234
Original manuscripts of Æschylus, Euripides, and Sophocles, lent by the Athenians to Ptolemy for a pledge of 15 talents 233
The first divorce known at Rome, by Spurius Carvilius. Sardinia and Corsica conquered 231
The Roman ambassadors first appeared at Athens and Corinth 228
The war between Cleomenes and Aratus begins, and continues for five years 227
The colossus of Rhodes thrown down by an earthquake. The Romans first cross the Po, pursuing the Gauls, who had entered Italy. About this time flourished Chrysippus, Polystratus, Euphorion, Archimedes, Valerius Messala, C. Nævius, Aristarchus, Apollonius, Philocorus, Aristo Ceus, Fabius Pictor the first Roman historian, Philarchus, Lysiades, Agro, &c. 224
The battle of Sellasia 222
The Social war between the Ætolians and Achæans, assisted by Philip 220
Saguntum taken by Annibal 219
The second Punic war begins, and continues 17 years 218
The battle of the lake Thrasymenus, and next year that of Cannæ, May 21st 217
The Romans begin the auxiliary war against Philip in Epirus, which is continued by intervals for 14 years 214
Syracuse taken by Marcellus, after a siege of three years 212
Philopœmen defeats Machanidas at Mantinea 208
Asdrubal is defeated. About this time flourished Plautus, Archagathus, Evander, Teleclus, Hermippus, Zeno, Sotion, Ennius, Hieronymus of Syracuse, Tlepolemus, Epicydes 207
The battle of Zama 202
The first Macedonian war begins and continues near four years 200
The battle of Panius, where Antiochus defeats Scopas 198
The battle of Cynoscephale, where Philip is defeated 197
The war of Antiochus the Great begins, and continues three years 192
Lacedæmon joined to the Achæan league by Philopœmen 191
The luxuries of Asia brought to Rome in the spoils of Antiochus 189
The laws of Lycurgus abrogated for a while at Sparta by Philopœmen 188
Antiochus the Great defeated and killed in Media. About this time flourished Aristophanes of Byzantium, Asclepiades, Tegula, C. Lælius, Aristonymus, Hegesinus, Diogenes the stoic, Critolaus, Massinissa, the Scipios, the Gracchi, Thoas, &c. 187
A war, which continues for one year, between Eumenes and Prusias, till the death of Annibal 184
Philopœmen defeated and killed by Dinocrates 183
Numa’s books found in a stone coffin at Rome 179
Perseus sends his ambassadors to Carthage 175
Ptolemy’s generals defeated by Antiochus, in a battle between Pelusium and mount Cassius. The second Macedonian war 171
The battle of Pydna, and the fall of the Macedonian empire. About this period flourished Attalus the astronomer, Metrodorus, Terence, Crates, Polybius, Pacuvius, Hipparchus, Heraclides, Carneades, Aristarchus, &c. 168
The first library erected at Rome, with books obtained from the plunder of Macedonia 167
Terence’s Andria first acted at Rome 166
Time measured out at Rome by a water-machine, invented by Scipio Nasica, 134 years after the introduction of sun-dials 159
Andriscus the Pseudophilip assumes the royalty of Macedonia 152
Demetrius king of Syria defeated and killed by Alexander Balas 150
The third Punic war begins. Prusias king of Bithynia put to death by his son Nicomedes 149
The Romans make war against the Achæans, which is finished the next year by Mummius 148
Carthage is destroyed by Scipio, and Corinth by Mummius

‘Mummus’ replaced with ‘Mummius’

147
Viriathus is defeated by Lælius, in Spain 146
The war of Numantia begins, and continues for eight years 141
The Roman army of 30,000, under Mancinus, is defeated by 4000 Numantines 138
Restoration of learning at Alexandria, and universal patronage offered to all learned men by Ptolemy Physcon. The age of Satyrus, Aristobulus, Lucius Accius, Mnaseas, Antipater, Diodorus the peripatetic, Nicander, Ctesibius, Sarpedon, Micipsa, &c. 137
The famous embassy of Scipio, Metellus, Mummius, and Panætius, into Egypt, Syria, and Greece 136
The history of the Apocrypha ends. The Servile war in Sicily begins, and continues for three years 135
Numantia taken. Pergamus annexed to the Roman empire 133
Antiochus Sidetes killed by Phraates. Aristonicus defeated by Perpenna 130
Demetrius Nicator defeated at Damascus by Alexander Zebina 127
The Romans make war against the pirates of the Beleares. Carthage is rebuilt by order of the Roman senate 123
Caius Gracchus killed 121
Dalmatia conquered by Metellus 118
Cleopatra assumes the government of Egypt. The age of Erymnæus, Athenion, Artemidorus, Clitomachus, Apollonius, Herodicus, Lucius Cælius, Castor, Menecrates, Lucilius, &c. 116
The Jugurthine war begins, and continues for five years 111
The famous sumptuary law at Rome, which limited the expenses of eating every day 110
The Teutones and Cimbri begin their war against Rome, and continue it for eight years 109
The Teutones defeat 80,000 Romans on the banks of the Rhone 105
The Teutones defeated by Caius Marius at Aquæ Sextiæ 102
The Cimbri defeated by Marius and Catulus 101
Dolabella conquers Lusitania 99
Cyrene left by Ptolemy Apion to the Romans 97
The Social war begins, and continues three years, till finished by Sylla 91
The Mithridatic war begins, and continues 26 years 89
The civil wars of Marius and Sylla begin, and continue six years 88
Sylla conquers Athens, and sends its valuable libraries to Rome 86
Young Marius is defeated by Sylla, who is made dictator 82
The death of Sylla. About this time flourished Philo, Charmidas, Asclepiades, Apellicon, Lucius Sisenna, Alexander Polyhistor, Plotius Gallus, Diotimus, Zeno, Hortensius, Archias, Posidonius, Geminus, &c. 78
Bithynia left by Nicomedes to the Romans 75
The Servile war, under Spartacus, begins, and, two years after, the rebel general is defeated and killed by Pompey and Crassus 73
Mithridates and Tigranes defeated by Lucullus 69
Mithridates conquered by Pompey in a night battle. Crete is subdued by Metellus, after a war of two years 66
The reign of the Seleucidæ ends in Syria, on the conquest of the country by Pompey 65
Catiline’s conspiracy detected by Cicero. Mithridates kills himself 63
The first triumvirate in the person of Julius Cæsar, Pompey, and Crassus. About this time flourished Apollonius of Rhodes, Terentius Varro, Tyrannion, Aristodemus of Nysa, Lucretius, Dionysius the grammarian, Cicero, Antiochus, Spurinus, Andronicus, Catullus, Sallust, Timagenes, Cratippus, &c. 60
Cicero banished from Rome, and recalled the next year 58
Cæsar passes the Rhine, defeats the Germans, and invades Britain 55
Crassus is killed by Surena, in June 53
Civil war between Cæsar and Pompey 50
The battle of Pharsalia about May 12th 48
Alexander taken by Cæsar 47
The war of Africa. Cato kills himself. This year is called the year of confusion, because the calendar was corrected by Sosigenes, and the year made to consist of 15 months, or 445 days 46
The battle of Munda 45
Cæsar murdered 44
The battle of Mutina. The second triumvirate in Octavius, Antony, and Lepidus. Cicero put to death. The age of Sosigenes, Cornelius Nepos, Diodorus Siculus, Trogus Pompey, Didymus the scholiast, Varro the poet, &c. 43
The battle of Philippi 42
Pacorus general of Parthia defeated by Ventidius, 14 years after the disgrace of Crassus, and on the same day 39
Pompey the younger defeated in Sicily by Octavius 36
Octavius and Antony prepare for war 32
The battle of Actium, 2nd September. The era of the Roman emperors properly begins here 31
Alexander taken, and Egypt reduced into a Roman province 30
The title of Augustus given to Octavius 27
The Egyptians adopt the Julian year. About this time flourished Virgil, Manilius, Dioscorides, Asinius Pollio, Mæcenas, Agrippa, Strabo, Horace, Macer, Propertius, Livy, Musa, Tibullus, Ovid, Pylades, Bathyllus, Varius, Tucca, Vitruvius, &c. 25
The conspiracy of Muræna against Augustus 22
Augustus visits Greece and Asia 21
The Roman ensigns recovered from the Parthians by Tiberius 20
The secular games celebrated at Rome 17
Lollius defeated by the Germans 16
The Rhæti and Vindelici defeated by Drusus 15
The Pannonians conquered by Tiberius 12
Some of the German nations conquered by Drusus 11
Augustus corrects the calendar, by ordering the 12 ensuing years to be without intercalation. About this time flourished Damascenus, Hyginus, Flaccus the grammarian, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and Dionysius the geographer 8
Tiberius retires to Rhodes for seven years 6
Our Saviour is born, four years before the vulgar era, in the year 4709 of the Julian period, A.U.C. 749, and the fourth of the 193rd Olympiad 4
Tiberius returns to Rome A.D.
2
The leap year corrected, having formerly been every third year 4
Ovid banished to Tomos 9
Varus defeated and killed in Germany by Arminius 10
Augustus dies at Nola, August 19th, and is succeeded by Tiberius. The age of Phædrus, Asinius Gallus, Velleius Paterculus, Germanicus, Cornel. Celsus, &c. 14
Twelve cities in Asia destroyed by an earthquake 17
Germanicus, poisoned by Piso, dies at Antioch 19
Tiberius goes to Capreæ 26
Sejanus disgraced 31
Our Saviour crucified, Friday, April 3rd. This is put four years earlier by some chronologists 33
St. Paul converted to Christianity 35
Tiberius dies at Misenum, near Baiæ, March 16th, and is succeeded by Caligula. About this time flourished Valerius Maximus, Columella, Pomponius Mela, Appion, Philo Judæus, Artabanus, and Agrippina 37
St. Matthew writes his Gospel 39
The name of christians first given, at Antioch, to the followers of our Saviour 40
Caligula murdered by Chæreas, and succeeded by Claudius 41
The expedition of Claudius into Britain 43
St. Mark writes his Gospel 44
Secular games celebrated at Rome 47
Caractacus carried in chains to Rome 51
Claudius succeeded by Nero 54
Agrippina put to death by her son Nero 59
First persecution against the christians 64
Seneca, Lucan, and others put to death 65
Nero visits Greece. The Jewish war begins. The age of Persius, Quintus Curtius, Pliny the elder, Josephus, Frontinus, Burrhus, Corbulo, Thrasea, Boadicea, &c. 66
St. Peter and St. Paul put to death 67
Nero dies, and is succeeded by Galba 68
Galba put to death. Otho, defeated by Vitellius, kills himself. Vitellius is defeated by Vespasian’s army 69
Jerusalem taken and destroyed by Titus 70
The Parthians revolt 77
Death of Vespasian, and succession of Titus. Herculaneum and Pompeii destroyed by an eruption of mount Vesuvius, November 1st 79
Death of Titus, and succession of Domitian. The age of Silius Italicus, Martial, Apollon. Tyanæus, Valerius Flaccus, Solinus, Epictetus, Quintilian, Lupus, Agricola, &c. 81
Capitoline games instituted by Domitian, and celebrated every fourth year 86
Secular games celebrated. The war with Dacia begins, and continues 15 years 88
Second persecution of the christians 95
Domitian put to death by Stephanus, &c., and succeeded by Nerva. The age of Juvenal, Tacitus, Statius, &c. 96
Nerva dies, and is succeeded by Trajan 98
Pliny proconsul of Bithynia sends Trajan an account of the christians 102
Dacia reduced to a Roman province 103
Trajan’s expedition against Parthia. About this time flourished Florus, Suetonius, Pliny junior, Philo Biblius, Dion, Prusæus, Plutarch, &c. 106
Third persecution of the christians 107
Trajan’s column erected at Rome 114
Trajan dies, and is succeeded by Adrian 117
Fourth persecution of the christians 118
Adrian builds a wall in Britain 121
Adrian visits Asia and Egypt for seven years 126
He rebuilds Jerusalem, and raises there a temple to Jupiter 130
The Jews rebel, and are defeated after a war of five years, and all banished 131
Adrian dies, and is succeeded by Antoninus Pius. In the reign of Adrian flourished Teon, Phavorinus, Phlegon, Trallian, Aristides, Aquila, Salvius Julian, Polycarp, Arian, Ptolemy, &c. 138
Antoninus defeats the Moors, Germans, and Dacians 145
The worship of Serapis brought to Rome 146
Antoninus dies, and is succeeded by Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, the last of whom reigned nine years. In the reign of Antoninus flourished Maximus Tyrius, Pausanias, Diophantus, Lucian, Hermogenes, Polyænus, Appian, Artemidorus, Justin the martyr, Apuleius, &c. 161
A war with Parthia, which continues three years 162
A war against the Marcomanni, which continues five years 169
Another, which continues three years 177
Marcus Aurelius dies, and Commodus succeeds. In the last reign flourished Galen, Athenagoras, Tatian, Athenæus, Montanus, Diogenes, Laërtius 180
Commodus makes peace with the Germans 181
Commodus put to death by Martia and Lætus. He is succeeded for a few months by Pertinax, who is murdered 193; and four rivals arise, Didius Julianus, Pescennius Niger, Severus, and Albinus. Under Commodus flourished Julius Pollux, Theodotion, St. Irenæus, &c. 192
Niger is defeated by Severus at Issus 194
Albinus defeated in Gaul, and killed at Lyons, February 19th 198
Severus conquers the Parthians 200
Fifth persecution against the christians 202
Severus visits Britain, and two years after builds a wall there across from the Frith of Forth 207
Severus dies at York, and is succeeded by Caracalla and Geta. In his reign flourished Tertullian, Minutius Felix, Papinianus, Clemens of Alexandria, Philostratus, Plotianus, and Bulas 211
Geta killed by his brother Caracalla 212
The Septuagint discovered. Caracalla murdered by Macrinus. Flourished Oppian 217
Opilius Macrinus killed by the soldiers, and succeeded by Heliogabalus

‘Macrinius’ replaced with ‘Macrinus’

218
Alexander Severus succeeds Heliogabalus. The Goths then exacted an annual payment not to invade or molest the Roman empire. The age of Julius Africanus 222
The Arsacidæ of Parthia are conquered by Artaxerxes king of Media, and their empire destroyed 229
Alexander defeats the Persians 234
The sixth persecution against the christians 235
Alexander killed and succeeded by Maximinus. At that time flourished Dion Cassius, Origen, and Ammonius 235
The two Gordians succeeded Maximinus, and are put to death by Pupienus, who soon after is destroyed, with Balbinus, by the soldiers of the younger Gordian 236
Sarbinianus defeated in Africa 240
Gordian marches against the Persians 242
He is put to death by Philip, who succeeds, and makes peace with Sapor the next year. About this time flourished Censorius, and Gregory Thaumaturgus 244
Philip killed, and succeeded by Decius. Herodian flourished 249
The seventh persecution against the christians 250
Decius succeeded by Gallus 251
A great pestilence over the empire 252
Gallus dies, and is succeeded by Æmilianus, Valerianus, and Gallienus. In the reign of Gallus flourished St. Cyprian and Plotinus 254
The eighth persecution against the christians 257
The empire is harassed by 30 tyrants successively 258
Valerian is taken by Sapor and flayed alive 260
Odenatus governs the east for Gallienus 264
The Scythians and Goths defeated by Cleodamus and Athenæus 267
Gallienus killed, and succeeded by Claudius. In this reign flourished Longinus, Paulus Samosatenus, &c. 268
Claudius conquers the Goths, and kills 300,000 of them. Zenobia takes possession of Egypt 269
Aurelian succeeds 270
The ninth persecution against the christians 272
Zenobia defeated by Aurelian at Edessa 273
Dacia ceded to the Barbarians by the emperor 274
Aurelian killed, and succeeded by Tacitus, who died after a reign of six months, and was succeeded by Florianus, and, two months after, by Probus 275
Probus makes an expedition into Gaul 277
He defeats the Persians in the east 280
Probus is put to death, and succeeded by Carus, and his sons Carinus and Numerianus 282
Diocletian succeeds 284
The empire attacked by the Barbarians of the north. Diocletian takes Maximianus as his imperial colleague 286
Britain recovered, after a tyrant’s usurpation of 10 years. Alexandria taken by Diocletian 296
The tenth persecution against the christians, which continues 10 years 303
Diocletian and Maximianus abdicate the empire, and live in retirement, succeeded by Constantius Chlorus and Galerius Maximianus the two Cæsars. About this period flourished Julius Capitolinus, Arnobius, Gregory and Hermogenes the lawyers, Ælius Spartianus, Hierocles, Flavius Vopiscus, Trebellius Pollio, &c. 304
Constantius dies, and is succeeded by his son 306
At this time there were four emperors, Constantine, Licinius, Maximianus, and Maxentius 308
Maxentius defeated and killed by Constantine 312
The emperor Constantine begins to favour the christian religion 319
Licinius defeated and banished by Constantine 324
The first general Council of Nice, composed of 318 bishops, who sit from June 19th to August 25th 325
The seat of the empire removed from Rome to Constantinople 328
Constantinople solemnly dedicated by the emperor on the 11th of May 330
Constantine orders all the heathen temples to be destroyed 331
The death of Constantine, and succession of his three sons, Constantinus, Constans, and Constantius. In the reign of Constantine flourished Lactantius, Athanasius, Arius, and Eusebius 337
Constantine the younger defeated and killed by Constans at Aquilea 340
Constans killed in Spain by Magnentius 350
Gallus put to death by Constantius 354
One hundred and fifty cities of Greece and Asia ruined by an earthquake 358
Constantius and Julian quarrel, and prepare for war; but the former dies the next year, and leaves the latter sole emperor. About this period flourished Ælius Donatus, Eutropius, Libanius, Ammian. Marcellinus, Jamblicus, St. Hilary, &c. 360
Julian dies, and is succeeded by Jovian. In Julian’s reign flourished Gregory Nazienzen, Themistius, Aurelius Victor, &c. 363
Upon the death of Jovian, and the succession of Valens and Valentinian, the empire is divided, the former being emperor of the east, and the other of the west 364
Gratian taken as partner in the western empire by Valentinian 367
Firmus tyrant of Africa defeated 373
Valentinian II. succeeds Valentinian I. 375
The Goths permitted to settle in Thrace, on being expelled by the Huns 376
Theodosius the Great succeeds Valens in the eastern empire. The Lombards first leave Scandinavia and defeat the Vandals 379
Gratian defeated and killed by Andragathius 383
The tyrant Maximus defeated and put to death by Theodosius 388
Eugenius usurps the western empire, and is two years after defeated by Theodosius 392
Theodosius dies, and is succeeded by his sons, Arcadius in the east and Honorius in the west. In the reign of Theodosius flourished Ausonius, Eunapius, Pappus, Theon, Prudentius, St. Austin, St. Jerome, St. Ambrose, &c. 395
Gildo, defeated by his own brother, kills himself 398
Stilicho defeats 200,000 of the Goths at Fesulæ 405
The Vandals, Alani, and Suevi permitted to settle in Spain and France by Honorius 406
Theodosius the younger succeeds Arcadius in the east, having Isdegerdes king of Persia as his guardian, appointed by his father 408
Rome plundered by Alaric king of the Visigoths, August 24th 410
The Vandals begin their kingdom in Spain 412
The kingdoms of the Burgundians is begun in Alsace 413
The Visigoths found a kingdom at Toulouse 415
The Alani defeated and extirpated by the Goths 417
The kingdom of the French begins on the Lower Rhine 420
The death of Honorius, and succession of Valentinian III. Under Honorius flourished Sulpicius Severus, Macrobius, Anianus, Panodorus, Stobæus, Servius the commentator, Hypatia, Pelagius, Synesius, Cyrill, Orosius, Socrates, &c. 423
Theodosius establishes public schools at Constantinople, and attempts the restoration of learning 425
The Romans take leave of Britain and never return 426
Pannonia recovered from the Huns by the Romans. The Vandals pass into Africa 427
The French defeated by Ætius 428
The Theodosian code published 435
Genseric the Vandal takes Carthage, and begins the kingdom of the Vandals in Africa 439
The Britons, abandoned by the Romans, make their celebrated complaint to Ætius against the Picts and Scots, and three years after the Saxons settle in Britain, upon the invitation of Vortigern 446
Attila king of the Huns ravages Europe 447
Theodosius II. dies, and is succeeded by Marcianus. About this time flourished Zozimus, Nestorius, Theodoret, Sozomen, Olympiodorus, &c. 450
The city of Venice first began to be known 452
Death of Valentinian III., who is succeeded by Maximus for two months, by Avitus for 10, and, after an interregnum of 10 months, by Majorianus 454
Rome taken by Genseric in July. The kingdom of Kent first established 455
The Suevi defeated by Theodoric on the Ebro 456
Marcianus dies, and is succeeded by Leo, surnamed the Thracian. Vortimer defeated by Hengist at Crayford, in Kent 457
Severus succeeds in the western empire 461
The paschal cycle of 532 years invented by Victorius of Aquitain 463
Anthemius succeeds in the western empire, after an interregnum of two years

‘Athemius’ replaced with ‘Anthemius’

467
Olybrius succeeds Anthemius, and is succeeded, the next year, by Glycerius, and Glycerius by Nepos 472
Nepos is succeeded by Augustulus. Leo junior, son of Ariadne, though an infant, succeeds his grandfather Leo in the eastern empire, and, some months after, is succeeded by his father Zeno 474
The western empire is destroyed by Odoacer king of the Heruli, who assumes the title of king of Italy. About this time flourished Eutyches, Prosper, Victorius, Sidonius Apollinaris 476
Constantinople partly destroyed by an earthquake, which lasted 40 days at intervals 480
The battle of Soissons and victory of Clovis over Siagrius the Roman general 485
After the death of Zeno in the east, Ariadne married Anastasius, surnamed the Silentiary, who ascends the vacant throne 491
Theodoric king of the Ostrogoths revolts about this time, and conquers Italy from the Heruli. About this time flourished Boethius and Symmachus 493
Christianity embraced in France by the baptism of Clovis 496
The Burgundian laws published by king Gondebaud 501
Alaric defeated by Clovis at the battle of Vorcillè near Poitiers 507
Paris made the capital of the French dominions 510
Constantinople besieged by Vitalianus, whose fleet is burned with a brazen speculum by Proclus 514
The computing of time by the christian era, introduced first by Dionysius 516
Justin I., a peasant of Dalmatia, makes himself emperor 518
Justinian I. nephew of Justin succeeds. Under his glorious reign flourished Belisarius, Jornandes, Paul the Silentiary, Simplicius, Dionysius, Procopius, Proclus, Narses, &c. 527
Justinian publishes his celebrated code of laws, and four years after his digest 529
Conquest of Africa by Belisarius, and that of Rome, two years after 534
Italy is invaded by the Franks 538
The Roman consulship suppressed by Justinian 542
A great plague, which arose in Africa, and desolated Asia and Europe 543
The beginning of the Turkish empire in Asia 545
Rome taken and pillaged by Totila 547
The manufacture of silk introduced from India into Europe by monks 551
Defeat and death of Totila the Gothic king of Italy 553
A dreadful plague over Africa, Asia, and Europe, which continues for 50 years 558
Justin II., son of Vigilantia the sister of Justinian, succeeds 565
Part of Italy conquered by the Lombards from Pannonia, who form a kingdom there 568
Tiberius II., an officer of the imperial guards, is adopted, and soon after succeeds 578
Latin ceases to be the language of Italy about this time 581
Maurice the Cappadocian, son-in-law of Tiberius, succeeds 582
Gregory I., surnamed the Great, fills St. Peter’s chair at Rome. The few men of learning who flourished the latter end of this century were Gildas, Agathias, Gregory of Tours the father of French history, Evagrius, and St. Augustin the monk 590
Augustin the monk, with 40 others, comes to preach christianity in England 597
About this time the Saxon heptarchy began in England 600
Phocas, a simple centurion, is elected emperor after the revolt of the soldiers, and the murder of Maurice and of his children 602
The power of the popes begins to be established by the concessions of Phocas 606
Heraclius, an officer in Africa, succeeds, after the murder of the usurper Phocas 610
The conquests of Chosroes king of Persia, in Syria, Egypt, Asia Minor, and afterwards his siege of Rome 611
The Persians take Jerusalem with the slaughter of 90,000 men, and the next year they overrun Africa 614
Mahomet, in his 53rd year, flies from Mecca to Medina, on Friday, July 16th, which forms the first year of the Hegira, the era of the Mahometans 622
Constantinople is besieged by the Persians and Arabs 626
Death of Mahomet 632
Jerusalem taken by the Saracens, and three years after Alexandria and its famous library destroyed 637
Constantine III. son of Heraclius, in partnership with Heracleonas, his brother by the same father, assumes the imperial purple. Constantine reigns 103 days, and after his death, his son. Constantine’s son Constans is declared emperor, though Heracleonas, with his mother Martina, wished to continue in possession of the supreme power 641
Cyprus taken by the Saracens 648
The Saracens take Rhodes, and destroy the Colossus 653
Constantine IV., surnamed Pogonatus, succeeds, on the murder of his father in Sicily 668
The Saracens ravage Sicily 669
Constantinople besieged by the Saracens, whose fleet is destroyed by the Greek fire 673
Justinian II. succeeds his father Constantine. In his exile of 10 years the purple was usurped by Leontius and Absimerus Tiberius. His restoration happened 704. The only men of learning in this century were Secundus, Isidorus, Theophylactus, Georgius Pisides, Callinicus, and the venerable Bede 685
Pepin engrosses the power of the whole French monarchy 690
Africa finally conquered by the Saracens 709
Bardanes, surnamed Philippicus, succeeds at Constantinople, on the murder of Justinian 711
Spain is conquered by the Saracens. Accession of Artemius, or Anastasius II., to the throne 713
Anastasius abdicates, and is succeeded by Theodosius III., who, two years after, yields to the superior influence of Leo III., the first of the Isaurian dynasty 715
Second, but unsuccessful, siege of Constantinople by the Saracens 717
Tax called Peter-pence begun by Ina king of Wessex, to support a college at Rome 727
Saracens defeated by Charles Martel between Tours and Poitiers in October 732
Constantine V., surnamed Copronymus, succeeds his father Leo 741
Dreadful pestilence for three years over Europe and Asia 746
The computation of years from the birth of Christ first used in historical writings 748
Learning encouraged by the race of Abbas caliph of the Saracens 749
The Merovingian race of kings ends in France 750
Bagdad built, and made the capital of the caliphs of the house of Abbas 762
A violent frost for 150 days from October to February 763
Monasteries dissolved in the east by Constantine 770
Pavia taken by Charlemagne, which ends the kingdom of the Lombards, after a duration of 206 years 774
Leo IV. son of Constantine succeeds, and, five years after, is succeeded by his wife Irene and his son Constantine VI. 775
Irene murders her son and reigns alone. The only men of learning in this century were Johannes Damascenus, Fredegaire, Alcuinus, Paulus Diaconus, and George the monk 797
Charlemagne is crowned emperor of Rome and of the western empire. About this time the popes separate themselves from the princes of Constantinople 800
Egbert ascends the throne of England, but the total reduction of the Saxon heptarchy is not effected till 26 years after 801
Nicephorus I., great treasurer of the empire, succeeds 802
Stauracius son of Nicephorus, and Michael I., surnamed Rhangabe, the husband of Procopia sister of Stauracius, assume the purple 811
Leo V. the Armenian, though but an officer of the palace, ascends the throne of Constantinople 813
Learning encouraged among the Saracens by Almanon, who made observations on the sun, &c. 816
Michael II. the Thracian, surnamed the Stammerer, succeeds, after the murder of Leo 821
The Saracens of Spain take Crete, which they call Candia 823
The Almagest of Ptolemy translated into Arabic by order of Almanon 827
Theophilus succeeds his father Michael 829
Origin of the Russian monarchy 839
Michael III. succeeds his father Theophilus with his mother Theodora 842
The Normans get possession of some cities in France 853
Michael is murdered, and succeeded by Basil I. the Macedonian 867
Clocks first brought to Constantinople from Venice 872
Basil is succeeded by his son Leo VI. the philosopher. In this century flourished Mesué, the Arabian physician Eginhard, Rabanus, Albumasar, Godescalchus, Hincmarus, Odo, Photius, John Scotus, Anastasius the librarian, Alfraganus, Albategni, Reginon, John Asser 886
Paris besieged by the Normans, and bravely defended by bishop Goslin 887
Death of Alfred king of England, after a reign of 30 years 900
Alexander brother of Leo succeeds, with his nephew Constantine VII., surnamed Porphyrogenitus 911
The Normans establish themselves in France under Rollo 912
Romanus I., surnamed Lecapenus, general of the fleet, usurps the throne, with his three sons, Christopher, Stephen, and Constantine VIII. 919
Fiefs established in France 923
Saracen empire divided by usurpation into seven kingdoms 936
Naples seized by the eastern emperors 942
The sons of Romanus conspire against their father, and the tumults this occasioned produced the restoration of Porphyrogenitus 945
Romanus II. son of Constantine VII., by Helena the daughter of Lecapenus, succeeds 959
Romanus, poisoned by his wife Theophana, is succeeded by Nicephorus Phocas II., whom the empress, unable to reign alone under the title of protectress of her young children, had married 963
Italy conquered by Otho, and united to the German empire 964
Nicephorus, at the instigation of Theophana, is murdered by John Zimisces, who assumes the purple 969
Basil II., and Constantine IX., the two sons of Romanus by Theophana, succeed on the death of Zimisces

‘Theopana’ replaced with ‘Theophana’

975
The third or Capetian race of kings in France begins July 3rd 987
Arithmetical figures brought into Europe from Arabia by the Saracens 991
The empire of Germany first made elective by Otho III. The learned men of this century were Eudes de Cluni, Azophi, Luitprand, Alfarabius, Rhazes, Geber, Abbo, Aimoin, Gerbert 996
A general massacre of the Danes in England, Nov. 13th 1002
All old churches about this time rebuilt in a new manner of architecture 1005
Flanders inundated in consequence of a violent storm 1014
Constantine becomes sole emperor on the death of his brother 1025
Romanus III., surnamed Argyrus, a patrician, succeeds by marrying Zoe the daughter of the late monarch 1028
Zoe, after prostituting herself to a Paphlagonian money-lender, causes her husband Romanus to be poisoned, and afterwards marries her favourite, who ascends the throne under the name of Michael IV. 1034
The kingdoms of Castile and Arragon begin 1035
Zoe adopts for her son Michael V., the trade of whose father (careening vessels) had procured him the surname of Calaphates 1041
Zoe and her sister Theodora are made sole empresses by the populace, but after two months Zoe, though 60 years old, takes for her third husband Constantine X., who succeeds 1042
The Turks invade the Roman empire 1050
After the death of Constantine, Theodora recovers the sovereignty, and, 19 months after, adopts, as her successor, Michael VI., surnamed Stratioticus 1054
Isaac Commenus I. chosen emperor by the soldiers 1057
Isaac abdicates, and when his brother refuses to succeed him, he appoints his friend Constantine XI., surnamed Ducas 1059
Jerusalem conquered by the Turks from the Saracens 1065
The crown of England is transferred from the head of Harold by the battle of Hastings, October the 14th, to William the Conqueror, duke of Normandy 1066
On the death of Ducas, his wife Eudocia, instead of protecting his three sons, Michael, Andronicus, and Constantine, usurps the sovereignty, and marries Romanus III., surnamed Diogenes 1067
Romanus being taken prisoner by the Turks, the three young princes ascend the throne, under the name of Michael Parapinaces VII., Andronicus I., and Constantine XII. 1071
The general Nicephorus Botaniates III. assumes the purple 1078
Doomsday-book begun to be compiled from a general survey of the estates of England, and finished in six years 1080
Alexius Commenus I. nephew of Isaac I. ascends the throne. His reign is rendered illustrious by the pen of his daughter, the princess Anna Commena. The Normans, under Robert of Apulia, invade the eastern empire 1081
Asia Minor finally conquered by the Turks 1084
Accession of William II. to the English throne 1087
The first crusade 1096
Jerusalem taken by the crusaders 15th July. The only learned men of this century were Avicenna, Guy d’Arezzo, Glaber, Hermannus, Franco, Peter Damiani, Michael Celularius, George Cedrenus, Berenger, Psellus, Marianus Scotus, Arzachel, William of Spires, Suidas, Peter the Hermit, Sigebert 1099
Henry I. succeeds to the throne of England 1100
Learning revived at Cambridge 1110
John, or Calojohannes, son of Alexius, succeeds at Constantinople 1118
Order of Knights Templars instituted 1118
Accession of Stephen to the English crown 1135
Manuel son of John succeeds at Constantinople 1143
The second crusade 1147
The canon law composed by Gratian, after 24 years’ labour 1151
The party names of Guelfs and Gibbelines begin in Italy 1154
Henry II. succeeds in England 1154
The Teutonic order begins 1164
The conquest of Egypt by the Turks 1169
The famous council of Clarendon in England, January 25th. Conquest of Ireland by Henry II. 1172
Dispensing of justice by circuits first established in England 1176
Alexius II. succeeds his father Manuel 1180
English laws digested by Glanville 1181
From the disorders of the government, on account of the minority of Alexius, Andronicus the grandson of the great Alexius is named Guardian, but he murders Alexius, and ascends the throne 1183
Andronicus is cruelly put to death, and Isaac Angelus, a descendant of the great Alexius by the female line, succeeds 1185
The third crusade, and siege of Acre 1188
Richard I. succeeds his father Henry in England 1189
Saladin defeated by Richard of England in the battle of Ascalon 1192
Alexius Angelus brother of Isaac revolts, and usurps the sovereignty by putting out the eyes of the emperor 1195
John succeeds to the English throne. The learned men of this century were Peter Abelard, Anna Commena, St. Bernard, Averroes, William of Malmesbury, Peter Lombard, Otho Frisingensis, Maimonides, Humenus, Wernerus, Gratian, Jeoffry of Monmouth, Tzetzes, Eustathius, John of Salisbury, Simeon of Durham, Henry of Huntingdon, Peter Comestor, Peter of Blois, Ranulph Glanville, Roger Hoveden, Campanus, William of Newburgh

‘Trisingensis’ replaced with ‘Frisingensis’

1199
Constantinople is besieged and taken by the Latins, and Isaac is taken from his dungeon and replaced on the throne with his son Alexius. This year is remarkable for the fourth crusade 1203
The father and son are murdered by Alexius Mourzoufle, and Constantinople is again besieged and taken by the French and Venetians, who elect Baldwin count of Flanders emperor of the east. In the mean time, Theodore Lascaris makes himself emperor of Nice; Alexius grandson of the tyrant Andronicus becomes emperor of Trebizond; and Michael, an illegitimate child of the Angeli, founds an empire in Epirus 1204
The emperor Baldwin is defeated by the Bulgarians, and next year is succeeded by his brother Henry 1205
Reign and conquests of the great Zingis Khan first emperor of the Moguls and Tartars, till the time of his death, 1227 1206
Aristotle’s works imported from Constantinople are condemned by the council of Paris 1209
Magna Charta granted to the English barons by king John 1215
Henry III. succeeds his father John on the English throne 1216
Peter of Courtenay, the husband of Yolanda sister of the two last emperors, Baldwin and Henry, is made emperor by the Latins 1217
Robert son of Peter Courtenay succeeds 1221
Theodore Lascaris is succeeded on the throne of Nice by his son-in-law John Ducas Vataces 1222
John of Brienne, and Baldwin II. son of Peter, succeeded on the throne of Constantinople 1228
The inquisition which had been begun 1204 is now trusted to the Dominicans 1233
Baldwin alone 1237
Origin of the Ottomans 1240
The fifth crusade 1248
Astronomical tables composed by Alphonso XI. of Castile 1253
Ducas Vataces is succeeded on the throne of Nice by his son Theodore Lascaris II. 1255
Lascaris succeeded by his son John Lascaris, a minor 1259
Michael Palæologus son of the sister of the queen of Theodore Lascaris ascends the throne, after the murder of the young prince’s guardian 1260
Constantinople is recovered from the Latins by the Greek emperors of Nice 1261
Edward I. succeeds on the English throne 1272
The famous Mortmain act passes in England 1279
Eight thousand French murdered during the Sicilian vespers, 30th of March 1282
Wales conquered by Edward and annexed to England 1283
Michael Palæologus dies, and his son Andronicus, who had already reigned nine years conjointly with his father, ascends the throne. The learned men of this century are Gervase, Diceto, Saxo, Walter of Coventry, Accursius, Anthony of Padua, Alexander Halensis, William of Paris, Peter de Vignes, Matthew Paris, Grosseteste, Albertus, Thomas Aquinas, Bonaventura, John Joinville, Roger Bacon, Cimabue, Durandus, Henry of Ghent, Raymond Lulli, Jacob Voragine, Albertet, Duns Scotus, Thebit 1293
A regular succession of English parliaments from this time 1293
The Turkish empire begins in Bithynia 1298
The mariner’s compass invented or improved by Flavio 1302
The Swiss cantons begin 1307
Edward II. succeeds to the English crown 1307
Translation of the holy see to Avignon, which alienation continues 68 years, till the return of Gregory XI. 1308
Andronicus adopts, as his colleagues, Manuel, and his grandson the younger Andronicus. Manuel dying, Andronicus revolts against his grandfather, who abdicates 1320
Edward III. succeeds in England

‘1337’ replaced with ‘1327’

1327
First comet observed, whose course is described with exactness, in June 1337
About this time flourished Leo Pilatus, a Greek professor at Florence, Barlaam, Petrarch, Boccace, and Manuel Chrysoloras, where may be fixed the era of the revival of Greek literature in Italy 1339
Andronicus is succeeded by his son John Palæologus in the ninth year of his age. John Cantacuzene, who had been left guardian of the young prince, assumes the purple. First passage of the Turks into Europe 1341
The knights and burgesses of parliament first sit in the same house 1342
The battle of Crecy, August 26th 1346
Seditions of Rienzi at Rome, and his elevation to the tribuneship 1347
Order of the Garter in England established April 23rd 1349
The Turks first enter Europe 1352
Cantacuzene abdicates the purple 1355
The battle of Poictiers, September 19th 1356
Law pleadings altered from French into English as a favour from Edward III. to his people, in his 50th year 1362
Rise of Timour, or Tamerlane, to the throne of Samarcand, and his extensive conquests till his death, after a reign of 35 years 1370
Accession of Richard II. to the English throne 1377
Manuel succeeds his father John Palæologus 1391
Accession of Henry IV. in England. The learned men of this century were Peter Apono, Flavio, Dante, Arnoldus Villa, Nicholas Lyra, William Occam, Nicephoras Gregoras, Leontius Pilatus, Matthew of Westminster, Wickliff, Froissart, Nicholas Flamel, &c. 1399
Henry IV. is succeeded by his son Henry V. 1413
Battle of Agincourt, October 25th 1415
The island of Madeira discovered by the Portuguese 1420
Henry VI. succeeds to the throne of England. Constantinople is besieged by Amurath II. the Turkish emperor 1422
John Palæologus II. succeeds his father Manuel 1424
Cosmo de Medici recalled from banishment, and rise of that family at Florence 1434
The famous pragmatic sanction settled in France 1439
Printing discovered at Mentz, and improved gradually in 22 years 1440
Constantine, one of the sons of Manuel, ascends the throne after his brother John 1448
Mahomet II. emperor of the Turks besieges and takes Constantinople on the 29th of May. Fall of the eastern empire. The captivity of the Greeks, and the extinction of the imperial families of the Commeni and Palæologi. About this time the House of York in England began to aspire to the crown, and, by their ambitious views, to deluge the whole kingdom in blood. The learned men of the 15th century were Chaucer, Leonard Aretin, John Huss, Jerome of Prague, Poggio, Flavius Blondus, Theodore Gaza, Frank Philelphus, Georgius Trapezuntius, Gemistus Pletho, Laurentius Valla, Ulugh Beigh, John Guttemberg, John Faustus, Peter Schoeffer, Wesselus, Peurbachius, Æneas Sylvius, Bessarion, Thomas à Kempis, Argyropulus, Regiomontanus, Platina, Agricola, Pontanus, Ficinus, Lascaris, Tiphernas, Annius of Viterbo, Merula, Savonarola, Picus, Politian, Hermolaus, Grocyn, Mantuanus, John Colet, Reuchlin, Lynacre, Alexander ab Alexandro, Demetrius Chalcondyles, &c. 1453

A CLASSICAL DICTIONARY,

ETC., ETC.

A

ABA and Abæ, a town of Phocis, famous for an oracle of Apollo, surnamed Abæus. The inhabitants, called Abantes, were of Thracian origin. After the ruin of their country by Xerxes, they migrated to Eubœa, which from them was called Abantis. Some of them passed afterwards from Eubœa into Ionia. Herodotus, bk. 8, ch. 33.—Pausanias, bk. 10, ch. 55.――A city of Caria.――Another of Arabia Felix.――A mountain near Smyrna. Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 24.—Strabo, bk. 10.

Abacēne, a country of Sicily near Messana. Diodorus, bk. 14.

Abălus, an island in the German ocean, where, as the ancients supposed, the amber dropped from the trees. If a man was drowned there, and his body never appeared above the water, propitiatory sacrifices were offered to his manes during a hundred years. Pliny, bk. 37, ch. 2.

Abāna, a place of Capua. Cicero, De Lege Agraria contra Rullum.

Abantes, a warlike people of Peloponnesus, who built a town in Phocis called Aba, after their leader Abas, whence also their name originated. They afterwards went to Eubœa. See: Abantis. Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 146.

Abantias and Abantiădes, a patronymic given to the descendants of Abas king of Argos, such as Acrisius, Danae, Perseus, Atalanta, &c. Ovid.

Abantĭdas, made himself master of Sicyon, after he had murdered Clinias the father of Aratus. He was himself soon after assassinated, B.C. 251. Plutarch, Aratus.

Abantis, or Abantias, an ancient name of the island of Eubœa, received from the Abantes, who settled in it from Phocis. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 12.――Also a country of Epirus. Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 22.

Abarbarea, one of the Naiades, mother of Æsepus and Pedasus by Bucolion, Laomedon’s eldest son. Homer, Iliad, bk. 6, li. 23.

Abarīmon, a country of Scythia, near mount Imaus. The inhabitants were said to have their toes behind their heels, and to breathe no air but that of their native country. Pliny, bk. 7, ch. 2.

Abăris, a man killed by Perseus. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 5, li. 86.――A Rutulian killed by Euryalus. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 9, li. 344.――A Scythian, son of Seuthes, in the age of Crœsus, or the Trojan war, who received a flying arrow from Apollo, with which he gave oracles, and transported himself wherever he pleased. He is said to have returned to the Hyperborean countries from Athens without eating, and to have made the Trojan Palladium with the bones of Pelops. Some suppose that he wrote treatises in Greek; and it is reported, that there is a Greek manuscript of his epistles to Phalaris, in the library of Augsburg. But there were probably two persons of that name. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 36.—Strabo, bk. 7.—Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 33.

Abārus, an Arabian prince, who perfidiously deserted Crassus in his expedition against Parthia. Appian, Parthia.――He is called Mezeres by Florus, bk. 3, ch. 11, and Ariamnes by Plutarch, Crassus.

Abas, a mountain in Syria, where the Euphrates rises.――A river of Armenia Major, where Pompey routed the Albani. Plutarch, Pompey.――A son of Metanira, or Melaninia, changed into a lizard for laughing at Ceres. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 5, fable 7.――The 11th king of Argos, son of Belus, some say of Lynceus and Hypermnestra, was famous for his genius and valour. He was father to Prœtus and Acrisius, by Ocalea, and built Abæ. He reigned 23 years, B.C. 1384. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 16; bk. 10, ch. 35.—Hyginus, fable 170, &c.Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 2.――One of Æneas’s companions, killed in Italy. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 10, li. 170.――Another lost in the storm which drove Æneas to Carthage. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 1, li. 125.――A Latian chief, who assisted Æneas against Turnus, and was killed by Lausus. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 10, li. 170, &c.――A Greek, son of Eurydamus, killed by Æneas during the Trojan war. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 3, li. 286.—Homer, Iliad, bk. 5, li. 150.――A centaur, famous for his skill in hunting. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 12, li. 306.――A soothsayer, to whom the Spartans erected a statue in the temple of Apollo, for his services to Lysander. Pausanias, bk. 10, ch. 9.――A son of Neptune. Hyginus, fable 157.――A sophist who wrote two treatises, one on history, the other on rhetoric. The time in which he lived is unknown.――A man who wrote an account of Troy. He is quoted by Servius in Virgil, Æneid, bk. 9.

Abāsa, an island in the Red sea, near Æthiopia. Pausanias, bk. 6, ch. 26.

Abasītis, a part of Mysia in Asia. Strabo.

Abassēna, or Abassinia. See: Abyssinia.

Abassus, a town of Phrygia. Livy, bk. 38, ch. 15.

Abastor, one of Pluto’s horses.

Abătos, an island in the lake near Memphis in Egypt, abounding with flax and papyrus. Osiris was buried there. Lucan, bk. 10, li. 323.

Abdalonīmus, one of the descendants of the kings of Sidon, so poor, that to maintain himself, he worked in a garden. When Alexander took Sidon, he made him king, in the room of Strato the deposed monarch, and enlarged his possessions on account of the great disinterestedness of his conduct. Justin, bk. 11, ch. 10.—Curtius, bk. 4, ch. 1.—Diodorus, bk. 17.

Abdēra, a town of Hispania Bætica, built by the Carthaginians. Strabo, bk. 3.――A maritime city of Thrace, built by Hercules, in memory of Abderus, one of his favourites. The Clazomenians and Teians beautified it. Some suppose that Abdera the sister of Diomedes built it. The air was so unwholesome, and the inhabitants of such a sluggish disposition, that stupidity was commonly called Abderitica mens. It gave birth, however, to Democritus, Protagoras, Anaxarchus, and Hecatæus. Mela, bk. 2, ch. 2.—Cicero, Letters to Atticus, bk. 4, ltr. 16.—Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 186.—Martial, bk. 10, ltr. 25.

Abdēria, a town of Spain. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 5.

Abderītes, a people of Pæonia, obliged to leave their country on account of the great number of rats and frogs which infested it. Justin, bk. 15, ch. 2.

Abdērus, a man of Opus in Locris, arm-bearer to Hercules, torn to pieces by the mares of Diomedes, which the hero had entrusted to his care when going to war against the Bistones. Hercules built a city, which, in honour of his friend, he called Abdera. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 5.—Philostratus, bk. 2, ch. 25.

Abeătæ, a people of Achaia, probably the inhabitants of Abia. Pausanias, bk. 4, ch. 30.—Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 6.

Abella, a town of Campania, whose inhabitants were called Abellani. Its nuts, called avellanæ, and also its apples, were famous. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 740.—Justin, bk. 20, ch. 5.—Silius Italicus, bk. 8, li. 544.

Abelux, a noble of Saguntum, who favoured the party of the Romans against Carthage. Livy, bk. 22, ch. 22.

Abenda, a town of Caria, whose inhabitants were the first who raised temples to the city of Rome. Livy, bk. 45, ch. 6.

Abia, formerly Ire, a maritime town of Messenia, one of the seven cities promised to Achilles by Agamemnon. It is called after Abia, daughter of Hercules and nurse of Hyllus. Pausanias, bk. 4, ch. 30.—Strabo, bk. 8.—Homer, Iliad, bk. 9, li. 292.

Abii, a nation between Scythia and Thrace. They lived upon milk, were fond of celibacy, and enemies to war. Homer, Iliad, bk. 13, li. 6.—According to Curtius, bk. 7, ch. 6, they surrendered to Alexander, after they had been independent since the reign of Cyrus.

Abĭla, or Abyla, a mountain of Africa, in that part which is nearest to the opposite mountain called Calpe, on the coast of Spain, only eighteen miles distant. These two mountains are called the columns of Hercules, and were said formerly to be united, till the hero separated them, and made a communication between the Mediterranean and Atlantic seas. Strabo, bk. 3.—Mela, bk. 1, ch. 5; bk. 2, ch. 6.—Pliny, bk. 3.

Abisăres, an Indian prince, who offered to surrender to Alexander. Curtius, bk. 8, ch. 12.

Abisăris, a country beyond the Hydaspes in India. Arrian.

Abisontes, some inhabitants of the Alps. Pliny, bk. 3, ch. 20.

Ablētes, a people near Troy. Strabo.

Abnoba, a mountain of Germany. Tacitus, Germania, ch. 1.

Abobrĭca, a town of Lusitania. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 20.――Another in Spain.

Abœcrĭtus, a Bœotian general, killed with a thousand men, in a battle at Chæronea, against the Ætolians. Plutarch, Aratus.

Abolāni, a people of Latium, near Alba. Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 5.

Abōlus, a river of Sicily. Plutarch, Timoleon.

Aboniteichos, a town of Galatia. Arrian, Periplus of the Euxine Sea.

Aborāca, a town of Sarmatia.

Aborigĭnes, the original inhabitants of Italy; or, according to others, a nation conducted by Saturn into Latium, where they taught the use of letters to Evander the king of the country. Their posterity was called Latini, from Latinus, one of their kings. They assisted Æneas against Turnus. Rome was built in their country.—The word signifies without origin, or whose origin is not known, and is generally applied to the original inhabitants of any country. Livy, bk. 1, ch. 1, &c.Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 1, ch. 10.—Justin, bk. 43, ch. 1.—Pliny, bk. 3, ch. 5.—Strabo, bk. 5.

Aborras, a river of Mesopotamia. Strabo, bk. 16.

Abradātes, a king of Susa, who, when his wife Panthea had been taken prisoner by Cyrus, and humanely treated, surrendered himself and his troops to the conqueror. He was killed in the first battle he undertook in the cause of Cyrus, and his wife stabbed herself on his corpse. Cyrus raised a monument on their tomb. Xenophon, Cyropædia, bks. 5, 6, &c.

Abrentius, was made governor of Tarentum by Annibal. He betrayed his trust to the enemy to gain the favours of a beautiful woman, whose brother was in the Roman army. Polyænus, bk. 8.

Abrocŏmas, son of Darius, was in the army of Xerxes, when he invaded Greece. He was killed at Thermopylæ. Herodotus, bk. 7, ch. 224.—Plutarch, Cleomenes.

Abrodiætus, a name given to Parrhasius the painter, on account of the sumptuous manner of his living. See: Parrhasius.

Abron, an Athenian, who wrote some treatises on the religious festivals and sacrifices of the Greeks. Only the titles of his works are preserved. Suidas.――A grammarian of Rhodes, who taught rhetoric at Rome.――Another who wrote a treatise on Theocritus.――A Spartan, son of Lycurgus the orator. Plutarch, Decem Oratorum.――A native of Argos, famous for his debauchery.

Abronius Silo, a Latin poet in the Augustan age. He wrote some fables. Seneca.

Abronycus, an Athenian, very serviceable to Themistocles in his embassy to Sparta. Thucydides, bk. 1, ch. 91.—Herodotus, bk. 8, ch. 21.

Abrŏta, the wife of Nisus, the youngest of the sons of Ægeus. As a monument to her chastity, Nisus, after her death, ordered the garments which she wore to become the models of fashion in Megara. Plutarch, Quæstiones Græcæ.

Abrotŏnum, the mother of Themistocles. Plutarch, Themistocles.――A town of Africa, near the Syrtes. Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 4. ――A harlot of Thrace. Plutarch, Aratus.

Abrus, a city of the Sapæi. Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 10.

Abrypŏlis, an ally of Rome, driven from his possessions by Perseus, the last king of Macedonia. Livy, bk. 42, chs. 13 & 41.

Abseus, a giant, son of Tartarus and Terra. Hyginus, preface to fables.

Absinthii, a people on the coasts of Pontus, where there is also a mountain of the same name. Herodotus, bk. 6, ch. 34.

Absŏrus, Absyrtis, Absyrtides, islands in the Adriatic, or near Istria, where Absyrtus was killed, whence their name. Strabo, bk. 7.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 9.—Lucan, bk. 3, li. 190.

Absyrtos, a river falling into the Adriatic sea, near which Absyrtus was murdered. Lucan, bk. 3, li. 190.

Absyrtus, a son of Æetes king of Colchis, and Hypsea. His sister Medea, as she fled away with Jason, tore his body to pieces, and strewed his limbs in her father’s way, to stop his pursuit. Some say that she murdered him in Colchis, others, near Istria. It is said by others, that he was not murdered, but that he arrived safe in Illyricum. The place where he was killed has been called Tomos, and the river adjoining to it Absyrtos. Lucan, bk. 3, li. 190.—Strabo, bk. 7.—Hyginus, fable 23.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 9.—Flaccus, bk. 8, li. 261.—Ovid, Tristia, bk. 3, poem 9.—Cicero, de Natura Deorum, bk. 3, ch. 19.—Pliny, bk. 3, chs. 21 & 26.

Abulītes, governor of Susa, betrayed his trust to Alexander, and was rewarded with a province. Curtius, bk. 5, ch. 2.—Diodorus, bk. 17.

Abydēnus, a disciple of Aristotle, too much indulged by his master. He wrote some historical treatises on Cyprus, Delos, Arabia, and Assyria. Philo Judæus.Josephus, Against Apion.

Abȳdos, a town of Egypt, where was the famous temple of Osiris. Plutarch, on De Iside et Osiride.――A city of Asia, opposite Sestos in Europe, with which, from the narrowness of the Hellespont, it seemed, to those who approach it by sea, to form only one town. It was built by the Milesians, by permission of king Gyges. It is famous for the amours of Hero and Leander, and for the bridge of boats which Xerxes built there across the Hellespont. The inhabitants, being besieged by Philip the father of Perseus, devoted themselves to death with their families, rather than fall into the hands of the enemy. Livy, bk. 31, ch. 18.—Lucan, bk. 2, li. 674.—Justin, bk. 2, ch. 13.—Musæus, Hero & Leander.—Flaccus, bk. 1, li. 285.

Abȳla. See: Abila.

Abȳlon, a city of Egypt.

Abyssinia, a large kingdom of Africa, in Upper Æthiopia, where the Nile takes its rise. The inhabitants are said to be of Arabian origin, and were little known to the ancients.

Acacallis, a nymph, mother of Philander and Phylacis by Apollo. These children were exposed to the wild beasts in Crete; but a goat gave them her milk, and preserved their life. Pausanias, bk. 10, ch. 16.――A daughter of Minos, mother of Cydon by Mercury, and of Amphithemis by Apollo. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 53.—Apollonius, bk. 4, li. 1493.

Acacēsium, a town of Arcadia, built by Acacus son of Lycaon. Mercury, surnamed Acacesius, because brought up by Acacus as his foster-father, was worshipped there. Pausanias, bk. 8, chs. 3, 36, &c.

Acacius, a rhetorician in the age of the emperor Julian.

Acadēmia, a place near Athens surrounded with high trees, and adorned with spacious covered walks, belonging to Academus, from whom the name is derived. Some derive the word from ἑκας δημος, removed from the people. Here Plato opened his school of philosophy, and from this, every place sacred to learning has ever since been called Academia. To exclude from it profaneness and dissipation, it was even forbidden to laugh there. It was called Academia vetus, to distinguish it from the second Academy, founded by Arcesilaus, who made some few alterations in the Platonic philosophy, and from the third which was established by Carneades. Cicero, de Divinatione, bk. 1, ch. 3.—Diogenes Laërtius, bk. 3.—Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 3, ch. 35.

Acadēmus, an Athenian, who discovered to Castor and Pollux where Theseus had concealed their sister Helen, for which they amply rewarded him. Plutarch, Theseus.

Acalandrus, or Acalyndrus, a river falling into the bay of Tarentum. Pliny, bk. 3, ch. 11.

Acalle, a daughter of Minos and Pasiphae. Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 1.

Acamarchis, one of the Oceanides.

Acămas, son of Theseus and Phædra, went with Diomedes to demand Helen from the Trojans after her elopement from Menelaus. In his embassy he had a son called Munitus, by Laodice the daughter of Priam. He was concerned in the Trojan war, and afterwards built the town of Acamantium in Phrygia, and on his return to Greece called a tribe after his own name at Athens. Pausanias, bk. 10, ch. 26.—Quintus Smyrnæus, bk. 12.—Hyginus, fable 108.――A son of Antenor in the Trojan war. Homer, Iliad, bk. 11, li. 60, &c.――A Thracian auxiliary of Priam in the Trojan war. Homer, Iliad, bk. 11.

Acampsis, a river of Colchis. Arrian.

Acantha, a nymph loved by Apollo, and changed into the flower Acanthus.

Acanthus, a town near mount Athos, belonging to Macedonia, or, according to others, to Thrace. It was founded by a colony from Andros. Thucydides, bk. 4, ch. 84.—Mela, bk. 2, ch. 2.――Another in Egypt near the Nile, called also Dulopolis. Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 28.――An island mentioned by Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 32.

Acăra, a town of Pannonia.――Another in Italy.

Acaria, a fountain of Corinth, where Iolas cut off the head of Eurystheus. Strabo, bk. 8.

Acarnania, anciently Curetis, a country of Epirus, at the north of the Ionian sea, divided from Ætolia by the Achelous. The inhabitants reckoned only six months in the year; they were luxurious, and addicted to pleasure, so that porcus Acarnas became proverbial. Their horses were famous. It received its name from Acarnas. Pliny, bk. 2, ch. 90.—Mela, bk. 2, ch. 3.—Strabo, bks. 7 & 9.—Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 24.—Lucian, Dialogi Meretricii.

Acarnas and Amphoterus, sons of Alcmæon and Callirhöe. Alcmæon being murdered by the brothers of Alphesibœa his former wife, Callirhöe obtained from Jupiter, that her children, who were still in the cradle, might, by a supernatural power, suddenly grow up to punish their father’s murderers. This was granted. See: Alcmæon. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 24.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 9, fable 10.

Acarnas and Acarnan, a stony mountain of Attica. Seneca, Hippolytus, li. 20.

Acasta, one of the Oceanides. Hesiod, Theogony, li. 356.

Acastus, son of Pelias king of Thessaly by Anaxibia, married Astydamia or Hippolyte, who fell in love with Peleus son of Æacus, when in banishment at her husband’s court. Peleus, rejecting the addresses of Hippolyte, was accused before Acastus of attempts upon her virtue, and soon after, at a chase, exposed to wild beasts. Vulcan, by order of Jupiter, delivered Peleus, who returned to Thessaly, and put to death Acastus and his wife. See: Peleus and Astydamia. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 8, li. 306; Heroides, poem 13, li. 25.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 9, &c.――The second archon at Athens.

Acathantus, a bay in the Red sea.—Strabo, bk. 16.

Acca Laurentia, the wife of Faustulus shepherd of king Numitor’s flocks, who brought up Romulus and Remus, who had been exposed on the banks of the Tiber. From her wantonness, she was called Lupa, prostitute, whence the fable that Romulus was suckled by a she-wolf. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 1, ch. 18.—Livy, bk. 1, ch. 4.—Aulus Gellius, bk. 6, ch. 7.――The Romans yearly celebrated certain festivals [See: Laurentalia] in honour of another prostitute of the same name, which arose from this circumstance: the keeper of the temple of Hercules, one day playing at dice, made the god one of the number, on condition that if Hercules was defeated, he should make him a present, but if he conquered he should be entertained with an elegant feast, and share his bed with a beautiful female. Hercules was victorious, and accordingly Acca was conducted to the bed of Hercules, who in reality came to see her, and told her in the morning to go into the streets, and salute with a kiss the first man she met. This was Tarrutius, an old unmarried man, who, not displeased with Acca’s liberty, loved her, and made her the heiress of all his possessions. These, at her death, she gave to the Roman people, whence the honours paid to her memory. Plutarch, Quæstiones Romanæ, Romulus.――A companion of Camilla. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 11, li. 820.

Accia, or Atia, daughter of Julia and Marcus Atius Balbus, was the mother of Augustus, and died about 40 years B.C. Dio Cassius.Suetonius, Augustus, ch. 4.――Variola, an illustrious female, whose cause was eloquently pleaded by Pliny. Pliny, bk. 6, ch. 33.

Accĭla, a town of Sicily. Livy, bk. 24, ch. 35.

Lucius Accius, a Roman tragic poet, whose roughness of style Quintilian has imputed to the unpolished age in which he lived. He translated some of the tragedies of Sophocles, but of his numerous pieces only some of the names are known; and among these his Nuptiæ, Mercator, Neoptolemus, Phœnice, Medea, Atreus, &c. The great marks of honour which he received at Rome may be collected from this circumstance: that a man was severely reprimanded by a magistrate for mentioning his name without reverence. Some few of his verses are preserved in Cicero and in other writers. He died about 180 years B.C. Horace, bk. 2, ltr. 1, li. 56.—Ovid, Amores, bk. 1, poem 15, li. 19.—Quintilian, bk. 10, ch. 1.—Cicero, Letters to Atticus & Brutus or de Claris Oratoribus, bk. 3, ch. 16.――A famous orator of Pisaurum in Cicero’s age.――Labeo, a foolish poet mentioned Persius, bk. 1, li. 50.――Tullius, a prince of the Volsci, very inimical to the Romans. Coriolanus, when banished by his countrymen, fled to him, and led his armies against Rome. Livy, bk. 2, ch. 37.—Plutarch, Coriolanus.

Acco, a general of the Senones in Gaul. Cæsar, Gallic War, bk. 6, chs. 4 & 44.――An old woman who fell mad on seeing her deformity in a looking-glass. Hesychius.

Accua, a town in Italy. Livy, bk. 24, ch. 20.

Ace, a town in Phœnicia, called also Ptolemais, now Acre. Cornelius Nepos, Datames, ch. 5.――A place of Arcadia near Megalopolis, where Orestes was cured from the persecution of the furies, who had a temple there. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 34.

Acerātus, a soothsayer, who remained alone at Delphi when the approach of Xerxes frightened away the inhabitants. Herodotus, bk. 8, ch. 37.

Acerbas, a priest of Hercules at Tyre, who married Dido. See: Sichæus. Justin, bk. 18, ch. 4.

Acerīna, a colony of the Brutii in Magna Græcia, taken by Alexander of Epirus. Livy, bk. 8, ch. 24.

Acerræ, an ancient town of Campania, near the river Clanius. It still subsists; and the frequent inundations from the river which terrified its ancient inhabitants, are now prevented by the large drains dug there. Virgil, Georgics, bk. 2, li. 225.—Livy, bk. 8, ch. 17.

Acersecŏmes, a surname of Apollo, which signifies unshorn. Juvenal, satire 8, li. 128.

Aces, a river of Asia. Herodotus, bk. 3, ch. 117.

Acesia, part of the island of Lemnos, which received this name from Philoctetes, whose wound was cured there. Philostratus.

Acesīnes, a river of Sicily. Thucydides, bk. 4, ch. 25.

Acesīnus, or Acesīnes, a river of Persia falling into the Indus. Its banks produce reeds of such an uncommon size, that a piece of them, particularly between two knots, can serve as a boat to cross the water. Justin, bk. 12, ch. 9.—Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 12.

Acesius, a surname of Apollo, in Elis and Attica, as god of medicine. Pausanias, bk. 6, ch. 24.

Acesta, a town of Sicily, called after king Acestes, and known also by the name of Segesta. It was built by Æneas, who left there part of his crew, as he was going to Italy. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 5, li. 746, &c.

Acestes, son of Crinisus and Egesta, was king of the country near Drepanum in Sicily. He assisted Priam in the Trojan war, and kindly entertained Æneas during his voyage, and helped him to bury his father on mount Eryx. In commemoration of this, Æneas built a city there called Acesta, from Acestes. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 5, li. 746.

Acestium, a woman who saw all her relations invested with the sacred office of torch-bearer in the festivals of Ceres. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 37.

Acestodōrus, a Greek historian, who mentions the review which Xerxes made of his forces before the battle of Salamis. Plutarch, Themistocles.

Acestorĭdes, an Athenian archon.――A Corinthian, governor of Syracuse. Diodorus, bk. 19.

Acetes, one of Evander’s attendants. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 11, li. 30.

Achabȳtos, a lofty mountain in Rhodes, where Jupiter had a temple.

Achæa, a surname of Pallas, whose temple in Daunia was defended by dogs which fawned upon the Greeks, but fiercely attacked all other persons. Aristotle, de Mirabilibus.――Ceres was called Achæa, from her lamentations (ἀχεα) at the loss of Proserpine. Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride.

Achæi, the descendants of Achæus, at first inhabited the country near Argos, but being driven by the Heraclidæ, 80 years after the Trojan war, they retired among the Ionians, whose 12 cities they seized and kept. The names of these cities are Pellene, Ægira, Æges, Bura, Tritæa, Ægion, Rhypæ, Olenos, Helice, Patræ, Dyme, and Pharæ. The inhabitants of these three last began a famous confederacy, 284 years B.C., which continued formidable upwards of 130 years, under the name of the Achæan league, and was most illustrious whilst supported by the splendid virtues and abilities of Aratus and Philopœmen. Their arms were directed against the Ætolians for three years, with the assistance of Philip of Macedon, and they grew powerful by the accession of neighbouring states, and freed their country from foreign slavery, till at last they were attacked by the Romans, and, after one year’s hostilities, the Achæan league was totally destroyed, B.C. 147. The Achæans extended the borders of their country by conquest and even planted colonies in Magna Græcia.――The name of Achæi is generally applied to all the Greeks, indiscriminately, by the poets. See: Achaia. Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 145; bk. 8, ch. 36.—Statius, Thebaid, bk. 2, li. 164.—Polybius.Livy, bks. 27, 32, &c.Plutarch, Philopœmen.—Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 5.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 4, li. 605.—Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 1, &c.――Also a people of Asia on the borders of the Euxine. Ovid, Ex Ponto, bk. 4, poem 10, li. 27.

Achæium, a place of Troas, opposite Tenedos. Strabo, bk. 8.

Achæmĕnes, a king of Persia, among the progenitors of Cyrus the Great; whose descendants were called Achæmenides, and formed a separate tribe in Persia, of which the kings were members. Cambyses, son of Cyrus, on his death-bed, charged his nobles, and particularly the Achæmenides, not to suffer the Medes to recover their former power, and abolish the empire of Persia. Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 125; bk. 3, ch. 65; bk. 7, ch. 1.—Horace, bk. 2, ode 12, li. 21.――A Persian, made governor of Egypt by Xerxes, B.C. 484.

Achæmenia, part of Persia, called after Achæmenes. Hence Achæmenius. Horace, Epodes, poem 13, li. 12.

Achæmenĭdes, a native of Ithaca, son of Adramastus, and one of the companions of Ulysses, abandoned on the coast of Sicily, where Æneas, on his voyage to Italy, found him. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 3, li. 624.—Ovid, Ibis, li. 417.

Achæorum littus, a harbour in Cyprus. Strabo.――In Troas,――in Æolia,――in Peloponnesus,――on the Euxine. Pausanias, bk. 4, ch. 34.

Achæorum statio, a place on the coast of the Thracian Chersonesus, where Polyxena was sacrificed to the shades of Achilles, and where Hecuba killed Polymnestor, who had murdered her son Polydorus.

Achæus, a king of Lydia, hung by his subjects for his extortion. Ovid, Ibis.――A son of Xuthus of Thessaly. He fled, after the accidental murder of a man, to Peloponnesus; where the inhabitants were called from him, Achæi. He afterwards returned to Thessaly. Strabo, bk. 8.—Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 1.――A tragic poet of Eretria, who wrote 43 tragedies, of which some of the titles are preserved, such as Adrastus, Linus, Cycnus, Eumenides, Philoctetes, Pirithous, Theseus, Œdipus, &c.; of these only one obtained the prize. He lived some time after Sophocles.――Another of Syracuse, author of 10 tragedies.――A river which falls into the Euxine. Arrian, Periplus of the Euxine Sea.――A relation of Antiochus the Great, appointed governor of all the king’s provinces beyond Taurus. He aspired to sovereign power, which he disputed for eight years with Antiochus, and was at last betrayed by a Cretan. His limbs were cut off, and his body, sewed in the skin of an ass, was exposed on a gibbet. Polybius, bk. 8.

Achaia, called also Hellas, a country of Peloponnesus at the north of Elis on the bay of Corinth, which is now part of Livadia. It was originally called Ægialus (shore) from its situation. The Ionians called it Ionia, when they settled there; and it received the name of Achaia, from the Achæi, who dispossessed the Ionians. See: Achæi.――A small part of Phthiotis was also called Achaia, of which Alos was the capital.

Achaicum bellum. See: Achæi.

Achăra, a town near Sardis. Strabo, bk. 14.

Acharenses, a people of Sicily near Syracuse. Cicero, Against Verres, bk. 3.

Acharnæ, a village of Attica. Thucydides, bk. 2, ch. 19.

Achātes, a friend of Æneas, whose fidelity was so exemplary that Fidus Achates became a proverb. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 1, li. 316.――A river of Sicily.

Achĕlōĭdes, a patronymic given to the Sirens as daughters of Achelous. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 5, fable 15.

Achelorium, a river of Thessaly. Polyænus, bk. 8.

Achelōus, the son of Oceanus or Sol by Terra or Tethys, god of the river of the same name in Epirus. As one of the numerous suitors of Dejanira daughter of Œneus he entered the lists against Hercules and being inferior, changed himself into a serpent, and afterwards into an ox. Hercules broke off one of his horns, and Achelous being defeated, retired in disgrace into his bed of waters. The broken horn was taken up by the nymphs, and filled with fruits and flowers, and after it had for some time adorned the hand of the conqueror, it was presented to the goddess of plenty. Some say that he was changed into a river after the victory of Hercules. This river is in Epirus, and rises in mount Pindus, and after dividing Acarnania from Ætolia, falls into the Ionian sea. The sand and mud which it carries down, have formed some islands at its mouth. This river is said by some to have sprung from the earth after the deluge. Herodotus, bk. 2, ch. 10.—Strabo, bk. 10.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 8, fable 5; bk. 9, fable 1; Amores, bk. 3, poem 6, li. 35.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, chs. 3 & 7; bk. 2, ch. 7.—Hyginus, preface to fables.――A river of Arcadia falling into the Alpheus.――Another flowing from mount Sipylus. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 38.

Acherdus, a tribe of Attica; hence Acherdusius, Demosthenes.

Acherĭmi, a people of Sicily. Cicero, bk. 3, Against Verres.

Achĕron, a river of Thesprotia, in Epirus, falling into the bay of Ambracia. Homer called it, from the dead appearance of its waters, one of the rivers of hell, and the fable has been adopted by all succeeding poets, who make the god of the stream to be the son of Ceres without a father, and say that he concealed himself in hell for fear of the Titans, and was changed into a bitter stream, over which the souls of the dead are at first conveyed. It receives, say they, the souls of the dead, because a deadly languor seizes them at the hour of dissolution. Some make him son of Titan, and suppose that he was plunged into hell by Jupiter, for supplying the Titans with water. The word Acheron is often taken for hell itself. Horace, bk. 1, ode 3, li. 36.—Virgil, Georgics, bk. 2, li. 292; Æneid, bk. 2, li. 295, &c.Strabo, bk. 7.—Lucan, bk. 3, li. 16.—Silius Italicus, bk. 2.—Sylvæ, poem 6, li. 80.—Livy, bk. 8, ch. 24.――A river of Elis in Peloponnesus.――Another on the Riphæan mountains. Orpheus.――Also a river in the country of the Brutii in Italy. Justin, bk. 12, ch. 2.

Acherontia, a town of Apulia on a mountain, thence called Nidus by Horace, bk. 3, ode 4, li. 14.

Acherūsia, a lake of Egypt near Memphis, over which, as Diodorus, bk. 1, mentions, the bodies of the dead were conveyed, and received sentence according to the actions of their life. The boat was called Baris, and the ferryman Charon. Hence arose the fable of Charon and the Styx, &c., afterwards imported into Greece by Orpheus, and adopted in the religion of the country.――There was a river of the same name in Epirus, and another in Italy in Calabria.

Acherūsias, a place or cave in Chersonesus Taurica, where Hercules, as is reported, dragged Cerberus out of hell. Xenophon, Anabasis, bk. 6.

Achetus, a river of Sicily. Silius Italicus, bk. 14.

Achillas, a general of Ptolemy, who murdered Pompey the Great. Plutarch, Pompey.—Lucan, bk. 8, li. 538.

Achillēa, a peninsula near the mouth of the Borysthenes. Mela, bk. 2, ch. 1.—Herodotus, bk. 4, chs. 55 & 76.――An island at the mouth of the Ister, where was the tomb of Achilles, over which it is said that birds never flew. Pliny, bk. 10, ch. 29.――A fountain of Miletus, whose waters rise salted from the earth, and afterwards sweeten in their course. Athenaeus, bk. 2, ch. 2.

Achilleienses, a people near Macedonia. Xenophon, Hellenica, bk. 3.

Achillēis, a poem of Statius, in which he describes the education and memorable actions of Achilles. This composition is imperfect. The poet’s premature death deprived the world of a valuable history of the life and exploits of this famous hero. See: Statius.

Achilles, the son of Peleus and Thetis, was the bravest of all the Greeks in the Trojan war. During his infancy, Thetis plunged him in the Styx, and made every part of his body invulnerable, except the heel, by which she held him. His education was entrusted to the centaur Chiron, who taught him the art of war and made him master of music, and by feeding him with the marrow of wild beasts, rendered him vigorous and active. He was taught eloquence by Phœnix, whom he ever after loved and respected. Thetis, to prevent him from going to the Trojan war, where she knew he was to perish, privately sent him to the court of Lycomedes, where he was disguised in a female dress, and, by his familiarity with the king’s daughters, made Deidamia mother of Neoptolemus. As Troy could not be taken without the aid of Achilles, Ulysses went to the court of Lycomedes, in the habit of a merchant, and exposed jewels and arms to sale. Achilles, choosing the arms, discovered his sex, and went to the war. Vulcan, at the entreaties of Thetis, made him a strong suit of armour, which was proof against all weapons. He was deprived by Agamemnon of his favourite mistress, Briseis, who had fallen to his lot at the division of the booty of Lyrnessus, and for this affront, he refused to appear in the field till the death of his friend Patroclus recalled him to action, and to revenge. See: Patroclus. He slew Hector the bulwark of Troy, tied the corpse by the heels to his chariot, and dragged it three times round the walls of Troy. After thus appeasing the shades of his friend, he yielded to the tears and entreaties of Priam, and permitted the aged father to ransom and to carry away Hector’s body. In the 10th year of the war, Achilles was charmed with Polyxena; and as he solicited her hand in the temple of Minerva, it is said that Paris aimed an arrow at his vulnerable heel, of which wound he died. His body was buried at Sigæum, and divine honours were paid to him, and temples raised to his memory. It is said, that after the taking of Troy, the ghost of Achilles appeared to the Greeks, and demanded of them Polyxena, who accordingly was sacrificed on his tomb by his son Neoptolemus. Some say that this sacrifice was voluntary, and that Polyxena was so grieved at his death that she killed herself on his tomb. The Thessalians yearly sacrificed a black and a white bull on his tomb. It is reported that he married Helen after the siege of Troy; but others maintain, that this marriage happened after his death, in the island of Leuce, where many of the ancient heroes lived, as in a separate elysium. See: Leuce. When Achilles was young, his mother asked him, whether he preferred a long life, spent in obscurity and retirement, or a few years of military fame and glory? and that, to his honour, he made choice of the latter. Some ages after the Trojan war, Alexander going to the conquest of Persia, offered sacrifices on the tomb of Achilles, and admired the hero who had found a Homer to publish his fame to posterity. Xenophon, On Hunting.—Plutarch, Alexander; De facie in orbe Lunæ; De Musica; De amicorum multitudine; Quæstiones Græcæ.—Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 18, &c.Diodorus, bk. 17.—Statius, Achilleid.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 12, fable 3, &c.; Tristia, bk. 3, poem 5, li. 37, &c.Virgil, Æneid, bk. 1, lis. 472, 488; bk. 2, li. 275; bk. 6, li. 58, &c.Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 13.—Hyginus, fables 96 & 110.—Strabo, bk. 14.—Pliny, bk. 35, ch. 15.—Maximus of Tyre, Oration 27.—Horace, bk. 1, ode 8; bk. 2, odes 4 & 16; bk. 4, ode 6; bk. 2, ltr. 2, li. 42.—Homer, Iliad & Odyssey.—Dictys Cretensis, bks. 1, 2, 3, &c.Dares Phrygius.Juvenal, satire 7, li. 210.—Apollonius, bk. 4, Argonautica, li. 869.――There were other persons of the same name. The most known were—a man who received Juno when she fled from Jupiter’s courtship――the preceptor of Chiron the centaur――a son of Jupiter and Lamia, declared by Pan to be fairer than Venus――a man who instituted ostracism at Athens――Tatius, a native of Alexandria, in the age of the emperor Claudius, but originally a pagan, converted to Christianity, and made a bishop. He wrote a mixed history of great men, a treatise on the sphere, tactics, a romance on the loves of Clitophon and Leucippe, &c. Some manuscripts of his works are preserved in the Vatican and Palatinate libraries. The best edition of his works is that in 12mo, Leiden, 1640.

‘Geeeks’ replaced with ‘Greeks’

Achillēum, a town of Troas near the tomb of Achilles, built by the Mityleneans. Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 30.

Achilleus, or Aquileus, a Roman general in Egypt, in the reign of Diocletian, who rebelled, and for five years maintained the imperial dignity at Alexandria. Diocletian at last marched against him; and because he had supported a long siege, the emperor ordered him to be devoured by lions.

Placed in alphabetical order

Achīvi, the name of the inhabitants of Argos and Lacedæmon before the return of the Heraclidæ, by whom they were expelled from their possessions 80 years after the Trojan war. Being without a home, they drove the Ionians from Ægialus, seized their 12 cities, and called the country Achaia. The Ionians were received by the Athenians. The appellation of Achivi is indiscriminately applied by the ancient poets to all the Greeks. Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 1, &c. See: Achaia.

Achladæus, a Corinthian general, killed by Aristomenes. Pausanias, bk. 4, ch. 19.

Acholōe, one of the Harpies. Hyginus, fable 14.

Acichōrius, a general with Brennus in the expedition which the Gauls undertook against Pæonia. Pausanias, bk. 10, ch. 10.

Acidālia, a surname of Venus, from a fountain of the same name in Bœotia, sacred to her. The Graces bathed in the fountain. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 1, li. 720.—Ovid, Fasti, bk. 4, li. 468.

Acidāsa, a river of Peloponnesus, formerly called Jardanus. Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 5.

Acilia, a plebeian family at Rome, which traced its pedigree up to the Trojans.――The mother of Lucan.

Acilia lex, was enacted, A.U.C. 556, by Acilius the tribune, for the plantation of five colonies in Italy. Livy, bk. 32, ch. 29.――Another called also Calpurnia, A.U.C. 684, which enacted, that no person convicted of ambitus, or using bribes at elections, should be admitted in the senate, or hold an office.――Another concerning such as were guilty of extortion in the provinces.

Marcus Acilius Balbus, was consul with Portius Cato, A.U.C. 640. It is said that during his consulship, milk and blood fell from heaven. Pliny, bk. 2, ch. 56.――Glabrio, a tribune of the people, who with a legion quelled the insurgent slaves in Etruria. Being consul with Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica, A.U.C. 563, he conquered Antiochus at Thermopylæ, for which he obtained a triumph, and three days were appointed for public thanksgiving. He stood for the censorship against Cato, but desisted on account of the false measures used by his competitor. Justin, bk. 31, ch. 6.—Livy, bk. 30, ch. 40; bk. 31, ch. 50; bk. 33, ch. 10, &c.――The son of the preceding, erected a temple to Piety, which his father had vowed to this goddess when fighting against Antiochus. He raised a golden statue to his father, the first that appeared in Italy. The temple of piety was built on the spot where once a woman had fed with her milk her aged father, whom the senate had imprisoned, and excluded from all aliments. Valerius Maximus, bk. 2, ch. 5.――The enactor of a law against bribery.――A prætor in the time that Verres was accused by Cicero.――A man accused of extortion, and twice defended by Cicero. He was proconsul of Sicily, and lieutenant to Cæsar in the civil wars. Cæsar, Civil War, bk. 3, ch. 15.――A consul, whose son was killed by Domitian, because he fought with wild beasts. The true cause of this murder was, that young Glabrio was stronger than the emperor, and therefore envied. Juvenal, satire 4, li. 94.

Acilla, a town of Africa, near Adrumetum. Some read Acolla. Cæsar, African War, ch. 33.

Acis, a shepherd of Sicily, son of Faunus and the nymph Simæthis. Galatæa passionately loved him; upon which his rival Polyphemus, through jealousy, crushed him to death with a piece of a broken rock. The gods changed Acis into a stream, which rises from mount Ætna. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 13, fable 8.

Acmon, a native of Lyrnessus, who accompanied Æneas into Italy. His father’s name was Clytus. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 10, li. 128.

Acmonĭdes, one of the Cyclops. Ovid, Fasti, bk. 4, li. 288.

Acœtes, the pilot of the ship whose crew found Bacchus asleep, and carried him away. As they ridiculed the god, they were changed into sea monsters, but Acœtes was preserved. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 3, fable 8, &c. See: Acetes.

Acontes, one of Lycaon’s 50 sons. Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 8.

Aconteus, a famous hunter changed into a stone by the head of Medusa, at the nuptials of Perseus and Andromeda. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 5, li. 201.――A person killed in the wars of Æneas and Turnus, in Italy. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 11, li. 615.

Acontius, a youth of Cea, who, when he went to Delos to see the sacrifice of Diana, fell in love with Cydippe, a beautiful virgin, and being unable to obtain her, on account of the obscurity of his origin, wrote these verses on an apple, which he threw into her bosom:

Juro tibi sanctæ per mystica sacra Dianæ,

Me tibi venturam comitem, sponsamque futuram.

Cydippe read the verses, and being compelled by the oath she had inadvertently made, married Acontius. Ovid, Heroides, poem 20.――A mountain of Bœotia. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 7.

Acontobūlus, a place of Cappadocia, under Hyppolyte queen of the Amazons. Apollonius, Argonautica, bk. 2.

Acōris, a king of Egypt, who assisted Evagoras king of Cyprus against Persia. Diodorus, bk. 15.

Acra, a town in Italy,――Eubœa,――Cyprus,――Acarnania,――Sicily,――Africa,――Sarmatia, &c.――A promontory of Calabria, now Capo di Leuca.

Acradīna, the citadel of Syracuse, taken by Marcellus the Roman consul. Plutarch, Marcellus.—Cicero, Against Verres, bk. 4.

Acræ, a mountain in Peloponnesus. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 34.

Acræa, a daughter of the river Asterion.――A surname of Diana, from a temple built to her by Melampus, on a mountain near Argos.――A surname of Juno. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 17.

Acræphnia, a town in Bœotia; whence Apollo is called Acraæphnius. Herodotus, bk. 8, ch. 135.

Acragallĭdæ, a dishonest nation living anciently near Athens. Æschines, Against Ctesiphon.

Acrăgas. See: Agragas.

Acrātus, a freedman of Nero, sent into Asia to plunder the temples of the gods. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 15, ch. 45; bk. 16, ch. 23.

Acrias, one of Hippodamia’s suitors. Pausanias, bk. 6, ch. 21.――He built Acriæ, a town of Laconia. Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 21.

Acridophăgi, an Æthiopian nation, who fed upon locusts, and lived not beyond their 40th year. At the approach of old age swarms of winged lice attacked them, and gnawed their belly and breast, till the patient, by rubbing himself, drew blood, which increased their number, and ended in his death. Diodorus, bk. 3.—Pliny, bk. 11, ch. 29.—Strabo, bk. 16.

Acrīon, a Pythagorean philosopher of Locris. Cicero, De Finibus, bk. 5, ch. 29.

Acrisioneus, a patronymic applied to the Argives, from Acrisius, one of their ancient kings, or from Acrisione, a town of Argolis, called after a daughter of Acrisius of the same name. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 410.

Acrisioniădes, a patronymic of Perseus, from his grandfather Acrisius. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 5, li. 70.

Acrisius, son of Abas king of Argos, by Ocalea daughter of Mantineus. He was born at the same birth as Prœtus, with whom it is said that he quarrelled even in his mother’s womb. After many dissensions, Prœtus was driven from Argos. Acrisius had Danae by Eurydice daughter of Lacedæmon; and being told by an oracle, that his daughter’s son would put him to death, he confined Danae in a brazen tower, to prevent her becoming a mother. She, however, became pregnant, by Jupiter changed into a golden shower; and though Acrisius ordered her, and her infant called Perseus, to be exposed on the sea, yet they were saved; and Perseus soon after became so famous for his actions, that Acrisius, anxious to see so renowned a grandson, went to Larissa. Here Perseus, wishing to show his skill in throwing a quoit, killed an old man who proved to be his grandfather, whom he knew not, and thus the oracle was unhappily fulfilled. Acrisius reigned about 31 years. Hyginus, fable 63.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 4, fable 16.—Horace, bk. 3, ode 16.—Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 2, &c.Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 16, &c.See: Danae, Perseus, Polydectes.

Acrītas, a promontory of Messenia, in Peloponnesus. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 5.—Mela, bk. 2, ch. 3.

Acroāthon, or Acrothoos, a town on the top of mount Athos, whose inhabitants lived to an uncommon old age. Mela, bk. 2, ch. 2.—Pliny, bk. 8, ch. 10.

Acroceraunium, a promontory of Epirus, with mountains called Acroceraunia, which project between the Ionian and Adriatic seas. The word comes from ἀκρος, high, and κεραυνος, thunder; because, on account of their great height, they were often struck with thunder. Lucretius, bk. 6, li. 420.—Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 1.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 3, li. 506.—Strabo, bk. 6.—Horace, bk. 1, ode 3, li. 20.

Acrocorinthus, a lofty mountain on the isthmus of Corinth, taken by Aratus, B.C. 243. There is a temple of Venus on the top, and Corinth is built at the bottom. Strabo, bk. 8.—Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 4.—Plutarch, Aratus.—Statius, Thebiad, bk. 7, li. 106.

Acron, a king of Cenina, killed by Romulus in single combat, after the rape of the Sabines. His spoils were dedicated to Jupiter Feretrius. Plutarch, Romulus.――A physician of Agrigentum, B.C. 430, educated at Athens with Empedocles. He wrote physical treatises in the Doric dialect, and cured the Athenians of a plague by lighting a fire near the houses of the infected. Pliny, bk. 29, ch. 1.—Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride.――One of the friends of Æneas, killed by Mezentius. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 10, li. 719.

Acropātos, one of Alexander’s officers, who obtained part of Media after the king’s death. Justin, bk. 13, ch. 4.

Acropŏlis, the citadel of Athens, built on a rock, and accessible only on one side. Minerva had a temple at the bottom. Pausanias, Atticus.

Acrotătus, son of Cleomenes king of Sparta, died before his father, leaving a son called Areus. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 13; bk. 3, ch. 6.――A son of Areus, who was greatly loved by Chelidonis wife of Cleonymus. This amour displeased her husband, who called Pyrrhus the Epirot to avenge his wrongs. When Sparta was besieged by Pyrrhus, Acrotatus was seen bravely fighting in the middle of the enemy, and commended by the multitude, who congratulated Chelidonis on being mistress to such a warlike lover. Plutarch, Pyrrhus.

Acrothoos. See: Acroathon.

Acta, or Acte, a country of Attica. This word signifies shore, and is applied to Attica, as being near the sea. It is derived by some writers from Actæus, a king, from whom the Athenians have been called Actæi. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 1, li. 312.—Virgil, Eclogues, poem 2, li. 23.

Acta, a place near mount Athos, on the Ægean sea. Thucydides, bk. 4, ch. 109.

Actæa, one of the Nereides. Hesiod, Theogony, li. 250.—Homer, Iliad, bk. 18, li. 41.――A surname of Ceres.――A daughter of Danaus. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 1.

Actæon, a famous huntsman, son of Aristæus and Autonoe daughter of Cadmus, whence he is called Autonoeius heros. He saw Diana and her attendant, bathing near Gargaphia, for which he was changed into a stag, and devoured by his own dogs. Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 2.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 3, fable 3.――A beautiful youth, son of Melissus of Corinth, whom Archias, one of the Heraclidæ, endeavoured to debauch and carry away. He was killed in the struggle which in consequence of this happened between his father and ravisher. Melissus complained of the insult, and drowned himself; and soon after, the country being visited by a pestilence, Archias was expelled. Plutarch, Amatoriæ narrationes.

Actæus, a powerful person who made himself master of a part of Greece, which he called Attica. His daughter Agraulos married Cecrops, whom the Athenians called their first king, though Actæus reigned before him. Pausanias, bk. 1, chs. 2 & 14.――The word is of the same signification as Atticus, an inhabitant of Attica.

Acte, a mistress of Nero, descended from Attalus. Suetonius, Nero, ch. 28.――One of the Horæ. Hyginus, fable 183.

Actia, the mother of Augustus. As she slept in the temple of Apollo, she dreamt that a dragon had lain with her. Nine months after she brought forth, having previously dreamt that her bowels were scattered all over the world. Suetonius, Augustus, ch. 94.――Games sacred to Apollo, in commemoration of the victory of Augustus over Marcus Antony at Actium. They were celebrated every third, sometimes fifth, year, with great pomp, and the Lacedæmonians had the care of them. Plutarch, Antonius.—Strabo, bk. 7.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 3, li. 280; bk. 8, li. 675.――A sister of Julius Cæsar. Plutarch, Cicero.

Actis, son of Sol, went from Greece into Egypt, where he taught astrology, and founded Heliopolis. Diodorus, bk. 5.

Actisănes, a king of Æthiopia who conquered Egypt, and expelled king Amasis. He was famous for his equity, and his severe punishment of robbers, whose noses he cut off, and whom he banished to a desert place, where they were in want of all aliment, and lived only upon crows. Diodorus, bk. 1.

Actium, now Azio, a town and promontory of Epirus, famous for the naval victory which Augustus obtained over Antony and Cleopatra, the 2nd of September, B.C. 31, in honour of which the conqueror built there the town of Nicopolis, and instituted games. See: Actia. Plutarch, Antonius.—Suetonius, Augustus.――A promontory of Corcyra. Cicero, Letters to Atticus, bk. 7, ltr. 2.

Actius, a surname of Apollo, from Actium, where he had a temple. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 8, li. 704.――A poet. See: Accius.――A prince of the Volsci. See: Accius.

Actius Navius, an augur, who cut a loadstone in two with a razor, before Tarquin and the Roman people, to convince them of his skill as an augur. Florus, bk. 1, ch. 5.—Livy, bk. 1, ch. 36.――Labeo. See: Labeo.

Actor, a companion of Hercules in his expedition against the Amazons.――The father of Menœtius by Ægina, whence Patroclus is called Actorides. Ovid, Tristia, bk. 1, poem 8.――A man called also Aruncus. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 12, li. 93.――One of the friends of Æneas. Æneid, bk. 9, li. 500.――A son of Neptune by Agameda. Hyginus, fable 14.――A son of Deion and Diomede. Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 9.――The father of Eurytus, and brother of Augeas. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 7.――A son of Acastus, one of the Argonauts. Hyginus, fable 14.――The father of Astyoche. Homer, Iliad, bk. 2.—Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 37.――A king of Lemnos. Hyginus, fable 102.

Actorĭdes, a patronymic given to Patroclus grandson of Actor. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 13, fable 1.――Also to Erithus son of Actor. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 5, fable 3.――Two brothers so fond of each other, that in driving a chariot, one generally held the reins, and the other the whip; whence they are represented with two heads, four feet, and one body. Hercules conquered them. Pindar.

Actŏris, a maid of Ulysses. Homer, Odyssey, bk. 23.

Marcus Actorius Naso, a Roman historian. Suetonius, Julius, ch. 9.

Caius Aculeo, a Roman lawyer celebrated as much for the extent of his understanding, as for his knowledge of law. He was uncle to Cicero. Cicero, On Oratory, bk. 1, ch. 43.

Acūphis, an ambassador from India to Alexander. Plutarch, Alexander.

Acusilāus and Damagētus, two brothers of Rhodes, conquerors at the Olympic games. The Greeks strewed flowers upon Diagoras their father, and called him happy in having such worthy sons. Pausanias, bk. 6, ch. 7.

Acusilāus, an historian of Argos, often quoted by Josephus. He wrote on genealogies, in a style simple and destitute of all ornament. Cicero, On Oratory, bk. 2, ch. 29.—Suidas.――An Athenian who taught rhetoric at Rome under Galba.

M. Acutĭcus, an ancient comic writer whose plays were known under the names of Leones, Gemini, Anus, Bœotia, &c.

Ada, a sister of queen Artemisia, who married Hidricus. After her husband’s death, she succeeded to the throne of Caria; but being expelled by her younger brother, she retired to Alindæ, which she delivered to Alexander after adopting him as her son. Curtius, bk. 2, ch. 8.—Strabo, bk. 14.

Adad, a deity among the Assyrians, supposed to be the sun.

Adæus, a native of Mitylene, who wrote a Greek treatise on statuaries. Athenæus, bk. 13.

Adamantæa, Jupiter’s nurse in Crete, who suspended him in his cradle to a tree, that he might be found neither in the earth, the sea, nor in heaven. To drown the infant’s cries, she had drums beat and cymbals sounded around the tree. Hyginus, fable 139.

Adămas, a Trojan prince, killed by Merion. Homer, Iliad, bk. 13, li. 560.――A youth who raised a rebellion on being emasculated by Cotys king of Thrace. Aristotle, Politics, bk. 5, ch. 10.

Adamastus, a native of Ithaca, father of Achæmenides. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 3, li. 614.

Adaspii, a people at the foot of mount Caucasus. Justin, bk. 12, ch. 5.

Addephagia, a goddess of the Sicilians. Ælian, bk. 1, Varia Historia, ch. 27.

Addua, now Adda, a river of Cisalpine Gaul, falling into the Po near Cremona. Pliny, bk. 2, ch. 103.

Adelphius, a friend of Marcus Antoninus, whom he accompanied in his expedition into Parthia, of which he wrote the history. Strabo, bk. 11.

Adēmon, raised a sedition in Mauritania to avenge his master Ptolemy, whom Caligula had put to death. Suetonius, Caligula, ch. 35.

Ades, or Hades, the god of hell among the Greeks, the same as the Pluto of the Latins. The word is derived from α and ειδειν [non videre], because hell is deprived of light. It is often used for hell itself by the ancient poets.

Adgandestrius, a prince of Gaul who sent to Rome for poison to destroy Arminius, and was answered by the senate, that the Romans fought their enemies openly, and never used perfidious measures. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 2, ch. 88.

Adherbal, son of Micipsa, and grandson of Masinissa, was besieged at Cirta, and put to death by Jugurtha, after vainly imploring the aid of Rome, B.C. 112. Sallust, Jugurthine War.

Adherbas, the husband of Dido. See: Sichæus.

Adiante, a daughter of Danaus. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 11.

Adiatōrix, a governor of Galatia, who, to gain Antony’s favour, slaughtered, in one night, all the inhabitants of the Roman colony of Heraclea, in Pontus. He was taken at Actium, led in triumph by Augustus, and strangled in prison. Strabo, bk. 12.

Adimantus, a commander of the Athenian fleet, taken by the Spartans. All the men of the fleet were put to death, except Adimantus, because he had opposed the designs of his countrymen, who intended to mutilate all the Spartans. Xenophon, Hellenica. Pausanias says, bk. 4, ch. 17; bk. 10, ch. 9, that the Spartans had bribed him.――A brother of Plato. Laërtius, bk. 3.――A Corinthian general who reproached Themistocles with his exile.――A king struck with thunder for saying that Jupiter deserved no sacrifices. Ovid, Ibis, li. 337.

Admēta, a daughter of Eurystheus, was priestess of Juno’s temple at Argos. She expressed a wish to possess the girdle of the queen of the Amazons, and Hercules obtained it for her. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 23.――One of the Oceanides. Hesiod, Theogony, li. 349.

Admētus, son of Pheres and Clymene, king of Pheræ in Thessaly, married Theone daughter of Thestor, and, after her death, Alceste daughter of Pelias. Apollo when banished from heaven, is said to have tended his flocks for nine years, and to have obtained from the Parcæ, that Admetus should never die, if another person laid down his life for him; a proof of unbounded affection, which his wife Alceste cheerfully exhibited by devoting herself voluntarily to death. Admetus was one of the Argonauts, and was at the hunt of the Calydonian boar. Pelias promised his daughter in marriage only to him who could bring him a chariot drawn by a lion and a wild boar; and Admetus effected this by the aid of Apollo, and obtained Alceste’s hand. Some say that Hercules brought him back Alceste from hell. Seneca, Medeâ.—Hyginus, fables 50, 51, & 243.—Ovid, Amores, bk. 3.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, chs. 8 & 9, &c.Tibullus, bk. 2, poem 3.—Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 17.――A king of the Molossi, to whom Themistocles fled for protection. Cornelius Nepos, Themistocles, ch. 8.――An officer of Alexander, killed at the siege of Tyre. Diodorus, bk. 17.

Adōnia, festivals in honour of Adonis, first celebrated at Byblos in Phœnicia. They lasted two days, the first of which was spent in howlings and lamentations, the second in joyful clamours, as if Adonis was returned to life. In some towns of Greece and Egypt they lasted eight days; the one half of which was spent in lamentations, and the other in rejoicings. Only women were admitted, and such as did not appear were compelled to prostitute themselves for one day; and the money obtained by this shameful custom was devoted to the service of Adonis. The time of the celebration was supposed to be very unlucky. The fleet of Nicias sailed from Athens to Sicily on that day, whence many unfortunate omens were drawn. Plutarch, Nicias.—Ammianus, bk. 22, ch. 9.

Adōnis, son of Cinyras by his daughter Myrrha [See: Myrrha], was the favourite of Venus. He was fond of hunting, and was often cautioned by his mistress not to hunt wild beasts, for fear of being killed in the attempt. This advice he slighted, and at last received a mortal bite from a wild boar which he had wounded, and Venus, after shedding many tears at his death, changed him into a flower called anemone. Proserpine is said to have restored him to life, on condition that he should spend six months with her, and the rest of the year with Venus. This implies the alternate return of summer and winter. Adonis is often taken for Osiris, because the festivals of both were generally begun with mournful lamentations, and finished with a revival of joy as if they were returning to life again. Adonis had temples raised to his memory, and is said by some to have been beloved by Apollo and Bacchus. Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 14.—Propertius, bk. 2, poem 13, li. 53.—Virgil, Eclogues, poem 10, li. 18.—Bion, Adonis.—Hyginus, fables 58, 164, 248, &c.Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 10, fable 10.—Musæus, Hero & Leander.—Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 20; bk. 9, ch. 41.――A river of Phœnicia, which falls into the Mediterranean, below Byblus.

Adramyttium, an Athenian colony on the sea coast of Mysia, near the Caycus. Strabo, bk. 13.—Thucydides, bk. 5, ch. 1.

Adrāna, a river in Germany. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 1, ch. 56.

Adrānum, a town of Sicily, near Ætna, with a river of the same name. The chief deity of the place was called Adranus, and his temple was guarded by 1000 dogs. Plutarch, Timoleon.

Adrasta, one of the Oceanides who nursed Jupiter. Hyginus, fable 182.

Adrastia, a fountain of Sicyon. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 15.――A mountain. Plutarch, Lucullus.――A country near Troy called after Adrastus, who built there a temple to Nemesis. Here Apollo had an oracle. Strabo, bk. 13.――A daughter of Jupiter and Necessity. She is called by some Nemesis, and is the punisher of injustice. The Egyptians placed her above the moon, whence she looked down upon the actions of men. Strabo, bk. 13.――A daughter of Melisseus, to whom some attribute the nursing of Jupiter. She is the same as Adrasta. Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 1.

Adrastii Campi, a plain near the Granicus, where Alexander first defeated Darius. Justin, bk. 11, ch. 6.

Adrastus, son of Talaus and Lysimache, was king of Argos. Polynices, being banished from Thebes by his brother Eteocles, fled to Argos, where he married Argia daughter of Adrastus. The king assisted his son-in-law, and marched against Thebes with an army headed by seven of his most famous generals. All perished in the war except Adrastus, who, with a few men saved from slaughter, fled to Athens, and implored the aid of Theseus against the Thebans, who opposed the burying of the Argives slain in battle. Theseus went to his assistance, and was victorious. Adrastus, after a long reign, died through grief, occasioned by the death of his son Ægialeus. A temple was raised to his memory at Sicyon, where a solemn festival was annually celebrated. Homer, Iliad, bk. 5.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 6, li. 480.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 9; bk. 3, ch. 7.—Statius, Thebiad, bks. 4 & 5.—Hyginus, fables 68, 69, & 70.—Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 39; bk. 8, ch. 25; bk. 10; ch. 90.—Herodotus, bk. 5, ch. 67, &c.――A peripatetic philosopher, disciple to Aristotle. It is supposed that a copy of his treatise on harmonics is preserved in the Vatican.――A Phrygian prince, who having inadvertently killed his brother, fled to Crœsus, where he was humanely received, and entrusted with the care of his son Atys. In hunting a wild boar, Adrastus slew the young prince, and in his despair, killed himself on his grave. Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 35, &c.――A Lydian, who assisted the Greeks against the Persians. Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 5.――A soothsayer in the Trojan war, son of Merops. Homer, Iliad, bks. 2 & 6.—The father of Eurydice, who married Ilus the Trojan. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 12.――A king of Sicyon, who reigned four years, B.C. 1215.――A son of Hercules. Hyginus, fable 242.

Adria, Adriānum, or Adriatĭcum mare, a sea lying between Illyricum and Italy, now called the gulf of Venice, first made known to the Greeks by the discoveries of the Phocæans. Herodotus, bk. 1.—Horace, bk. 1, ode 33; bk. 3, odes 3 & 9.—Catullus, poems 4, 6.

Adrianopŏlis, a town of Thrace on the Hebrus.――Another in Ætolia,――in Pisidia,――and Bithynia.

Adriānus, or Hadrianus, the 15th emperor of Rome. He is represented as an active, learned, warlike, and austere general. He came to Britain, where he built a wall between the modern towns of Carlisle and Newcastle, 80 miles long, to protect the Britons from the incursions of the Caledonians. He killed in battle 500,000 Jews who had rebelled, and built a city on the ruins of Jerusalem, which he called Ælia. His memory was so retentive, that he remembered every incident of his life, and knew all the soldiers of his army by name. He was the first emperor who wore a long beard, and this he did to hide the warts on his face. His successors followed his example, not through necessity but for ornament. Adrian went always bare-headed, and in long marches generally travelled on foot. In the beginning of his reign, he followed the virtues of his adopted father and predecessor Trajan; he remitted all arrears due to his treasury for 16 years, and publicly burnt the account-books, that his word might not be suspected. His peace with the Parthians proceeded from a wish of punishing the other enemies of Rome, more than from the effects of fear. The travels of Adrian were not for the display of imperial pride, but to see whether justice was distributed impartially: and public favour was courted by a condescending behaviour, and the meaner familiarity of bathing with the common people. It is said that he wished to enrol Christ among the gods of Rome; but his apparent lenity towards the Christians was disproved, by the erection of a statue to Jupiter on the spot where Jesus rose from the dead, and one to Venus on mount Calvary. The weight of diseases became intolerable. Adrian attempted to destroy himself; and when prevented, he exclaimed, that the lives of others were in his hands, but not his own. He wrote an account of his life, and published it under the name of one of his domestics. He died of a dysentery at Baiæ, July 10, A.D. 138, in the 72nd year of his age, after a reign of 21 years. Dio Cassius.――An officer of Lucullus. Plutarch, Lucullus.――A rhetorician of Tyre in the age of Marcus Antoninus, who wrote seven books of metamorphoses, besides other treatises now lost.

Adrimētum, a town of Africa, on the Mediterranean, built by the Phœnicians. Sallust, Jugurthine War.

Aduataca, a town of Belgic Gaul, now Tongres, on the Maese.

Adŭla, a mountain among the Rhætian Alps, near which the Rhine takes its rise, now St. Gothard.

Adulis, a town of Upper Egypt.

Adyrmachīdæ, a maritime people of Africa, near Egypt. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 168.

Æa, a huntress changed into an island of the same name by the gods, to rescue her from the pursuit of her lover, the river Phasis. It had a town called Æa, which was the capital of Colchis. Flaccus, bk. 5, li. 420.――A town of Thessaly,――of Africa.――A fountain of Macedonia near Amydon.

Æacēa, games at Ægina, in honour of Æacus.

Æacĭdas, a king of Epirus, son of Neoptolemus and brother to Olympias. He was expelled by his subjects for his continual wars with Macedonia. He left a son, Pyrrhus, only two years old, whom Chaucus king of Illyricum educated. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 11.

Æacĭdes, a patronymic of the descendants of Æacus, such as Achilles, Peleus, Telamon, Pyrrhus, &c. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 1, li. 103, &c.

Æăcus, son of Jupiter by Ægina daughter of Asopus, was king of the island of Œnopia, which he called by his mother’s name. A pestilence having destroyed all his subjects, he entreated Jupiter to repeople his kingdom; and according to his desire, all the ants which were in an old oak were changed into men, and called by Æacus myrmidons, from μυρμηξ, an ant. Æăcus married Endeis, by whom he had Telamon and Peleus. He afterwards had Phocus by Psamathe, one of the Nereids. He was a man of such integrity that the ancients have made him one of the judges of hell, with Minos and Rhadamanthus. Horace, bk. 2, ode 13; bk. 4, ode 8.—Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 44; bk. 2, ch. 29.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 7, fable 25; bk. 13, li. 25.—Propertius, bk. 4, poem 12.—Plutarch, de Consolatio ad Apollonium.—Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 12.—Diodorus, bk. 4.

Ææ, Æa, or Ææa, an island of Colchis, in the Phasis. See: Æa. Apollonius, bk. 3.

Ææa, a name given to Circe, because born at Ææ. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 3, li. 386.

Æantēum, a city of Troas, where Ajax was buried. Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 30. ――An island near the Thracian Chersonesus. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 12.

Æantĭdes, a tyrant of Lampsacus, intimate with Darius. He married a daughter of Hippias tyrant of Athens. Thucydides, bk. 6, ch. 59.――One of the seven poets called Pleiades.

Æantis, an Athenian tribe. Plutarch, Convivium Septem Sapientium, ch. 2.

Æas, a river of Epirus falling into the Ionian sea. In the fable of Io, Ovid describes it as falling into the Peneus, and meeting other rivers at Tempe. This some have supposed to be a geographical mistake of the poet. Lucan, bk. 6, li. 361.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 1, li. 580.

Æātus, son of Philip, and brother of Polyclea, was descended from Hercules. An oracle having said that whoever of the two touched the land after crossing the Achelous, should obtain the kingdom, Polyclea pretended to be lame, and prevailed upon her brother to carry her across on his shoulders. When they came near the opposite side, Polyclea leaped ashore from her brother’s back, exclaiming that the kingdom was her own. Æatus joined her in her exclamation, and afterwards married her, and reigned conjointly with her. Their son Thessalus gave his name to Thessaly. Polyænus, bk. 8.

Æchmacŏras, a son of Hercules by Phyllone daughter of Alcimedon. When the father heard that his daughter had had a child, he exposed her and the infant in the woods to wild beasts, where Hercules, conducted by the noise of a magpie which imitated the cries of a child, found and delivered them. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 12.

Æchmis, succeeded his father Polymnestor on the throne of Arcadia, in the reign of Theopompus of Sparta. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 5.

Ædepsum, a town of Eubœa. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 12.—Strabo, bk. 10.

Ædessa, or Edessa, a town near Pella. Caranus king of Macedonia took it by following goats that sought shelter from the rain, and called it from that circumstance (αἰγας, capras) Ægeas. It was the burying place of the Macedonian kings; and an oracle had said, that as long as the kings were buried there, so long would their kingdom subsist. Alexander was buried in a different place; and on that account some authors have said that the kingdom became extinct. Justin, bk. 7, ch. 1.

Ædicŭla Ridiculi, a temple raised to the god of mirth, from the following circumstance: after the battle of Cannæ, Hannibal marched to Rome, whence he was driven back by the inclemency of the weather; which caused so much joy in Rome, that the Romans raised a temple to the god of mirth. This deity was worshipped at Sparta. Plutarch, Lycurgus, Agis, & Cleomenes. Pausanias also mentions a θεος γελωτος.

Ædīles, Roman magistrates, that had the care of all buildings, baths, and aqueducts, and examined the weights and measures, that nothing might be sold without its due value. There were three different sorts: the Ædiles Plebeii, or Minores; the Majores Ædiles, and the Ædiles Cereales. The plebeian ediles were two, first created with the tribunes; they presided over the more minute affairs of the state, good order, and the reparation of the streets. They procured all the provisions of the city, and executed the decrees of the people. The Majores and Cereales had greater privileges, though they at first shared in the labour of the plebeian ediles; they appeared with more pomp, and were allowed to sit publicly in ivory chairs. The office of an edile was honourable, and was always the primary step to greater dignities in the republic. The ediles were chosen from the plebeians for 127 years, till A.U.C. 338. Varro, De Lingua Latina, bk. 4, ch. 14.—Cicero, De Legibus, bk. 3.

Ædipsus, a town in Eubœa, now Dipso, abounding in hot baths.

Valerius Ædituus, a Roman poet before the age of Cicero, successful in amorous poetry and epigrams.

Ædon, daughter of Pandarus, married Zethus brother to Amphion, by whom she had a son called Itylus. She was so jealous of her sister Niobe, because she had more children than herself, that she resolved to murder the elder, who was educated with Itylus. She by mistake killed her own son, and was changed into a goldfinch as she attempted to kill herself. Homer, Odyssey, bk. 19, li. 518.

Ædui, or Hedui, a powerful nation of Celtic Gaul, known for their valour in the wars of Cæsar. When their country was invaded by this celebrated general, they were at the head of a faction in opposition to the Sequani and their partisans, and they had established their superiority in frequent battles. To support their cause, however, the Sequani obtained the assistance of Ariovistus king of Germany, and soon defeated their opponents. The arrival of Cæsar changed the face of affairs; the Ædui were restored to the sovereignty of the country, and the artful Roman, by employing one faction against the other, was enabled to conquer them all, though the insurrection of Ambiorix, and that more powerfully supported by Vercingetorix, shook for a while the dominion of Rome in Gaul, and checked the career of the conqueror. Cæsar, Gallic War.

Æēta, or Æētes, king of Colchis, son of Sol and Perseis daughter of Oceanus, was father of Medea, Absyrtus, and Chalciope, by Idya, one of the Oceanides. He killed Phryxus son of Athamas, who had fled to his court on a golden ram. This murder he committed to obtain the fleece of the golden ram. The Argonauts came against Colchis, and recovered the golden fleece by means of Medea, though it was guarded by bulls that breathed fire, and by a venomous dragon. Their expedition has been celebrated by all the ancient poets. See: Jason, Medea, and Phryxus. Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 9.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 7, fable 1, &c.Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 3.—Justin, bk. 42, ch. 2.—Flaccus & Orpheus, Argonautica.

Æetias, a patronymic given to Medea, as daughter of Æetes. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 7, li. 9.

Æga, an island of the Ægean sea, between Tenedos and Chios.

Ægēas, a town whose inhabitants are called Ægeates. See: Ædessa.

Ægæ, a city of Macedonia, the same as Ædessa. Some writers make them different, but Justin proves this to be erroneous, bk. 7, ch. 1.—Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 10.――A town of Eubœa, whence Neptune is called Ægæus. Strabo, bk. 9.

Ægææ, a town and seaport of Cilicia. Lucan, bk. 3, li. 227.

Ægæon, one of Lycaon’s 50 sons. Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 8.――The son of Cœlus, or of Pontus and Terra, the same as Briareus. See: Briareus. It is supposed that he was a notorious pirate, chiefly residing at Æga, whence his name; and that the fable about his 100 hands arises from his having 100 men to manage his oars in his piratical excursions. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 10, li. 565.—Hesiod, Theogony, li. 149.—Homer, Iliad, bk. 10, li. 404.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 2, li. 10.

Ægæum mare, now Archipelago, part of the Mediterranean, dividing Greece from Asia Minor. It is full of islands, some of which are called Cyclades, others Sporades, &c. The word Ægæum is derived by some from Ægæ, a town of Eubœa; or from the number of islands which it contains, that appear above the sea, as αἰγες, goats; or from the promontory Æga, or from Ægea, a queen of the Amazons; or from Ægeus, who is supposed to have drowned himself there. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 11.—Strabo, bk. 7.

Ægæus, a surname of Neptune, from Ægæ in Eubœa. Strabo, bk. 9.――A river of Corcyra.――A plain in Phocis.

Ægaleos, or Ægaleum, a mountain of Attica opposite Salamis, on which Xerxes sat during the engagement of his fleet with the Grecian ships in the adjacent sea. Herodotus, bk. 8, ch. 90.—Thucydides, bk. 2, ch. 19.

Ægan [Greek αἰγαν or αἰγαων], the Ægean sea. Statius, Thebiad, bk. 5, li. 56.

Ægas, a place of Eubœa.――Another near Daunia in Italy. Polybius, bk. 3.

Ægātes, a promontory of Æolia.――Three islands opposite Carthage, called Aræ by Virgil, Æneid, bk. 1, near which the Romans under Catulus, in the first Punic war, defeated the Carthaginian fleet under Hanno, 242 B.C. Livy, bk. 21, chs. 10 & 41; bk. 22, ch. 54.—Mela, bk. 2, ch. 7.—Silius Italicus, bk. 1, li. 61.

Ægēleon, a town of Macedonia taken by king Attalus. Livy, bk. 31, ch. 46.

Ægēria. See: Egeria.

Ægesta, the daughter of Hippotes, and mother of Ægestus, called Acestes. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 1, li. 554.――An ancient town of Sicily near mount Eryx, destroyed by Agathocles. It was sometimes called Segesta and Acesta. Diodorus, bk. 10.

Ægeus, king of Athens, son of Pandion, being desirous of having children, went to consult the oracle, and in his return, stopped at the court of Pittheus king of Trœzene, who gave him his daughter Æthra in marriage. He left her pregnant, and told her, that if she had a son, to send him to Athens as soon as he could lift a stone under which he had concealed his sword. By this sword he was to be known to Ægeus, who did not wish to make any public discovery of a son, for fear of his nephews, the Pallantides, who expected his crown. Æthra became mother of Theseus, whom she accordingly sent to Athens with his father’s sword. At the time, Ægeus lived with Medea the divorced wife of Jason. When Theseus came to Athens, Medea attempted to poison him; but he escaped, and upon showing Ægeus the sword he wore, discovered himself to be his son. When Theseus returned from Crete after the death of the Minotaur, he forgot, agreeably to the engagement made with his father, to hoist up white sails as a signal of his success: and Ægeus, at the sight of black sails, concluding that his son was dead, threw himself from a high rock into the sea; which, from him, as some suppose, has been called the Ægean. Ægeus reigned 48 years, and died B.C. 1235. He is supposed to have first introduced into Greece the worship of Venus Urania, to render the goddess propitious to his wishes in having a son. See: Theseus, Minotaurus, and Medea. Apollodorus, bk. 1, chs. 8, 9; bk. 3, ch. 15.—Pausanias, bk. 1, chs. 5, 22, 38; bk. 4, ch. 2.—Plutarch, Theseus.—Hyginus, fables 37, 43, 79, & 173.

Ægiăle, one of Phaeton’s sisters changed into poplars, and their tears into amber. They are called Heliades.――A daughter of Adrastus, by Amphitea daughter of Pronax. She married Diomedes, in whose absence, during the Trojan war, she prostituted herself to her servants, and chiefly to Cometes, whom the king had left master of his house. At his return, Diomedes, being told of his wife’s wantonness, went to settle in Daunia. Some say that Venus implanted those vicious and lustful propensities in Ægiale, to revenge herself on Diomedes, who had wounded her in the Trojan war. Ovid, Ibis, li. 350.—Homer, Iliad, bk. 5, li. 412.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 9.—Statius, bk. 3, Sylvæ, poem 5, li. 48.

Ægiălea, an island near Peloponnesus, in the Cretan sea.――Another in the Ionian sea, near the Echinades. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 12.—Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 107.――The ancient name of Peloponnesus. Strabo, bk. 12.—Mela, bk. 2, ch. 7.

Ægialeus, son of Adrastus by Amphitea or Demoanassa, was one of the Epigoni, i.e. one of the sons of those generals who were killed in the first Theban war. They went against the Thebans, who had refused to give burial to their fathers, and were victorious. They all returned home safe, except Ægialeus, who was killed. That expedition is called the war of the Epigoni. Pausanias, bk. 1, chs. 43, 44; bk. 2, ch. 20; bk. 9, ch. 5.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 9; bk. 3, ch. 7.――The same as Absyrtus brother to Medea. Justin, bk. 42, ch. 3.—Cicero, de Natura Deorum, bk. 3.—Diodorus, bk. 4.

Ægiălus, son of Phoroneus, was entrusted with the kingdom of Achaia by king Apis going to Egypt. Peloponnesus was called Ægialea from him.――A man who founded the kingdom of Sicyon, 2091 before the christian era, and reigned 52 years.

Ægialus, a name given to part of Peloponnesus. See: Achaia. Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 1; bk. 7, ch. 1.――An inconsiderable town of Pontus.――A city of Asia Minor.――A city of Thrace near the river Strymon.――A mountain of Galatia.――Another in Æthiopia.

Ægīdes, a patronymic of Theseus. Homer, Iliad, bk. 1, li. 265.

Ægĭla, a place in Laconia, where Aristomenes was taken prisoner by a crowd of religious women whom he had attacked. Pausanias, bk. 4, ch. 17.

Ægilia, an island between Crete and Peloponnesus.――A place in Eubœa. Herodotus, bk. 6, ch. 101.

Ægimius, an old man who lived, according to Anacreon, 200 years. Pliny, bk. 7, ch. 48.――A king of Doris, whom Hercules assisted to conquer the Lapithæ. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 7.

Ægimōrus, or Ægimūrus, an island near Libya, supposed by some to be the same which Virgil mentions under the name of Aræ. Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 7.

Ægīna, daughter of Asopus, had Æacus by Jupiter changed into a flame of fire. She afterwards married Actor son of Myrmidon, by whom she had some children, who conspired against their father. Some say that she was changed by Jupiter into the island which bears her name. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 12.—Strabo, bk. 8.—Mela, bk. 2, ch. 7.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 9; bk. 3, ch. 12.—Pausanias, bk. 2, chs. 5 & 29.――An island formerly called Œnopia, and now Engia, in a part of the Ægean sea, called Saronicus Sinus, about 22 miles in circumference. The inhabitants were once destroyed by a pestilence, and the country was repeopled by ants changed into men by Jupiter, at the prayer of king Æacus. They were once a very powerful nation by sea, but they cowardly gave themselves up to Darius when he demanded submission from all the Greeks. The Athenians under Pericles made war against them; and after taking 70 of their ships in a naval battle, they expelled them from Ægina. The fugitives settled in Peloponnesus, and after the ruin of Athens by Lysander, they returned to their country, but never after rose to their former power or consequence. Herodotus, bks. 5, 6, & 7.—Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 29; bk. 8, ch. 44.—Strabo, bk. 8.—Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 12, ch. 10.

Æginēta Paulus, a physician born in Ægina. He flourished in the 3rd, or, according to others, the 7th century, and first deserved to be called man-midwife. He wrote De Re Medicâ, in seven books.

Ægīnētes, a king of Arcadia, in whose age Lycurgus instituted his famous laws. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 5.

Ægiŏchus, a surname of Jupiter, from his being brought up by the goat Amalthæa, and using her skin instead of a shield, in the war of the Titans. Diodorus, bk. 5.

Ægĭpan, a name of Pan, because he had goat’s feet.

Ægīra, a town between Ætolia and Peloponnesus.――A town of Achaia. Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 26.—Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 145.

Ægiroessa, a town of Ætolia. Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 149.

Ægis, the shield of Jupiter, ἀπο της αἰγος, a goat’s skin. This was the goat Amalthæa, with whose skin he covered his shield. The goat was placed among the constellations. Jupiter gave this shield to Pallas, who placed upon it Medusa’s head, which turned into stones all those who fixed their eyes upon it. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 8, lis. 352 & 435.

Ægisthus, king of Argos, was son of Thyestes by his daughter Pelopea. Thyestes being at variance with his brother Atreus, was told by the oracle that his wrongs could be revenged only by a son born of himself and his daughter. To avoid such an incest, Pelopea had been consecrated to the service of Minerva by her father, who some time after met her in a wood, and ravished her, without knowing who she was. Pelopea kept the sword of her ravisher, and finding it to be her father’s, exposed the child she had brought forth. The child was preserved, and when grown up presented with the sword of his mother’s ravisher. Pelopea soon after this melancholy adventure had married her uncle Atreus, who received into his house her natural son. As Thyestes had debauched the first wife of Atreus, Atreus sent Ægisthus to put him to death; but Thyestes, knowing the assassin’s sword, discovered that he was his own son, and fully to revenge his wrongs, sent him back to murder Atreus. After this murder Thyestes ascended the throne, and banished Agamemnon and Menelaus, the sons, or as others say, the grandsons of Atreus. These children fled to Polyphidus of Sicyon; but as he dreaded the power of their persecutors, he permitted the protection of them to Œneus king of Ætolia. By their marriage with the daughters of Tyndarus king of Sparta, they were empowered to recover the kingdom of Argos, to which Agamemnon succeeded, while Menelaus reigned in his father-in-law’s place. Ægisthus had been reconciled to the sons of Atreus; and when they went to the Trojan war, he was left guardian of Agamemnon’s kingdom, and of his wife Clytemnestra. Ægisthus fell in love with Clytemnestra, and lived with her. On Agamemnon’s return, these two adulterers murdered him, and, by a public marriage, strengthened themselves on the throne of Argos. Orestes, Agamemnon’s son, would have shared his father’s fate, had not his sister Electra privately sent him to his uncle Strophius king of Phocis, where he contracted the most intimate friendship with his cousin Pylades. Some time after, Orestes came to Mycenæ the residence of Ægisthus, and resolved to punish the murderers of his father, in conjunction with Electra, who lived in disguise in the tyrant’s family. To effect this more effectually, Electra publicly declared that her brother Orestes was dead; upon which Ægisthus and Clytemnestra went to the temple of Apollo to return thanks to the god for his death. Orestes, who had secretly concealed himself in the temple, attacked them, and put them both to death, after a reign of seven years. They were buried without the city walls. See: Agamemnon, Thyestes, Orestes, Clytemnestra, Pylades, and Electra. Ovid, de Remedia Amoris, li. 161; Tristia, bk. 2, li. 396.—Hyginus, fables 87 & 88.—Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 12, ch. 42.—Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 16, &c.Sophocles, Electra.—Aeschylus & Seneca, Agamemnon.—Homer, Odyssey, bks. 3 & 11.—Lactantius [Placidus] on [Statius’] Thebaid, bk. 1, li. 684.――Pompey used to call Julius Cæsar, Ægisthus, on account of his adultery with his wife Mutia, whom he repudiated after she had borne him three children. Suetonius, Julius Cæsar, ch. 50.

Ægĭtum, a town of Æolia, on a mountain eight miles from the sea. Thucydides. Bk. 3, ch. 97.

Ægium, a town on the Corinthian isthmus, where Jupiter was said to have been fed by a goat, whence the name. Strabo, bk. 8.—Livy, bk. 28, ch. 7.

Ægle, the youngest daughter of Æsculapius and Lampetie.――A nymph, daughter of Sol and Neæra. Virgil, Eclogues, poem 6, li. 20.――A nymph, daughter of Panopeus, beloved by Theseus after he had left Ariadne. Plutarch, Theseus.――One of the Hesperides.――One of the Graces.――A prostitute. Martial, bk. 1, ltr. 95.

Ægles, a Samian wrestler, born dumb. Seeing some unlawful measures pursued in a contest, he broke the string which held his tongue, through the desire of speaking, and ever after spoke with ease. Valerius Maximus, bk. 1, ch. 8.

Æglētes, a surname of Apollo.

Æglŏge, a nurse of Nero. Suetonius, Nero, ch. 50.

Ægobolus, a surname of Bacchus at Potnia, in Bœotia.

Ægocĕros, or Capricornus, an animal into which Pan transformed himself when flying before Typhon in the war with the giants. Jupiter made him a constellation. Lucretius, bk. 1, li. 613.

Ægon, a shepherd. Virgil, Eclogues.—Theocritus, Idylls.――A promontory of Lemnos.――A name of the Ægean sea. Flaccus, bk. 1, li. 628.――A boxer of Zacynthus, who dragged a large bull by the heel from a mountain into the city. Theocritus, Idylls, poem 4.

Ægospotămos, i.e. the goat’s river, a town in the Thracian Chersonesus, with a river of the same name, where the Athenian fleet, consisting of 180 ships, was defeated by Lysander, on the 13th Dec., B.C. 405, in the last year of the Peloponnesian war. Mela, bk. 2, ch. 2.—Pliny, bk. 2, ch. 58.—Pausanias, bk. 3, chs. 8 & 11.

Ægosāgæ, an Asiatic nation under Attalus, with whom he conquered Asia, and to whom he gave a settlement near the Hellespont. Polybius, bk. 5.

Ægus and Roscillus, two brothers amongst the Allobroges, who deserted from Cæsar to Pompey. Cæsar, Civil War, bk. 3, ch. 59.

Ægūsa, the middle island of the Ægates, near Sicily.

Ægy, a town near Sparta, destroyed because its inhabitants were suspected by the Spartans of favouring the Arcadians. Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 2.

Ægypānes, a nation in the middle of Africa, whose body is human above the waist, and that of a goat below. Mela, bk. 1, chs. 4 & 8.

Ægypsus, a town of the Getæ, near the Danube. Ovid, ex Ponto, bk. 1, ltr. 8; bk. 4, ltr. 7.

Ægypta, a freedman of Cicero. Letters to Atticus, bk. 8.

Ægyptii, the inhabitants of Egypt. See: Ægyptus.

Ægyptium mare, that part of the Mediterranean sea which is on the coast of Egypt.

Ægyptus, son of Belus, and brother to Danaus, gave his 50 sons in marriage to the 50 daughters of his brother. Danaus, who had established himself at Argos, and was jealous of his brother, who, by following him from Egypt into Greece, seemed envious of his prosperity, obliged all his daughters to murder their husbands the first night of their nuptials. This was executed; but Hypermnestra alone spared her husband Lynceus. Even Ægyptus was killed by his niece Polyxena. See: Danaus, Danaides, Lynceus. Ægyptus was king, after his father, of a part of Africa, which from him has been called Ægyptus. Hyginus, fables 168, 170.—Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 1.—Ovid, Heroides, poem 14.—Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 21.――An extensive country of Africa, watered by the Nile, bounded on the east by Arabia, and on the west by Libya. Its name is derived from Ægyptus brother to Danaus. Its extent, according to modern calculation, is 180 leagues from north to south, and it measures 120 leagues on the shore of the Mediterranean; but at the distance of 50 leagues from the sea, it diminishes so much as scarce to measure seven or eight leagues between the mountains on the east and west. It is divided into lower, which lies near the Mediterranean, and upper, which is towards the south. Upper Egypt was famous for the town of Thebes, but Lower Egypt was the most peopled, and contained the Delta, a number of large islands, which, from their form, have been called after the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet. This country has been the mother of arts and sciences. The greatest part of Lower Egypt has been formed by the mud and sand carried down by the Nile. The Egyptians reckoned themselves the most ancient nation in the universe [See: Psammetichus], but some authors make them of Æthiopian origin. They were remarkable for their superstition; they paid as much honour to the cat, the crocodile, the bull, and even to onions, as to Isis. Rain never or seldom falls in this country; the fertility of the soil originates in the yearly inundations of the Nile, which rises about 25 feet above the surface of the earth, and exhibits a large plain of waters, in which are scattered here and there the towns and villages, as the Cyclades in the Ægean sea. The air is not wholesome, but the population is great, and the cattle very prolific. It is said that Egypt once contained 20,000 cities, the most remarkable of which were Thebes, Memphis, Alexandria, Pelusium, Coptos, Arsinoe, &c. It was governed by kings who have immortalized themselves by the pyramids they have raised and the canals they have opened. The priests traced the existence of the country for many thousand years, and fondly imagined that the gods were their first sovereigns, and that their monarchy had lasted 11,340 years according to Herodotus. According to the calculation of Constantine Manasses, the kingdom of Egypt lasted 1663 years from its beginning under Misraim the son of Ham, 2188 B.C., to the conquest of Cambyses, 525 B.C. Egypt revolted afterwards from the Persian power, B.C. 414, and Amyrtæus then became king. After him succeeded Psammetichus, whose reign began 408 B.C.: Nephereus, 396: Acoris, 389: Psammuthis, 376: Nepherites, 4 months, and Nectanebis, 375: Tachos, or Teos, 363: Nectanebus, 361. It was conquered by Ochus, 350 B.C.; and after the conquest of Persia by Alexander, Ptolemy refounded the kingdom, and began to reign 323 B.C.: Philadelphus, 284: Evergetes, 246: Philopater, 221: Epiphanes, 204: Philomater, 180 and 169, conjointly with Evergetes II. or Physcon, for six years: Evergetes II. 145: Lathurus Soter, and his mother Cleopatra, 116: Alexander of Cyprus, and Cleopatra, 106: Lathurus Soter restored, 88: Cleopatra II. six months, with Alexander II. 19 days, 81: Ptolemy, surnamed Alexander III. 80: Dionysius, surnamed Auletes, 65: Dionysius II. with Cleopatra III. 51: Cleopatra III. with young Ptolemy, 46, and in 30 B.C. it was reduced by Augustus into a Roman province. The history of Egypt, therefore, can be divided into three epochas: the first beginning with the foundation of the empire, to the conquest of Cambyses; the second ends at the death of Alexander; and the third comprehends the reign of the Ptolemies, and ends at the death of Cleopatra, in the age of Augustus.—Justin, bk. 1.—Hirtius, Alexandrine War, ch. 24.—Macrobius, Somnium Scipionis, bk. 1, chs. 19 & 21.—Herodian, bk. 4, ch. 9.—Strabo, bk. 17.—Herodotus, bks. 2, 3, & 7.—Theocritus, Idylls, poem 17, li. 79.—Polybius, bk. 15.—Diodorus, bk. 1.—Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 1; bk. 14, ch. 7.—Marcellinus, bk. 22, ch. 40.—Justin, bk. 1.—Cornelius Nepos, Pausanias, bk. 3; Iphicrates; Datames, ch. 3.—Curtius, bk. 4, ch. 1.—Juvenal, satire 15, li. 175.—Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 14.—Plutarch, de Facie in Orbe Lunæ; de Iside et Osiride; Ptolemy, Alexander.—Mela, bk. 1, ch. 9.—Apollodorus, bk. 2, chs. 1 & 5.――A minister of Mausolus king of Caria. Polyænus, bk. 6.――The ancient name of the Nile. Homer, Odyssey, bk. 14, li. 258.—Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 40.

‘ξ’ replaced with ‘bk. 14’

Ægys. See: Ægy.

Ægysthus. See: Ægisthus.

Ælia, the wife of Sylla. Plutarch, Sulla.――The name of some towns built or repaired by the emperor Adrian.

Ælia lex, enacted by Ælius Tubero the tribune, A.U.C. 559, to send two colonies into the country of the Brutii. Livy, bk. 34, ch. 53.――Another A.U.C. 568, ordaining that, in public affairs, the augurs should observe the appearance of the sky, and the magistrates be empowered to postpone the business.――Another called Ælia Sexta, by Ælius Sextus, A.U.C. 756, which enacted, that all slaves who bore any marks of punishment received from their masters, or who had been imprisoned, should be set at liberty, but not rank as Roman citizens.

Ælia Petina, of the family of Tubero, married Claudius Cæsar, by whom she had a son. The emperor divorced her to marry Messalina. Suetonius, Claudius, ch. 26.

Æliānus Claudus, a Roman sophist of Præneste, in the reign of Adrian. He first taught rhetoric at Rome; but being disgusted with his profession, he became author, and published treatises on animals in 17 books, on various history in 14 books, &c., in Greek, a language which he preferred to Latin. In his writings he shows himself very fond of the marvellous, and relates many stories which are often devoid of elegance and purity of style; though Philostratus has commended his language as superior to what could be expected from a person who was neither born nor educated in Greece. Ælian died in the 60th year of his age, A.D. 140. The best editions of his works collected together are that of Conrad Gesner, folio, printed Tigurii, 1556, though now seldom to be met with, and that of Kuenius, 2 vols., 8vo, Lipscomb, 1780. Some attribute the treatise on the tactics of the Greeks to another Ælian.

Ælius and Ælia, a family in Rome, so poor that 16 lived in a small house, and were maintained by the produce of a little field. Their poverty continued till Paulus conquered Perseus king of Macedonia, and gave his son-in-law Æl. Tubero five pounds of gold from the booty. Valerius Maximus, bk. 4, ch. 4.

Ælius Adriānus, an African, grandfather to the emperor Adrian.――Gallus, a Roman knight, the first who invaded Arabia Felix. He was very intimate with Strabo the geographer, and sailed on the Nile with him to take a view of the country. Pliny, bk. 6, ch. 28.――Publius, one of the first questors chosen from the plebeians at Rome. Livy, bk. 4, ch. 54.――Quintus Ælius Pætus, son of Sextus or Publius. As he sat in the senate house, a woodpecker perched on his head; upon which a soothsayer exclaimed, that if he preserved the bird, his house would flourish, and Rome decay; and if he killed it, the contrary must happen. Hearing this, Ælius, in the presence of the senate, bit off the head of the bird. All the youths of his family were killed at Cannæ, and the Roman arms were soon attended with success. Valerius Maximus, bk. 5, ch. 6.――Saturninus, a satirist, thrown down from the Tarpeian rock for writing verses against Tiberius.――Sejānus. See: Sejanus.――Sextus Catus, censor with Marcus Cethegus. He separated the senators from the people in the public spectacles. During his consulship, the ambassadors of the Ætolians found him feasting in earthen dishes, and offered him silver vessels, which he refused, satisfied with the earthen cups, &c., which, for his virtues, he had received from his father-in-law, Lucius Paulus, after the conquest of Macedonia. Pliny, bk. 33, ch. 11.—Cicero, On Oratory, bk. 1.――Spartiānus, wrote the lives of the emperors Adrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. He flourished A.D. 240.――Tubero, grandson of Lucius Paulus, was austere in his morals, and a formidable enemy to the Gracchi. His grandson was accused before Cæsar, and ably defended by Cicero. Cicero, Letters to Brutus.――Verus Cæsar, the name of Lucius Ceionius Commodus Verus, after Adrian had adopted him. He was made pretor and consul by the emperor, who was soon convinced of his incapacity in the discharge of public duty. He killed himself by drinking an antidote; and Antoninus, surnamed Pius, was adopted in his place. Ælius was father to Antoninus Verus, whom Pius adopted.――A physician mentioned by Galen.――Lucius Gallus, a lawyer, who wrote 12 books concerning the signification of all law words.――Sextus Pætus, a lawyer, consul at Rome, A.U.C. 566. He is greatly commended by Cicero for his learning, and called cordatus homo by Ennius for his knowledge of law. Cicero, On Oratory, bk. 1, ch. 48; Brutus, ch. 20.――Stilo, a native of Lanuvium, master to Marcus Terentius Varro, and author of some treatises.――Lamia. Lamia.

Aello, one of the Harpies (from ἑλουσα ἀλλο, alienum tollens, or ἀελλα, tempestas). Flaccus, bk. 4, li. 450.—Hesiod, Theogony, li. 267.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 13, li. 710.――See: One of Actæon’s dogs. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 3, li. 220.

Ælurus (a cat), a deity worshipped by the Egyptians; and after death embalmed and buried in the city of Bubastis. Herodotus, bk. 2, ch. 66, &c.Diodorus, bk. 1.—Cicero, de Natura Deorum, bk. 1.—Aulus Gellius, bk. 20, ch. 7.—Plutarch, Pyrrhus.

Æmathion and Æmathia. See: Emathion.

Æmilia lex, was enacted by the dictator Æmilius, A.U.C. 309. It ordained that the censorship, which was before quinquennial, should be limited to one year and a half. Livy, bk. 9, ch. 33.――Another in the second consulship of Æmilius Mamercus, A.U.C. 391. It gave power to the eldest pretor to drive a nail in the capitol on the ides of September. Livy, bk. 7, ch. 3.—The driving of a nail was a superstitious ceremony, by which the Romans supposed that a pestilence could be stopped, or an impending calamity averted.

Æmiliānus C. Julius, a native of Mauritania, proclaimed emperor after the death of Decius. He marched against Gallus and Valerian, but was informed that they had been murdered by their own troops. He soon after shared their fate.――One of the thirty tyrants who rebelled in the reign of Gallienus.

Æmilius. See: Æmylius.

Æmnestus, tyrant of Enna, was deposed by Dionysius the elder. Diodorus, bk. 14.

Æmon. See: Hæmon.

Æmŏna, a large city of Asia. Cicero, for Flaccus.

Æmŏnia, a country of Greece which received its name from Æmon, or Æmus, and was afterwards called Thessaly. Achilles is called Æmonius, as being born there. Ovid, Tristia, bk. 3, poem 11; bk. 4, poem 1.—Horace, bk. 1, ode 37. It was also called Pyrrha, from Pyrrha, Deucalion’s wife, who reigned there.――The word has been indiscriminately applied to all Greece by some writers. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 7.

Æmŏnĭdes, a priest of Apollo in Italy, killed by Æneas. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 10, li. 537.

Æmus, an actor in Domitian’s reign. Juvenal, satire 6, li. 197.

Æmylia, a noble family in Rome, descended from Mamercus son of Pythagoras, who, for his humanity, was called Αἱμυλος, blandus.――A vestal who rekindled the fire of Vesta, which was extinguished, by putting her veil over it. Valerius Maximus, bk. 1, ch. 1.—Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 2.――The wife of Africanus the elder, famous for her behaviour to her husband, when suspected of infidelity. Valerius Maximus, bk. 6, ch. 7.――Lepĭda, daughter of Lepidus, married Drusus the younger, whom she disgraced by her wantonness. She killed herself when accused of adultery with a slave. Tacitus, bk. 6, ch. 40.――A part of Italy, called also Flaminia. Martial, bk. 6, ltr. 85.――A public road leading from Placentia to Ariminum; called after the consul Æmylius, who is supposed to have made it. Martial, bk. 3, ltr. 4.

Æmyliānus, a name of Africanus the younger, son of Publius Æmylius. In him the families of the Scipios and Æmylii were united. Many of that family bore the same name. Juvenal, satire 8, li. 2.

Æmylii, a noble family in Rome, descended from Æmylius the son of Ascanius. Plutarch says, that they are descended from Mamercus the son of Pythagoras, surnamed Æmylius from the sweetness of his voice, in Numa & Aemilius Paulus.—The family was distinguished in the various branches of the Lepidi, Mamerci, Mamercini, Barbulæ, Pauli, and Scauri.

Æmylius, a beautiful youth of Sybaris, whose wife met with the same fate as Procris. See: Procris.――Censorinus, a cruel tyrant of Sicily, who liberally rewarded those who invented new ways of torturing. Paterculus gave him a brazen horse for this purpose, and the tyrant made the first experiment upon the donor. Plutarch, de Fortuna Romanorum.――Lepidus, a youth who had a statue in the capitol, for saving the life of a citizen in a battle. Valerius Maximus, bk. 4, ch. 1.――A triumvir with Octavius. See: Lepidus.――Macer, a poet of Verona in the Augustan age. He wrote some poems upon serpents, birds, and, as some suppose, on bees. See: Macer.――Marcus Scaurus, a Roman who flourished about 100 B.C., and wrote three books concerning his own life. Cicero, Brutus.――A poet in the age of Tiberius, who wrote a tragedy called Atheus, and destroyed himself.――Sura, another writer on the Roman year.――Mamercus, three times dictator, conquered the Fidenates, and took their city. He limited to one year and a half the censorship which before his time was exercised during five years. Livy, bk. 4, chs. 17, 19, &c.――Papiniānus, son of Hostilius Papiniānus, was in favour with the emperor Severus, and was made governor to his sons Geta and Caracalla. Geta was killed by his brother, and Papiniānus, for upbraiding him, was murdered by his soldiers. From his school the Romans have had many able lawyers, who were called Papiniānists.――Pappus, a censor, who banished from the senate Publius Cornelius Ruffinus, who had been twice consul, because he had at his table 10 pounds of silver plate, A.U.C. 478. Livy, bk. 14.――Porcina, an elegant orator. Cicero, Brutus.――Rectus, a severe governor of Egypt under Tiberius. Dio Cassius.――Regillus, conquered the general of Antiochus at sea, and obtained a naval triumph. Livy, bk. 37, ch. 31.――Scaurus, a noble but poor citizen of Rome. His father, to maintain himself, was a coal-merchant. He was edile, and afterwards pretor, and fought against Jugurtha. His son Marcus was son-in-law to Sylla, and in his edileship he built a very magnificent theatre. Pliny, bk. 36, ch. 15.――A bridge at Rome, called also Sublicius. Juvenal, satire 6, li. 22.

Ænăria, an island in the bay of Puteoli, abounding with cypress trees. It received its name from Æneas, who is supposed to have landed there on his way to Latium. It is called Pithecusa by the Greeks, and now Ischia, and was famous once for its mineral waters. Livy, bk. 8, ch. 22.—Pliny, bk. 3, ch. 6; bk. 31, ch. 2.—Statius, bk. 3, Sylvæ, poem 5, li. 104.

Ænarium, a forest near Olenos in Achaia, sacred to Jupiter.

Ænasius, one of the Ephori at Sparta. Thucydides, bk. 9, ch. 2.

Ænēa, or Æneia, a town of Macedonia, 15 miles from Thessalonica, founded by Æneas. Livy, bk. 40, ch. 4; bk. 44, ch. 10.

Æneădes, a town of Chersonesus, built by Æneas. Cassander destroyed it, and carried the inhabitants to Thessalonica, lately built. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 1.

Ænĕădæ, a name given to the friends and companions of Æneas by Virgil, Æneid, bk. 1, li. 161.

Ænēas, a Trojan prince, son of Anchises and the goddess Venus. The opinions of authors concerning his character are different. His infancy was intrusted to the care of a nymph, and at the age of five he was recalled to Troy. He afterwards improved himself in Thessaly under Chiron, a venerable sage whose house was frequented by the young princes and heroes of the age. Soon after his return home he married Creusa, Priam’s daughter by whom he had a son called Ascanius. During the Trojan war he behaved with great valour, in defence of his country, and came to an engagement with Diomedes and Achilles. Yet Strabo, Dictys of Crete, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and Dares of Phrygia accuse him of betraying his country to the Greeks, with Antenor, and of preserving his life and fortune by this treacherous measure. He lived at variance with Priam, because he received not sufficient marks of distinction from the king and his family, as Homer, Iliad, bk. 13, says. This might have provoked him to seek revenge by perfidy. Authors of credit report, that when Troy was in flames, he carried away upon his shoulders his father Anchises, and the statues of his household gods, leading in his hand his son Ascanius, and leaving his wife to follow behind. Some say that he retired to mount Ida, where he built a fleet of 20 ships, and set sail in quest of a settlement. Strabo and others maintain that Æneas never left his country, but rebuilt Troy, where he reigned, and his posterity after him. Even Homer, who lived 400 years after the Trojan war, says, Iliad, bk. 20, li. 30, &c., that the gods destined Æneas and his posterity to reign over the Trojans. This passage Dionysius of Halicarnassus explained, by saying that Homer meant the Trojans who had gone over to Italy with Æneas, and not the actual inhabitants of Troy. According to Virgil and other Latin authors, who, to make their court to the Roman emperors, traced their origin up to Æneas, and described his arrival into Italy as indubitable, he with his fleet first came to the Thracian Chersonesus, where Polymnestor, one of his allies, reigned. After visiting Delos, the Strophades, and Crete, where he expected to find the empire promised him by the oracle, as in the place where his progenitors were born, he landed in Epirus, and Drepanum, the court of king Acestes, in Sicily, where he buried his father. From Sicily he sailed for Italy, but was driven on the coasts of Africa and kindly received by Dido queen of Carthage, to whom, on his first interview he gave one of the garments of the beautiful Helen. Dido, being enamoured of him, wished to marry him; but he left Carthage by order of the gods. In his voyage he was driven to Sicily, and from thence he passed to Cumæ, where the Sibyl conducted him to hell, that he might hear from his father the fates which attended him and all his posterity. After a voyage of seven years, and the loss of 13 ships, he came to the Tyber. Latinus, the king of the country, received him with hospitality, and promised him his daughter Lavinia, who had been before betrothed to king Turnus by her mother Amata. To prevent this marriage, Turnus made war against Æneas: and after many battles, the war was decided by a combat between the two rivals, in which Turnus was killed. Æneas married Lavinia, in whose honour he built the town of Lavinium, and succeeded his father-in-law. After a short reign Æneas was killed in a battle against the Etrurians. Some say that he was drowned in the Numicus, and his body weighed down by his armour; upon which the Latins, not finding their king, supposed that he had been taken up to heaven, and therefore offered him sacrifices as to a god. Dionysius of Halicarnassus fixes the arrival of Æneas in Italy in the 54th olympiad. Some authors suppose that Æneas after the siege of Troy, fell to the share of Neoptolemus, together with Andromache, and that he was carried to Thessaly, whence he escaped to Italy. Others say that, after he had come to Italy, he returned to Troy, leaving Ascanius king in Latium. Æneas has been praised for his piety, and submission to the will of the gods. Homer, Iliad, bks. 13 & 20; Hymn to Aphrodite.—Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 12.—Diodorus, bk. 3.—Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 33; bk. 3, ch. 22; bk. 10, ch. 25.—Plutarch, Romulus & Coriolanus; Quæstiones Romanæ.—Valerius Maximus, bk. 1, ch. 8.—Florus, bk. 1, ch. 1.—Justin, bk. 20, ch. 1; bk. 31, ch. 8; bk. 43, ch. 1.—Dictys Cretensis, bk. 5.—Dares Phrygius, ch. 6.—Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 1, ch. 11.—Strabo, bk. 13.—Livy, bk. 1, ch. 1.—Virgil, Æneid.—Aurelius Victor.Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 8, ch. 22.—Propertius, bk. 4, poem 1, li. 42.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 14, fable 3, &c.; Tristia, bk. 4, li. 798.――A son of Æneas and Lavinia, called Sylvius, because his mother retired with him into the woods after his father’s death. He succeeded Ascanius in Latium, though opposed by Julius the son of his predecessor. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 6, li. 770.—Livy, bk. 1, ch. 3.――An ambassador sent by the Lacedæmonians to Athens, to treat of peace, in the 8th year of the Peloponnesian war.――An ancient author who wrote on tactics, besides other treatises, which, according to Ælian, were epitomized by Cineas the friend of Pyrrhus.――A native of Gaza, who, from a Platonic philosopher, became a Christian, A.D. 485, and wrote a dialogue called Theophrastus, on the immortality of the soul and the resurrection.

Ænēia, or Ænia, a place near Rome, afterwards called Janiculum.――A city of Troas. Strabo, bk. 17.――A city of Macedonia. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 1.

Æneides, a patronymic given to Ascanius, as son of Æneas. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 9, li. 653.

Ænēis, a poem of Virgil, which has for its subject the settlement of Æneas in Italy. The great merit of this poem is well known. The author has imitated Homer, and, as some say, Homer is superior to him only because he is more ancient, and is an original. Virgil died before he had corrected it, and at his death desired it might be burnt. This was happily disobeyed, and Augustus saved from the flames a poem which proved his family to be descended from the kings of Troy. The Æneid had engaged the attention of the poet for 11 years, and in the first six books it seems that it was Virgil’s design to imitate Homer’s Odyssey, and in the last the Iliad. The action of the poem comprehends eight years, one of which only, the last, is really taken up by action, as the seven first are merely episodes, such as Juno’s attempts to destroy the Trojans, the loves of Æneas and Dido, the relation of the fall of Troy, &c. In the first book of the Æneid, the hero is introduced, in the seventh year of his expedition, sailing in the Mediterranean, and shipwrecked on the African coast, where he is received by Dido. In the second, Æneas, at the desire of the Phœnician queen, relates the fall of Troy, and his flight through the general conflagration to mount Ida. In the third, the hero continues his narration, by a minute account of the voyage through the Cyclades, the places where he landed, and the dreadful storm with the description of which the poem opened. Dido, in the fourth book, makes public her partiality to Æneas, which is slighted by the sailing of the Trojans from Carthage, and the book closes with the suicide of the disappointed queen. In the fifth book, Æneas sails to Sicily, where he celebrates the anniversary of his father’s death, and thence pursues his voyage to Italy. In the sixth, he visits the Elysian fields, and learns from his father the fate which attends him and his descendants, the Romans. In the seventh book, the hero reaches the destined land of Latium, and concludes a treaty with the king of the country, which is soon broken by the interference of Juno, who stimulates Turnus to war. The auxiliaries of the enemy are enumerated; and in the eighth book, Æneas is assisted by Evander, and receives from Venus a shield wrought by Vulcan, on which are represented the future glory and triumphs of the Roman nation. The reader is pleased, in the ninth book, with the account of battles between the rival armies, and the immortal friendship of Nisus and Euryalus. Jupiter, in the tenth, attempts a reconciliation between Venus and Juno, who patronized the opposite parties; the fight is renewed, Pallas killed, and Turnus saved from the avenging hand of Æneas, by the interposition of Juno. The eleventh book gives an account of the funeral of Pallas, and of the meditated reconciliation between Æneas and Latinus, which the sudden appearance of the enemy defeats. Camilla is slain, and the combatants separated by the night. In the last book, Juno prevents the single combat agreed upon by Turnus and Æneas. The Trojans are defeated in the absence of their king; but on the return of Æneas, the battle assumes a different turn, a single combat is fought by the rival leaders, and the poem is concluded by the death of king Turnus. Pliny, bk. 7, ch. 30, &c.

Ænesidēmus, a brave general of Argos. Livy, bk. 32, ch. 25.――A Cretan philosopher, who wrote eight books on the doctrine of his master Pyrrho. Diogenes Laërtius, Pyrrhonists.

Ænēsius, a surname of Jupiter from mount Ænum.

Ænētus, a victor at Olympia, who, in the moment of victory, died through excess of joy. Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 18.

Ænia. See: Æneia.

Ænicus, a comic writer at Athens.

Æniŏchi, a people of Asiatic Sarmatia. Lucan, bk. 2, li. 591.

Ænobarbus, or Ahenobarbus, the surname of Domitius. When Castor and Pollux acquainted him with a victory, he discredited them; upon which they touched his chin and beard, which instantly became of a brazen colour, whence the surname given to himself and his descendants.

Ænŏcles, a writer of Rhodes. Athenæus.

Ænos, now Eno, an independent city of Thrace, at the eastern mouth of the Hebrus, confounded with Æneia, of which Æneas was the founder. Mela, bk. 2, ch. 2.

Ænum, a town of Thrace――of Thessaly.――A mountain in Cephallenia. Strabo, bk. 7.――A river and village near Ossa.――A city of Crete, built by Æneas.

Ænȳra, a town of Thasos. Herodotus, bk. 6, ch. 47.

Æŏlia, a name given to Arne. Sappho is called Æolia puella, and lyric poetry Æolium carmen, because of Alcæus and Sappho, natives of Lesbos in Æolia. Horace, bk. 4, ode 3, li. 12, and ode 9, li. 12.

Æŏlia, or Æolis, a country of Asia Minor, near the Ægean sea. It has Troas at the north, and Ionia at the south. The inhabitants were of Grecian origin, and were masters of many of the neighbouring islands. They had 12, others say 30, considerable cities, of which Cumæ and Lesbos were the most famous. They received their name from Æolus son of Hellenus. They migrated from Greece about 1124 B.C., 80 years before the migration of the Ionian tribes. Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 26, &c.Strabo, bks. 1, 2, & 6.—Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 30.—Mela, bk. 1, chs. 2 & 18.――Thessaly has been anciently called Æolia. Bœotus son of Neptune, having settled there, called his followers Bœotians, and their country Bœotia.

Æoliæ and Æolĭdes, seven islands between Sicily and Italy, called Lipara, Hiera, Strongyle, Didyme, Ericusa, Phœnicusa, and Euonymos. They were the retreat of the winds; and Virgil, Æneid, bk. 1, li. 56, calls them Æolia, and the kingdom of Æolus the god of storms and winds. They sometimes bear the name of Vulcaniæ and Hephæstides, and are known now among the moderns under the general appellation of Lipari islands. Lucan, bk. 5, li. 609.—Justin, bk. 4, ch. 1.

Æolĭda, a city of Tenedos.――Another near Thermopylæ. Herodotus, bk. 8, ch. 35.

Æolĭdes, a patronymic of Ulysses, from Æolus; because Anticlea, his mother, was pregnant by Sisyphus the son of Æolus, when she married Laertes. It is also given to Athamas and Misenus, as sons of Æolus. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 4, li. 511; bk. 13, li. 31.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 6, lis. 164 & 529.

Æŏlus, the king of storms and winds, was the son of Hippotas. He reigned over Æolia; and because he was the inventor of sails, and a great astronomer, the poets have called him the god of the wind. It is said that he confined in a bag, and gave Ulysses all the winds that could blow against his vessel, when he returned to Ithaca. The companions of Ulysses untied the bag, and gave the winds their liberty. Æolus was indebted to Juno for his royal dignity, according to Virgil. The name seems to be derived from αἰολος, varius, because the winds, over which he presided, are ever varying.――There were two others, a king of Etruria, father to Macareus and Canace, and a son of Hellenus, often confounded with the god of the winds. This last married Enaretta, by whom he had seven sons and five daughters. Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 7.—Homer, Odyssey, bk. 10, li. 1.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 11, li. 478; bk. 14, li. 224.—Apollonius, bk. 4, Argonautica.—Flaccus, bk. 1, li. 556.—Diodorus, bks. 4 & 5.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 1, li. 56, &c.

Æōra, a festival at Athens, in honour of Erigone.

Æpālius, a king of Greece, restored to his kingdom by Hercules, whose son Hyllus he adopted. Strabo, bk. 9.

Æpēa, a town of Crete, called Solis, in honour of Solon. Plutarch, Solon.

Æpŭlo, a general of the Istrians, who drank to excess, after he had stormed the camp of Acidinus Manlius the Roman general. Being attacked by a soldier, he fled to a neighbouring town, which the Romans took, and killed himself for fear of being taken. Florus, bk. 2, ch. 10.

Æpy, a town of Elis, under the dominion of Nestor. Statius, bk. 4, Thebiad, li. 180.

Æpy̆tus, king of Mycenæ, son of Chresphontes and Merope, was educated in Arcadia with Cypselus his mother’s father. To recover his kingdom, he killed Polyphontes, who had married his mother against her will, and usurped the crown. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 6.—Pausanias, bk. 4, ch. 8.――A king of Arcadia, son of Elatus.――A son of Hippothous, who forcibly entered the temple of Neptune, near Mantinea, and was struck blind by the sudden eruption of salt water from the altar. He was killed by a serpent in hunting. Pausanias, bk. 8, chs. 4 & 5.

Æqui, or Æquicŏli, a people of Latium, near Tibur. They were great enemies to Rome in its infant state, and were conquered with much difficulty. Florus, bk. 1, ch. 11.—Livy, bk. 1, ch. 32; bk. 2, ch. 30; bk. 3, ch. 2, &c.Pliny, bk. 3, ch. 4.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 747; bk. 9, li. 684.—Ovid, Fasti, bk. 3, li. 93.—Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 2, ch. 19.

Æquimelium, a place in Rome where the house of Melius stood, who aspired to sovereign power, for which crime his habitation was levelled to the ground. Livy, bk. 4, ch. 16.

Ærias, an ancient king of Cyprus, who built the temple of Paphos. Tacitus, Histories, bk. 2, ch. 3.

Ærŏpe, wife of Atreus, committed adultery with Thyestes her brother-in-law, and had by him twins, who were placed as food before Atreus. Ovid, Tristia, bk. 2, li. 391.――A daughter of Cepheus, ravished by Mars. She died in child-bed: her child was preserved, and called Æropus. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 44.

Ærŏpus, a general of Epirus in the reign of Pyrrhus.――A person appointed regent to Orestes the infant son of Archelaus king of Macedonia.――An officer of king Philip, banished for bringing a singer into his camp. Polyænus, bk. 4, ch. 2.――A mountain of Chaonia. Livy, bk. 31, ch. 5.

Æsăcus, a river of Troy, near Ida.――A son of Priam by Alexirhoo: or according to others by Arisba. He became enamoured of Hesperia, whom he pursued into the woods. The nymph threw herself into the sea, and was changed into a bird. Æsacus followed her example, and was changed into a cormorant by Tethys. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 11, fable 11.

Æsāpus, a river of Mysia in Asia, falling into the Hellespont. Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 32.

Æsar, or Æsāras, a river of Magna Græcia, falling into the sea near Crotona. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 15, li. 28.

Æschĭnes, an Athenian orator, who flourished about 342 B.C., and distinguished himself by his rivalship with Demosthenes. His father’s name was Atrometus, and he boasted of his descent from a noble family, though Demosthenes reproached him as being the son of a courtesan. The first open signs of enmity between the rival orators appeared at the court of Philip, where they were sent as ambassadors; but the character of Æschines was tarnished by the acceptance of a bribe from the Macedonian prince, whose tyranny had hitherto been the general subject of his declamation. When the Athenians wished to reward the patriotic labours of Demosthenes with a golden crown, Æschines impeached Ctesiphon, who proposed it; and to their subsequent dispute we are indebted for the two celebrated orations de coronâ. Æschines was defeated by his rival’s superior eloquence, and banished to Rhodes; but as he retired from Athens, Demosthenes ran after him, and nobly forced him to accept a present of silver. In his banishment, the orator repeated to the Rhodians what he had delivered against Demosthenes; and after receiving much applause, he was desired to read the answer of his antagonist. It was received with greater marks of approbation; but, exclaimed Æschines, how much more would your admiration have been raised, had you heard Demosthenes himself speak it! Æschines died in the 75th year of his age, at Rhodes, or, as some suppose, at Samos. He wrote three orations, and nine epistles, which, from their number, received the name, the first of the graces, and the last of the muses. The orations alone are extant, generally found collected with those of Lysias. An oration which bears the name of Deliaca lex, is said not to be his production, but that of Æschines, another orator of that age. Cicero, On Oratory, bk. 1, ch. 24; bk. 2, ch. 53; Brutus, ch. 17.—Plutarch, Demosthenes.—Diogenes Laërtius, bks. 2 & 3.—Pliny, bk. 7, ch. 30. Diogenes Laërtius mentions seven more of the same name.――A philosopher, disciple of Socrates, who wrote several dialogues, some of which bore the following titles: Aspasia, Phædon, Alcibiades, Draco, Erycia, Polyænus, Telauges, &c. The dialogue entitled Axiochus, and ascribed to Plato, is supposed to be his composition. The best editions are that of Leovard, 1718, with the notes of Horræus, in 8vo, and that of Fischer, 8vo, Lipscomb, 1766.――A man who wrote on oratory.――An Arcadian.――A Mitylenean.――A disciple of Melanthius.――A Milesian writer.――A statuary.

Æschrion, a Mitylenean poet, intimate with Aristotle. He accompanied Alexander in his Asiatic expedition.――An Iambic poet of Samos. Athenæus.――A physician commended by Galen. A treatise of his own husbandry has been quoted by Pliny.――A lieutenant of Archagathus, killed by Hanno. Diodorus, bk. 20.

Æschylīdes, a man who wrote a book on agriculture. Ælian, Nature of Animals, bk. 15.

Æschy̆lus, an excellent soldier and poet of Athens, son of Euphorion, and brother to Cynægirus. He was in the Athenian army at the battles of Marathon, Salamis, and Platæa. But the most solid fame he has obtained, is the offspring less of his valour in the field of battle than of his writings. Of 90 tragedies, however, the fruit of his ingenious labours, 40 of which were rewarded with the public prize, only seven have come safe to us: Prometheus vinctus, Septem duces apud Thebas, Persæ, Agamemnon, Chœphori, Eumenides, Supplices. Æschylus is the first who introduced two actors on the stage, and clothed them with dresses suitable to their character. He likewise removed murder from the stage. It is said that, when he composed, his countenance betrayed the greatest ferocity; and according to one of his scholiasts, when his Eumenides were represented, many children died through fear, and several pregnant women actually miscarried in the house, at the sight of the horrible masks that were introduced. The imagination of the poet was strong and comprehensive, but disorderly and wild: fruitful in prodigies, but disdaining probabilities. His style is obscure, and the labours of an excellent modern critic have pronounced him the most difficult of all the Greek classics. A few expressions of impious tendency in one of his plays, nearly proved fatal to Æschylus; he was condemned to death, but his brother Amynias, it is reported, reversed his sentence, by uncovering an arm, of which the hand had been cut off at the battle of Salamis in the service of his country, and the poet was pardoned. Æschylus has been accused of drinking to excess, and of never composing except when in a state of intoxication. In his old age he retired to the court of Hiero in Sicily. Being informed that he was to die by the fall of a house, he became dissatisfied with the fickleness of his countrymen, and withdrew from the city into the fields, where he sat down. An eagle, with a tortoise in her bill, flew over his bald head, and supposing it to be a stone, dropped her prey upon it to break the shell, and Æschylus instantly died of the blow, in the 69th year of his age, 456 B.C. It is said that he wrote an account of the battle of Marathon, in elegiac verses. The best editions of his works are that of Stanley, folio, London, 1663, that of Glasgow, 2 vols. in 12mo, 1746, and that of Schutz, 2 vols., 8vo, Halæ, 1782.—Horace, Art of Poetry, li. 278.—Quintilian, bk. 10, ch. 1.—Pliny, bk. 10, ch. 3.—Valerius Maximus, bk. 9, ch. 12.――The 12th perpetual archon of Athens.――A Corinthian, brother-in-law to Timophanes, intimate with Timoleon. Plutarch, Timoleon.――A Rhodian set over Egypt with Peucestes of Macedonia. Curtius, bk. 4, ch. 8.――A native of Cnidus, teacher of rhetoric to Cicero. Cicero, Brutus.

Æsculāpius, son of Apollo by Coronis, or as some say, by Larissa daughter of Phlegias, was god of medicine. After his union with Coronis, Apollo set a crow to watch her, and was soon informed that she admitted the caresses of Ischys of Æmonia. The god, in a fit of anger, destroyed Coronis with lightning, but saved the infant from her womb, and gave him to be educated to Chiron, who taught him the art of medicine. Some authors say, that Coronis left her father to avoid the discovery of her pregnancy, and that she exposed her child near Epidaurus. A goat of the flocks of Aresthanas gave him her milk, and the dog which kept the flock stood by him to shelter him from injury. He was found by the master of the flock, who went in search of his stray goat, and saw his head surrounded with resplendent rays of light. Æsculapius was physician to the Argonauts, and considered so skilled in the medicinal power of plants, that he was called the inventor as well as the god of medicine. He restored many to life, of which Pluto complained to Jupiter, who struck Æsculapius with thunder, but Apollo, angry at the death of his son, killed the Cyclops who made the thunderbolts. Æsculapius received divine honours after death, chiefly at Epidaurus, Pergamus, Athens, Smyrna, &c. Goats, bulls, lambs, and pigs were sacrificed on his altars, and the cock and the serpent were sacred to him. Rome, A.U.C. 462, was delivered of a plague, and built a temple to the god of medicine, who, as was supposed, had come there in the form of a serpent, and hid himself among the reeds in an island of the Tyber. Æsculapius was represented with a large beard, holding in his hand a staff, round which was wreathed a serpent: his other hand was supported on the head of a serpent. Serpents are more particularly sacred to him, not only as the ancient physicians used them in their prescriptions; but because they were the symbols of prudence and foresight, so necessary in the medical profession. He married Epione, by whom he had two sons, famous for their skill in medicine, Machaon and Podalirus; and four daughters, of whom Hygiea, goddess of health, is the most celebrated. Some have supposed that he lived a short time after the Trojan war. Hesiod makes no mention of him. Homer, Iliad, bk. 4, li. 193; Hymn to Æsculapius.—Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 10.—Apollonius, bk. 4, Argonautica.—Hyginus, fable 49.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 2, fable 8.—Pausanias, bk. 2, chs. 11 & 27; bk. 7, ch. 23, &c.Diodorus, bk. 4.—Pindar, Pythian, poem 3.—Lucian, Dialogi de Saltatione.—Valerius Maximus, bk. 1, ch. 8.—Cicero, de Natura Deorum, bk. 3, ch. 22, says there were three of this name; the first, a son of Apollo, worshipped in Arcadia; second, a brother of Mercury; third, a man who first taught medicine.

Æsēpus, a son of Bucolion. Homer, Iliad, bk. 6, li. 21.――A river. See: Æsapus.

Æsernia, a city of the Samnites, in Italy. Livy, bk. 27, ch. 12.—Silius Italicus, bk. 8, li. 567.

Æsīon, an Athenian, known for his respect for the talents of Demosthenes. Plutarch, Demosthenes.

Æsis, a river of Italy, which separates Umbria from Picenum.

Æson, son of Cretheus, was born at the same birth as Pelias. He succeeded his father in the kingdom of Iolchos, but was soon exiled by his brother. He married Alcimeda, by whom he had Jason, whose education he entrusted to Chiron, being afraid of Pelias. When Jason was grown up, he demanded his father’s kingdom from his uncle, who gave him evasive answers, and persuaded him to go in quest of the golden fleece. See: Jason. At his return, Jason found his father very infirm; and Medea [See: Medea], at his request, drew the blood from Æson’s veins, and refilled them with the juice of certain herbs which she had gathered, and immediately the old man recovered the vigour and bloom of youth. Some say that Æson killed himself by drinking bull’s blood, to avoid the persecution of Pelias. Diodorus, bk. 4.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 9.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 7, li. 285.—Hyginus, fable 12.――A river of Thessaly, with a town of the same name.

Æsŏnĭdes, a patronymic of Jason, as being descended from Æson.

Æsōpus, a Phrygian philosopher, who, though originally a slave, procured his liberty by the sallies of his genius. He travelled over the greatest part of Greece and Egypt, but chiefly resided at the court of Crœsus king of Lydia, by whom he was sent to consult the oracle of Delphi. In this commission Æsop behaved with great severity, and satirically compared the Delphians to floating sticks, which appear large at a distance, but are nothing when brought near. The Delphians, offended with his sarcastic remarks, accused him of having secreted one of the sacred vessels of Apollo’s temple, and threw him down from a rock, 561 B.C. Maximus Planudes has written his life in Greek; but no credit is to be given to the biographer, who falsely asserts that the mythologist was short and deformed. Æsop dedicated his fables to his patron Crœsus; but what appears now under his name, is no doubt a compilation of all the fables and apologues of wits before and after the age of Æsop, conjointly with his own. Plutarch, Solon.—Phædras, bk. 1, fable 2; bk. 2, fable 9.――Claudus, an actor on the Roman stage, very intimate with Cicero. He amassed an immense fortune. His son, to be more expensive, melted precious stones to drink at his entertainments. Horace, bk. 2, satire 3, li. 239.—Valerius Maximus, bk. 8, ch. 10; bk. 9, ch. 1.—Pliny, bk. 9, ch. 35; bk. 10, ch. 51.――An orator. Diogenes Laërtius.――An historian in the time of Anaximenes. Plutarch, Solon.――A river of Pontus. Strabo, bk. 12.――An attendant of Mithridates, who wrote a treatise on Helen, and a panegyric on his royal master.

Æstria, an island in the Adriatic. Mela, bk. 2, ch. 7.

Æsŭla, a town on a mountain between Tibur and Præneste. Horace, bk. 3, ode 29.

Æsyetes, a man from whose tomb Polites spied what the Greeks did in their ships during the Trojan war. Homer, Iliad, bk. 2, li. 793.

Æsymnētes, a surname of Bacchus. Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 21.

Æsymnus, a person of Megara, who consulted Apollo to know the best method of governing his country. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 43.

Æthalia, or Ætheria, now Elba, an island between Etruria and Corsica. Pliny, bk. 3, ch. 6; bk. 6, ch. 30.

Æthalĭdes, a herald, son of Mercury, to whom it was granted to be amongst the dead and the living at stated times. Apollonius, Argonautica, bk. 1, li. 641.

Æthion, a man slain at the nuptials of Andromeda. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 5, li. 146.

Æthiŏpia, an extensive country of Africa, at the south of Egypt, divided into east and west by the ancients, the former division lying near Meroe, and the latter near the Mauri. The country, properly now called Abyssinia, as well as the inhabitants, were little known to the ancients, though Homer has styled them the justest of men and the favourites of the gods. Diodorus, bk. 4, says, that the Æthiopians were the first inhabitants of the earth. They were the first who worshipped the gods, for which, as some suppose, their country has never been invaded by a foreign enemy. The inhabitants are of a dark complexion. The country is inundated for five months every year, and their days and nights are almost of an equal length. The ancients have given the name of Æthiopia to every country whose inhabitants are of a black colour. Lucan, bk. 3, li. 253; bk. 9, li. 651.—Juvenal, satire 2, li. 23.—Virgil, [Eclogues], poem 6, li. 68.—Pliny, bk. 6, ch. 29.—Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 33.—Homer, Odyssey, bk. 1, li. 22; Iliad, bk. 1, li. 423.

Æthlius, son of Jupiter by Protogenia, was father of Endymion. Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 7.

Æthon, a horse of the sun. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 2, fable 1.――A horse of Pallas, represented as shedding tears at the death of his master, by Virgil, Æneid, bk. 11, li. 89.――A horse of Hector. Homer, Iliad, bk. 8, li. 185.

Æthra, daughter of Pittheus king of Trœzene, had Theseus by Ægeus. See: Ægeus. She was carried away by Castor and Pollux, when they recovered their sister Helen, whom Theseus had stolen, and intrusted to her care. See: Helena. She went to Troy with Helen. Homer, Iliad, bk. 3, li. 144.—Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 31; bk. 5, ch. 19.—Hyginus, fables 37 & 79.—Plutarch, Theseus.—Ovid, Heroides, poem 10, li. 131.――One of the Oceanides, wife to Atlas. She is more generally called Pleione.

Æthūsa, a daughter of Neptune by Amphitrite, or Alcyone, mother by Apollo of Eleuthere and two sons. Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 20.――An island near Lilybæum. Pliny, bk. 3, ch. 8.

Ætia, a poem of Callimachus, in which he speaks of sacrifices, and of the manner in which they were offered. Martial, bk. 10, ltr. 4.

Ætion, or Eetion, the father of Andromache, Hector’s wife. He was killed at Thebes, with his seven sons, by the Greeks.――A famous painter. He drew a painting of Alexander going to celebrate his nuptials with Roxane. This piece was much valued, and was exposed to public view at the Olympic games, where it gained so much applause that the president of the games gave the painter his daughter in marriage. Cicero, Brutus, ch. 18.

Ætna, a mountain of Sicily, now called Gibello, famous for its volcano, which, for about 3000 years, has thrown out fire at intervals. It is two miles in perpendicular height, and measures 180 miles round at the base, with an ascent of 30 miles. Its crater forms a circle about 3½ miles in circumference, and its top is covered with snow and smoke at the same time, whilst the sides of the mountain, from the great fertility of the soil, exhibit a rich scenery of cultivated fields and blooming vineyards. Pindar is the first who mentions an eruption of Ætna; and the silence of Homer on the subject is considered as a proof that the fires of the mountain were unknown in his age. From the time of Pythagoras, the supposed date of the first volcanic appearance, to the battle of Pharsalia, it is computed that Ætna had 100 eruptions. The poets supposed that Jupiter had confined the giants under this mountain, and it was represented as the forge of Vulcan, where his servants the Cyclops fabricated thunderbolts, &c. Hesiod, Theogony, li. 860.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 3, li. 570.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 5, fable 6; bk. 15, li. 340.—Silius Italicus, bk. 14, li. 59.

Ætōlia, a country bounded by Epirus, Acarnania, and Locris, supposed to be about the middle of Greece. It received its name from Ætolus. The inhabitants were covetous and illiberal, and were little known in Greece, till after the ruin of Athens and Sparta they assumed consequence in the country, and afterwards made themselves formidable as the allies of Rome, and as its enemies, till they were conquered by Fulvius. Livy, bk. 26, ch. 24, &c.Florus, bk. 2, ch. 9.—Strabo, bks. 8 & 10.—Mela, bk. 2, ch. 3.—Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 2.—Pausanias, bk. 10, ch. 18.—Plutarch, Titus Flamininus.

Ætōlus, son of Endymion of Elis and Iphianassa, married Pronoe, by whom he had Pleuron and Calydon. Having accidentally killed Apis son of Phoroneus, he left his country, and came to settle in that part of Greece which has been called from him Ætolia. Apollodorus, bk. 1, chs. 7 & 9.—Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 1.

Æx, a rocky island between Tenedos and Chios. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 11.――A city in the country of the Marsi.――The nurse of Jupiter changed into a constellation.

Afer, an inhabitant of Africa.――An informer under Tiberius and his successors. He became also known as an orator, and as the preceptor of Quintilian, and was made consul by Domitian. He died A.D. 59.

Afrānia, a Roman matron, who frequented the forum, forgetful of female decency. Valerius Maximus, bk. 8, ch. 3.

Lucius Afrānius, a Latin comic poet in the age of Terence, often compared to Menander, whose style he imitated. He is blamed for the unnatural gratifications which he mentions in his writings, some fragments of which are to be found in the Corpus Poetarum. Quintilian, bk. 10, ch. 1.—Suetonius, Nero, ch. 11.—Horace, bk. 2, ltr. 1, li. 57.—Cicero, de Finibus, bk. 1, ch. 3.—Aulus Gellius, bk. 13, ch. 8.――A general of Pompey, conquered by Cæsar in Spain. Suetonius, Julius Cæsar, ch. 34.—Plutarch, Pompey.――Quintianus, a man who wrote a severe satire against Nero, for which he was put to death in the Pisonian conspiracy. Tacitus.――Potitus, a plebeian, who said before Caligula, that he would willingly die if the emperor could recover from the distemper he laboured under. Caligula recovered, and Afranius was put to death that he might not forfeit his word. Dio Cassius.

Afrĭca, called Libya by the Greeks, one of the three parts of the ancient world, and the greatest peninsula of the universe, is bounded on the east by Arabia and the Red sea, on the north by the Mediterranean, south and west by the ocean. In its greatest length it extends 4300 miles, and in its greatest breadth it is 3500 miles. It is joined on the east to Asia, by an isthmus 60 miles long, which some of the Ptolemies endeavoured to cut, in vain, to join the Red and Mediterranean seas. It is so immediately situate under the sun, that only the maritime parts are inhabited, and the inland country is mostly barren and sandy, and infested with wild beasts. The ancients, through ignorance, peopled the southern parts of Africa with monsters, enchanters, and chimeras; errors which begin to be corrected by modern travellers. See: Libya. Mela, bk. 1, ch. 4, &c.Diodorus, bks. 3, 4, & 20.—Herodotus, bk. 2, chs. 17, 26, & 32; bk. 4, ch. 41, &c.Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 1, &c.――There is a part of Africa called Propria, which lies about the middle, on the Mediterranean, and has Carthage for its capital.

Africānus, a blind poet, commended by Ennius.――A christian writer, who flourished A.D. 222. In his chronicle, which was universally esteemed, he reckoned 5500 years from the creation of the world to the age of Julius Cæsar. Nothing remains of this work but what Eusebius has preserved. In a letter to Origen, Africanus proved that the history of Susanna is supposititious; and in another to Aristides, still extant, he endeavours to reconcile the seeming contradictions that appear in the genealogies of Christ in St. Matthew and Luke. He is supposed to be the same who wrote nine books, in which he treats of physic, agriculture, &c.――A lawyer, disciple to Papinian, and intimate with the emperor Alexander.――An orator mentioned by Quintilian.――The surname of the Scipios, from the conquest of Africa. See: Scipio.

Afrĭcum mare, is that part of the Mediterranean which is on the coast of Africa.

Agăgriāne portæ, gates at Syracuse, near which the dead were buried. Cicero, Tusculanæ Disputationes.

Agalasses, a nation of India, conquered by Alexander. Diodorus, bk. 17.

Agalla, a woman of Corcyra, who wrote a treatise upon grammar. Athenæus, bk. 1.

Agamēdes and Trophonius, two architects who made the entrance of the temple of Delphi, for which they demanded of the god whatever gift was most advantageous for a man to receive. Eight days after they were found dead in their bed. Plutarch, Consolatio ad Apollonium.—Cicero, Tusculanæ Disputationes, bk. 1, ch. 47.—Pausanias, bk. 9, chs. 11 & 37, gives a different account.

Agamemnon, king of Mycenæ and Argos, was brother to Menelaus, and son of Plisthenes the son of Atreus. Homer calls them sons of Atreus, which is false, upon the authority of Hesiod, Apollodorus, &c. See: Plisthenes. When Atreus was dead, his brother Thyestes seized the kingdom of Argos, and removed Agamemnon and Menelaus, who fled to Polyphidus king of Sicyon, and hence to Œneus king of Ætolia, where they were educated. Agamemnon married Clytemnestra, and Menelaus Helen, both daughters of Tyndarus king of Sparta, who assisted them to recover their father’s kingdom. After the banishment of the usurper to Cythera, Agamemnon established himself at Mycenæ, whilst Menelaus succeeded his father-in-law at Sparta. When Helen was stolen by Paris, Agamemnon was elected commander-in-chief of the Grecian forces going against Troy; and he showed his zeal in the cause by furnishing 100 ships, and lending 60 more to the people of Arcadia. The fleet was detained at Aulis, where Agamemnon sacrificed his daughter to appease Diana. See: Iphigenia. During the Trojan war, Agamemnon behaved with much valour; but his quarrel with Achilles, whose mistress he took by force, was fatal to the Greeks. See: Briseis. After the ruin of Troy, Cassandra fell to his share, and foretold him that his wife would put him to death. He gave no credit to this, and returned to Argos with Cassandra. Clytemnestra, with her adulterer Ægisthus [See: Ægisthus], prepared to murder him; and as he came from the bath, to embarrass him, she gave him a tunic, whose sleeves were sewed together, and while he attempted to put it on, she brought him to the ground with a stroke of a hatchet, and Ægisthus seconded her blows. His death was revenged by his son Orestes. See: Clytemnestra, Menelaus, and Orestes. Homer, Iliad, bks. 1, 2, &c.; Odyssey, bk. 4, &c.Ovid, Remedia Amoris, li. 777; Metamorphoses, bk. 12, li. 30.—Hyginus, fables 88 & 97.—Strabo, bk. 8.—Thucydides, bk. 1, ch. 9.—Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 4, ch. 26.—Dictys Cretensis, bks. 1, 2, &c.Dares Phrygius.Sophocles, Electra.—Euripides, Orestes.—Seneca, Agamemnon.—Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 6; bk. 9, ch. 40, &c.Virgil, Æneid, bk. 6, li. 838.—Mela, bk. 2, ch. 3.

Agamemnonius, an epithet applied to Orestes, as son of Agamemnon. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 4, li. 471.

Agamētor, an athlete of Mantinea. Pausanias, bk. 6, ch. 10.

Agamnestor, a king of Athens.

Aganippe, a celebrated fountain of Bœotia, at the foot of mount Helicon. It flows into the Permessus, and is sacred to the muses, who, from it, were called Aganippedes. Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 29.—Propertius, bk. 2, poem 3.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 5, li. 312.—Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 7.

Agapēnor, the commander of Agamemnon’s fleet. Homer, Iliad, bk. 2.――The son of Ancæus, and grandson of Lycurgus, who, after the ruin of Troy, was carried by a storm into Cyprus, where he built Paphos. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 5.—Homer, Iliad, bk. 2.

Agar, a town of Africa. Hirtius, African War, ch. 76.

Agarēni, a people of Arabia. Trajan destroyed their city, called Agarum. Strabo, bk. 16.

Agarista, daughter of Clisthenes, was courted by all the princes of Greece. She married Megacles. Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 12, ch. 24.—Herodotus, bk. 6, ch. 126, &c.――A daughter of Hippocrates, who married Xantippus. She dreamed that she had brought forth a lion, and some time after became mother of Pericles. Plutarch, Pericles.—Herodotus, bk. 6, ch. 131.

Agasĭcles, king of Sparta, was son of Archidamus, and one of the Proclidæ. He used to say that a king ought to govern his subjects as a father governs his children. Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 7.—Plutarch, Apophthegmata Laconica.

Agassæ, a city of Thessaly. Livy, bk. 45, ch. 27.

Agasthĕnes, father to Polyxenus, was, as one of Helen’s suitors, concerned in the Trojan war. Homer, Iliad, bk. 2.—Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 11.――A son of Augeas, who succeeded as king of Elis. Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 3.

Agrastrŏphus, a Trojan, wounded by Diomedes. Homer, Iliad, bk. 11, li. 338.

Agasthus, an archon of Athens.

Agăsus, a harbour on the coast of Apulia. Pliny, bk. 3, ch. 11.

Agătha, a town of France near Agde, in Languedoc. Mela, bk. 2, ch. 5.

Agatharchĭdas, a general of Corinth in the Peloponnesian war. Thucydides, bk. 2, ch. 83.――A Samian philosopher and historian, who wrote a treatise on stones, and a history of Persia and Phœnice, besides an account of the Red sea, of Europe and Asia. Some make him a native of Cnidus, and add that he flourished about 177 B.C. Josephus, Against Apion.

Agatharchus, an officer in the Syracusan fleet. Thucydides, bk. 7, ch. 27.――A painter in the age of Zeuxis. Plutarch, Pericles.

Agathias, a Greek historian of Æolia.――A poet and historian in the age of Justinian, of whose reign he published the history in five books. Several of his epigrams are found in the Anthologia. His history is a sequel of that of Procopius. The best edition is that of Paris, folio, 1660.

Agătho, a Samian historian, who wrote an account of Scythia.――A tragic poet, who flourished 406 B.C. The name of some of his tragedies are preserved, such as Telephus, Thyestes, &c.――A comic poet who lived in the same age. Plutarch, Parallela minora.――A son of Priam. Homer, Iliad, bk. 24.――A governor of Babylon. Curtius, bk. 5, ch. 1.――A Pythagorean philosopher. Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 13, ch. 4.――A learned and melodious musician, who first introduced songs in tragedy. Aristotle, Poetics.――A youth of Athens, loved by Plato. Diogenes Laërtius, bk. 3, ch. 32.

Agathŏclēa, a beautiful courtesan of Egypt. One of the Ptolemies destroyed his wife Eurydice to marry her. She, with her brother, long governed the kingdom, and attempted to murder the king’s son. Plutarch, Cleomenes.—Justin, bk. 30, ch. 1.

Agathŏcles, a lascivious and ignoble youth, son of a potter, who, by entering in the Sicilian army, arrived to the greatest honours, and made himself master of Syracuse. He reduced all Sicily under his power, but being defeated at Himera by the Carthaginians, he carried the war into Africa, where, for four years, he extended his conquests over his enemies. He afterwards passed into Italy, and made himself master of Crotona. He died in his 72nd year, B.C. 289, after a reign of 28 years of mingled prosperity and adversity. Plutarch, Apophthegmata Laconica.—Justin, bks. 22 & 23.—Polybius, bk. 15.—Diodorus, bk. 18, &c.――A son of Lysimachus, taken prisoner by the Getæ. He was ransomed, and married Lysandra daughter of Ptolemy Lagus. His father, in his old age, married Arsinoe the sister of Lysandra. After her husband’s death, Arsinoe, fearful for her children, attempted to murder Agathocles. Some say that she fell in love with him, and killed him because he slighted her. When Agathocles was dead, 283 B.C., Lysandra fled to Seleucus. Strabo, bk. 13.—Plutarch, Pyrrhus & Demetrius.—Pausanias, bk. 1, chs. 9 & 10.――A Grecian historian of Babylon, who wrote an account of Cyzicus. Cicero, de Divinatione, bk. 1, ch. 24.――A Chian who wrote on husbandry. Varro.――A Samian writer.――A physician.――An Athenian archon.

Agăthon. See: Agatho.

Agathonȳmus, wrote a history of Persia. Plutarch, de Fluviis.

Agathosthĕnes, a poet, &c.

Agathyllus, an elegiac poet of Arcadia. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 1.

Agathynum, a town of Sicily.

Agathyrsi, an effeminate nation of Scythia, who had their wives in common. They received their name from Agathyrsus son of Hercules. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 10.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 4, li. 146.

Agāve, daughter of Cadmus and Hermione, married Echion, by whom she had Pentheus, who was torn to pieces by the Bacchanals. See: Pentheus. She is said to have killed her husband in celebrating the orgies of Bacchus. She received divine honours after death, because she had contributed to the education of Bacchus. Theocritus, poem 26.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 3, li. 725.—Lucan, bk. 1, li. 574.—Statius, Thebiad, bk. 11, li. 318.—Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 4.――One of the Nereides. Apollodorus, bk. 1.――A tragedy of Statius. Juvenal, satire 7, li. 87, &c.

Agaui, a northern nation who lived upon milk. Homer, Iliad, bk. 13.

Agāvus, a son of Priam. Homer, Iliad, bk. 24.

Agdestis, a mountain of Phrygia, where Atys was buried. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 4.――A surname of Cybele.

Agelades, a statuary of Argos. Pausanias, bk. 6, ch. 8; bk. 7, ch. 23.

Agelastus, a surname of Crassus, the grandfather of the rich Crassus. He only laughed once in his life, and this, it is said, was upon seeing an ass eat thistles. Cicero, de Finibus, bk. 5.—Pliny, bk. 7, ch. 19.――The word is also applied to Pluto, from the sullen and melancholy appearance of his countenance.

Agelāus, a king of Corinth, son of Ixion.――One of Penelope’s suitors. Homer, Odyssey, bk. 20.――A son of Hercules and Omphale, from whom Crœsus was descended. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 7.――A servant of Priam, who preserved Paris when exposed on mount Ida. Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 12.

Agendīcum, now Sens, a town of Gaul, the capital of the Senones. Cæsar, Gallic War, bk. 6, ch. 44.

Agēnor, king of Phœnicia, was son of Neptune and Libya, and brother to Belus. He married Telephassa, by whom he had Cadmus, Phœnix, Cilix, and Europa. Hyginus, fable 6.—Silius Italicus, bk. 1, li. 15; bk. 17, li. 58.—Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 1; bk. 3, ch. 1.――A son of Jasus and father of Argus. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 10.――A son of Ægyptus. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 1.――A son of Phlegeus. Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 7.――A son of Pleuron, father to Phineus. Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 7.――A son of Amphion and Niobe. Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 4.――A king of Argos, father to Crotopus.――A son of Antenor. Homer, Iliad, bk. 21, li. 579.――A Mitylenean, who wrote a treatise on music.

Agenŏrĭdes, a patronymic applied to Cadmus, and the other descendants of Agenor. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 3, li. 8.

Agerīnus, a freedman of Agrippina, accused of attempting Nero’s life. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 14, ch. 16.

Agesander, a sculptor of Rhodes under Vespasian, who made a representation of Laocoon’s history, which now passes for the best relict of all ancient sculpture.

Agesias, a Platonic philosopher who taught the immortality of the soul. One of the Ptolemies forbade him to continue his lectures, because his doctrine was so prevalent that many of his auditors committed suicide.

Agesilāus, king of Sparta, of the family of the Agidæ, was son of Doryssus and father of Archelaus. During his reign Lycurgus instituted his famous laws. Herodotus, bk. 7, ch. 204.—Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 2.――A son of Archidamus, of the family of the Proclidæ, made king in preference to his nephew Leotychides. He made war against Artaxerxes king of Persia with success; but in the midst of his conquests in Asia, he was recalled home to oppose the Athenians and Bœotians, who desolated his country; and his return was so expeditious that he passed, in 30 days, over that tract of country which had taken up a whole year of Xerxes’ expedition. He defeated his enemies at Coronea; but sickness prevented the progress of his conquests, and the Spartans were beat in every engagement, especially at Leuctra, till he appeared at their head. Though deformed, small of stature, and lame, he was brave, and a greatness of soul compensated all the imperfections of nature. He was as fond of sobriety as of military discipline; and when he went, in his 80th year, to assist Tachus king of Egypt, the servants of the monarch could hardly be persuaded that the Lacedæmonian general was eating with his soldiers on the ground, bare-headed, and without any covering to repose upon. Agesilaus died on his return from Egypt, after a reign of 36 years, 362 B.C., and his remains were embalmed and brought to Lacedæmon. Justin, bk. 6, ch. 1.—Plutarch & Cornelius Nepos, Lives of Distinguished Romans.—Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 9.—Xenophon, Oratation for Agesilaus.――A brother of Themistocles, who was sent as a spy into the Persian camp, where he stabbed Mardonius instead of Xerxes. Plutarch, Parallela minora.――A surname of Pluto.――A Greek who wrote a history of Italy.

Agesipŏlis I., king of Lacedæmon, son of Pausanias, obtained a great victory over the Mantineans. He reigned 14 years, and was succeeded by his brother Cleombrotus, B.C. 380. Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 5; bk. 8, ch. 8.—Xenophon, bk. 3, Hellenica.

Agesipŏlis II., son of Cleombrotus king of Sparta, was succeeded by Cleomenes II., B.C. 370. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 13; bk. 3, ch. 5.

Agesistrăta, the mother of king Agis. Plutarch, Agis.

Agesistrătus, a man who wrote a treatise entitled, De arte machinali.

Aggrammes, a cruel king of the Gangarides. His father was a hair-dresser, of whom the queen became enamoured, and whom she made governor of the king’s children, to gratify her passion. He killed them to raise Aggrammes, his son by the queen, to the throne. Curtius, bk. 9, ch. 2.

Aggrīnæ, a people near mount Rhodope. Cicero, Against Piso, ch. 37.

Agĭdæ, the descendants of Eurysthenes, who shared the throne of Sparta with the Proclidæ. The name is derived from Agis son of Eurysthenes. The family became extinct in the person of Cleomenes son of Leonidas. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 8, li. 682.

Agilāus, king of Corinth, reigned 36 years.――One of the Ephori, almost murdered by the partisans of Cleomenes. Plutarch, Cleomenes.

Agis, king of Sparta, succeeded his father Eurysthenes, and, after a reign of one year, was succeeded by his son Echestratus, B.C. 1058. Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 2.――Another king of Sparta, who waged bloody wars against Athens, and restored liberty to many Greek cities. He attempted to restore the laws of Lycurgus at Sparta, but in vain; the perfidy of friends, who pretended to second his views, brought him to difficulties, and he was at last dragged from a temple, where he had taken refuge, to a prison, where he was strangled by order of the Ephori. Plutarch, Agis.――Another, son of Archidamus, who signalized himself in the war which the Spartans waged against Epidaurus. He obtained a victory at Mantinea, and was successful in the Peloponnesian war. He reigned 27 years. Thucydides, bks. 3 & 4.—Pausanias, bk. 3, chs. 8 & 10.――Another, son of Archidamus king of Sparta, who endeavoured to deliver Greece from the empire of Macedonia, with the assistance of the Persians. He was conquered in the attempt, and slain by Antipater, Alexander’s general, and 5300 Lacedæmonians perished with him. Curtius, bk. 6, ch. 1.—Diodorus, bk. 17.—Justin, bk. 12, ch. 1, &c.――Another, son of Eudamidas, killed in a battle against the Mantineans. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 10.――An Arcadian in the expedition of Cyrus against his father Artaxerxes. Polyænus, bk. 7, ch. 18.――A poet of Argos, who accompanied Alexander into Asia, and said that Bacchus and the sons of Leda would give way to his hero, when a god. Curtius, bk. 8, ch. 5.――A Lycian, who followed Æneas into Italy, where he was killed. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 10, li. 751.

Aglāia, one of the Graces, called sometimes Pasiphae. Her sisters were Euphrosyne and Thalia, and they were all daughters of Jupiter and Eurynome. Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 35.

Aglaonīce, daughter of Hegemon, was acquainted with astronomy and eclipses, whence she boasted of her power to draw down the moon from heaven. Plutarch, de Defectu Oraculorum.

Aglaŏpe, one of the Sirens.

Aglaŏphon, an excellent Greek painter. Pliny, bk. 35, ch. 8.

Aglaosthĕnes, wrote a history of Naxos. Strabo, bk. 6.

Aglauros, or Agraulos, daughter of Erechtheus the oldest king of Athens, was changed into a stone by Mercury. Some make her daughter of Cecrops. See: Herse. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 2, fable 12.

Aglaus, the poorest man of Arcadia, pronounced by the oracle more happy than Gyges king of Lydia. Pliny, bk. 7, ch. 46.—Valerius Maximus, bk. 7, ch. 1.

Agna, a woman in the age of Horace, who, though deformed, had many admirers. Horace, bk. 1, satire 3, li. 40.

Agno, one of the nymphs who nursed Jupiter. She gave her name to a fountain on mount Lycæus. When the priest of Jupiter, after a prayer, stirred the waters of this fountain with a bough, a thick vapour arose, which was soon dissolved into a plentiful shower. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 31, &c.

Agnodĭce, an Athenian virgin, who disguised her sex to learn medicine. She was taught by Hierophilus the art of midwifery, and when employed always discovered her sex to her patients. This brought her into so much practice, that the males of her profession, who were now out of employment, accused her, before the Areopagus, of corruption. She confessed her sex to the judges, and a law was immediately made to empower all free-born women to learn midwifery. Hyginus, fable 274.

Agnon, son of Nicias, was present at the taking of Samos by Pericles. In the Peloponnesian war he went against Potidæa, but abandoned his expedition through disease. He built Amphipolis, whose inhabitants rebelled to Brasidas, whom they regarded as their founder, forgetful of Agnon. Thucydides, bks. 2, 3, &c.――A writer. Quintilian, bk. 2, ch. 17.――One of Alexander’s officers. Pliny, bk. 33, ch. 3.

Agnonĭdes, a rhetorician of Athens, who accused Phocion of betraying the Piræus to Nicanor. When the people recollected what services Phocion had rendered them, they raised him statues, and put to death his accuser. Plutarch & Cornelius Nepos, Phocion.

Agōnālia and Agonia, festivals in Rome, celebrated three times a year in honour of Janus, or Agonius. They were instituted by Numa, and on the festive days the chief priest used to offer a ram. Ovid, Fasti, bk. 1, li. 317.—Varro, de Lingua Latina, bk. 5.

Agōnes Capitolīni, games celebrated every fifth year upon the Capitoline hill. Prizes were proposed for agility and strength, as well as for poetical and literary compositions. The poet Statius publicly recited there his Thebaid, which was not received with much applause.

Agonis, a woman in the temple of Venus, on mount Eryx. Cicero, Against Verres, bk. 1.

Agonius, a Roman deity, who presided over the actions of men. See: Agonalia.

Agoracrĭtus, a sculptor of Pharos, who made a statue of Venus for the people of Athens, B.C. 150.

Agoranŏmi, ten magistrates at Athens, who watched over the city and port, and inspected whatever was exposed to sale.

Agorānis, a river falling into the Ganges. Arrian, de Indica.

Agoræa, a name of Minerva at Sparta. Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 11.

Agoreus, a surname of Mercury among the Athenians, from his presiding over the markets. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 15.

Agra, a place of Bœotia where the Ilissus rises. Diana was called Agræa, because she hunted there.――A city of Susa――of Arcadia――and of Arabia.

Agræi and Agrenses, a people of Arabia. Pliny, bk. 6, ch. 28.――Of Ætolia. Livy, bk. 42, ch. 34.

Agrāgas, or Acragras, a river, town, and mountain of Sicily; called also Agrigentum. The town was built by the people of Gela, who were a Rhodian colony. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 3, li. 703.—Diodorus, bk. 11.

Agraria lex, was enacted to distribute among the Roman people all the lands which they had gained by conquest. It was first proposed A.U.C. 268, by the consul Spurius Cassius Vicellinus, and rejected by the senate. This produced dissensions between the senate and the people, and Cassius, upon seeing the ill success of the new regulations he proposed, offered to distribute among the people the money which was produced from the corn of Sicily, after it had been brought and sold in Rome. This act of liberality the people refused, and tranquillity was soon after re-established in the state. It was proposed a second time A.U.C. 269, by the tribune Licinius Stolo, but with no better success; and so great were the tumults which followed, that one of the tribunes of the people was killed, and many of the senators fined for their opposition. Mutius Scævola, A.U.C. 620, persuaded the tribune Tiberius Gracchus to propose it a third time; and though Octavius, his colleague in the tribuneship, opposed it, yet Tiberius made it pass into a law, after much altercation, and commissioners were authorized to make a division of the lands. This law at last proved fatal to the freedom of Rome under Julius Cæsar. Florus, bk. 3, chs. 3 & 13.—Cicero, on the Agrarian Law.—Livy, bk. 2, ch. 41.

Agraule, a tribe of Athens. Plutarch, Themistocles.

Agraulia, a festival at Athens in honour of Agraulos. The Cyprians also observed these festivals, by offering human victims.

Agraulos, a daughter of Cecrops. See: Aglauros.――A surname of Minerva.

Agrauonītæ, a people of Illyria. Livy, bk. 45, ch. 26.

Agre, one of Actæon’s dogs. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 3, li. 213.

Agriānes, a river of Thrace. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 9.――A people that dwelt in the neighbourhood of that river. Herodotus, bk. 5, ch. 16.

Agricŏla, the father-in-law of the historian Tacitus, who wrote his life. He was eminent for his public and private virtues. He was governor of Britain, and first discovered it to be an island. Domitian envied his virtues; he recalled him from the province he had governed with equity and moderation, and ordered him to enter Rome in the night, that no triumph might be granted him. Agricola obeyed, and without betraying any resentment, he retired to peaceful solitude, and to the enjoyment of the society of a few friends. He died in his 56th year, A.D. 93. Tacitus, Agricola.

Agrigentum, now Girgenti, a town of Sicily, 18 stadia from the sea, on mount Agragas. It was founded by a Rhodian, or, according to some, by an Ionian colony. The inhabitants were famous for their hospitality, and for their luxurious manner of living. In its flourishing situation Agrigentum contained 200,000 inhabitants, who submitted with reluctance to the superior power of Syracuse. The government was monarchical, but afterwards a democracy was established. The famous Phalaris usurped the sovereignty, which was also for some time in the hands of the Carthaginians. Agrigentum can now boast of more venerable remains of antiquity than any other town in Sicily. Polybius, bk. 9.—Strabo, bk. 6.—Diodorus, bk. 13.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 3, li. 707.—Silius Italicus, bk. 14, li. 211.

Agrinium, a city of Acarnania. Polybius, bk. 6.

Agriōnia, annual festivals in honour of Bacchus, celebrated generally in the night. They were instituted, as some suppose, because the god was attended with wild beasts.

Agriopas, a man who wrote the history of all those who had obtained the public prize at Olympia. Pliny, bk. 8, ch. 22.

Agriōpe, the wife of Agenor king of Phœnicia.

Marcus Agrippa Vipsanius, a celebrated Roman, who obtained a victory over Sextus Pompey, and favoured the cause of Augustus at the battles of Actium and Philippi, where he behaved with great valour. He advised his imperial friend to re-establish the republican government at Rome, but he was overruled by Mecænas. In his expeditions in Gaul and Germany, he obtained several victories, but refused the honours of a triumph, and turned his liberality towards the embellishing of Rome and the raising of magnificent buildings, one of which, the Pantheon, still exists. After he had retired for two years to Mitylene, in consequence of a quarrel with Marcellus, Augustus recalled him, and, as a proof of his regard, gave him his daughter Julia in marriage, and left him the care of the empire during an absence of two years employed in visiting the Roman provinces of Greece and Asia. He died, universally lamented, at Rome in the 51st year of his age, 12 B.C., and his body was placed in the tomb which Augustus had prepared for himself. He had been married three times: to Pomponia daughter of Atticus, to Marcella daughter of Octavia, and to Julia, by whom he had five children—Caius, and Lucius Cæsares, Posthumus Agrippa, Agrippina, and Julia. His son, Caius Cæsar Agrippa, was adopted by Augustus, and made consul, by the flattery of the Roman people at the age of 14 or 15. This promising youth went to Armenia on an expedition against the Persians, where he received a fatal blow from the treacherous hand of Lollius, the governor of one of the neighbouring cities. He languished for a little time and died in Lycia. His younger brother, Lucius Cæsar Agrippa, was likewise adopted by his grandfather Augustus; but he was soon after banished to Campania, for using seditious language against his benefactor. In the seventh year of his exile he would have been recalled had not Livia and Tiberius, jealous of the partiality of Augustus for him, ordered him to be assassinated in his 26th year. He has been called ferocious and savage; and he gave himself the name of Neptune, because he was fond of fishing. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 8, li. 682.—Horace, bk. 1, ode 6.――One of the servants of the murdered prince assumed his name and raised commotions. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 2, ch. 39.――Sylvius, a son of Tiberius Sylvius king of Latium. He reigned 33 years, and was succeeded by his son Romulus Sylvius. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 1, ch. 8.――A consul who conquered the Æqui.――A philosopher. Diogenes Laërtius.――Herodes, a son of Aristobulus, grandson of the Great Herod, who became tutor to the grandchild of Tiberius, and was soon after imprisoned by the suspicious tyrant. When Caligula ascended the throne his favourite was released, presented with a chain of gold as heavy as that which had lately confined him, and made king of Judæa. He was a popular character with the Jews: and it is said, that while they were flattering him with the appellation of God, an angel of God struck him with the lousy disease, of which he died, A.D. 43. His son, of the same name, was the last king of the Jews, deprived of his kingdom by Claudius, in exchange for other provinces. He was with Titus at the celebrated siege of Jerusalem, and died A.D. 94. It was before him that St. Paul pleaded, and made mention of his incestuous commerce with his sister Berenice. Juvenal, satire 6, li. 156.—Tacitus, bk. 2, Histories, ch. 81.――Menenius, a Roman general, who obtained a triumph over the Sabines, appeased the populace of Rome by the well-known fable of the belly and the limbs, and erected the new office of tribunes of the people, A.U.C. 261. He died poor, but universally regretted: his funeral was at the expense of the public from which also his daughters received dowries. Livy, bk. 2, ch. 32.—Florus, bk. 1, ch. 23.――A mathematician in the reign of Domitian; he was a native of Bithynia.

Agrippīna, a wife of Tiberius. The emperor repudiated her to marry Julia. Suetonius, Tiberias, ch. 7.――A daughter of Marcus Agrippa, and granddaughter to Augustus. She married Germanicus, whom she accompanied in Syria; and when Piso poisoned him, she carried his ashes to Italy, and accused his murderer, who stabbed himself. She fell under the displeasure of Tiberius, who exiled her in an island, where she died A.D. 26, for want of bread. She left nine children, and was universally distinguished for intrepidity and conjugal affection. Tacitus, bk. 1, Annals, ch. 2, &c.Suetonius, Tiberias, ch. 52.――Julia, daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina, married Domitius Ænobarbus, by whom she had Nero. After her husband’s death she married her uncle the emperor Claudius, whom she destroyed to make Nero succeed to the throne. After many cruelties and much licentiousness she was assassinated by order of her son, and as she expired she exclaimed, “Strike the belly which could give birth to such a monster.” She died A.D. 59, after a life of prostitution and incestuous gratifications. It is said that her son viewed her dead body with all the raptures of admiration, saying, he never could have believed his mother was so beautiful a woman. She left memoirs which assisted Tacitus in the composition of his annals. The town which she built, where she was born, on the borders of the Rhine, and called Agrippina Colonia, is the modern Cologne. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 4, ch. 75; bk. 12, chs. 7, 22, &c.

Agrisius. See: Acrisius.

Agrisope, or Agriope, the mother of Cadmus. Hyginus, fable 6.

Agrius, son of Parthaon drove his brother Œneus from the throne. He was afterwards expelled by Diomedes the grandson of Œneus, upon which he killed himself. Hyginus, fables 175 & 242.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 7.—Homer, Iliad, bk. 14, li. 117.――A giant.――A centaur killed by Hercules. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 5.――A son of Ulysses by Circe. Hesiod, Theogony, li. 1013.――The father of Thersites. Ovid, ex Ponto, bk. 3, poem 9, li. 9.

Agrŏlas, surrounded the citadel of Athens with walls, except that part which afterwards was repaired by Cimon. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 28.

Agron, king of Illyria, who, after conquering the Ætolians, drank to such excess that he died instantly, B.C. 231. Polybius, bk. 2, ch. 4.

Agrotas, a Greek orator of Marseilles.

Agrotĕra, an anniversary sacrifice of goats offered to Diana at Athens. It was instituted by Callimachus the Polemarch, who vowed to sacrifice to the goddess so many goats as there might be enemies killed in a battle which he was going to fight against the troops of Darius, who had invaded Attica. The quantity of the slain was so great, that a sufficient number of goats could not be procured; therefore they were limited to 500 every year, till they equalled the number of Persians slain in battle.――A temple of Ægira in Peloponnesus, erected to the goddess under this name. Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 26.

Agyleus and Agyieus from ἀγυια, a street, a surname of Apollo, because sacrifices were offered to him in the public streets of Athens. Horace, bk. 4, ode 6.

Agylla, a town of Etruria, founded by a colony of Pelasgians, and governed by Mezentius when Æneas came to Italy. It was afterwards called Cære, by the Lydians, who took possession of it. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 652; bk. 8, li. 479.

Agyllæus, a gigantic wrestler of Cleonæ, scarce inferior to Hercules in strength. Statius, Thebiad, bk. 6, li. 837.

Agyrium, a town of Sicily, where Diodorus the historian was born. The inhabitants were called Agyrinenses. Diodorus, bk. 14.—Cicero, Against Verres, bk. 2, ch. 65.

Agyrius, an Athenian general who succeeded Thrasybulus. Diodorus, bk. 14.

Agyrtes, a man who killed his father. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 5, li. 148.――A piper. Statius, bk. 2, Achilleis, li. 50.

‘Sil.’ replaced with ‘Statius’

Agȳrus, a tyrant of Sicily, assisted by Dionysius against the Carthaginians. Diodorus, bk. 14.

Ahāla, the surname of the Servilii at Rome.

Ahenobarbus. See: Ænobarbus.

Ajax, the son of Telamon by Peribœa or Eribœa daughter of Alcathous, was, next to Achilles, the bravest of all the Greeks in the Trojan war. He engaged Hector, with whom at parting he exchanged arms. After the death of Achilles, Ajax and Ulysses disputed their claim to the arms of the dead hero. When they were given to the latter, Ajax was so enraged that he slaughtered a whole flock of sheep, supposing them to be the sons of Atreus, who had given the preference to Ulysses, and stabbed himself with his sword. The blood which ran to the ground from the wound, was changed into the flower hyacinth. Some say that he was killed by Paris in battle, others that he was murdered by Ulysses. His body was buried at Sigæum, some say on mount Rhœtus, and his tomb was visited and honoured by Alexander. Hercules, according to some authors, prayed to the gods that his friend Telamon, who was childless, might have a son, with a skin as impenetrable as the skin of the Nemæan lion which he then wore. His prayers were heard. Jupiter, under the form of an eagle, promised to grant the petition; and when Ajax was born, Hercules wrapped him up in the lion’s skin, which rendered his body invulnerable, except that part which was left uncovered by a hole in the skin, through which Hercules hung his quiver. This vulnerable part was in his breast, or as some say behind the neck. Quintus Calaber [Smyrnæus], bks. 1 & 4.—Apollodorus, bk. 3, chs. 10 & 13.—Philostratus, Heroicus, ch. 12.—Pindar, Isthmean, ode 6.—Homer, Iliad, bk. 1, &c.; Odyssey, bk. 11.—Dictys Cretensis, bk. 5.—Dares Phrygius, ch. 9.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 13.—Horace, bk. 2, satire 3, li. 197.—Hyginus, fables 107 & 242.—Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 35; bk. 5, ch. 19.――The son of Oileus king of Locris, was surnamed Locrian, in contradistinction to the son of Telamon. He went with 40 ships to the Trojan war, as being one of Helen’s suitors. The night that Troy was taken, he offered violence to Cassandra, who fled into Minerva’s temple; and for this offence, as he returned home, the goddess, who had obtained the thunders of Jupiter, and the power of tempests from Neptune, destroyed his ship in a storm. Ajax swam to a rock, and said that he was safe in spite of all the gods. Such impiety offended Neptune, who struck the rock with his trident, and Ajax tumbled into the sea with part of the rock and was drowned. His body was afterwards found by the Greeks, and black sheep offered on his tomb. According to Virgil’s account, Minerva seized him in a whirlwind, and dashed him against a rock, where he expired, consumed by thunder. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 1, li. 43, &c.Homer, Iliad, bks. 2, 13, &c.; Odyssey, bk. 4.—Hyginus, fables 116 & 273.—Philostratus, Imagines, bk. 2, ch. 13.—Seneca, Agamemnon.—Horace, Epodes, poem 10, li. 13.—Pausanias, bk. 10, chs. 26 & 31.――The two Ajaces were, as some suppose, placed after death in the island of Leuce, a separate place reserved only for the bravest heroes of antiquity.

Aidōneus, a surname of Pluto.――A king of the Molossi, who imprisoned Theseus, because he and Pirithous attempted to ravish his daughter Proserpine, near the Acheron; whence arose the well-known fable of the descent of Theseus and Pirithous into hell. Plutarch, Theseus.――A river near Troy. Pausanias, bk. 10, ch. 12.

Aimy̆lus, son of Ascanius, was, according to some, the progenitor of the noble family of the Æmylii in Rome.

Aius Locutius, a deity to whom the Romans erected an altar, from the following circumstance: one of the common people, called Ceditius, informed the tribunes, that as he passed one night through one of the streets of the city, a voice more than human, issuing from above Vesta’s temple, told him that Rome would soon be attacked by the Gauls. His information was neglected; but his veracity was proved by the event; and Camillus, after the conquest of the Gauls, built a temple to that supernatural voice which had given Rome warning of the approaching calamity, under the name of Aius Locutius.

Alabanda, æ, or orum, an inland town of Caria, abounding with scorpions. The name is derived from Alabandus, a deity worshipped there. Cicero, de Natura Deorum, bk. 3, ch. 16.—Herodotus, bk. 7, ch. 195.—Strabo, bk. 14.

Alabastrum, a town of Egypt. Pliny, bk. 36, ch. 7.

Alăbus, a river in Sicily.

Alæa, a surname of Minerva in Peloponnesus. Her festivals are also called Alæa. Pausanias, bk. 8, chs. 4 & 7.

Alæi, a number of islands in the Persian gulf, abounding in tortoises. Arrian, Periplus of the Euxine Sea.

Alæsa, a city on a mountain in Sicily.

Alæus, the father of Auge, who married Hercules.

Alagōnia, a city of Laconia. Pausanias, bk. 3, chs. 21 & 26.

Alāla, the goddess of war, sister to Mars. Plutarch, de gloria Atheniensium.

Alalcomĕnæ, a city of Bœotia, where some suppose that Minerva was born. Plutarch, Quæstiones Græcæ.—Statius, Thebiad, bk. 7, li. 330.

Alalia, a town of Corsica, built by a colony of Phocæans, destroyed by Scipio, 262 B.C., and afterwards rebuilt by Sylla. Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 165.—Florus, bk. 2, ch. 2.

Alamānes, a statuary at Athens, disciple of Phidias.

Alamanni, or Alemanni, a people of Germany, near the Hercynian forest. They were very powerful and inimical to Rome.

Alāni, a people of Sarmatia, near the Palus Mœotis, who were said to have 26 different languages. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 12.—Strabo.

Alăres, a people of Pannonia. Tacitus, bk. 15, Annals, ch. 10.

Alarīcus, a famous king of the Goths, who plundered Rome in the reign of Honorius. He was greatly respected for his military valour, and during his reign he kept the Roman empire in continual alarms. He died after a reign of 13 years, A.D. 410.

Alarōdii, a nation near Pontus. Herodotus, bk. 3, ch. 94.

Alastor, a son of Neleus and Chloris. Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 9.――An arm-bearer to Sarpedon king of Lycia, killed by Ulysses. Homer, Iliad, bk. 5, li. 677.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 13, li. 257.――One of Pluto’s horses when he carried away Proserpine. Claudian, de Raptu Proserpinæ, bk. 1, li. 286.

Alaudæ, soldiers of one of Cæsar’s legions in Gaul. Suetonius, Julius Cæsar, ch. 24.

Alazon, a river flowing from mount Caucasus into the Cyrus, and separating Albania from Iberia. Flaccus, bk. 6, li. 101.

Alba Sylvius, son of Latinus Sylvius, succeeded his father in the kingdom of Latium, and reigned 36 years. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 14, li. 612.――Longa, a city of Latium, built by Ascanius, B.C. 1152, on the spot where Æneas found, according to the prophecy of Helenus (Virgil, Æneid, bk. 3, li. 390, &c.), and of the god of the river (Æneid, bk. 8, li. 43), a white sow with 30 young ones. It was called longa because it extended along the hill Albinus. The descendants of Æneas reigned there in the following order: 1. Ascanius, son of Æneas, with little intermission, eight years. 2. Sylvius Posthumus, 29 years. 3. Æneas Sylvius, 31 years. 4. Latinus, five years. 5. Alba, 36 years. 6. Atys, or Capetus, 26 years. 7. Capys, 28 years. 8. Calpetus, 13 years. 9. Tiberinus, eight years. 10. Agrippa, 33 years. 11. Remulus, 19 years. 12. Aventinus, 37 years. 13. Procas, 13 years. 14. Numitor and Amulius. Alba, which had long been the powerful rival of Rome, was destroyed by the Romans, 665 B.C., and the inhabitants were carried to Rome. Livy.Florus.Justin, &c.――A city of the Marsi in Italy.――Pompeia, a city of Liguria. Pliny, bk. 3, ch. 5.

Albāni and Albenses, names applied to the inhabitants of the two cities of Alba. Cicero, Rhetorica ad Herennium, bk. 2, ch. 28.

Albānia, a country of Asia, between the Caspian sea and Iberia. The inhabitants are said to have their eyes all blue. Some maintain that they followed Hercules from mount Albanus in Italy, when he returned from the conquest of Geryon. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 1, ch. 15.—Justin, bk. 42, ch. 3.—Strabo, bk. 11.—Pliny, bk. 8, ch. 40.—Mela, bk. 3, ch. 5.――The Caspian sea is called Albanum, as being near Albania. Pliny, bk. 6, ch. 13.

Albānus, a mountain with a lake in Italy, 16 miles from Rome, near Alba. It was on this mountain that the Latinæ feriæ were celebrated with great solemnity. Horace, bk. 2, ltr. 1, li. 27. The word, taken adjectively, is applied to such as are natives of, or belong to, the town of Alba.

Albia Terennia, the mother of Otho. Suetonius.

Albīci, a people of Gallia Aquitania. Cæsar, Civil War, bk. 1, ch. 34.

Albiētæ, a people of Latium. Dionysius of Halicarnassus.

Albigaunum, a town of Liguria. Mela, bk. 2, ch. 4.

Albīni, two Roman orators of great merit, mentioned by Cicero in Brutus. This name is common to many tribunes of the people. Livy, bk. 2, ch. 33; bk. 6, ch. 30. Sallust, Jugurthine War.

Albinovānus Celsus. See: Celsus.――Pedo, a poet contemporary with Ovid. He wrote elegies, epigrams, and heroic poetry in a style so elegant that he merited the epithet of divine. Ovid, ex Ponto, bk. 4, poem 10.—Quintilian, bk. 10, ch. 5.

Albintemēlium, a town of Liguria. Tacitus, bk. 2, Histories, ch. 13.

Albīnus, was born at Adrumetum in Africa, and made governor of Britain by Commodus. After the murder of Pertinax, he was elected emperor by the soldiers in Britain. Severus had also been invested with the imperial dignity by his own army; and these two rivals, with about 50,000 men each, came into Gaul to decide the fate of the empire. Severus was conqueror, and he ordered the head of Albinus to be cut off, and his body to be thrown into the Rhone, A.D. 198. Albinus, according to the exaggerated account of a certain writer called Codrus, was famous for his voracious appetite, and sometimes ate for breakfast no less than 500 figs, 100 peaches, 20 pounds of dry raisins, 10 melons, and 400 oysters.――A pretorian sent to Sylla, as ambassador from the senate during the civil wars. He was put to death by Sylla’s soldiers. Plutarch, Sulla.――An usurer. Horace.――A Roman plebeian who received the vestals into his chariot in preference to his family, when they fled from Rome, which the Gauls had sacked. Valerius Maximus, bk. 1, ch. 1.—Livy, bk. 5, ch. 40.—Florus, bk. 1, ch. 13.――Aulus Posthumus, consul with Lucullus, A.U.C. 603, wrote a history of Rome in Greek.

Albion, son of Neptune by Amphitrite, came into Britain, where he established a kingdom, and first introduced astrology and the art of building ships. He was killed at the mouth of the Rhone, with stones thrown by Jupiter, because he opposed the passage of Hercules. Mela, bk. 2, ch. 5.――The greatest island of Europe, now called Great Britain. It is called after Albion, who is said to have reigned there; or from its chalky white (albus) rocks, which appear at a great distance. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 16.—Tacitus, Agricola. The ancients compared its figure to a long buckler, or to the iron of a hatchet.

Albis, a river of Germany falling into the German ocean, and now called the Elbe. Lucan, bk. 2, li. 52.

Albius, a man, father to a famous spendthrift. Horace, bk. 1, satire 4.――A name of the poet Tibullus. Horace, bk. 1, ode 33, li. 1.

Albucilla, an immodest woman. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 6, ch. 47.

Albŭla, the ancient name of the river Tiber. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 8, li. 332.—Livy, bk. 1, ch. 3.

Albŭnea, a wood near Tibur, and the river Anio, sacred to the muses. It received its name from a Sibyl, called also Albunea, worshipped as a goddess at Tibur, whose temple still remains. Near Albunea there was a small lake of the same name, whose waters were of a sulphureous smell, and possessed some medicinal properties. This lake fell, by a small stream called Albula, into the river Anio, with which it soon lost itself in the Tiber. Horace, bk. 1, ode 7, li. 12.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 83.

Alburnus, a lofty mountain of Lucania, where the Tanager takes its rise. Virgil, Georgics, bk. 3, li. 147.

Albus Pagus, a place near Sidon, where Antony waited for the arrival of Cleopatra.

Albūtius, a prince of Celtiberia, to whom Scipio restored his wife. Arrian.――A sordid man, father to Canidia. He beat his servants before they were guilty of any offence, “lest,” said he, “I should have no time to punish them when they offend.” Horace, bk. 2, satire 2.――A rhetorician in the age of Seneca.――An ancient satirist. Cicero, Brutus.――Titus, an epicurean philosopher, born at Rome; so fond of Greece and Grecian manners, that he wished not to pass for a Roman. He was made governor of Sardinia; but he grew offensive to the senate and was banished. It is supposed that he died at Athens.

Alcæus, a celebrated lyric poet of Mitylene in Lesbos, about 600 years before the christian era. He fled from a battle, and his enemies hung up, in the temple of Minerva, the armour which he left in the field, as a monument of his disgrace. He is the inventor of alcaic verses. He was contemporary to the famous Sappho, to whom he paid his addresses. Of all his works, nothing but a few fragments remain, found in Athenæus. Quintilian, bk. 10, ch. 1.—Herodotus, bk. 5, ch. 95.—Horace, bk. 4, ode 9.—Cicero, bk. 4, Tusculanæ Disputationes, ch. 33.――A poet of Athens, said by Suidas to be the inventor of tragedy.――A writer of epigrams.――A comic poet.――A son of Androgeus, who went with Hercules into Thrace, and was made king of part of the country. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 5.――A son of Hercules by a maid of Omphale.――A son of Perseus, father of Amphitryon and Anaxo. From him Hercules has been called Alcides. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 4.—Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 14.

Alcamĕnes, one of the Agidæ, king of Sparta, known by his apophthegms. He succeeded his father Teleclus, and reigned 37 years. The Helots rebelled in his reign. Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 2; bk. 4, chs. 4 & 5.――A general of the Achæans. Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 15.――A statuary, who lived 448 B.C., and was distinguished for his statues of Venus and Vulcan. Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 10.――The commander of a Spartan fleet, put to death by the Athenians. Thucydides, bk. 4, ch. 5, &c.

Alcander, an attendant of Sarpedon, killed by Ulysses. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 13, li. 257.――A Lacedæmonian youth, who accidentally put out one of the eyes of Lycurgus, and was generously forgiven by the sage. Plutarch, Lycurgus.—Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 18.――A Trojan killed by Turnus. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 9, li. 767.

Alcandre, the wife of Polybius, a rich Theban. Homer, Odyssey, bk. 4, li. 672.

Alcānor, a Trojan of mount Ida, whose sons Pandarus and Bitias followed Æneas into Italy. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 9, li. 672.――A son of Phorus, killed by Æneas. Æneid, bk. 10, li. 338.

Alcăthoe, a name of Megara, in Attica, because rebuilt by Alcathous son of Pelops. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 8, li. 8.

Alcăthous, a son of Pelops, who, being suspected of murdering his brother Chrysippus, came to Megara, where he killed a lion which had destroyed the king’s son. He succeeded to the kingdom of Megara, and in commemoration of his services, festivals, called Alcathoia, were instituted at Megara. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 41, &c.――A Trojan, who married Hippodamia daughter of Anchises. He was killed in the Trojan war by Idomeneus. Homer, Iliad, bk. 12, li. 93.――A son of Parthaon, killed by Tydeus. Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 7, &c.――A friend of Æneas, killed in the Rutulian war. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 10, li. 747.

Alce, one of Actæon’s dogs. Ovid.――A town of Spain which surrendered to Gracchus, now Alcazar, a little above Toledo. Livy, bk. 40, ch. 47.

Alcēnor, an Argive, who, along with Chromius, survived the battle between 300 of his countrymen and 300 Lacedæmonians. Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 82.

Alceste, or Alcestis, daughter of Pelias and Anaxibia, married Admetus. She, with her sisters, put to death her father, that he might be restored to youth and vigour by Medea, who, however, refused to perform her promise. Upon this the sisters fled to Admetus, who married Alceste. They were soon pursued by an army headed by their brother Acastus; and Admetus, being taken prisoner, was redeemed from death by the generous offer of his wife, who was sacrificed in his stead to appease the shades of her father. Some say that Alceste, with an unusual display of conjugal affection, laid down her life for her husband, when she had been told by an oracle that he could never recover from a disease, except some one of his friends died in his stead. According to some authors, Hercules brought her back from hell. She had many suitors while she lived with her father. See: Admetus. Juvenal, satire 6, li. 651.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 9.—Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 17.—Hyginus, fable 251.—Euripides, Alcestis.

Alcĕtas, a king of the Molossi, descended from Pyrrhus the son of Achilles. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 11.――A general of Alexander’s army, brother to Perdiccas.――The eighth king of Macedonia, who reigned 29 years.――An historian, who wrote an account of everything that had been dedicated in the temple of Delphi. Athenæus.――A son of Arybas king of Epirus. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 11.

Alchĭdas, a Rhodian, who became enamoured of a naked Cupid of Praxiteles. Pliny, bk. 36, ch. 5.

Alchimăchus, a celebrated painter. Pliny, bk. 35, ch. 11.

Alcibiădes, an Athenian general famous for his enterprising spirit, versatile genius, and natural foibles. He was disciple to Socrates, whose lessons and example checked for a while his vicious propensities. In the Peloponnesian war he encouraged the Athenians to make an expedition against Syracuse. He was chosen general in that war, and in his absence his enemies accused him of impiety, and confiscated his goods. Upon this he fled, and stirred up the Spartans to make war against Athens, and when this did not succeed he retired to Tissaphernes, the Persian general. Being recalled by the Athenians, he obliged the Lacedæmonians to sue for peace; made several conquests in Asia, and was received in triumph at Athens. His popularity was of short duration; the failure of an expedition against Cyme exposed him again to the resentment of the people, and he fled to Pharnabazus, whom he almost induced to make war upon Lacedæmon. This was told to Lysander the Spartan general, who prevailed upon Pharnabazus to murder Alcibiades. Two servants were sent for that purpose, and they set on fire the cottage where he was, and killed him with darts as he attempted to make his escape. He died in the 46th year of his age, 404 B.C., after a life of perpetual difficulties. If the fickleness of his countrymen had known how to retain among them the talents of a man who distinguished himself, and was admired wherever he went, they might have risen to greater splendour, and to the sovereignty of Greece. His character has been cleared from the aspersions of malevolence, by the writings of Thucydides, Timæus, and Theopompus; and he is known to us as a hero, who, to the principles of the debauchee, added the intelligence and sagacity of the statesman, the cool intrepidity of the general, and the humanity of the philosopher. Plutarch & Cornelius Nepos, Alcibiades.—Thucydides, bks. 5, 6, & 7.—Xenophon, Hellenica, bk. 1, &c.Diodorus, bk. 12.

Alcidămas, of Cos, was father to Ctesilla, who was changed into a dove. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 7, fable 12.――A celebrated wrestler. Statius, Thebiad, bk. 10, li. 500.――A philosopher and orator, who wrote a treatise on death. He was pupil to Gorgias, and flourished B.C. 424. Quintilian, bk. 3, ch. 1.

Alcidamēa, was mother of Bunus by Mercury.

Alcidamĭdas, a general of the Messenians, who retired to Rhegium, after the taking of Ithome by the Spartans, B.C. 723. Strabo, bk. 6.

Alcidămus, an Athenian rhetorician, who wrote an eulogy on death, &c. Cicero, bk. 1, Tusculanæ Disputationes, ch. 48.—Plutarch, Lives of the Ten Orators.

Alcīdas, a Lacedæmonian, sent with 23 galleys against Corcyra, in the Peloponnesian war. Thucydides, bk. 3, ch. 16, &c.

Alcīdes, a name of Hercules, from his strength, ἀλκος, or from his grandfather Alcæus.――A surname of Minerva in Macedonia. Livy, bk. 42, ch. 51.

Alcidĭce, the mother of Tyro, by Salmoneus. Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 9.

Alcimăchus, an eminent painter. Pliny, bk. 35, ch. 11.

Alcimĕde, the mother of Jason by Æson. Flaccus, bk. 1, li. 296.

Alcimĕdon, a plain of Arcadia, with a cave the residence of Alcimedon, whose daughter Phillo was ravished by Hercules. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 12.――An excellent carver. Virgil, Eclogues, poem 3.――A sailor, &c. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 4, fable 10.

Alcimĕnes, a tragic poet of Megara.――A comic writer of Athens.――An attendant of Demetrius. Plutarch, Demetrius.――A man killed by his brother Bellerophon. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 3.

Alcĭmus, an historian of Sicily, who wrote an account of Italy.――An orator. Diogenes Laërtius.

Alcinoe, a daughter of Sthenelus son of Perseus. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 4.

Alcĭnor. See: Alcenor.

Alcinous, son of Nausithous and Peribœa, was king of Phæacia, and is praised for his love of agriculture. He married his niece Arete, by whom he had several sons and a daughter, Nausicaa. He kindly entertained Ulysses, who had been shipwrecked on his coast, and heard the recital of his adventures; whence arose the proverb of the stories of Alcinous to denote improbability. Homer, Odyssey, bk. 7.—Orpheus, Argonautica.—Virgil, Georgics, bk. 2, li. 87.—Statius, bk. 1, Sylvæ, poem 3, li. 81.—Juvenal, satire 5, li. 151.—Ovid, Amores, bk. 1, poem 10, li. 56.—Plato, Republic, bk. 10.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 9.――A son of Hippocoon. Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 10.――A man of Elis. Pausanias.――A philosopher in the second century, who wrote a book de Doctriná Platonis, the best edition of which is the 12mo, printed Oxford, 1667.

Alcioneus, a man killed by Perseus. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 5, fable 4.

Alciphron, a philosopher of Magnesia, in the age of Alexander. There are some epistles in Greek that bear his name, and contain a very perfect picture of the customs and manners of the Greeks. They are by some supposed to be the production of a writer of the fourth century. The only edition is that of Leipzig, 12mo, 1715, cum notis Bergleri.

Alcippe, a daughter of the god Mars, by Agraulos. She was ravished by Halirrhotius. Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 14.――The wife of Metion and mother to Eupalamus. Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 16.――The daughter of Œnomaus, and wife of Evenus, by whom she had Marpessa.――A woman who brought forth an elephant. Pliny, bk. 7.――A country-woman. Virgil, Eclogues, poem 7.

Alcippus, a reputed citizen of Sparta, banished by his enemies. He married Democrite, of whom Plutarch, Amatoriæ narrationes.

Alcis, a daughter of Ægyptus. Apollodorus.

Alcithoe, a Theban woman, who ridiculed the orgies of Bacchus. She was changed into a bat, and the spindle and yarn with which she worked, into a vine and ivy. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 4, fable 1.

Alcmæon, was son of the prophet Amphiaraus and Eriphyle. His father going to the Theban war, where, according to an oracle, he was to perish, charged him to revenge his death upon Eriphyle, who had betrayed him. See: Eriphyle. As soon as he heard of his father’s death, he murdered his mother, for which crime the Furies persecuted him till Phlegeus purified him and gave him his daughter Alphesibœa in marriage. Alcmæon gave her the fatal collar which his mother had received to betray his father, and afterwards divorced her, and married Callirhoe the daughter of Achelous, to whom he promised the necklace which he had given to Alphesibœa. When he attempted to recover it, Alphesibœa’s brothers murdered him on account of the treatment which he had shown their sister, and left his body a prey to dogs and wild beasts. Alcmæon’s children by Callirhoe revenged their father’s death by killing his murderers. See: Alphesibœa, Amphiaraus. Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 17; bk. 6, ch. 18; bk. 8, ch. 24.—Plutarch, de Exilio.—Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 7.—Hyginus, fables 73 & 245.—Statius, Thebiad, bks. 2 & 4.—Ovid, Fasti, bk. 2, li. 44; Metamorphoses, bk. 9, fable 10.――A son of Ægyptus, the husband of Hippomedusa. Apollodorus.――A philosopher, disciple to Pythagoras, born in Crotona. He wrote on physic, and he was the first who dissected animals to examine into the structure of the human frame. Cicero, de Natura Deorum, bk. 6, ch. 27.――A son of the poet Æschylus, the 13th archon of Athens.――A son of Syllus, driven from Messenia with the rest of Nestor’s family, by the Heraclidæ. He came to Athens, and from him the Alcmæonidæ were descended. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 18.

Alcmæŏnĭdæ, a noble family of Athens, descended from Alcmæon. They undertook for 300 talents to rebuild the temple of Delphi, which had been burnt, and they finished the work in a more splendid manner than was required, in consequence of which they gained popularity, and by their influence the Pythia prevailed upon the Lacedæmonians to deliver their country from the tyranny of the Pisistratidæ. Herodotus, bks. 5 & 6.—Thucydides, bk. 6, ch. 59.—Plutarch, Solon.

Alcman, a very ancient lyric poet, born in Sardinia, and not at Lacedæmon, as some suppose. He wrote in the Doric dialect six books of verses, besides a play called Colymbosas. He flourished B.C. 670, and died of the lousy disease. Some of his verses are preserved by Athenæus and others. Pliny, bk. 11, ch. 33.—Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 41; bk. 3, ch. 15.—Aristotle, History of Animals, bk. 5, ch. 31.

Alcmēna, was daughter of Electryon king of Argos, by Anaxo, whom Plutarch, Theseus calls Lysidice, and Diodorus, bk. 2, Eurymede. Her father promised his crown and his daughter to Amphitryon, if he would revenge the death of his sons, who had been all killed, except Licymnius, by the Teleboans, a people of Ætolia. While Amphitryon was gone against the Ætolians, Jupiter, who was enamoured of Alcmena, resolved to introduce himself into her bed. The more effectually to insure success in his amour, he assumed the form of Amphitryon, declared that he had obtained a victory over Alcmena’s enemies, and even presented her with a cup, which he said he had preserved from the spoils for her sake. Alcmena yielded to her lover what she had promised to her future husband; and Jupiter, to delay the return of Amphitryon, ordered his messenger, Mercury, to stop the rising of Phœbus, or the sun, so that the night he passed with Alcmena was prolonged to three long nights. Amphitryon returned the next day; and after complaining of the coldness with which he was received, Alcmena acquainted him with the reception of a false lover the preceding night, and even showed him the cup which she had received. Amphitryon was perplexed at the relation, and more so upon missing the cup from among his spoils. He went to the prophet Tiresias, who told him of Jupiter’s intrigue; and he returned to his wife proud of the dignity of his rival. Alcmena became pregnant by Jupiter, and afterwards by her husband; and when she was going to bring forth, Jupiter boasted in heaven that a child was to be born that day to whom he would give absolute power over his neighbours, and even over all the children of his own blood. Juno, who was jealous of Jupiter’s amours with Alcmena, made him swear by the Styx, and immediately prolonged the travails of Alcmena, and hastened the bringing forth of the wife of Sthenelus king of Argos, who, after a pregnancy of seven months, had a son called Eurystheus. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 8, fable 5, &c., says that Juno was assisted by Lucina to put off the bringing forth of Alcmena, and that Lucina, in the form of an old woman, sat before the door of Amphitryon with her legs and arms crossed. This posture was the cause of infinite torment to Alcmena, till her servant, Galanthis, supposing the old woman to be a witch, and to be the cause of the pains of her mistress, told her that she had brought forth. Lucina retired from her posture, and immediately Alcmena brought forth twins, Hercules conceived by Jupiter, and Iphiclus by Amphitryon. Eurystheus was already born, and therefore Hercules was subjected to his power. After Amphitryon’s death, Alcmena married Rhadamanthus, and retired to Ocalea, in Bœotia. This marriage, according to some authors, was celebrated in the island of Leuce. The people of Megara said that she died on her way from Argos to Thebes, and that she was buried in the temple of Jupiter Olympius. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 41; bk. 5, ch. 18; bk. 9, ch. 16.—Plutarch, Theseus & Romulus.—Homer, Odyssey, bk. 11; Iliad, bk. 19.—Pindar, Pythian, poem 4.—Lucian, Dialogi Deorum.—Diodorus, bk. 4.—Hyginus, fable 29.—Apollodorus, bk. 2, chs. 4, 7; bk. 3, ch. 1.—Plautus, Amphitruo.—Herodotus, bk. 2, chs. 43 & 45.――See: Amphitryon, Hercules, Eurystheus.

‘de Reb. Græc.’ replaced with ‘Theseus’

‘in’ replaced with ‘on’

‘9’ replaced with ‘4’

Alcon, a famous archer, who one day saw his son attacked by a serpent, and aimed at him so dexterously that he killed the beast without hurting his son.――A silversmith. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 13, fable 5.――A son of Hippocoon. Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 14.――A surgeon under Claudius, who gained much money by his profession, in curing hernias and fractures.――A son of Mars.――A son of Amycus. These two last were at the chase of the Calydonian boar. Hyginus, fable 173.

Alcyŏna, a pool of Greece, whose depth the emperor Nero attempted in vain to find. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 37.

Resorted into proper alphabetical order

Alcyŏne, or Halcyŏne, daughter of Æolus, married Ceyx, who was drowned as he was going to Claros to consult the oracle. The gods apprised Alcyone in a dream of her husband’s fate; and when she found, on the morrow, his body washed on the sea-shore, she threw herself into the sea, and was with her husband changed into birds of the same name, who keep the waters calm and serene, while they build and sit on their nests on the surface of the sea, for the space of 7, 11, or 14 days. Virgil, Georgics, bk. 1, li. 399.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 7.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 11, fable 10.—Hyginus, fable 65.――One of the Pleiades, daughter of Atlas. She had Arethusa by Neptune, and Eleuthera by Apollo. She, with her sisters, was changed into a constellation. See: Pleiades. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 30; bk. 3, ch. 18.—Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 10.—Hyginus, fable 157.――The daughter of Evenus, carried away by Apollo after her marriage. Her husband pursued the ravisher with his bow and arrows, but was not able to recover her. Upon this, her parents called her Alcyone, and compared her fate to that of the wife of Ceyx. Homer, Iliad, bk. 9, li. 558.――The wife of Meleager. Hyginus, fable 174.――A town of Thessaly, where Philip, Alexander’s father, lost one of his eyes.

Alcyŏneus, a youth of exemplary virtue, son to Antigonus. Plutarch, Pyrrhus.—Diogenes Laërtius, bk. 4.――A giant, brother to Porphyrion. He was killed by Hercules. His daughters, mourning his death, threw themselves into the sea, and were changed into Alcyons by Amphitrite. Claudian, De Raptu Proserpinæ.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 6.

Aldescus, a river of European Sarmatia, rising from the Riphæan mountains, and falling into the northern sea. Dionysius Periegetes.

Alduăbis. See: Dubis.

Alea, a surname of Minerva, from her temple built by Aleus son of Aphidas, at Tegæa in Arcadia. The statue of the goddess made of ivory was carried by Augustus to Rome. Pausanias, bk. 8, chs. 4 & 46.――A town of Arcadia, built by Aleus. It had three famous temples, those of Minerva, Bacchus, and Diana the Ephesian. When the festivals of Bacchus were celebrated, the women were whipped in the temple. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 23.

Alēbas, a tyrant of Larissa, killed by his own guards for his cruelties. Ovid, Ibis, li. 323.

Alēbion and Dercynus, sons of Neptune, were killed by Hercules for stealing his oxen in Africa. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 5.

Alecto, one of the Furies (a, ληγω, non desino), is represented with flaming torches, her head covered with serpents, and breathing vengeance, war, and pestilence. See: Eumenides. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 324, &c.; bk. 10, li. 41.

Alector, succeeded his father Anaxagoras in the kingdom of Argos, and was father to Iphis and Capaneus. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 18.—Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 6.

Alectryon, a youth whom Mars, during his amours with Venus, stationed at the door to watch against the approach of the sun. He fell asleep, and Apollo came and discovered the lovers, who were exposed by Vulcan, in each other’s arms, before all the gods. Mars was so incensed that he changed Alectryon into a cock, which, still mindful of his neglect, early announces the approach of the sun. Lucian, Alectryon [Gallus].

Alectus, a tyrant of Britain, in Diocletian’s reign, &c. He died 296 A.D.

Alēius Campus, a place in Lycia, where Bellerophon fell from the horse Pegasus, and wandered over the country till the time of his death. Homer, Iliad, bk. 6, li. 201.—Dionysius Periegetes, li. 872.—Ovid, Ibis, li. 257.

Alemanni, or Alamanni, a people of Germany. They are first mentioned in the reign of Caracalla, who was honoured with the surname of Alemannicus for a victory over them.

Alēmon, the father of Myscellus. He built Crotona in Magna Græcia. Myscellus is often called Alemonides. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 15, lis. 19 & 26.

Alemusii, inhabitants of Attica, in whose country there was a temple of Ceres and of Proserpine. Pausanias, Attica.

Alens, a place in the island of Cos.

Aleon, or Ales, a river of Ionia, near Colophon. Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 5; bk. 8, ch. 28.

Alēse, a town of Sicily, called afterwards Achronidion, after the founder. The Romans made it an independent city.

Alēsia, or Alexia, now Alise, a famous city of the Mandubii in Gaul, founded by Hercules, as he returned from Iberia, on a high hill. Julius Cæsar conquered it. Florus, bk. 3, ch. 10.—Cæsar, Gallic War, bk. 7, ch. 68.

Alēsium, a town and mountain of Peloponnesus. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 10.

Aletes, a son of Ægisthus, murdered by Orestes. Hyginus, fable 122.

Alēthes, the first of the Heraclidæ, who was king of Corinth. He was son of Hippotas. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 4.――A companion of Æneas, described as a prudent and venerable old man. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 1, li. 125; bk. 9, li. 246.

Alethia, one of Apollo’s nurses.

Aletĭdas (from ἀλαομαι, to wander), certain sacrifices at Athens, in remembrance of Erigone, who wandered with a dog after her father Icarius.

Aletrium, a town of Latium, whose inhabitants are called Aletrinates. Livy, bk. 9, ch. 42.

Alētum, a tomb near the harbour of Carthage in Spain. Polybius, bk. 10.

Aleuādæ, a royal family of Larissa in Thessaly, descended from Aleuas king of that country. They betrayed their country to Xerxes. The name is often applied to the Thessalians without distinction. Diodorus, bk. 16.—Herodotus, bk. 7, chs. 6, 172.—Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 8; bk. 7, ch. 10.—Ælian, De Natura Animalium, bk. 8, ch. 11.

Alēus, a son of Aphidas king of Arcadia, famous for his skill in building temples. Pausanias, bk. 8, chs. 4 & 53.

Alex, a river in the country of the Brutii. Dionysius Periegetes.

Alexamēnus, an Ætolian, who killed Nabis tyrant of Lacedæmon, and was soon after murdered by the people. Livy, bk. 35, ch. 34.

Alexander I., son of Amyntas, was the tenth king of Macedonia. He killed the Persian ambassadors for their immodest behaviour to the women of his father’s court, and was the first who raised the reputation of the Macedonians. He reigned 43 years, and died 451 B.C. Justin, bk. 7, ch. 3.—Herodotus, bks. 5, 7, 8, & 9.

Alexander II., son of Amyntas II., king of Macedonia, was treacherously murdered, B.C. 370, by his younger brother Ptolemy, who held the kingdom for four years, and made way for Perdiccas and Philip. Justin, bk. 7, ch. 5, says Eurydice, the wife of Amyntas, was the cause of his murder.

Alexander III., surnamed the Great, was son of Philip and Olympias. He was born B.C. 355, that night on which the famous temple of Diana at Ephesus was burnt by Erostratus. This event, according to the magicians, was an early prognostic of his future greatness, as well as the taming of Bucephalus, a horse which none of the king’s courtiers could manage; upon which Philip said, with tears in his eyes, that his son must seek another kingdom, as that of Macedonia would not be sufficiently large for the display of his greatness. Olympias, during her pregnancy, declared that she was with child by a dragon; and the day that Alexander was born, two eagles perched for some time on the house of Philip, as if foretelling that his son would become master of Europe and Asia. He was pupil to Aristotle during five years, and he received his learned preceptor’s instructions with becoming deference and pleasure, and ever respected his abilities. When Philip went to war, Alexander, in his 15th year, was left governor of Macedonia, where he quelled a dangerous sedition, and soon after followed his father to the field, and saved his life in a battle. He was highly offended when Philip divorced Olympias to marry Cleopatra, and he even caused the death of Attalus, the new queen’s brother. After this he retired from court to his mother Olympias, but was recalled; and when Philip was assassinated, he punished his murderers; and, by his prudence and moderation, gained the affections of his subjects. He conquered Thrace and Illyricum, and destroyed Thebes; and after he had been chosen chief commander of all the forces of Greece, he declared war against the Persians, who under Darius and Xerxes had laid waste and plundered the noblest of the Grecian cities. With 32,000 foot and 5000 horse, he invaded Asia, and after the defeat of Darius at the Granicus, he conquered all the provinces of Asia Minor. He obtained two other celebrated victories over Darius at Issus and Arbela, took Tyre after an obstinate siege of seven months, and the slaughter of 2000 of the inhabitants in cold blood, and made himself master of Egypt, Media, Syria, and Persia. From Egypt he visited the temple of Jupiter Ammon, and bribed the priests, who saluted him as the son of their god, and enjoined his army to pay him divine honours. He built a town which he called Alexandria, on the western side of the Nile, near the coast of the Mediterranean, an eligible situation which his penetrating eye marked as best entitled to become the future capital of his immense dominions, and to extend the commerce of his subjects from the Mediterranean to the Ganges. His conquests were spread over India, where he fought with Porus, a powerful king of the country; and after he had invaded Scythia, and visited the Indian ocean, he retired to Babylon loaded with the spoils of the east. His entering the city was foretold by the magicians as fatal, and their prediction was fulfilled. He died at Babylon the 21st of April, in the 32nd year of his age, after a reign of 12 years and 8 months of brilliant and continued success, 323 B.C. His death was so premature that some have attributed it to the effects of poison, and excess of drinking. Antipater has been accused of causing the fatal poison to be given him at a feast; and perhaps the resentment of the Macedonians, whose services he seemed to forget, by entrusting the guard of his body to the Persians, was the cause of his death. He was so universally regretted, that Babylon was filled with tears and lamentations; and the Medes and Macedonians declared that no one was able or worthy to succeed him. Many conspiracies were formed against him by the officers of his army, but they were all seasonably suppressed. His tender treatment of the wife and mother of king Darius, who were taken prisoners, has been greatly praised; and the latter, who had survived the death of her son, killed herself when she heard that Alexander was dead. His great intrepidity more than once endangered his life; he always fought as if sure of victory, and the terror of his name was often more powerfully effectual than his arms. He was always forward in every engagement, and bore the labours of the field as well as the meanest of his soldiers. During his conquests in Asia, he founded many cities, which he called Alexandria, after his own name. When he had conquered Darius, he ordered himself to be worshipped as a god; and Callisthenes, who refused to do it, was shamefully put to death. He also murdered at a banquet, his friend Clitus, who had once saved his life in a battle, because he enlarged upon the virtues and exploits of Philip, and preferred them to those of his son. His victories and success increased his pride; he dressed himself in the Persian manner, and, giving himself up to pleasure and dissipation, he set on fire the town of Persepolis in a fit of madness and intoxication, encouraged by the courtesan Thais. Yet, among all his extravagances, he was fond of candour and of truth; and when one of his officers read to him, as he sailed on the Hydaspes, a history which he had composed of his wars with Porus, and in which he had too liberally panegyrized him, Alexander snatched the book from his hand, and threw it into the river, saying, “What need is there of such flattery? Are not the exploits of Alexander sufficiently meritorious in themselves, without the colourings of falsehood?” He in like manner rejected a statuary, who offered to cut mount Athos like him, and represent him as holding a town in one hand, and pouring a river from the other. He forbade any statuary to make his statue except Lysippus, and any painter to draw his picture except Apelles. On his death-bed he gave his ring to Perdiccas, and it was supposed that by this singular present he wished to make him his successor. Some time before his death, his officers asked him whom he appointed to succeed him on the throne; and he answered, “The worthiest among you; but I am afraid,” added he, “my best friends will perform my funeral obsequies with bloody hands.” Alexander, with all his pride, was humane and liberal, easy and familiar with his friends, a great patron of learning, as may be collected from his assisting Aristotle with a purse of money to effect the completion of his natural history. He was brave often to rashness; he frequently lamented that his father conquered everything, and left him nothing to do; and exclaimed, in all the pride of regal dignity, “Give me kings for competitors, and I will enter the lists at Olympia.” All his family and infant children were put to death by Cassander. The first deliberation that was made after his decease, among his generals, was to appoint his brother Philip Aridæus successor, until Roxane, who was then pregnant by him, brought into the world a legitimate heir. Perdiccas wished to be supreme regent as Aridæus wanted capacity; and, more strongly to establish himself, he married Cleopatra, Alexander’s sister, and made alliance with Eumenes. As he endeavoured to deprive Ptolemy of Egypt, he was defeated in a battle by Seleucus and Antigonus, on the banks of the river Nile, and assassinated by his own cavalry. Perdiccas was the first of Alexander’s generals who took up arms against his fellow-soldiers, and he was the first who fell a sacrifice to his rashness and cruelty. To defend himself against him, Ptolemy made a treaty of alliance with some generals, among whom was Antipater, who had strengthened himself by giving his daughter Phila, an ambitious and aspiring woman, in marriage to Craterus, another of the generals of Alexander. After many dissensions and bloody wars among themselves, the generals of Alexander laid the foundation of several great empires in the three quarters of the globe. Ptolemy seized Egypt, where he firmly established himself, and where his successors were called Ptolemies, in honour of the founder of their empire, which subsisted till the time of Augustus. Seleucus and his posterity reigned in Babylon and Syria. Antigonus at first established himself in Asia Minor, and Antipater in Macedonia. The descendants of Antipater were conquered by the successors of Antigonus, who reigned in Macedonia till it was reduced by the Romans in the time of king Perseus. Lysimachus made himself master of Thrace; and Leonatus, who had taken possession of Phrygia, meditated for a while to drive Antipater from Macedonia. Eumenes established himself in Cappadocia, but was soon overpowered by the combinations of his rival Antigonus, and starved to death. During his lifetime, Eumenes appeared so formidable to the successors of Alexander, that none of them dared to assume the title of king. Curtius, Arrian, & Plutarch have written an account of Alexander’s life. Diodorus, bks. 17 & 18.—Pausanias, bks. 1, 7, 8, & 9.—Justin, bks. 11 & 12.—Valerius Maximus.Strabo, bk. 1, &c.――A son of Alexander the Great, by Roxane, put to death, with his mother, by Cassander. Justin, bk. 15, ch. 2.――A man who, after the expulsion of Telestes, reigned in Corinth. Twenty-five years after, Telestes dispossessed him, and put him to death.――A son of Cassander king of Macedonia, who reigned two years conjointly with his brother Antipater, and was prevented by Lysimachus from revenging his mother Thessalonica, whom his brother had murdered. Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, put him to death. Justin, bk. 16, ch. 1.—Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 7.――A king of Epirus, brother to Olympias, and successor to Arybas. He banished Timolaus to Peloponnesus, and made war in Italy against the Romans, and observed that he fought with men, while his nephew, Alexander the Great, was fighting with an army of women (meaning the Persians). He was surnamed Molossus. Justin, bk. 17, ch. 3.—Diodorus, bk. 16.—Livy, bk. 8, chs. 17 & 27.—Strabo, bk. 16.――A son of Pyrrhus, was king of Epirus. He conquered Macedonia, from which he was expelled by Demetrius. He recovered it by the assistance of the Acarnanians. Justin, bk. 26, ch. 3.—Plutarch, Pyrrhus.――A king of Syria, driven from his kingdom by Nicanor son of Demetrius Soter, and his father-in-law Ptolemy Philometer. Justin, bk. 35, chs. 1 & 2.—Josephus, bk. 13, Antiquities of the Jews.—Strabo, bk. 17.――A king of Syria, first called Bala, was a merchant, and succeeded Demetrius. He conquered Nicanor by means of Ptolemy Physcon, and was afterwards killed by Antiochus Gryphus son of Nicanor. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, bk. 13, ch. 18.――Ptolemy was one of the Ptolemean kings in Egypt. His mother Cleopatra raised him to the throne, in preference to his brother Ptolemy Lathurus, and reigned conjointly with him. Cleopatra, however, expelled him, and soon after recalled him; and Alexander, to prevent being expelled a second time, put her to death, and for this unnatural action was himself murdered by one of his subjects. Josephus, bk. 13, Antiquities of the Jews, ch. 20, &c.Justin, bk. 39, chs. 3 & 4.—Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 9.――Ptolemy II., king of Egypt, was son of the preceding. He was educated in the island of Cos, and, falling into the hands of Mithridates, escaped to Sylla, who restored him to his kingdom. He was murdered by his subjects a few days after his restoration. Appian, bk. 1, Civil Wars.――Ptolemy III., was king of Egypt after his brother Alexander the last mentioned. After a peaceful reign, he was banished by his subjects, and died at Tyre, B.C. 65, leaving his kingdom to the Roman people. See: Ægyptus and Ptolemæus. Cicero, De Lege Agraria contra Rullum.――A youth, ordered by Alexander the Great to climb the rock Aornus, with 30 other youths. He was killed in the attempt. Curtius, bk. 8, ch. 11.――An historian mentioned by Plutarch, Marius.――An Epicurean philosopher. Plutarch.――A governor of Æolia, who assembled a multitude on pretence of showing them an uncommon spectacle, and confined them till they had each bought their liberty with a sum of money. Polyænus, bk. 6, ch. 10.――A name given to Paris son of Priam. See: Paris.――Jannæus, a king of Judea, son of Hyrcanus and brother of Aristobulus, who reigned as a tyrant, and died through excess of drinking, B.C. 79, after massacring 800 of his subjects for the entertainment of his concubines.――A Paphlagonian, who gained divine honours by his magical tricks and impositions, and likewise procured the friendship of Marcus Aurelius. He died 70 years old.――A native of Caria, in the third century, who wrote a commentary on the writings of Aristotle, part of which is still extant.――Trallianus, a physician and philosopher of the fourth century, some of whose works in Greek are still extant.――A poet of Ætolia, in the age of Ptolemy Philadelphus.――A peripatetic philosopher, said to have been preceptor to Nero.――An historian, called also Polyhistor, who wrote five books on the Roman republic, in which he said that the Jews had received their laws, not from God, but from a woman whom he called Moso. He also wrote treatises on the Pythagorean philosophy, B.C. 88.――A poet of Ephesus, who wrote a poem on astronomy and geography.――A writer of Myndus, quoted by Athenæus and Ælian.――A sophist of Seleucia, in the age of Antoninus.――A physician in the age of Justinian.――A Thessalian, who, as he was going to engage in a naval battle, gave to his soldiers a great number of missile weapons, and ordered them to dart them continually upon the enemy to render their numbers useless. Polyænus, bk. 6, ch. 27.――A son of Lysimachus. Polyænus, bk. 6, ch. 12.――A governor of Lycia, who brought a reinforcement of troops to Alexander the Great. Curtius, bk. 7, ch. 10.――A son of Polyperchon, killed in Asia by the Dymæans. Diodorus, bks. 18 & 19.――A poet of Pleuron son of Satyrus and Stratoclea, who said that Theseus had a daughter called Iphigenia by Helen. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 22.――A Spartan, killed with 200 of his soldiers by the Argives, when he endeavoured to prevent their passing through the country of Tegea. Diodorus, bk. 15.――A cruel tyrant of Pheræ, in Thessaly, who made war against the Macedonians, and took Pelopidas prisoner. He was murdered, B.C. 357, by his wife called Thebe, whose room he carefully guarded by a Thracian sentinel, and searched every night, fearful of some dagger that might be concealed to take away his life. Cicero, de Inventione, bk. 2, ch. 49; de Officiis, bk. 2, ch. 9.—Valerius Maximus, bk. 9, ch. 13.—Plutarch & Cornelius Nepos, Pelopidas.—Pausanias, bk. 6, ch. 5.—Diodorus, bks. 15 & 16.—Ovid, Ibis, li. 321.――Severus, a Roman emperor. See: Severus.

Alexandra, the name of some queens of Judæa mentioned by Josephus.――A nurse of Nero. Suetonius, Nero, ch. 50.――A name of Cassandra, because she assisted mankind by her prophecies. Lycophron.

Alexandri Aræ, the boundaries, according to some, of Alexander’s victories, near the Tanais. Pliny, bk. 6, ch. 16.

Alexandrīa, the name of several cities which were founded by Alexander, during his conquests in Asia; the most famous are:—A grand and extensive city, built B.C. 332, by Alexander, on the western side of the Delta. The illustrious founder intended it not only for the capital of Egypt, but of his immense conquests, and the commercial advantages which its situation commanded continued to improve from the time of Alexander till the invasion of the Saracens in the seventh century. The commodities of India were brought there, and thence dispersed to the different countries around the Mediterranean. Alexandria is famous, among other curiosities, for the large library which the pride or learning of the Ptolemies had collected there, at a vast expense, from all parts of the earth. This valuable repository was burnt by the orders of the caliph Omar, A.D. 642; and it is said that, during six months, the numerous volumes supplied fuel for the 4000 baths, which contributed to the health and convenience of the populous capital of Egypt. Alexandria has likewise been distinguished for its schools, not only of theology and philosophy, but of physic, where once to have studied was a sufficient recommendation to distant countries. The astronomical school, founded by Philadelphus, maintained its superior reputation for 10 centuries, till the time of the Saracens. The modern town of Scanderoon has been erected upon the ruins of Alexandria, and, as if it were an insult to its former greatness, it scarce contains 6000 inhabitants. Curtius, bk. 4, ch. 8.—Strabo, bk. 17.—Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 10.――Another in Albania, at the foot of mount Caucasus.――Another in Arachosia, in India.――The capital of Aria, between Hecatompylon and Bactra.――Another of Carmania.――Another in Cilicia, on the confines of Syria.――Another the capital of Margiana.――Another of Troas, &c. Curtius, bk. 7.—Pliny, bk. 6, chs. 16, 23, & 25.

Alexandrĭdes, a Lacedæmonian, who married his sister’s daughter, by whom he had Dorycus, Leonidas, and Cleombrotus.――A native of Delphi, of which he wrote a history.

Alexandrīna aqua, baths in Rome, built by the emperor Alexander Severus.

Alexandropŏlis, a city of Parthia, built by Alexander the Great. Pliny, bk. 6, ch. 25.

Alexānor, a son of Machaon, who built in Sicyon a temple to his grandfather Æsculapius, and received divine honours after death. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 11.

Alexarchus, a Greek historian.

Alexas, of Laodicea, was recommended to Marcus Antony by Timagenes. He was the cause that Antony repudiated Octavia to marry Cleopatra. Augustus punished him severely after the defeat of Antony. Plutarch, Antonius.

Alexia, or Alesia. See: Alesia.

Alexicăcus, a surname given to Apollo by the Athenians, because he delivered them from the plague during the Peloponnesian war.

Alexīnus, a disciple of Eubulides the Milesian, famous for the acuteness of his genius and judgment, and for his fondness for contention and argumentation. He died of a wound which he had received from a sharp-pointed reed, as he swam across the river Alpheus. Diogenes Laërtius, Euclides.

Alexion, a physician intimate with Cicero. Cicero, Letters to Atticus, bk. 13, ltr. 25.

Alexippus, a physician of Alexander. Plutarch, Alexander.

Alexiraes, son of Hercules by Hebe. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 7.――A place of Bœotia, where Alexiraes was born, bears also this name. Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 25.

Alexirhoe, a daughter of the river Granicus. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 11, li. 763.

Alexis, a man of Samos, who endeavoured to ascertain, by his writings, the borders of his country.――A comic poet, 336 B.C., of Thurium, who wrote 245 comedies, of which some few fragments remain.――A servant of Asinius Pollio.――An ungrateful youth of whom a shepherd is deeply enamoured, in Virgil’s Eclogues, poem 2.――A statuary, disciple to Polycletes, 87th Olympiad Pliny, bk. 34, ch. 8.――A schoolfellow of Atticus. Cicero, Letters to Atticus, bk. 7, ltr. 2.

Alexon, a native of Myndos, who wrote fables. Diogenes Laërtius.

Alfaterna, a town of Campania, beyond mount Vesuvius.

Publius Alfēnus Varus, a native of Cremona, who, by the force of his genius and his application, raised himself from his original profession of a cobbler to offices of trust at Rome, and at last became consul. Horace, bk. 1, satire 3, li. 130.

Algĭdum, a town of Latium near Tusculum, about 12 miles from Rome. There is a mountain of the same name in the neighbourhood. Horace, bk. 1, ode 21.

Aliacmon and Haliacmon, a river of Macedonia, separating it from Thessaly. It flows into the Ægean sea. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 10.

Aliartus (or um) and Haliartus, a town of Bœotia, near the river Permessus, taken by Marcus Lucretius. Livy, bk. 42, ch. 63.――Another in Peloponnesus, on the coast of Messenia. Statius, Thebiad, bk. 7, li. 274.

Alĭcis, a town of Laconia.――A tribe of Athens.

Aliēnus Cæcīna, a questor in Bœotia, appointed, for his services, commander of a legion in Germany, by Galba. The emperor disgraced him for his bad conduct, for which he raised commotions in the empire. Tacitus, Histories, bk. 1, ch. 52.

Alīfæ, Alifa, or Alipha, a town of Italy, near the Vulturnus, famous for the making of cups. Horace, bk. 2, satire 8, li. 39.—Livy, bk. 8, ch. 25.

Alilæi, a people of Arabia Felix.

Alimentus Cincius, an historian in the second Punic war, who wrote in Greek an account of Annibal, besides a treatise on military affairs. Livy, bks. 21 & 30.

Alindæ, a town of Caria. Arrian.

Aliphēria, a town of Arcadia, situate on a hill. Polybius, bk. 4, ch. 77.

Alirrothius, a son of Neptune. Hearing that his father had been defeated by Minerva, in his dispute about giving a name to Athens, he went to the citadel, and endeavoured to cut down the olive, which had sprung from the ground and given the victory to Minerva; but in the attempt he missed his aim, and cut his own legs so severely that he instantly expired.

Tiberius Alledius Severus, a Roman knight, who married his brother’s daughter to please Agrippina.――A noted glutton in Domitian’s reign. Juvenal, satire 5, li. 118.

Allia, a river of Italy, falling into the Tiber. The Romans were defeated on its banks by Brennus and the Gauls, who were going to plunder Rome, 17th July, B.C. 390. Plutarch, Camillus.—Livy, bk. 5, ch. 37.—Florus, bk. 1, ch. 13.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 717.—Ovid, Ars Amatoria, bk. 1, li. 413.

Alliēnos, a pretor of Sicily, under Cæsar. Hirtius, African War, ch. 2.

Allŏbrŏges, a warlike nation of Gaul near the Rhone, in that part of the country now called Savoy, Dauphiné, and Vivarais. The Romans destroyed their city because they had assisted Annibal. Their ambassadors were allured by great promises to join in Catiline’s conspiracy against his country; but they scorned the offers, and discovered the plot. Dio Cassius.Strabo, bk. 4.—Tacitus, Histories, bk. 1, ch. 66.—Sallust, Jugurthine War.

Allobry̆ges, a people of Gaul, supposed to be the same as the Allobroges. Polybius, bk. 30, ch. 56.

Allotrĭges, a nation on the southern parts of Spain. Strabo, bk. 2.

Allutius, or Albutius, a prince of the Celtiberi, to whom Scipio restored the beautiful princess whom he had taken in battle.

Almo, a small river near Rome falling into the Tiber. Ovid, Fasti, bk. 4, li. 387.—Lucan, bk. 1, li. 600.

Almon, the eldest of the sons of Tyrrhus. He was the first Rutulian killed by the Trojans; and from the skirmish which happened before and after his death, arose the enmities which ended in the fall of Turnus. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 532.

Alŏa, festivals at Athens in honour of Bacchus and Ceres, by whose beneficence the husbandmen received the recompense of their labours. The oblations were the fruits of the earth. Ceres has been called from this, Aloas and Alois.

Aloēus, a giant, son of Titan and Terra. He married Iphimedia, by whom Neptune had the twins Othus and Ephialtus. Aloeus educated them as his own, and from that circumstance they have been called Aloides. They made war against the gods, and were killed by Apollo and Diana. They grew up nine inches every month, and were only nine years old when they undertook their war. They built the town of Ascra, at the foot of mount Helicon. Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 29.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 6, li. 582.—Homer, Iliad, bk. 5; Odyssey, bk. 11.

Aloīdes and Aloidæ, the sons of Aloeus. See: Aloeus.

Alŏpe, daughter of Cercyon king of Eleusis, had a child by Neptune, whom she exposed in the woods, covered with a piece of her gown. The child was preserved, and carried to Alope’s father, who, upon knowing the gown, ordered his daughter to be put to death. Neptune, who could not save his mistress, changed her into a fountain. The child, called Hippothoon, was preserved by some shepherds and placed by Theseus upon his grandfather’s throne. Pausanias, bk. 1, chs. 5 & 39.—Hyginus, fable 187.――One of the Harpies. Hyginus, fable 14.――A town of Thessaly. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 7.—Homer, Iliad, bk. 2, li. 682.

Alopĕce, an island in the Palus Mæotis. Strabo.――Another in the Cimmerian Bosphorus. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 12.――Another in the Ægean sea opposite Smyrna. Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 31.――A small village of Attica, where was the tomb of Anchimolius, whom the Spartans had sent to deliver Athens from the tyranny of the Pisistratidæ. Socrates and Aristides were born there. Aeschines, Against Timarchus.—Herodotus, bk. 5, ch. 64.

Alopius, a son of Hercules and Antiope. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 35.

Alos, a town of Achaia. Strabo, bk. 9.—Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 7.

Alotia, festivals in Arcadia, in commemoration of a victory gained over Lacedæmon by the Arcadians.

Alpēnus, the capital of Locris, at the north of Thermopylæ. Herodotus, bk. 7, ch. 176, &c.

Alpes, mountains that separate Italy from Spain, Gaul, Rhætia, and Germany; considered as the highest ground in Europe. From them arise several rivers, which, after watering the neighbouring countries, discharge themselves into the German, Mediterranean, and Euxine seas. The Alps are covered with perpetual snows, and distinguished, according to their situation, by the different names of Cottiæ, Carnicæ, Graiæ, Noricæ, Juliæ, Maritimæ, Pannoniæ, Penninæ, Pœnæ, Rhætiæ, Tridentinæ, Venetæ. A traveller is generally five days in reaching the top in some parts. They were supposed for a long time to be impassable. Hannibal marched his army over them, and made his way through rocks, by softening and breaking them with vinegar. They were inhabited by fierce uncivilized nations, who were unsubdued till the age of Augustus, who, to eternize the victory which he had obtained over them, erected a pillar in their territory. Strabo, bks. 4 & 5.—Livy, bk. 21, ch. 35.—Juvenal, satire 10, li. 151.—Horace, bk. 2, satire 5, li. 41.—Lucan, bk. 1, li. 183.—Tacitus, Histories, bk. 3, ch. 53.

Alpheia, a surname of Diana in Elis. It was given her when the river Alpheus endeavoured to ravish her without success.――A surname of the nymph Arethusa, because loved by the Alpheus. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 5, li. 487.

Alphēnor, one of Niobe’s sons. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 6, fable 6.

Alphēnus. See: Alfenus.

Alphesibœa, daughter of the river Phlegeus, married Alcmæon son of Amphiaraus, who had fled to her father’s court after the murder of his mother. See: Alcmæon. She received, as a bridal present, the famous necklace which Polynices had given to Eriphyle, to induce her to betray her husband Amphiaraus. Alcmæon being persecuted by the means of his mother, left his wife by order of the oracle, and retired near the Achelous, whose daughter Callirrhoe had two sons by him, and begged of him, as a present, the necklace which was then in the hands of Alphesibœa. He endeavoured to obtain it, and was killed by Temenus and Axion, Alphesibœa’s brothers, who thus revenged their sister who had been so innocently abandoned. Hyginus, fable 244.—Propertius, bk. 8, poem 15, li. 15.—Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 24.

Alphesibœus, a shepherd, often mentioned in Virgil’s eclogues.

Alphēus, now Alpheo, a famous river of Peloponnesus, which rises in Arcadia, and after passing through Elis falls into the sea. The god of this river fell in love with the nymph Arethusa, and pursued her till she was changed into a fountain by Diana. The fountain Arethusa is in Ortygia, a small island near Syracuse; and the ancients affirm that the river Alpheus passes under the sea from Peloponnesus, and without mingling itself with the salt waters, rises again in Ortygia, and joins the stream of Arethusa. If anything is thrown into the Alpheus in Elis, according to their traditions, it will reappear, after some time, swimming on the waters of Arethusa, near Sicily. Hercules made use of the Alpheus to clean the stables of Augeas. Strabo, bk. 6.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 3, li. 694.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 5, fable 10.—Lucan, bk. 3, li. 176.—Statius, Thebiad, bks. 1 & 4.—Mela, bk. 2, ch. 7.—Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 7; bk. 6, ch. 21.—Marcellinus, bk. 25.—Pliny, bk. 2, ch. 103.

Alphius, or Alfeus, a celebrated usurer ridiculed in Horace, Epodes, poem 2.

Alphius Avitus, a writer in the age of Severus, who gave an account of illustrious men, and a history of the Carthaginian war.

Alpīnus, belonging to the Alps. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 4, li. 442.

Alpīnus (Cornelius), a contemptible poet, whom Horace ridicules for the awkward manner in which he introduces the death of Memnon in a tragedy, and the pitiful style with which he describes the Rhine, in an epic poem which he attempted on the wars in Germany. Horace, bk. 1, satire 10, li. 36.――Julius, one of the chiefs of the Helvetii. Tacitus, Histories, bk. 1, ch. 68.

Alpis, a small river falling into the Danube.

Alsium, a maritime town at the west of the Tiber, now Statua. Silius Italicus, bk. 8.

Alsus, a river of Achaia in Peloponnesus, flowing from mount Sipylus. Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 27.――A shepherd during the Rutulian wars. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 12, li. 304.

Althæa, daughter of Thestius and Eurythemis, married Œneus king of Calydon, by whom she had many children, among whom was Meleager. When Althæa brought forth Meleager, the Parcæ placed a log of wood in the fire, and said, that as long as it was preserved, so long would the life of the child just born be prolonged. The mother saved the wood from the flames, and kept it very carefully; but when Meleager killed his two uncles, Althæa’s brothers, Althæa, to revenge their death, threw the log into the fire, and as soon as it was burnt, Meleager expired. She was afterwards so sorry for the death she had caused, that she killed herself, unable to survive her son. See: Meleager. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 8, fable 4.—Homer, Iliad, bk. 9.—Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 45; bk. 10, ch. 31.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 8.

Althæmĕnes, a son of Creteus king of Crete. Hearing that either he or his brothers were to be their father’s murderers, he fled to Rhodes, where he made a settlement, to avoid becoming a parricide. After the death of all his other sons, Creteus went after his son Althæmenes; when he landed in Rhodes, the inhabitants attacked him, supposing him to be an enemy, and he was killed by the hand of his own son. When Althæmenes knew that he had killed his father, he entreated the gods to remove him, and the earth immediately opened, and swallowed him up. Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 2.

Altīnum, a flourishing city of Italy, near Aquileia, famous for its wool. Martial, bk. 14, ltr. 25.—Pliny, bk. 3, ch. 18.

Altis, a sacred grove round Jupiter’s temple at Olympia, where the statues of the Olympic conquerors were placed. Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 20, &c.

Altus, a city of Peloponnesus. Xenophon, Hellenica.

Aluntium, a town of Sicily. Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 8.—Cicero, Against Verres, bk. 4.

Alus, Aluus, and Halus, a village of Arcadia, called also the temple of Æsculapius. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 25.

Alyattes I., a king of Lydia, descended from the Heraclidæ. He reigned 57 years.

Alyattes II., king of Lydia, of the family of the Mermnadæ, was father to Crœsus. He drove the Cimmerians from Asia, and made war against the Medes. He died when engaged in a war against Miletus, after a reign of 35 years. A monument was raised on his grave with the money which the women of Lydia had obtained by prostitution. An eclipse of the sun terminated a battle between him and Cyaxares. Herodotus, bk. 1, chs. 16, 17, &c.Strabo, bk. 13.

Aly̆ba, a country near Mysia. Homer, Iliad, bk. 2.

Alycæa, a town of Arcadia. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 27.

Alycæus, son of Sciron, was killed by Theseus. A place in Megara received its name from him. Plutarch, Theseus.

Aly̆mon, the husband of Circe.

Alyssus, a fountain of Arcadia, whose waters could cure the bite of a mad dog. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 19.

Alyxothoe, or Alexirhoe, daughter of Dymus, was mother of Æsacus by Priam. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 11, li. 763.

Alyzia, a town of Acarnania on the western mouth of the Achelous, opposite to the Echinades. Cicero, Letters to his Friends, bk. 16, ltr. 2.

Amadŏcus, a king of Thrace, defeated by his antagonist Seuthes. Aristotle, bk. 5, Politics, ch. 10.

Amage, a queen of Sarmatia, remarkable for her justice and fortitude. Polyænus, bk. 8, ch. 56.

Amalthæa, daughter of Melissus king of Crete, fed Jupiter with goat’s milk. Hence some authors have called her a goat, and have maintained that Jupiter, to reward her kindnesses, placed her in heaven as a constellation, and gave one of her horns to the nymphs who had taken care of his infant years. This horn was called the horn of plenty, and had the power to give the nymphs whatever they desired. Diodorus, bks. 3, 4, 5.—Ovid, Fasti, bk. 5, li. 113.—Strabo, bk. 10.—Hyginus, fable 139.—Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 26.――A Sibyl of Cumæ, called also Hierophile and Demophile. She is supposed to be the same who brought nine books of prophecies to Tarquin king of Rome, &c. Varro.Tibullus, bk. 2, poem 5, li. 67. See: Sibyllæ.

Amalthēum, a public place which Atticus had opened in his country house, called Amalthea, in Epirus, and provided with everything which could furnish entertainment and convey instruction. Cicero, Letters to Atticus, bk. 1, ltr. 13.

Amăna, or Amanus, part of mount Taurus in Cilicia. Lucan, bk. 3, li. 244.

Cn. Salvius Amandus, a rebel general under Diocletian, who assumed imperial honours, and was at last conquered by Diocletian’s colleague.

Amantes, or Amantīni, a people of Illyricum descended from the Abantes of Phocis. Callimachus.

Amānus, one of the deities worshipped in Armenia and Cappadocia. Strabo, bk. 11.――A mountain in Cilicia.

Amārăcus, an officer of Cinyras, changed into marjoram.

Amardi, a nation near the Caspian sea. Mela, bk. 1, ch. 3.

Amartus, a city of Greece. Homer, Hymn to Apollo.

Amaryllis, the name of a countrywoman in Virgil’s eclogues. Some commentators have supposed that the poet spoke of Rome under this fictitious appellation.

Amarynceus, a king of the Epeans, buried at Buprasium. Strabo, bk. 8.—Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 1.

Amarynthus, a village in Eubœa, whence Diana is called Amarysia, and her festivals in that town Amarynthia.――Eubœa is sometimes called Amarynthus. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 31.

Amas, a mountain of Laconia. Pausanias, bk. 3.

Amăsēnus, a small river of Latium falling into the Tyrrhene sea. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 685.

Amasia, a city of Pontus, where Mithridates the Great and Strabo the geographer were born. Strabo, bk. 12.—Pliny, bk. 6, ch. 3.

Amāsis, a man who, from a common soldier, became king of Egypt. He made war against Arabia, and died before the invasion of his country by Cambyses king of Persia. He made a law that every one of his subjects should yearly give an account to the public magistrates of the manner in which he supported himself. He refused to continue in alliance with Polycrates the tyrant of Samos, on account of his uncommon prosperity. When Cambyses came into Egypt, he ordered the body of Amasis to be dug up, and to be insulted and burnt; an action which was very offensive to the religious notions of the Egyptians. Herodotus, bks. 1, 2, 3.――A man who led the Persians against the inhabitants of Barce. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 201, &c.

Amastris, the wife of Dionysius the tyrant of Sicily, was sister to Darius, whom Alexander conquered. Strabo.――Also, the wife of Xerxes king of Persia. See: Amestris.――A city of Paphlagonia, on the Euxine sea. Catullus.

Amastrus, one of the auxiliaries of Perses, against Ætes king of Colchis, killed by Argus son of Phryxus. Flaccus, bk. 6, li. 544.――A friend of Æneas, killed by Camilla in the Rutulian war. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 11, li. 673.

Amāta, the wife of king Latinus. She had betrothed her daughter Lavinia to Turnus, before the arrival of Æneas in Italy. She zealously favoured the interest of Turnus, and when her daughter was given in marriage to Æneas, she hung herself to avoid the sight of her son-in-law. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, &c.

Amăthus (genitive: untis), now Limisso, a city on the southern side of the island of Cyprus, particularly dedicated to Venus. The island is sometimes called Amathusia, a name not unfrequently applied to the goddess of the place. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 10, li. 51.—Claudius Ptolemy, bk. 5, ch. 14.

Amaxampēus, a fountain of Scythia, whose waters imbitter the stream of the river Hypanis. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 52.

Amaxia, or Amaxīta, an ancient town of Troas.――A place of Cilicia abounding with wood fit for building ships. Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 9.—Strabo, bk. 14.

Amazēnes, or Mazēnes, a prince of the island Oaractus, who sailed for some time with the Macedonians and Nearchus in Alexander’s expedition to the east. Arrian, Indica.

Amazŏnes, or Amazŏnĭdes, a nation of famous women who lived near the river Thermodon in Cappadocia. All their life was employed in wars and manly exercises. They never had any commerce with the other sex, but, only for the sake of propagation, they visited the inhabitants of the neighbouring country for a few days, and the male children which they brought forth were given to the fathers. According to Justin, they were strangled as soon as born, and Diodorus says that they maimed them and distorted their limbs. The females were carefully educated with their mothers, in the labours of the field; their right breast was burnt off that they might hurl a javelin with more force, and make a better use of the bow; from that circumstance, therefore, their name is derived (a non, μαζα mamma). They founded an extensive empire in Asia Minor, along the shores of the Euxine, and near the Thermodon. They were defeated in a battle near the Thermodon by the Greeks; and some of them migrated beyond the Tanais, and extended their territories as far as the Caspian sea. Themyscyra was the most capital of their towns; and Smyrna, Magnesia, Thyatira, and Ephesus, according to some authors, were built by them. Diodorus, bk. 3, mentions a nation of Amazons in Africa more ancient than those of Asia. Some authors, among whom is Strabo, deny the existence of the Amazons, and of a republic supported and governed by women, who banished or extirpated all their males; but Justin and Diodorus particularly support it; and the latter says that Penthesilea, one of their queens, came to the Trojan war on the side of Priam, and that she was killed by Achilles, and from that time the glory and character of the Amazons gradually decayed, and was totally forgotten. The Amazons of Africa flourished long before the Trojan war, and many of their actions have been attributed to those of Asia. It is said, that after they had subdued almost all Asia, they invaded Attica, and were conquered by Theseus. Their most famous actions were their expeditions against Priam, and afterwards the assistance they gave him during the Trojan war; and their invasion of Attica, to punish Theseus, who had carried away Antiope, one of their queens. They were also conquered by Bellerophon and Hercules. Among their queens, Hippolyte, Antiope, Lampeto, Marpesia, &c., are famous. Curtius says that Thalestris, one of their queens, came to Alexander, whilst he was pursuing his conquests in Asia, for the sake of raising children from a man of such military reputation; and that, after she had remained 13 days with him, she retired into her country. The Amazons were such expert archers, that, to denote the goodness of a bow or quiver, it was usual to call it Amazonian. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 5, li. 311.—Jornandes, Getica, ch. 7.—Philostratus Major, Imagines, bk. 2, ch. 5.—Justin, bk. 2, ch. 4.—Curtius, bk. 6, ch. 5.—Pliny, bk. 6, ch. 7; bk. 14, ch. 8; bk. 36, ch. 5.—Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 110.—Strabo, bk. 11.—Diodorus, bk. 2.—Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 4.—Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 2.—Plutarch, Theseus.—Apollodorus, bk. 2, chs. 3 & 5.—Hyginus, fables 14 & 163.

Amazŏnia, a celebrated mistress of the emperor Commodus.――The country of the Amazons, near the Caspian sea.

Amazŏnium, a place in Attica, where Theseus obtained a victory over the Amazons.

Amazŏnius, a surname of Apollo at Lacedæmon.

Ambarri, a people of Gallia Celtica, on the Arar, related to the Ædui. Cæsar, Gallic War, bk. 1, ch. 11.

Ambarvālia, a joyful procession round the ploughed fields, in honour of Ceres the goddess of corn. There were two festivals of that name celebrated by the Romans, one about the month of April, the other in July. They went three times round their fields crowned with oak leaves singing hymns to Ceres, and entreating her to preserve their corn. The word is derived ab ambiendis arvis, going round the fields. A sow, a sheep, and a bull, called ambarvaliæ hostiæ, were afterwards immolated, and the sacrifice has sometimes been called suovetaurilia, from sus, ovis, and taurus. Virgil, Georgics, bk. 1, lis. 339 & 345.—Tibullus, bk. 2, poem 1, li. 19.—Cato, de Re Rustica, ch. 141.

Ambĕnus, a mountain of European Sarmatia. Flaccus, bk. 6, ch. 85.

Ambialītes, a people of Gallia Celtica. Cæsar, Gallic War, bk. 3, ch. 9.

Ambiānum, a town of Belgium, now Amiens. Its inhabitants conspired against Julius Cæsar. Cæsar, Gallic War, bk. 2, ch. 4.

Ambiatīnum, a village of Germany, where the emperor Caligula was born. Suetonius, Caligula, ch. 8.

Ambigātus, a king of the Celtæ, in the time of Tarquinius Priscus. Seeing the great population of his country, he sent his two nephews, Sigovesus and Bellovesus, with two colonies, in quest of new settlements; the former towards the Hercynian woods, and the other towards Italy. Livy, bk. 5, ch. 34, &c.

Ambiōrix, a king of the Eburones in Gaul. He was a great enemy to Rome, and was killed in a battle with Julius Cæsar, in which 60,000 of his countrymen were slain. Cæsar, Gallic War, bk. 5, chs. 11, 26; bk. 6, ch. 30.

Ambivius, a man mentioned by Cicero, de Senectute.

Amblada, a town of Pisidia. Strabo.

Ambracia, a city of Epirus near the Acheron, the residence of king Pyrrhus. Augustus, after the battle of Actium, called it Nicopolis. Mela, bk. 2, ch. 3.—Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 1.—Polybius, bk. 4, ch. 63.—Strabo, bk. 10.

Ambracius Sinus, a bay of the Ionian sea, near Ambracia, about 300 stadia deep, narrow at the entrance, but within near 100 stadia in breadth, and now called the gulf of Larta. Polybius, bk. 4, ch. 63.—Mela, bk. 2, ch. 3.—Florus, bk. 4, ch. 11.—Strabo, bk. 10.

Ambri, an Indian nation. Justin, bk. 12, ch. 9.

Ambrōnes, certain nations of Gaul, who lost their possessions by the inundation of the sea, and lived upon rapine and plunder, whence the word Ambrones implied a dishonourable meaning. They were conquered by Marius. Plutarch, Marius.

Ambrōsia, festivals observed in honour of Bacchus in some cities in Greece. They were the same as the Brumalia of the Romans.――One of the daughters of Atlas, changed into a constellation after death.――The food of the gods was called ambrosia, and their drink nectar. The word signifies immortal. It had the power of giving immortality to all those who eat it. It was sweeter than honey, and of a most odoriferous smell; and it is said that Berenice, the wife of Ptolemy Soter, was saved from death by eating ambrosia given her by Venus. Titonus was made immortal by Aurora, by eating ambrosia; and in like manner Tantalus and Pelops, who, on account of their impiety, had been driven from heaven, and compelled to die upon earth. It had the power of healing wounds, and therefore Apollo, in Homer’s Iliad, saves Sarpedon’s body from putrefaction, by rubbing it with ambrosia; and Venus also heals the wounds of her son, in Virgil’s Æneid, with it. The gods used generally to perfume the hair with ambrosia; as Juno when she adorned herself to captivate Jupiter, and Venus when she appeared to Æneas. Homer, Iliad, bks. 1, 14, 16, & 24.—Lucian, de Dea Syria.—Catullus, poem 100.—Theocritus, Idylls, poem 15.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 1, li. 407; bk. 12, li. 419.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 2.—Pindar, bk. 1, Olympian.

Ambrosius, bishop of Milan, obliged the emperor Theodosius to make penance for the murder of the people of Thessalonica, and distinguished himself by his writings, especially against the Arians. His three books, de Officiis, are still extant, besides eight hymns on the creation. His style is not inelegant, but his diction is sententious, his opinions eccentric, though his subject is diversified by copiousness of thought. He died A.D. 397. The best edition of his works is that of the Benedictines, 2 vols., folio, Paris, 1686.

Ambrȳon, a man who wrote the life of Theocritus of Chios. Diogenes Laërtius.

Ambryssus, a city of Phocis, which receives its name from a hero of the same name. Pausanias, bk. 10, ch. 35.

Ambūbājæ, Syrian women of immoral lives, who, in the dissolute period of Rome, attended festivals and assemblies as minstrels. The name is derived by some from Syrian words, which signify a flute. Horace, bk. 1, satire 2.—Suetonius, Nero, ch. 27.

Ambulli, a surname of Castor and Pollux, in Sparta.

Ameles, a river of hell, whose waters no vessel could contain. Plato, bk. 10, Republic.

‘Plutarch’ replaced with ‘Plato’

Amenanus, a river of Sicily, near mount Ætna, now Guidicello. Strabo, bk. 5.

Amenīdes, a secretary of Darius the last king of Persia. Alexander set him over the Arimaspi. Curtius, bk. 7, ch. 3.

Amenŏcles, a Corinthian, said to be the first Grecian who built a three-oared galley at Samos and Corinth. Thucydides, bk. 1, ch. 13.

Ameria, a city of Umbria, whose osiers (Amerinæ salices) were famous for the binding of vines to the elm trees. Pliny, bk. 3, ch. 14.—Virgil, Georgics, bk. 1, li. 265.

Amestrătus, a town of Sicily, near the Halesus. The Romans besieged it for seven months, and it yielded at last after a third siege, and the inhabitants were sold as slaves. Polybius, bk. 1, ch. 24.

Amestris, queen of Persia, was wife to Xerxes. She cruelly treated the mother of Artiante, her husband’s mistress, and cut off her nose, ears, lips, breast, tongue, and eyebrows. She also buried alive 14 noble Persian youths, to appease the deities under the earth. Herodotus, bk. 7, ch. 61; bk. 9, ch. 111.――A daughter of Oxyartes, wife to Lysimachus. Diodorus, bk. 20.

Amīda, a city of Mesopotamia, besieged and taken by Sapor king of Persia. Ammianus, bk. 19.

Amilcar, a Carthaginian general of great eloquence and cunning, surnamed Rhodanus. When the Athenians were afraid of Alexander, Amilcar went to his camp, gained his confidence, and secretly transmitted an account of all his schemes to Athens. Trogus, bk. 21, ch. 6.――A Carthaginian, whom the Syracusans called to their assistance against the tyrant Agathocles, who besieged their city. Amilcar soon after favoured the interest of Agathocles, for which he was accused at Carthage. He died in Syracuse, B.C. 309. Diodorus, bk. 20.—Justin, bk. 22, chs. 2 & 3.――A Carthaginian, surnamed Barcas, father to the celebrated Annibal. He was general in Sicily during the first Punic war; and after a peace had been made with the Romans, he quelled a rebellion of slaves, who had besieged Carthage, and taken many towns of Africa, and rendered themselves so formidable to the Carthaginians that they begged and obtained assistance from Rome. After this, he passed into Spain with his son Annibal, who was but nine years of age, and laid the foundation of the town of Barcelona. He was killed in a battle against the Vettones, B.C. 237. He had formed the plan of an invasion of Italy, by crossing the Alps, which his son afterwards carried into execution. His great enmity to the Romans was the cause of the second Punic war. He used to say of his three sons, that he kept three lions to devour the Roman power. Cornelius Nepos, Lives of Distinguished Romans.—Livy, bk. 21, ch. 1.—Polybius, bk. 2.—Plutarch, Life of Hannibal.――A Carthaginian general, who assisted the Insubres against Rome, and was taken by Cnaeus Cornelius. Livy, bk. 32, ch. 30; bk. 33, ch. 8.――A son of Hanno, defeated in Sicily by Gelon, the same day that Xerxes was defeated at Salamis by Themistocles. He burnt himself, that his body might not be found among the slain. Sacrifices were offered to him. Herodotus, bk. 7, ch. 165, &c.

Amĭlos, or Amĭlus, a river of Mauritania, where the elephants go to wash themselves by moonshine. Pliny, bk. 8, ch. 1.――A town of Arcadia. Pausanias, Arcadia.

Amimŏne, or Amymŏne, a daughter of Danaus, changed into a fountain which is near Argos, and flows into the lake Lerna. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 2, li. 240.

Amĭnea, or Amminea, a part of Campania, where the inhabitants are great husbandmen. Its wine was highly esteemed. Virgil, Georgics, bk. 2, li. 97.――A place of Thessaly.

Aminias, a famous pirate, whom Antigonus employed against Apollodorus tyrant of Cassandrea. Polyænus, bk. 4, ch. 18.

Aminius, a river of Arcadia. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 30.

Aminŏcles, a native of Corinth, who flourished 705 B.C., &c.

Amisēna, a country of Cappadocia. Strabo, bk. 12.

Amisias, a comic poet, whom Aristophanes ridiculed for his insipid verses.

Amissas, an officer of Megalopolis in Alexander’s army. Curtius, bk. 10, ch. 8.

Amiternum, a town of Italy, where Sallust was born. The inhabitants assisted Turnus against Æneas. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 710.—Pliny, bk. 3, ch. 5.—Livy, bk. 28, ch. 45.

Amithāon, or Amythāon, was father to Melampus the famous prophet. Statius, Thebiad, bk. 3, li. 451.

Ammālo, a festival in honour of Jupiter in Greece.

Ammiānus. See: Marcellinus.

Ammon and Hammon, a name of Jupiter, worshipped in Libya. He appeared under the form of a ram to Hercules, or, according to others, to Bacchus, who, with his army, suffered the greatest extremities for want of water, in the deserts of Africa, and showed him a fountain. Upon this Bacchus erected a temple to his father, under the name of Jupiter Ammon, i.e. sandy, with the horns of a ram. The ram, according to some, was made a constellation. The temple of Jupiter Ammon was in the deserts of Libya, nine days’ journey from Alexandria. It had a famous oracle, which, according to ancient tradition, was established about 18 centuries before the time of Augustus, by two doves which flew away from Thebais in Egypt, and came, one to Dodona, and the other to Libya, where the people were soon informed of their divine mission. The oracle of Hammon was consulted by Hercules, Perseus, and others; but when it pronounced Alexander to be the son of Jupiter, such flattery destroyed its long-established reputation, and in the age of Plutarch it was scarce known. The situation of the temple was pleasant; and according to Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 15, li. 310,—Lucretius, bk. 6, li. 147,—Herodotus, Melpomene.—Curtius, bk. 4, ch. 7, there was near it a fountain whose waters were cold at noon and midnight, and warm in the morning and evening. There were above 100 priests in the temple, but only the elders delivered oracles. There was also an oracle of Jupiter Ammon in Æthiopia. Pliny, bk. 6, ch. 29.—Strabo, bks. 1, 11, & 17.—Plutarch, de Defectu Oraculorum, & Iside et Osiride.—Curtius, bk. 6, ch. 10; bk. 10, ch. 5.—Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 6; bk. 2, chs. 32 & 55; bk. 4, ch. 44.—Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 18; bk. 4, ch. 23.—Hyginus, fable 133; Poeticon Astronomicon, bk. 2, ch. 20.—Justin, bk. 1, ch. 9; bk. 11, ch. 11.――A king of Libya, father to Bacchus. He gave his name to the temple of Hammon, according to Diodorus, bk. 8.

Ammon and Brothas, two brothers famous for their skill in boxing. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 5, li. 107.

Ammōnia, a name of Juno in Elis, as being the wife of Jupiter Ammon. Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 15.

Ammōnii, a nation of Africa, who derived their origin from the Egyptians and Æthiopians. Their language was a mixture of that of the two people from whom they were descended. Herodotus, bks. 2, 3, & 4.

Ammōnius, a christian philosopher, who opened a school of Platonic philosophy at Alexandria, 232 A.D., and had amongst his pupils Origen and Plotinus. His treatise, Περι Ὁμοιων, was published in 4to by Valckenaer, Leiden, 1739.――A writer who gave an account of sacrifices, as also a treatise on the harlots of Athens. Athenæus, bk. 13.――An Athenian general surnamed Barcas. Polybius, bk. 3.

Ammothea, one of the Nereides. Hesiod, Theogony.

Amnias, a river of Bithynia. Appian, Mithridatic Wars.

Amnīsus, a port of Gnossus, at the north of Crete, with a small river of the same name, near which Lucina had a temple. The nymphs of the place were called Amnisiades. Callimachus.

Amœbæus, an Athenian player of great reputation, who sung at the nuptials of Demetrius and Nicæa. Polyænus, bk. 4, ch. 6.

Amomētus, a Greek historian. Pliny, bk. 6, ch. 17.

Amor, the son of Venus, was the god of love. See: Cupido.

Amorges, a Persian general, killed in Caria, in the reign of Xerxes. Herodotus, bk. 5, ch. 121.

Amorgos, an island among the Cyclades, where Simonides was born. Strabo, bk. 10.

Ampĕlus, a promontory of Samos.――A town of Crete,――of Macedonia,――of Liguria,――and Cyrene.――A favourite of Bacchus, son of a satyr and a nymph, made a constellation after death. Ovid, Fasti, bk. 3, li. 407.

Ampelūsia, a promontory of Africa, in Mauritania. Mela, bk. 1, chs. 5 & 6.

Amphēa, a city of Messenia, taken by the Lacedæmonians. Pausanias, bk. 4, ch. 5.

Amphialāus, a famous dancer in the island of the Phæacians. Homer, Odyssey, bk. 8.

Amphiănax, a king of Lycia in the time of Acrisius and Prœtus. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 2.

Amphiarāus, son of Oicleus, or, according to others, of Apollo by Hypermnestra, was at the chase of the Calydonian boar, and accompanied the Argonauts in their expedition. He was famous for his knowledge of futurity and thence he is called by some son of Apollo. He married Eriphyle, the sister of Adrastus king of Argos, by whom he had two sons, Alcmæon and Amphilochus. When Adrastus, at the request of Polynices, declared war against Thebes, Amphiaraus secreted himself, not to accompany his brother-in-law in an expedition in which he knew he was to perish. But Eriphyle, who knew where he had concealed himself, was prevailed upon to betray him by Polynices, who gave her as a reward for her perfidy a famous golden necklace set with diamonds. Amphiaraus being thus discovered, went to the war, but previously charged his son Alcmæon to put to death his mother Eriphyle, as soon as he was informed that he was killed. The Theban war was fatal to the Argives, and Amphiaraus was swallowed up in his chariot by the earth, as he attempted to retire from the battle. The news of his death was brought to Alcmæon, who immediately executed his father’s command, and murdered Eriphyle. Amphiaraus received divine honours after death, and had a celebrated temple and oracle at Oropos in Attica. His statue was made of white marble, and near his temple was a fountain, whose waters were ever held sacred. They only who had consulted his oracle, or had been delivered from a disease, were permitted to bathe in it, after which they threw pieces of gold and silver into the stream. Those who consulted the oracle of Amphiaraus first purified themselves, and abstained from food for 24 hours, and three days from wine, after which they sacrificed a ram to the prophet, and spread the skin upon the ground, upon which they slept in expectation of receiving in a dream the answer of the oracle. Plutarch, De Defectu Oraculorum, mentions that the oracle of Amphiaraus was once consulted in the time of Xerxes, by one of the servants of Mardonius, for his master, who was then with an army in Greece; and that the servant, when asleep, saw in a dream the priest of the temple, who upbraided him and drove him away, and even threw stones at his head when he refused to comply. This oracle was verified in the death of Mardonius, who was actually killed by the blow of a stone which he received on the head. Cicero, de Divinatione, bk. 1, ch. 40.—Philostratus, Lives.—Apollonius, bk. 2, ch. 11.—Homer, Odyssey, bk. 15, li. 243, &c.Hyginus, fables 70, 73, 128, & 150.—Diodorus, bk. 4.—Ovid, bk. 9, fable 10.—Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 34; bk. 2, ch. 37; bk. 9, chs. 8 & 19.—Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, chs. 8 & 9; bk. 3, ch. 6, &c.Strabo, bk. 8.

Amphiarāĭdes, a patronymic of Alcmæon as being son of Amphiaraus. Ovid, Fasti, bk. 2, li. 43.

Amphicrătes, an historian who wrote the lives of illustrious men. Diogenes Laërtius.

Amphictyon, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, reigned at Athens after Cranaus, and first attempted to give the interpretation of dreams, and to draw omens. Some say that the deluge happened in his age. Justin, bk. 2, ch. 6.――The son of Helenus, who first established the celebrated council of the Amphictyons, composed of the wisest and most virtuous men of some cities of Greece. This august assembly consisted of 12 persons, originally sent by the following states: the Ionians, Dorians, Perhæbians, Bœotians, Magnesians, Phthians, Locrians, Malians, Phocians, Thessalians, Dolopes, and the people of Œta. Other cities in process of time sent also some of their citizens to the council of the Amphictyons, and in the age of Antoninus Pius, they were increased to the number of 30. They generally met twice every year at Delphi, and sometimes sat at Thermopylæ. They took into consideration all matters of difference which might exist between the different states of Greece. When the Phocians plundered the temple of Delphi the Amphictyons declared war against them, and this war was supported by all the states of Greece, and lasted 10 years. The Phocians, with their allies the Lacedæmonians, were deprived of the privilege of sitting in the council of the Amphictyons, and the Macedonians were admitted in their place, for their services in support of the war. About 60 years after, when Brennus, with the Gauls, invaded Greece, the Phocians behaved with such courage, that they were reinstated in all their former privileges. Before they proceeded to business, the Amphictyons sacrificed an ox to the god of Delphi, and cut his flesh into small pieces, intimating that union and unanimity prevailed in the several cities which they represented. Their decisions were held sacred and inviolable, and even arms were taken up to enforce them. Pausanias, Phocis & Achaia.—Strabo, bk. 8.—Suidas.Hesychius.Aeschines.

Amphiclea, a town of Phocis, where Bacchus had a temple.

Amphidāmus, a son of Aleus, brother to Lycurgus. He was of the family of the Inachidæ. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 4.――One of the Argonauts. Flaccus, bk. 1, li. 376.――A son of Busiris, killed by Hercules. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 5.

Amphidrŏmia, a festival observed by private families at Athens, the fifth day after the birth of every child. It was customary to run round the fire with a child in their arms; whence the name of the festivals.

Amphigenīa, a town of Messenia in Peloponnesus. Statius, Thebiad, bk. 4, li. 178.

Amphilŏchus, a son of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle. After the Trojan war, he left Argos, his native country, and built Amphilochus, a town of Epirus. Strabo, bk. 7.—Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 18.――An Athenian philosopher who wrote upon agriculture. Varro, de Re Rustica, bk. 1.

Amphily̆tus, a soothsayer of Acarnania, who encouraged Pisistratus to seize the sovereign power of Athens. Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 62.

Amphimăche, a daughter of Amphidamus, wife of Eurystheus. Apollodorus, bk. 2.

Amphimăchus, one of Helen’s suitors, son of Cteatus. He went to the Trojan war. Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 10.—Hyginus, fable 97.――A son of Actor and Theronice. Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 3.

Amphimĕdon, a Libyan killed by Perseus, in the court of Cepheus. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 5, li. 75.――One of Penelope’s suitors, killed by Telemachus. Homer, Odyssey, bk. 22, li. 283.

Amphinŏme, the name of one of the attendants of Thetis. Homer, Iliad, bk. 18, li. 44.

Amphinŏmus, one of Penelope’s suitors, killed by Telemachus. Homer, Odyssey, bks. 16 & 22.

Amphinŏmus and Anapius, two brothers, who, when Catana and the neighbouring cities were in flames, by an eruption from mount Ætna, saved their parents upon their shoulders. The fire, as it is said, spared them while it consumed others by their side; and Pluto, to reward their uncommon piety, placed them after death in the island of Leuce, and they received divine honours in Sicily. Valerius Maximus, bk. 5, ch. 4.—Strabo, bk. 6.—Silius Italicus, bk. 14, li. 197.—Seneca, de Beneficiis.

Amphīon, was son of Jupiter, by Antiope daughter of Nycteus, who had married Lycus, and had been repudiated by him when he married Dirce. Amphion was born at the same birth as Zethus, on mount Citheron, where Antiope had fled to avoid the resentment of Dirce; and the two children were exposed in the woods, but preserved by a shepherd. See: Antiope. When Amphion grew up, he cultivated poetry and made such an uncommon progress in music, that he is said to have been the inventor of it, and to have built the walls of Thebes at the sound of his lyre. Mercury taught him music, and gave him the lyre. He was the first who raised an altar to this god. Zethus and Amphion united to avenge the wrongs which their mother had suffered from the cruelties of Dirce. They besieged and took Thebes, put Lycus to death, and tied his wife to the tail of a wild bull, which dragged her through precipices till she expired. The fable of Amphion’s moving stones and raising the walls of Thebes at the sound of his lyre, has been explained by supposing that he persuaded, by his eloquence, a wild and uncivilized people to unite together and build a town to protect themselves against the attacks of their enemies. Homer, Odyssey, bk. 11.—Apollodorus, bk. 3, chs. 5 & 10.—Pausanias, bk. 6, ch. 6; bk. 6, ch. 20; bk. 9, chs. 5 & 17.—Propertius, bk. 3, poem 15.—Ovid, de Ars Amatoria, bk. 3, li. 323.—Horace, bk. 3, ode 11; Art of Poetry, li. 394.—Statius, Thebiad, bk. 1, li. 10.――A son of Jasus king of Orchomenos, by Persephone daughter of Mius. He married Niobe daughter of Tantalus, by whom he had many children, among whom was Chloris the wife of Neleus. He has been confounded by mythologists with the son of Antiope, though Homer in his Odyssey speaks of them both, and distinguishes them beyond contradiction. The number of Amphion’s children, according to Homer, was 12, six of each sex; according to Ælian, 20; and according to Ovid, 14, seven males and seven females. When Niobe boasted herself greater, and more deserving of immortality than Latona, all her children, except Chloris, were destroyed by the arrows of Apollo and Diana; Niobe herself was changed into a stone, and Amphion killed himself in a fit of despair. Homer, Odyssey, bk. 11, lis. 261 & 282.—Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 12, li. 36.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 6, fable 5.――One of the Argonauts. Hyginus, fable 14.――A famous painter and statuary, son of Acestor of Gnossus. Pliny, bk. 36, ch. 10.――One of the Greek generals in the Trojan war. Homer, Iliad, bk. 13, li. 692.

Amphipŏles, magistrates appointed at Syracuse by Timoleon, after the expulsion of Dionysius the younger. The office existed for above 300 years. Diodorus, bk. 16.

Amphipŏlis, a town on the Strymon, between Macedonia and Thrace. An Athenian colony, under Agnon son of Nicias, drove the ancient inhabitants, called Edonians, from the country, and built a city, which they called Amphipolis, i.e. a town surrounded on all sides, because the Strymon flowed all around it. It has been also called Acra, Strymon, Myrica, Eion, and the town of Mars. It was the cause of many wars between the Athenians and Spartans. Thucydides, bk. 4, ch. 102, &c.Herodotus, bk. 5, ch. 126; bk. 7, ch. 114.—Diodorus, bks. 11, 12, &c.Cornelius Nepos, Cimon.

Amphipy̆ros, a surname of Diana, because she carries a torch in both her hands. Sophocles, Trachiniæ.

Amphirētus, a man of Acanthus, who artfully escaped from pirates who had made him prisoner. Polyænus, bk. 6.

Amphiroe, one of the Oceanides. Hesiod, Theogony, li. 361.

Amphis, a Greek comic poet of Athens, son of Amphicrates, contemporary with Plato. Besides his comedies he wrote other pieces, which are now lost. Suidas.Diogenes Laërtius.

Amphisbæna, a two-headed serpent in the deserts of Libya, whose bite was venomous and deadly. Lucan, bk. 9, li. 719.

Amphissa, or Issa, a daughter of Macareus, beloved by Apollo. She gave her name to a city of Locris near Phocis, in which was a temple of Minerva. Livy, bk. 37, ch. 5.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 15, li. 703.—Lucan, bk. 3, li. 172.――A town of the Brutii on the east coast.

Amphissēne, a country of Armenia.

Amphissus, a son of Dryope. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 9, fable 10.

Amphisthĕnes, a Lacedæmonian, who fell delirious in sacrificing to Diana. Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 16.

Amphistīdes, a man so naturally destitute of intellect, that he seldom remembered that he ever had a father. He wished to learn arithmetic, but never could comprehend beyond the figure 4. Aristotle, Problemata, bk. 4.

Amphistrătus and Rhecas, two men of Laconia, charioteers to Castor and Pollux. Strabo, bk. 11.—Justin, bk. 42, ch. 3.

Amphitea, the mother of Ægialeus by Cyanippus, and of three daughters, Argia, Deipyle, and Ægialea, by Adrastus king of Argos. She was daughter to Pronax. Apollodorus, bk. 1.――The wife of Autolycus, by whom she had Anticlea the wife of Laertes. Homer, Odyssey, bk. 19, li. 416.

Amphitheātrum, a large round or oval building at Rome, where the people assembled to see the combats of gladiators, of wild beasts, and other exhibitions. The amphitheatres of Rome were generally built with wood. Statilius Taurus was the first who made one with stones, under Augustus.

Amphithĕmis, a Theban general, who involved the Lacedæmonians into a war with his country. Plutarch, Lysander.—Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 9.

Amphithoe, one of the Nereides.

Amphītrīte, daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, married Neptune, though she had made a vow of perpetual celibacy. She had by him Triton, one of the sea deities. She had a statue at Corinth in the temple of Neptune. She is sometimes called Salatia, and is often taken for the sea itself. Varro, de Lingua Latina, bk. 4.—Hesiod, Theogony, li. 930.—Apollodorus, bk. 3.—Claudian, de Raptu Proserpinæ, bk. 1, li. 104.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 1, li. 14.――One of the Nereides.

Amphĭtryon, a Theban prince, son of Alcæus and Hipponome. His sister Anaxo had married Electryon king of Mycenæ, whose sons were killed in a battle by the Teleboans. Electryon promised his crown and daughter Alcmena to him who could revenge the death of his sons upon the Teleboans; and Amphitryon offered himself and was received, on condition that he should not approach Alcmena before he had obtained a victory. Jupiter, who was captivated with the charms of Alcmena, borrowed the features of Amphitryon when he was gone to the war, and introduced himself to Electryon’s daughter as her husband returned victorious. Alcmena became pregnant of Hercules by Jupiter, and of Iphiclus by Amphitryon, after his return. See: Alcmena. When Amphitryon returned from the war, he brought back to Electryon the herds which the Teleboans had taken from him. One of the cows having strayed from the rest, Amphitryon, to bring them together, threw a stick, which struck the horns of the cow, and rebounded with such violence upon Electryon, that he died on the spot. After this accidental murder, Sthenelus, Electryon’s brother, seized the kingdom of Mycenæ, and obliged Amphitryon to leave Argolis, and retire to Thebes with Alcmena. Creon king of Thebes purified him of the murder. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 4.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 8, li. 213.—Propertius, bk. 4, poem 10, li. 1.—Hesiod, Shield of Heracles.—Hyginus, fable 29.—Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 14.

Amphitryōniădes, a surname of Hercules, as the supposed son of Amphitryon. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 8, li. 103.

Amphitus, a priest of Ceres, at the court of Cepheus. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 5, fable 5.

Amphotĕrus, was appointed commander of a fleet in the Hellespont by Alexander. Curtius, bk. 3, ch. 1.――A son of Alcmæon.

Amphrȳsus, a river of Thessaly, near which Apollo, when banished from heaven, fed the flocks of king Admetus. From this circumstance the god has been called Amphryssius, and his priestess Amphryssia. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 1, li. 580.—Lucan, bk. 6, li. 367.—Virgil, Georgics, bk. 3, li. 2; Æneid, bk. 6, li. 398.――A river of Phrygia, whose waters rendered women liable to barrenness. Pliny, bk. 32, ch. 2.

Ampia Labiena lex, was enacted by Titus Ampius and Titus Labienus, tribunes of the people, A.U.C. 693. It gave Pompey the Great the privilege of appearing in triumphal robes and with a golden crown at the Circensian games, and with a prætexta and golden crown at theatrical plays.

‘A.’ replaced with ‘Titus’

Ampracia. See: Ambracia.

Ampysĭdes, a patronymic of Mopsus son of Ampyx. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 8, li. 316.

Ampyx, a son of Pelias. Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 18.――A man mentioned by Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 5, li. 184.――The father of Mopsus. Orpheus, Argonauts.—Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 17.

Amsactus, a lake in the country of the Hirpini, at the east of Capua, whose waters are so sulphureous that they infect and destroy whatever animals come near the place. It was through this place that Virgil made the fury Alecto descend into hell, after her visit to the upper regions. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 565.—Cicero, de Divinatione, bk. 1, ch. 36.

Amūlius, king of Alba, was son of Procas and youngest brother to Numitor. The crown belonged to Numitor by right of birth; but Amulius dispossessed him of it, and even put to death his son Lausus, and consecrated his daughter Rhea Sylvia to the service of Vesta, to prevent her ever becoming a mother. Yet, in spite of all these precautions, Rhea became pregnant by the god Mars, and brought forth twins, Romulus and Remus. Amulius, who was informed of this, ordered the mother to be buried alive for violating the laws of Vesta, which enjoined perpetual chastity, and the two children to be thrown into the river. They were providentially saved by some shepherds, or, as others say, by a she-wolf; and when they had attained the years of manhood, they put to death the usurper, Amulius, and restored the crown to their grandfather. Ovid, Fasti, bk. 3, li. 67.—Livy, bk. 1, chs. 3 & 4.—Plutarch, Romulus.—Florus, bk. 1, ch. 1.—Dionysius of Halicarnassus.――A celebrated painter. Pliny, bk. 35, ch. 10.

Amy̆ci Portus, a place in Pontus, famous for the death of Amycus king of the Bebryces. His tomb was covered with laurels, whose boughs, as is reported, when carried on board a ship, caused uncommon dissensions among the sailors. Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 32.—Arrian.

Amy̆cla, a daughter of Niobe, who, with her sister Melibœa, was spared by Diana, when her mother boasted herself greater than Diana. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 22.――Homer says that all the daughters perished. Iliad, bk. 24. See: Niobe.――The nurse of Alcibiades.

Amy̆clæ, a town of Italy between Caieta and Tarracina, built by the companions of Castor and Pollux. The inhabitants were strict followers of the precepts of Pythagoras, and therefore abstained from flesh. They were killed by serpents, which they thought impious to destroy, though in their own defence. Pliny, bk. 8, ch. 29. Once a report prevailed in Amyclæ that the enemies were coming to storm it; upon which the inhabitants made a law that forbade such a report to be credited, and when the enemy really arrived, no one mentioned it, or took up arms in his own defence, and the town was easily taken. From this circumstance the epithet of tacitæ has been given to Amyclæ. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 10, li. 564.—Silius Italicus, bk. 8, li. 529.――A city of Peloponnesus, built by Amyclas. Castor and Pollux were born there. The country was famous for dogs. Apollo, called Amyclæus, had a rich and magnificent temple there, surrounded with delightful groves. Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 18.—Statius, Thebiad, bk. 4, li. 223.—Strabo, bk. 8.—Virgil, Georgics, bk. 3, li. 345.—Ovid, de Ars Amatoria, bk. 2, li. 5.

Amyclæus, a statuary. Pausanias, bk. 10, ch. 13.――A surname of Apollo.

Amyclas, son of Lacedæmon and Sparta, built the city of Amyclæ. His sister Eurydice married Acrisius king of Argos, by whom she had Danae. Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 1; bk. 7, ch. 18.――The master of a ship in which Cæsar embarked in disguise. When Amyclas wished to put back to avoid a violent storm, Cæsar, unveiling his head, discovered himself, and bidding the pilot pursue his voyage, exclaimed, Cæsarem vehis, Cæsarisque fortunam. Lucan, bk. 5, li. 520.

Amy̆cus, son of Neptune by Melia, or Bithynis, according to others, was king of the Bebryces. He was famous for his skill in the management of the cestus, and he challenged all strangers to a trial of strength. When the Argonauts, in their expedition, stopped on his coasts, he treated them with great kindness, and Pollux accepted his challenge, and killed him when he attempted to overcome him by fraud. Apollonius, bk. 2, Argonautica.—Theocritus, Idylls, poem 22.—Apollonius, bk. 1, ch. 9.――One of the companions of Æneas, who almost perished in a storm on the coast of Africa. He was killed by Turnus. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 1, li. 225; bk. 9, li. 772.――Another, likewise killed by Turnus. Ibis, bk. 12, li. 509.――A son of Ixion and the cloud.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 12, li. 245.

Amy̆don, a city of Pæonia in Macedonia, which sent auxiliaries to Priam during the Trojan war. Homer, Iliad, bk. 2.

Amȳmōne, daughter of Danaus and Europa, married Enceladus son of Ægyptus, whom she murdered the first night of her nuptials. She wounded a satyr with an arrow which she had aimed at a stag. The satyr pursued her, and even offered her violence, but Neptune delivered her. It was said that she was the only one of the 50 sisters who was not condemned to fill a leaky tub with water in hell, because she had been continually employed, by order of her father, in supplying the city of Argos with water in a great drought. Neptune saw her in this employment, and was enamoured of her. He carried her away, and in the place where she stood, he raised a fountain by striking a rock. The fountain has been called Amymone. She had Nauplius by Neptune. Propertius, bk. 2, poem 26, li. 46.—Apollodorus, bk. 2.—Strabo, bk. 8.—Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 37.—Ovid, Amores, bk. 1, li. 515.—Hyginus, fable 169.――A fountain and rivulet of Peloponnesus, flowing through Argolis into the lake of Lerna. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 2, li. 240.

Amyntas I., was king of Macedonia after his father Alcetas. His son Alexander murdered the ambassadors of Megabyzus, for their wanton and insolent behaviour to the ladies of his father’s court. Bubares, a Persian general, was sent with an army to revenge the death of the ambassadors; but instead of making war, he married the king’s daughter, and defended his possessions. Justin, bk. 7, ch. 3.—Herodotus, bks. 5, 7, & 8.――The second of that name was son of Menelaus, and king of Macedonia after his murder of Pausanias. He was expelled by the Illyrians, and restored by the Thessalians and Spartans. He made war against the Illyrians and Olynthians, and lived to a great age. His wife Eurydice conspired against his life; but her snares were seasonably discovered by one of his daughters by a former wife. He had Alexander, Perdiccas, and Philip, Alexander the Great’s father, by his first wife; and by the other he had Archelaus, Aridæus, and Menelaus. He reigned 24 years; and soon after his death his son Philip murdered all his brothers, and ascended the throne.—Justin, bk. 7, chs. 4 & 9.—Diodorus, bk. 14, &c.Cornelius Nepos & Plutarch, Pelopidas.――There is another king of Macedonia of the same name, but of his life few particulars are recorded in history.――A man who succeeded Dejotarus, in the kingdom of Gallogræcia. After his death it became a Roman province under Augustus. Strabo, bk. 12.――One of Alexander’s officers.――Another officer who deserted to Darius, and was killed as he attempted to seize Egypt. Curtius, bk. 3, ch. 9.――A son of Antiochus, who withdrew himself from Macedonia, because he hated Alexander.――An officer in Alexander’s cavalry. He had two brothers, called Simias and Polemon. He was accused of a conspiracy against the king, on account of his great intimacy with Philotas, and acquitted. Curtius, bk. 4, ch. 15; bk. 6, ch. 9; bk. 8, ch. 12.――A shepherd’s name in Virgil’s Eclogues.――A Greek writer who composed several works quoted by Athenæus, 10 & 12.

Amyntiānus, an historian in the age of Antoninus, who wrote a treatise in commendation of Philip, Olympias, and Alexander.

Amyntor, a king of Argos, son of Phrastor. He deprived his son Phœnix of his eyes, to punish him for the violence which he had offered to Clytia his concubine. Hyginus, fable 173.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 8, li. 307.—Apollodorus, bk. 3.—Homer, Iliad, bk. 9.――A general of the Dolopes. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 12, li. 364.――A son of Ægyptus, killed by Damone the first night of his marriage. Hyginus, fable 170.

Amyris, a man of Sybaris, who consulted the oracle of Delphi concerning the probable duration of his country’s prosperity, &c.

Amyrīcus Campus, a plain of Thessaly. Polybius, bk. 3.

Amyrius, a king by whom Cyrus was killed in a battle. Ctesias.

Amy̆rus, a town of Thessaly.――A river mentioned by Valerius Flaccus, bk. 2, li. 11.

Amystis, a river of India falling into the Ganges. Arrian, Indica.

Amythāon, a son of Cretheus king of Iolchos, by Tyro. He married Idomene, by whom he had Bias and Melampus. After his father’s death, he established himself in Messenia with his brother Neleus, and re-established or regulated the Olympic games. Melampus is called Amythaonius, from his father Amythaon. Virgil, Georgics, bk. 3, li. 550.—Diodorus, bk. 4.—Apollodorus, bk. 1.—Homer, Odyssey, bk. 11.――A son of Hippasus, who assisted Priam in the Trojan war, and was killed by Lycomedes. Homer, Iliad, bk. 17.

Amytis, a daughter of Astyages, whom Cyrus married. Ctesias.――A daughter of Xerxes, who married Megabyzus, and disgraced herself by her debaucheries.

Anăces, or Anactes, a name given to Castor and Pollux among the Athenians. Their festivals were called Anaceia. Plutarch, Theseus.—Cicero, de Natura Deorum, bk. 3, ch. 21.

Anacharsis, a Scythian philosopher, 592 B.C., who, on account of his wisdom, temperance, and extensive knowledge, has been called one of the seven wise men. Like his countrymen, he made use of a cart instead of a house. He was wont to compare laws to cobwebs, which can stop only small flies, and are unable to resist the superior force of large insects. When he returned to Scythia from Athens, where he had spent some time in study, and in the friendship of Solon, he attempted to introduce there the laws of the Athenians, which so irritated his brother, who was then on the throne, that he killed him with an arrow. Anacharsis has rendered himself famous among the ancients by his writings, and his poems on war, the laws of Scythia, &c. Two of his letters to Crœsus and Hanno are still extant. Later authors have attributed to him the invention of tinder, of anchors, and of the potter’s wheel. The name of Anacharsis is become very familiar to modern ears, by that elegant, valuable, and truly classical work of Barthelemi, called the travels of Anacharsis. Herodotus, bk. 4, chs. 56, 47, & 48.—Plutarch, Quæstiones Convivales.—Cicero, Tusculanæ Disputationes, bk. 5, ch. 32.—Strabo, bk. 7.

Anacium, a mountain with a temple sacred to the Anaces in Peloponnesus. Polyænus, bk. 1, ch. 21.

Anacreon, a famous lyric poet of Teos in Ionia, highly favoured by Polycrates and Hipparchus son of Pisistratus. He was of a lascivious and intemperate disposition, much given to drinking, and deeply enamoured of a youth called Bathyllus. His odes are still extant, and the uncommon sweetness and elegance of his poetry have been the admiration of every age and country. He lived to his 85th year, and, after every excess of pleasure and debauchery, choked himself with a grape stone and expired. Plato says that he was descended from an illustrious family, and that Codrus, the last king of Athens, was one of his progenitors. His statue was placed in the citadel of Athens, representing him as an old drunken man, singing, with every mark of dissipation and intemperance. Anacreon flourished 532 B.C. All that he wrote is not extant; his odes were first published by H. Stephens, with an elegant translation. The best editions of Anacreon are that of Maittaire, 4to, London, 1725, of which only 100 copies were printed, and the very correct one of Barnes, 12mo, Cambridge, 1721, to which may be added that of Brunck, 12mo, Strasbourg, 1778. Pausanias, bk. 1, chs. 2, 25.—Strabo, bk. 14.—Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 9, ch. 4.—Cicero, Tusculanæ Disputationes, bk. 4, ch. 33.—Horace, epode 14, li. 20.—Pliny, bk. 7, ch. 7.—Herodotus, bk. 3, ch. 121.

Anactoria and Anactorium, a town of Epirus, in a peninsula towards the gulf of Ambracia. It was founded by a Corinthian colony, and was the cause of many quarrels between the Corcyreans and Corinthians. Augustus carried the inhabitants to the city of Nicopolis, after the battle of Actium. Strabo, bk. 10.—Thucydides, bk. 1, ch. 55.—Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 1; bk. 5, ch. 29.――An ancient name of Miletus.

Anactŏrie, a woman of Lesbos, wantonly loved by Sappho. Ovid, Heroides, poem 15, li. 17.

Anadyomĕne, a valuable painting of Venus, represented as rising from the sea, by Apelles. Augustus bought it and placed it in the temple of Julius Cæsar. The lower part of it was a little defaced, and there were found no painters in Rome able to repair it. Pliny, bk. 35, ch. 10.

Anagnia, now Anagni, a city of the Hernici in Latium, where Antony struck a medal when he divorced Octavia and married Cleopatra. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 684.—Strabo, bk. 5.—Silius Italicus, bk. 8, li. 392.

Anagogia, a festival, celebrated by the people of Eryx in Sicily, in honour of Venus. Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 1, ch. 15; Natura Animalium, bk. 4, ch. 2.

Anagyrontum, a small village of Attica. Herodotus.

Anaītis, a goddess of Armenia. The virgins who were consecrated to her service, esteemed themselves more dignified by public prostitution. The festivals of the deity were called Sacarum Festa; and when they were celebrated both sexes assisted at the ceremony, and inebriated themselves to such a degree, that the whole was concluded by a scene of the greatest lasciviousness and intemperance. They were first instituted by Cyrus, when he marched against the Sacæ, and covered tables with the most exquisite dainties, that he might detain the enemy by the novelty and sweetness of food to which they were unaccustomed, and thus easily destroy them. Strabo.――Diana is also worshipped under this name by the Lydians. Pliny, bk. 33, ch. 4.

Ananias, an Iambic poet. Athenæus.

Anăphe, an island that rose out of the Cretan sea, and received this name from the Argonauts, who, in the middle of a storm, suddenly saw the new moon. Apollo was worshipped there, and called Anaphæus. Apollonius.

Anaphlystus, a small village of Attica near the sea, called after an ancient hero of the same name, who was son of Trœzen.――A small village near Athens.

Anāpus, a river of Epirus. Thucydides, bk. 2, ch. 82.――Of Sicily, near Syracuse. Thucydides, bk. 6, ch. 96.

Anartes, a people of Lower Pannonia. Cæsar, Gallic War, bk. 6, ch. 25.

Anas, a river of Spain, now called Guadiana. Strabo, bk. 3.

Anatŏle, one of the Horæ. Hyginus, fable 183.――A mountain near the Ganges, where Apollo ravished a nymph called Anaxibia.

Anauchĭdas, a Samian wrestler. Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 27.

Anaurus, a river of Thessaly, near the foot of mount Pelion, where Jason lost one of his sandals. Callimachus, Diana [Artemis].――A river of Troas near Ida. Colluthus.

Anausis, one of Medea’s suitors, killed by Styrus. Valerius Flaccus, bk. 6, li. 43.

Anax, a son of Cœlus and Terra, father to Asterius, from whom Miletus has been called Anactoria. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 36; bk. 7, ch. 2.

Anaxagŏras, succeeded his father Megapenthes on the throne of Argos. He shared the sovereign power with Bias and Melampus, who had cured the women of Argos of madness. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 18.――A Clazomenian philosopher, son of Hegesibulus, disciple to Anaximes and preceptor to Socrates and Euripides. He disregarded wealth and honours, to indulge his fondness for meditation and philosophy. He applied himself to astronomy, was acquainted with eclipses, and predicted that one day a stone would fall from the sun, which it is said really fell into the river Ægos. Anaxagoras travelled into Egypt for improvement, and used to say that he preferred a grain of wisdom to heaps of gold. Pericles was in the number of his pupils, and often consulted him in matters of state; and once dissuaded him from starving himself to death. The ideas of Anaxagoras concerning the heavens were wild and extravagant. He supposed that the sun was inflammable matter, about the bigness of Peloponnesus; and that the moon was inhabited. The heavens he believed to be of stone, and the earth of similar materials. He was accused of impiety and condemned to die; but he ridiculed the sentence, and said it had long been pronounced upon him by nature. Being asked whether his body should be carried into his own country, he answered, no, as the road that led to the other side of the grave was as long from one place as the other. His scholar Pericles pleaded eloquently and successfully for him, and the sentence of death was exchanged for banishment. In prison, the philosopher is said to have attempted to square the circle, or determine exactly the proportion of its diameter to the circumference. When the people of Lampsacus asked him before his death whether he wished anything to be done in commemoration of him, “Yes,” said he, “let the boys be allowed to play on the anniversary of my death.” This was carefully observed, and that time, dedicated to relaxation, was called Anaxagoreia. He died at Lampsacus in his 72nd year, 428 B.C. His writings were not much esteemed by his pupil Socrates. Diogenes Laërtius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers.—Plutarch, Nicias & Pericles.—Cicero, Academicæ quaestiones, bk. 4, ch. 23; Tusculanæ Disputationes, bk. 1, ch. 43.――A statuary of Ægina. Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 23.――A grammarian, disciple to Zenodotus. Diogenes Laërtius.――An orator, disciple to Socrates. Diogenes Laërtius.――A son of Echeanox, who, with his brothers Codrus and Diodorus, destroyed Hegesias tyrant of Ephesus.

Anaxander, of the family of the Heraclidæ, was son of Eurycrates and king of Sparta. The second Messenian war began in his reign, in which Aristomenes so egregiously signalized himself. His son was called Eurycrates. Herodotus, bk. 2, ch. 204.—Plutarch, Apophthegmata Laconica.—Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 3; bk. 4, chs. 15 & 16.――A general of Megalopolis, taken by the Thebans.

Anaxandrĭdes, son of Leon and father to Cleomenes I. and Leonidas, was king of Sparta. By the order of the Ephori, he divorced his wife, of whom he was extremely fond, on account of her barrenness; and he was the first Lacedæmonian who had two wives. Herodotus, bks. 1, 5, & 7.—Plutarch, Apophthegmata Laconica, bk. 1.—Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 3, &c.――A son of Theopompus. Herodotus, bk. 8, ch. 131.――A comic poet of Rhodes in the age of Philip and Alexander. He was the first poet who introduced intrigues and rapes upon the stage. He was of such a passionate disposition, that he tore to pieces all his compositions which met with no success. He composed about 100 plays, of which 10 obtained the prize. Some fragments of his poetry remain in Athenæus. He was starved to death by order of the Athenians, for satirizing their government. Aristotle, bk. 3, Rhetoric.

Anaxarchus, a philosopher of Abdera, one of the followers of Democritus, and the friend of Alexander. When the monarch had been wounded in a battle, the philosopher pointed to the place, adding, “That is human blood, and not the blood of a god.” The freedom of Anaxarchus offended Nicocreon, and after Alexander’s death, the tyrant, in revenge, seized the philosopher, and pounded him in a stone mortar with iron hammers. He bore this with much resignation, and exclaimed, “Pound the body of Anaxarchus, for thou dost not pound his soul.” Upon this Nicocreon threatened to cut his tongue, and Anaxarchus bit it off with his teeth, and spit it out into the tyrant’s face. Ovid, Ibis, li. 571.—Plutarch, Convivium Septem Sapientium, ch. 7.—Diogenes Laërtius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers.—Cicero, Tusculanæ Disputationes, bk. 2, ch. 22.――A Theban general. Thucydides, bk. 8, ch. 100.

Anaxarĕte, a girl of Salamis, who so arrogantly despised the addresses of Iphis, a youth of ignoble birth, that the lover hung himself at her door. She saw this sad spectacle without emotion or pity, and was changed into a stone. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 14, li. 748.

Anaxēnor, a musician, whom Marcus Antony greatly honoured, and presented with the tribute of four cities. Strabo, bk. 14.

Anaxias, a Theban general. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 22.

Anaxibia, a sister of Agamemnon, mother of seven sons and two daughters by Nestor. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 29.――A daughter of Bias, brother to the physician Melampus. She married Pelias king of Iolchos, by whom she had Acastus and four daughters—Pisidice, Pelopea, Hippothoe, and Alceste. Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 9.――She is called daughter of Dymas by Hyginus, fable 14.

Anaxicrătes, an Athenian archon. Pausanias, bk. 10, ch. 23.

Anaxidămus, succeeded his father Zeuxidamus on the throne of Sparta. Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 7; bk. 4, ch. 15.

Anaxĭlas and Anaxĭlaus, a Messenian, tyrant of Rhegium. He took Zancle, and was so mild and popular during his reign, that when he died, 476 B.C., he left his infant sons to the care of one of his servants, and the citizens chose rather to obey a slave than revolt from their benevolent sovereign’s children. Justin, bk. 3, ch. 2.—Pausanias, bk. 4, ch. 23; bk. 5, ch. 27.—Thucydides, bk. 6, ch. 5.—Herodotus, bk. 6, ch. 23; bk. 7, ch. 167.――A magician of Larissa, banished from Italy by Augustus.――A Pythagorean philosopher.――A physician. Pliny, bk. 19, ch. 1.――An historian, who began his history with bitter invectives against former writers. Dionysius of Halicarnassus.――A Lacedæmonian. Plutarch, Alcibiades.――A comic writer, about the 100th Olympiad.

Anaxilĭdes, wrote some treatises concerning philosophers, and mentioned that Plato’s mother became pregnant by a phantom of the god Apollo, from which circumstance her son was called the prince of wisdom. Diogenes Laërtius, Plutarch.

Anaximander, a Milesian philosopher, the companion and disciple of Thales. He was the first who constructed spheres, asserted that the earth was of a cylindrical form, and taught that men were born of earth and water mixed together, and heated by the beams of the sun; that the earth moved, and that the moon received light from the sun, which he considered as a circle of fire like a wheel, about 28 times bigger than the earth. He made the first geographical maps and sun-dials. He died in the 64th year of his age, B.C. 547. Cicero, Academicæ Quæstiones, bk. 4, ch. 37.—Diogenes Laërtius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers.—Pliny, bk. 2, ch. 70.—Plutarch, Quæstiones Convivales. He had a son who bore his name. Strabo, bk. 1.

Anaximĕnes, a philosopher, son of Erasistratus and disciple of Anaximander, whom he succeeded in his school. He said that the air was the cause of every created being, and a self-existent divinity, and that the sun, the moon, and the stars, had been made from the earth. He considered the earth as a plain, and the heavens as a solid concave figure, on which the stars were fixed like nails, an opinion prevalent at that time, and from which originated the proverb, τι εἰ οὐρανος ἐμπεσοι, if the heavens should fall? to which Horace has alluded, bk. 3, Odes, poem 3, li. 7. He died 504 years B.C. Cicero, Academicæ Quæstiones, bk. 4, ch. 37; de Natura Deorum, bk. 1, ch. 10.—Plutarch, Quæstiones Convivales.—Pliny, bk. 2, ch. 76.――A native of Lampsacus, son of Aristocles. He was pupil to Diogenes the cynic, and preceptor to Alexander the Great, of whose life, and that of Philip, he wrote the history. When Alexander, in a fit of anger, threatened to put to death all the inhabitants of Lampsacus, because they had maintained a long siege against him, Anaximenes was sent by his countrymen to appease the king, who, as soon as he saw him, swore he would not grant the favour he was going to ask. Upon this, Anaximenes begged the king to destroy the city and enslave the inhabitants, and by this artful request the city of Lampsacus was saved from destruction. Besides the life of Philip and his son, he wrote a history of Greece, in 12 books, all now lost. His nephew bore the same name, and wrote an account of ancient paintings. Pausanias, bk. 6, ch. 18.—Valerius Maximus, bk. 7, ch. 3.—Diogenes Laërtius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers.

Anaxipŏlis, a comic poet of Thasos. Pliny, bk. 14, ch. 14.――A writer on agriculture, likewise of Thasos.

Anaxippus, a comic writer in the age of Demetrius. He used to say, that philosophers were wise only in their speeches, but fools in their actions. Athenæus.

Anaxirrhoe, a daughter of Coronus, who married Epeus. Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 1.

Anaxis, a Bœotian historian, who wrote a history down to the age of Philip son of Amyntas. Diodorus, bk. 25.――A son of Castor and Hilaira.

Anaxo, a virgin of Trœzene carried away by Theseus. Plutarch, Theseus.――A daughter of Alceus, mother of Alcmene by Electryon.

Ancæus, the son of Lycurgus and Antinoe, was in the expedition of the Argonauts. He was at the chase of the Calydonian boar, in which he perished. Hyginus, fables 173 & 248.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 8.――The son of Neptune and Astypalæa. He went with the Argonauts, and succeeded Tiphis as pilot of the ship Argo. He reigned in Ionia, where he married Samia daughter of the Mæander, by whom he had four sons, Perilas, Enudus, Samus, Alithersus, and one daughter called Parthenope. Orpheus, Argonauts. He was once told by one of his servants, whom he pressed with hard labour in his vineyard, that he never would taste of the produce of his vines. He had already the cup in his hand, and called the prophet to convince him of his falsehood; when the servant, yet firm in his prediction, uttered this well-known proverb:

Πολλα μεταξυ πελει κυλικος και χειλεος ακρου.

Multa cadunt inter calicem supremaque labra.

At that very moment Ancæus was told that a wild boar had entered his vineyard; upon which he threw down the cup, and ran to drive away the wild beast. He was killed in the attempt.

Ancalītes, a people of Britain near the Trinobantes. Cæsar, Gallic War, bk. 5, ch. 21.

Ancarius, a god of the Jews. See: Anchialus.

Ancharia, a family of Rome.――The name of Octavia’s mother. Plutarch, Antonius.

Ancharius, a noble Roman killed by the partisans of Marius during the civil wars with Sylla. Plutarch, Marius.

Anchemŏlus, son of Rhœtus king of the Marrubii in Italy, ravished his mother-in-law Casperia, for which he was expelled by his father. He fled to Turnus, and was killed by Pallas son of Evander, in the wars of Æneas against the Latins. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 10, li. 389.

Anchesītes, a wind which blows from Achisa, a harbour of Epirus. Cicero, Letters to Atticus, bk. 7, ltr. 1.—Dionysius of Halicarnassus.

Anchesmus, a mountain of Attica, where Jupiter Anchesmius had a statue.

Anchiăle and Anchiala, a city on the sea coast of Cilicia. Sardanapalus, the last king of Assyria, built it, with Tarsus in its neighbourhood, in one day. Strabo, bk. 14.—Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 27. The founder was buried there, and had a statue, under which was a famous inscription in the Syrian language, denoting the great intemperance and dissipation which distinguished all his life. There was a city of the same name in Thrace, called by Ovid the city of Apollo. There was another in Epirus. Ovid, Tristia, bk. 1, poem 10, li. 36.—Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 11.—Mela, bk. 2, ch. 2.

Anchiălus, a famous astrologer.――A great warrior, father of Mentes.――One of the Phæacians. Homer, Odyssey.――A god of the Jews, as some suppose, in Martial’s epigrams, bk. 11, ltr. 95.

Anchimolius, a Spartan general sent against the Pisistratidæ, and killed in the expedition. Herodotus, bk. 5, ch. 63.――A son of Rhœtus. See: Anchemolus.

Anchinoe, a daughter of Nilus and wife of Belus. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 1.

Anchion. See: Chion.

Anchīse, a city of Italy. Dionysius of Halicarnassus.

Anchīses, a son of Capys by Themis daughter of Ilus. He was of such a beautiful complexion, that Venus came down from heaven on mount Ida, in the form of a nymph, to enjoy his company. The goddess became pregnant, and forbade Anchises ever to mention the favours he had received, on pain of being struck with thunder. The child which Venus brought forth was called Æneas; he was educated as soon as born by the nymphs of Ida, and, when of a proper age, was entrusted to the care of Chiron the centaur. When Troy was taken, Anchises was become so infirm that Æneas, to whom the Greeks permitted to take away whatever he esteemed most, carried him through the flames upon his shoulders, and thus saved his life. He accompanied his son in his voyage towards Italy, and died in Sicily, in the 80th year of his age. He was buried on mount Eryx by Æneas and Acestes king of the country, and the anniversary of his death was afterwards celebrated by his son and the Trojans on his tomb. Some authors have maintained that Anchises had forgot the injunctions of Venus, and boasted at a feast that he enjoyed her favours on mount Ida, upon which he was killed with thunder. Others say that the wounds he received from the thunder were not mortal, and that they only weakened and disfigured his body. Virgil, in the sixth book of the Æneid, introduces him in the Elysian fields, relating to his son the fates that were to attend him, and the fortune of his descendants the Romans. See: Æneas. Virgil, Æneid, bks. 1, 2, &c.Hyginus, fables 94, 254, 260, 270.—Hesiod, Theogony, li. 1010.—Apollodorus, bk. 3.—Ovid, Fasti, bk. 4, li. 34.—Homer, Iliad, bk. 20, & Hymn to Aphrodite.—Xenophon, On Hunting, ch. 1.—Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 1, Roman Antiquities.—Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 12, says that Anchises was buried on a mountain in Arcadia, which, from him, has been called Anchisia.――An Athenian archon. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 8.

Anchīsia, a mountain of Arcadia, at the bottom of which was a monument of Anchises. Pausanias, bk. 8, chs. 12 & 13.

Anchīsiădes, a patronymic of Æneas, as being the son of Anchises. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 9, li. 348, &c.

Anchoe, a place near the mouth of the Cephisus, where there is a lake of the same name. Strabo.

Anchŏra, a fortified place in Galatia.

Anchūrus, a son of Midas king of Phrygia, who sacrificed himself for the good of his country when the earth had opened and swallowed up many buildings. The oracle had been consulted, and gave for answer, that the gulf would never close, if Midas did not throw into it whatever he had most precious. Though the king had parted with many things of immense value, yet the gulf continued open, till Anchurus, thinking himself the most precious of his father’s possessions, took a tender leave of his wife and family, and leaped into the earth, which closed immediately over his head. Midas erected there an altar of stones to Jupiter, and that altar was the first object which he turned to gold, when he had received his fatal gift from the gods. This unpolished lump of gold existed still in the age of Plutarch. Plutarch, Parallela minora.

Ancīle and Ancy̆le, a sacred shield, which, according to the Roman authors, fell from heaven in the reign of Numa, when the Roman people laboured under a pestilence. Upon the preservation of this shield depended the fate of the Roman empire, and therefore Numa ordered 11 of the same size and form to be made, that if ever any attempt was made to carry them away, the plunderer might find it difficult to distinguish the true one. They were made with such exactness, that the king promised Veterius Mamurius, the artist, whatever reward he desired. See: Mamurius. They were kept in the temple of Vesta, and an order of priests was chosen to watch over their safety. These priests were called Salii, and were 12 in number; they carried, every year on the 1st of March, the shields in a solemn procession round the walls of Rome, dancing and singing praises to the god Mars. This sacred festival continued three days, during which every important business was stopped. It was deemed unfortunate to be married on those days, or to undertake any expedition; and Tacitus, bk. 1, Histories, has attributed the unsuccessful campaign of the emperor Otho against Vitellius to his leaving Rome during the celebration of the Ancyliorum festum. These two verses of Ovid explain the origin of the word Ancyle, which is applied to these shields:

Idque ancyle vocat, quod ab omni parte recisum est,

Quemque notes oculis, angulus omnis abest.

Fasti, bk. 3, li. 377, &c.

Varro, de Lingua Latina, bk. 5, ch. 6.—Valerius Maximus, bk. 1, ch. 1.—Juvenal, satire 2, li. 124.—Plutarch, Numa.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 8, li. 664.—Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 2.—Livy, bk. 1, ch. 20.

Ancon and Ancōna, a town of Picenum, built by the Sicilians, with a harbour in the form of a crescent or elbow (ἀγχων), on the shores of the Adriatic. Near this place is the famous chapel of Loretto, supposed by monkish historians to have been brought through the air by angels, August 10, A.D. 1291, from Judæa, where it was a cottage, inhabited by the virgin Mary. The reputed sanctity of the place has often brought 100,000 pilgrims in one day to Loretto. Pliny, bk. 3, ch. 13.—Lucan, bk. 2, li. 402.—Silius Italicus, bk. 8, li. 437.

Ancus Martius, the fourth king of Rome, was grandson to Numa by his daughter. He waged a successful war against the Latins, Veientes, Fidenates, Volsci, and Sabines, and joined mount Janiculum to the city by a bridge, and inclosed mount Martius and the Aventine within the walls of the city. He extended the confines of the Roman territories to the sea, where he built the town of Ostia, at the mouth of the Tiber. He inherited the valour of Romulus with the moderation of Numa. He died B.C. 616, after a reign of 24 years, and was succeeded by Tarquin the elder. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 3, ch. 9.—Livy, bk. 1, ch. 32, &c.Florus, bk. 1, ch. 4.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 6, li. 815.

Ancȳræ, a town of Sicily.――A town of Phrygia. Pausanias, bk. 1.

Anda, a city of Africa. Polybius.

Andabătæ, certain gladiators who fought blindfolded, whence the proverb, Andabatarum more, to denote rash and inconsiderate measures. Cicero, bk. 6, Letters to his Friends, ltr. 10.

Andania, a city of Arcadia, where Aristomenes was educated. Pausanias, bk. 4, ch. 1, &c. It received its name from a gulf of the same name. Pausanias, bk. 4, ch. 33.

Andegavia, a country of Gaul, near the Turones and the ocean. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 3, ch. 41.

Andēra, a town of Phrygia.

Andes, a nation among the Celtæ, whose chief town is now Anjou. Cæsar, Gallic War, bk. 2, ch. 35.――A village of Italy, near Mantua, where Virgil was born, hence Andinus. Silius Italicus, bk. 8, li. 595.

Andocĭdes, an Athenian orator, son of Leogoras. He lived in the age of Socrates the philosopher, and was intimate with the most illustrious men of his age. He was often banished, but his dexterity always restored him to favour. Plutarch has written his life in Lives of the Ten Orators. Four of his orations are extant.

Andomătis, a river in India, falling into the Ganges. Arrian.

Andræmon, the father of Thoas. Hyginus, fable 97.――The son-in-law and successor of Œneus. Apollodorus, bk. 1.

Andragrathius, a tyrant defeated by Gratian, A.D. 383, &c.

Andragrăthus, a man bribed by Lysimachus to betray his country, &c. Polyænus, bk. 4, ch. 12.

Andragŏras, a man who died a sudden death. Martial, bk. 6, ltr. 53.

Andramy̆les, a king of Lydia, who castrated women, and made use of them as eunuchs. Athenæus.

Andrēas, a statuary of Argos. Pausanias, bk. 6, ch. 16.――A man of Panormum, who wrote an account of all the remarkable events that had happened in Sicily. Athenæus.――A son of the Peneus. Part of Bœotia, especially where Orchomenos was built, was called Andreis after him. Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 34, &c.

Andriclus, a mountain of Cilicia. Strabo, bk. 14.――A river of Troas, falling into the Scamander. Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 27.

Andriscus, a man who wrote a history of Naxos. Athenæus, bk. 1.――A worthless person called Pseudophilippus, on account of the likeness of his features to king Philip. He incited the Macedonians to revolt against Rome, and was conquered and led in triumph by Metellus, 152 B.C. Florus, bk. 2, ch. 14.

Androbius, a famous painter. Pliny, bk. 35, ch. 11.

Androclēa, a daughter of Antipœnus of Thebes. She, with her sister Alcida, sacrificed herself in the service of her country, when the oracle had promised the victory to her countrymen, who were engaged in a war against Orchomenos, if any one of noble birth devoted himself for the glory of his nation. Antipœnus refused to do it, and his daughters cheerfully accepted it, and received great honours after death. Hercules, who fought on the side of Thebes, dedicated to them the image of a lion in the temple of Diana. Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 17.

Andrōcles, a son of Phintas, who reigned in Messenia. Pausanias, bk. 4, ch. 5, &c.――A man who wrote a history of Cyprus.

Androclīdes, a noble Theban, who defended the democratical, against the encroachments of the oligarchical, power. He was killed by one of his enemies.――A sophist in the age of Aurelian, who gave an account of philosophers.

Androclus, a son of Codrus, who reigned in Ionia, and took Ephesus and Samos. Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 2.

Androcy̆des, a physician, who wrote the following letter to Alexander:—Vinum potaturus, Rex, memento te bibere sanguinem terræ, sicuti venenum est homini cicuta, sic et vinum. Pliny, bk. 14, ch. 5.

Androdămus. See: Andromadas.

Andrōdus, a slave known and protected in the Roman circus by a lion whose foot he had cured. Aulus Gellius, bk. 5, ch. 15.

Andrŏgeos, a Greek, killed by Æneas and his friends, whom he took to be his countrymen. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 2, li. 371.

Andrŏgeus, son of Minos and Pasiphae, was famous for his skill in wrestling. He overcame every antagonist at Athens, and became such a favourite of the people, that Ægeus king of the country grew jealous of his popularity, and caused him to be assassinated as he was going to Thebes. Some say that he was killed by the wild bull of Marathon. Minos declared war against Athens to revenge the death of his son, and peace was at last re-established on condition that Ægeus sent yearly seven boys and seven girls from Athens to Crete to be devoured by the Minotaur. See: Minotaurus. The Athenians established festivals by order of Minos, in honour of his son, and called them Androgeia. Hyginus, fable 41.—Diodorus, bk. 4.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 6, li. 20.—Pausanias, bk. 1, chs. 1 & 27.—Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 5; bk. 3, chs. 1 & 15.—Plutarch, Theseus.

Androgy̆næ, a fabulous nation of Africa, beyond the Nasamones. Every one of them bore the characteristics of the male and female sex; and one of their breasts was that of a man, and the other that of a woman. Lucretius, bk. 5, li. 837.—Pliny, bk. 7, ch. 2.

Andrŏmăche, a daughter of Eetion king of Thebes in Cilicia, married Hector son of Priam king of Troy, by whom she had Astyanax. She was so fond of her husband, that she even fed his horses with her own hand. During the Trojan war she remained at home employed in her domestic concerns. Her parting with Hector, who was going to a battle, in which he perished, has always been deemed the best, most tender and pathetic of all the passages in Homer’s Iliad. She received the news of her husband’s death with extreme sorrow; and after the taking of Troy, she had the misfortune to see her only son Astyanax, after she had saved him from the flames, thrown headlong from the walls of the city, by the hands of the man whose father had killed her husband. Seneca, Troades. Andromache, in the division of the prisoners by the Greeks, fell to the share of Neoptolemus, who treated her as his wife, and carried her to Epirus. He had by her three sons, Molossus, Piclus, and Pergamus, and afterwards repudiated her. After this divorce she married Helenus son of Priam, who, as herself, was a captive of Pyrrhus. She reigned with him over part of the country, and became mother by him of Cestrinus. Some say that Astyanax was killed by Ulysses, and Euripides says that Menelaus put him to death. Homer, Iliad, bks. 6, 22, & 24.—Quintus Calaber [Smyrnæus], bk. 1.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 3, li. 486.—Hyginus, fable 123.—Dares Phrygius.Ovid, Amores, bk. 1, poem 9, li. 35; Tristia, bk. 5, poem 6, li. 43.—Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 12.—Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 11.

Andromachidæ, a nation who presented to their king all the virgins who were of nubile years, and permitted him to use them as he pleased.

Andromăchus, an opulent person of Sicily, father to the historian Timæus. Diodorus, bk. 16. He assisted Timoleon in recovering the liberty of the Syracusans.――A general of Alexander, to whom Parmenio gave the government of Syria. He was burnt alive by the Samaritans. Curtius, bk. 4, chs. 5 & 8.――An officer of Seleucus the younger. Polyænus, bk. 4.――A poet of Byzantium.――A physician of Crete, in the age of Nero.――A sophist of Naples, in the age of Diocletian.

Andromădus, or Androdamus, a native of Rhegium, who made laws for the Thracians concerning the punishment of homicide, &c. Aristotle.

Andrŏmĕda, a daughter of Cepheus king of Æthiopia by Cassiope. She was promised in marriage to Phineus her uncle, when Neptune drowned the kingdom, and sent a sea monster to ravage the country, because Cassiope had boasted herself fairer than Juno and the Nereides. The oracle of Jupiter Ammon was consulted, and nothing could stop the resentment of Neptune, if Andromeda was not exposed to the sea monster. She was accordingly tied naked on a rock, and at the moment that the monster was going to devour her, Perseus, who returned through the air from the conquest of the Gorgons, saw her, and was captivated with her beauty. He promised to deliver her and destroy the monster, if he received her in marriage as a reward for his trouble. Cepheus consented, and Perseus changed the sea monster into a rock, by showing him Medusa’s head, and untied Andromeda and married her. He had by her many children, among whom were Sthenelus, Ancæus, and Electryon. The marriage of Andromeda with Perseus was opposed by Phineus, who, after a bloody battle, was changed into a stone by Perseus. Some say that Minerva made Andromeda a constellation in heaven after her death. See: Medusa, Perseus. Hyginus, fable 64.—Cicero, de Natura Deorum, bk. 2, ch. 43.—Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 4.—Marcus Manilius, bk. 5, li. 533.—Propertius, bk. 3, poem 21.――According to Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 31, it was at Joppa in Judæa that Andromeda was tied on a rock. He mentions that the skeleton of the huge sea monster, to which she had been exposed, was brought to Rome by Scaurus, and carefully preserved. The fable of Andromeda and the sea monster has been explained, by supposing that she was courted by the captain of a ship, who attempted to carry her away, but was prevented by the interposition of another more faithful lover.

Andron, an Argive, who travelled all over the deserts of Libya without drink. Aristotle’s book on Drunkenness [quoted in Apollonius] “Historiæ Mirabiles”.――A man set over the citadel of Syracuse by Dionysius. Hermocrates advised him to seize it and revolt from the tyrant, which he refused to do. The tyrant put him to death for not discovering that Hermocrates had incited him to rebellion. Polyænus, bk. 5, ch. 2.――A man of Halicarnassus, who composed some historical works. Plutarch, Theseus.――A native of Ephesus, who wrote an account of the seven wise men of Greece. Diogenes Laërtius.――A man of Argos.――Another of Alexandria, &c. Apollonius [Paradoxographus], Historiæ Mirabiles, ch. 25.—Athenæus.

reference edited for clarity

Andronīcus Livius. See: Livius.

Andronīcus, a peripatetic philosopher of Rhodes, who flourished 59 years B.C. He was the first who published and revised the works of Aristotle and Theophrastus. His periphrasis is extant, the best edition of which is that of Heinsius, 8vo, Leiden, 1617. Plutarch, Sulla.――A Latin poet in the age of Cæsar.――A Latin grammarian, whose life Suetonius has written.――A king of Lydia, surnamed Alpyus.――One of Alexander’s officers.――One of the officers of Antiochus Epiphanes.――An astronomer of Athens, who built a marble octagonal tower in honour of the eight principal winds, on the top of which was placed a Triton with a stick in his hand, pointing always to the side whence the wind blew.

Androphăgi, a savage nation of European Scythia. Herodotus, bk. 4, chs. 18, 102.

Andropompus, a Theban who killed Xanthus in a single combat by fraud. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 18.

Andros, an island in the Ægean sea, known by the different names of Epagrys, Antandros, Lasia, Cauros, Hydrussa, Nonagria. Its chief town was called Andros. It had a harbour, near which Bacchus had a temple, with a fountain, whose waters, during the ides of January, tasted like wine. It received the name of Andros from Andros son of Anius, one of its kings, who lived in the time of the Trojan war. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 13, li. 648.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 3, li. 80.—Juvenal, satire 3, li. 70.—Pliny, bk. 2, ch. 103.—Mela, bks. 1 & 2.

Androsthĕnes, one of Alexander’s generals, sent with a ship on the coast of Arabia. Arrian, bk. 7, ch. 10.—Strabo, bk. 16.――A governor of Thessaly, who favoured the interest of Pompey. He was conquered by Julius Cæsar. Cæsar, Civil War, bk. 3, ch. 80.――A statuary of Thebes. Pausanias, bk. 10, ch. 19.――A geographer in the age of Alexander.

Androtrion, a Greek, who wrote a history of Attica, and a treatise on agriculture. Pliny.Pausanias, bk. 10, ch. 8.

Anelontis, a river near Colophon. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 28.

Anerastus, a king of Gaul.

Anemolia, a city of Phocis, afterwards called Hyampolis. Strabo.

Anemōsa, a village of Arcadia. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 35.

Anfinomus and Anapius. Rather Amphinomus, which see.

Angelia, a daughter of Mercury.

Angelion, a statuary who made Apollo’s statue at Delphi. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 32.

Angĕlus, a son of Neptune, born in Chios, of a nymph whose name is unknown. Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 4.

Angītes, a river of Thrace falling into the Strymon. Herodotus, bk. 7, ch. 113.

Angli, a people of Germany at the north of the Elbe, from whom, as being a branch of the Saxons, the English have derived their name. Tacitus, Germania, ch. 40.

Angrus, a river of Illyricum, flowing in a northern direction. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 49.

Anguitia, a wood in the country of the Marsi, between the lake Fucinus and Alba. Serpents, it is said, could not injure the inhabitants, because they were descended from Circe, whose power over those venomous creatures has been much celebrated. Silius Italicus, bk. 8.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 759.

Ania, a Roman widow, celebrated for her beauty. One of her friends advised her to marry again. “No,” said she, “if I marry a man as affectionate as my first husband, I shall be apprehensive for his death; and if he is bad, why have him, after such a kind and indulgent one?”

Anicētus, a son of Hercules by Hebe the goddess of youth. Apollodorus, bk. 2.――A freedman who directed the education of Nero, and became the instrument of his crimes. Suetonius, Nero.

Anicia, a family at Rome, which, in the flourishing times of the republic, produced many brave and illustrious citizens.――A relation of Atticus. Cornelius Nepos.

Anicium, a town of Gaul. Cæsar, Gallic War, bk. 7.

Anicius Gallus, triumphed over the Illyrians and their king Gentius, and was propretor of Rome, A.U.C. 585.――A consul with Cornelius Cethegus, A.U.C. 594.――Probus, a Roman consul in the fourth century, famous for his humanity.

Anigrus, a river of Thessaly, where the centaurs washed the wounds which they had received from Hercules, and made the waters unwholesome. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 15, li. 281. The nymphs of this river are called Anigriades. Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 6.

Anio and Anien, now Taverone, a river of Italy, flowing through the country of Tibur, and falling into the river Tiber, about five miles at the north of Rome. It receives its name, as some suppose, from Anius, a king of Etruria, who drowned himself there when he could not recover his daughter, who had been carried away. Statius, bk. 1, Sylvæ, poem 3, li. 20.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 683.—Strabo, bk. 5.—Horace, bk. 1, ode 7, li. 13.—Plutarch, de Fortuna Romanorum.

Anitorgis, a city of Spain, near which a battle was fought between Asdrubal and the Scipios. Livy, bk. 25, ch. 33.

Anius, the son of Apollo and Rhea, was king of Delos and father of Andrus. He had by Dorippe three daughters, Oeno, Spermo, and Elais, to whom Bacchus had given the power of changing whatever they pleased into wine, corn, and oil. When Agamemnon went to the Trojan war, he wished to carry them with him to supply his army with provisions; but they complained to Bacchus, who changed them into doves. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 13, li. 642.—Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 1.—Diodorus, bk. 5.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 3, li. 80.

Anna, a goddess, in whose honour the Romans instituted festivals. She was, according to some, Anna the daughter of Belus and sister of Dido, who after her sister’s death fled from Carthage, which Jarbas had besieged, and came to Italy, where Æneas met her, as he walked on the banks of the Tiber, and gave her an honourable reception, for the kindnesses she had shown him when he was at Carthage. Lavinia the wife of Æneas was jealous of the tender treatment which was shown to Anna, and meditated her ruin. Anna was apprised of this by her sister in a dream, and she fled to the river Numicus, of which she became a deity, and ordered the inhabitants of the country to call her Anna Perenna, because she would remain for ever under the water. Her festivals were performed with many rejoicings, and the females often, in the midst of their cheerfulness, forgot their natural decency. They were introduced into Rome, and celebrated the 15th of March. The Romans generally sacrificed to her, to obtain a long and happy life: and thence the words Annare et Perennare. Some have supposed Anna to be the moon, quia mensibus impleat annum; others call her Themis, or Io, the daughter of Inachus, and sometimes Maia. Another more received opinion maintains that Anna was an old industrious woman of Bovillæ, who, when the Roman populace had fled from the city to mount Sacer, brought them cakes every day; for which kind treatment the Romans, when peace was re-established, decreed immortal honours to her whom they called Perenna, ab perennitate cultûs, and who, as they supposed, was become one of their deities. Ovid, Fasti, bk. 3, li. 653, &c.Silius Italicus, bk. 8, li. 79.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 4, lis. 9, 20, 421, & 500.

Anna Commena, a princess of Constantinople, known to the world for the Greek history which she wrote of her father Alexius, emperor of the east. The character of this history is not very high for authenticity or beauty of composition: the historian is lost in the daughter; and instead of simplicity of style and narrative, as Gibbon says, an elaborate affectation of rhetoric and science betrays in every page the vanity of a female author. The best edition of Anna Commena is that of Paris, folio, 1651.

Annæus, a Roman family, which was subdivided into the Lucani, Senecæ, Flori, &c.

Annāles, a chronological history which gives an account of all the important events of every year in a state, without entering into the causes which produced them. The annals of Tacitus may be considered in this light. In the first ages of Rome, the writing of the annals was one of the duties and privileges of the high priest; whence they have been called Annales Maximi, from the priest Pontifex Maximus, who consecrated them, and gave them as truly genuine and authentic.

Annālis lex, settled the age at which, among the Romans, a citizen could be admitted to exercise the offices of the state. This law originated in Athens, and was introduced in Rome. No man could be a knight before 18 years of age, nor be invested with the consular power before he had arrived to his 25th year.

Anniānus, a poet in the age of Trajan.

Annĭbal, a celebrated Carthaginian general, son of Amilcar. He was educated in his father’s camp, and inured from his early years to the labours of the field. He passed into Spain when nine years old, and, at the request of his father, took a solemn oath that he never would be at peace with the Romans. After his father’s death, he was appointed over the cavalry in Spain; and some time after, upon the death of Asdrubal, he was invested with the command of all the armies of Carthage, though not yet in the 25th year of his age. In three years of continual success, he subdued all the nations of Spain which opposed the Carthaginian power, and took Saguntum after a siege of eight months. This city was in alliance with the Romans, and its fall was the cause of the second Punic war, which Annibal prepared to support with all the courage and prudence of a consummate general. He levied three large armies, one of which he sent to Africa; he left another in Spain, and marched at the head of the third towards Italy. This army some have calculated at 20,000 foot and 6000 horse; others say that it consisted of 100,000 foot and 20,000 horse. Livy, bk. 21, ch. 38. He came to the Alps, which were deemed almost inaccessible, and had never been passed over before him but by Hercules, and after much trouble he gained the top in nine days. He conquered the uncivilized inhabitants that opposed his passage, and, after the amazing loss of 30,000 men, made his way so easy, by softening the rocks with fire and vinegar, that even his armed elephants descended the mountains without danger or difficulty, where a man, disencumbered of his arms, could not walk before in safety. He was opposed by the Romans as soon as he entered Italy; and after he had defeated Publius Cornelius Scipio and Sempronius, near the Rhone, the Po, and the Trebia, he crossed the Apennines and invaded Etruria. He defeated the army of the consul Flaminius near the lake Thrasymenus, and soon after met the two consuls Culleo Terentius and Lucius Æmilius at Cannæ. His army consisted of 40,000 foot and 10,000 horse, when he engaged the Romans at the celebrated battle of Cannæ. The slaughter was so great, that no less than 40,000 Romans were killed, and the conqueror made a bridge with the dead carcases; and as a sign of his victory, he sent to Carthage three bushels of gold rings which had been taken from 5630 Roman knights slain in the battle. Had Annibal, immediately after the battle, marched his army to the gates of Rome, it must have yielded amidst the general consternation, if we believe the opinions of some writers; but his delay gave the enemy spirit and boldness, and when at last he approached the walls, he was informed that the piece of ground on which his army then stood was selling at a high price in the Roman forum. After hovering for some time round the city, he retired to Capua, where the Carthaginian soldiers soon forgot to conquer in the pleasures and riot of this luxurious city. From that circumstance it has been said, and with propriety, that Capua was a Cannæ to Annibal. After the battle of Cannæ the Romans became more cautious, and when the dictator Fabius Maximus had defied the artifice as well as the valour of Annibal, they began to look for better times. Marcellus, who succeeded Fabius in the field, first taught the Romans that Annibal was not invincible. After many important debates in the senate, it was decreed that war should be carried into Africa, to remove Annibal from the gates of Rome; and Scipio, who was the first proposer of the plan, was empowered to put it into execution. When Carthage saw the enemy on her coasts, she recalled Annibal from Italy; and that great general is said to have left, with tears in his eyes, a country which during 16 years he had kept under continual alarms, and which he could almost call his own. He and Scipio met near Carthage, and after a parley, in which neither would give the preference to his enemy, they determined to come to a general engagement. The battle was fought near Zama: Scipio made a great slaughter of the enemy, 20,000 were killed, and the same number made prisoners. Annibal, after he had lost the day, fled to Adrumetum. Soon after this decisive battle, the Romans granted peace to Carthage, on hard conditions; and afterwards Annibal, who was jealous and apprehensive of the Roman power, fled to Syria, to king Antiochus, whom he advised to make war against Rome, and lead an army into the heart of Italy. Antiochus distrusted the fidelity of Annibal, and was conquered by the Romans, who granted him peace on the condition of his delivering their mortal enemy into their hands. Annibal, who was apprised of this, left the court of Antiochus, and fled to Prusias king of Bithynia. He encouraged him to declare war against Rome, and even assisted him in weakening the power of Eumenes king of Pergamus, who was in alliance with the Romans. The senate received intelligence that Annibal was in Bithynia, and immediately sent ambassadors, amongst whom was Lucius Quintus Flaminius, to demand him of Prusias. The king was unwilling to betray Annibal and violate the laws of hospitality, but at the same time he dreaded the power of Rome. Annibal extricated him from his embarrassment, and when he heard that his house was besieged on every side, and all means of escape fruitless, he took a dose of poison, which he always carried with him in a ring on his finger; and as he breathed his last, he exclaimed, Solvamus diuturnâ curâ populum Romanum, quando mortem senis expectare longum censet. He died in his 70th year, according to some, about 182 years B.C. That year was famous for the death of the three greatest generals of the age, Annibal, Scipio, and Philopœmen. The death of so formidable a rival was the cause of great rejoicing in Rome; he had always been a professed enemy to the Roman name, and ever endeavoured to destroy its power. If he shone in the field, he also distinguished himself by his studies. He was taught Greek by Sosilus, a Lacedæmonian, and he even wrote some books in that language on different subjects. It is remarkable that the life of Annibal, whom the Romans wished so many times to destroy by perfidy, was never attempted by any of his soldiers or countrymen. He made himself as conspicuous in the government of the state as at the head of armies, and though his enemies reproached him with the rudeness of laughing in the Carthaginian senate, while every senator was bathed in tears for the misfortunes of the country, Annibal defended himself by saying that he, who had been bred all his life in a camp, ought to be dispensed with all the more polished feelings of a capital. He was so apprehensive for his safety, that when he was in Bithynia his house was fortified like a castle, and on every side there were secret doors which could give immediate escape if his life was ever attempted. When he quitted Italy, and embarked on board a vessel for Africa, he so strongly suspected the fidelity of his pilot, who told him that the lofty mountains which appeared at a distance was a promontory of Sicily, that he killed him on the spot; and when he was convinced of his fatal error, he gave a magnificent burial to the man whom he had so falsely murdered, and called the promontory by his name. The labours which he sustained, and the inclemency of the weather to which he exposed himself in crossing the Alps, so weakened one of his eyes, that he ever after lost the use of it. The Romans have celebrated the humanity of Annibal, who, after the battle of Cannæ, sought the body of the fallen consul amidst the heaps of slain, and honoured it with a funeral becoming the dignity of Rome. He performed the same friendly offices to the remains of Marcellus and Tiberius Gracchus, who had fallen in battle. He often blamed the unsettled measures of his country; and when the enemy had thrown into his camp the head of his brother Asdrubal, who had been conquered as he came from Spain with a reinforcement into Italy, Annibal said that the Carthaginian arms would no longer meet with their usual success. Juvenal, in speaking of Annibal, observes that the ring which caused his death made a due atonement to the Romans for the many thousand rings which had been sent to Carthage from the battle of Cannæ. Annibal, when in Spain, married a woman of Castulo. The Romans entertained such a high opinion of him as a commander, that Scipio, who conquered him, calls him the greatest general that ever lived, and gives the second rank to Pyrrhus the Epirot, and places himself the next to these in merit and abilities. It is plain that the failure of Annibal’s expedition in Italy did not arise from his neglect, but from that of his countrymen, who gave him no assistance; far from imitating their enemies of Rome, who even raised in one year 18 legions to oppose the formidable Carthaginian. Livy has painted the character of Annibal like an enemy, and it is much to be lamented that this celebrated historian has withheld the tribute due to the merits and virtues of the greatest of generals. Cornelius Nepos, Lives of Distinguished Romans.—Livy, bks. 21, 22, &c.Plutarch, Flamininus, &c.Justin, bk. 32, ch. 4.—Silius Italicus, bk. 1, &c.Appian.Florus, bks. 2 & 3.—Polybius.Diodorus.Juvenal, satire 10, li. 159, &c.Valerius Maximus.Horace, bk. 4, ode 4, stanza 16.――The son of the great Annibal, was sent by Himilco to Lilybæeum, which was besieged by the Romans, to keep the Sicilians in their duty. Polybius, bk. 1.――A Carthaginian general, son of Asdrubal, commonly called of Rhodes, above 160 years before the birth of the great Annibal. Justin, bk. 19, ch. 2.—Xenophon, Hellenica.――A son of Giscon and grandson of Amilcar, sent by the Carthaginians to the assistance of Ægista, a town of Sicily. He was overpowered by Hermocrates, an exiled Syracusan. Justin, bks. 22 & 23.――A Carthaginian, surnamed Senior. He was conquered by the consul Gaius Sulpicius Paterculus in Sardinia, and hung on a cross by his countrymen for his ill success.

Annicĕris, an excellent charioteer of Cyrene, who exhibited his skill in driving a chariot before Plato and the academy. When the philosopher was wantonly sold by Dionysius, Anniceris ransomed his friend, and he showed further his respect for learning by establishing a sect at Cyrene, called after his name, which supported that all good consisted in pleasure. Cicero, de Officiis, bk. 3.—Diogenes Laërtius, Plato & Aristotle.—Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 2, ch. 27.

Annius Scapŭla, a Roman of great dignity, put to death for conspiring against Cassius. Hirtius, Alexandrine War, ch. 55.

Annon, or Hanno, a Carthaginian general conquered in Spain by Scipio, and sent to Rome. He was son of Bomilcar whom Annibal sent privately over the Rhone to conquer the Gauls. Livy, bk. 21, ch. 27.――A Carthaginian who taught birds to sing “Annon is a god,” after which he restored them to their native liberty; but the birds lost with their slavery what they had been taught. Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 14, ch. 30.――A Carthaginian who wrote, in the Punic language, the account of a voyage which he had made round Africa. This book was translated into Greek, and is still extant. Vossius, Greek Historians, bk. 4.――Another, banished from Carthage for taming a lion for his own amusement, which was interpreted as if he wished to aspire to sovereign power. Pliny, bk. 8, ch. 16.――This name has been common to many Carthaginians who have signalized themselves among their countrymen during the Punic wars against Rome, and in their wars against the Sicilians. Livy, bks. 26, 27, &c.

Anopæa, a mountain and road near the river Asopus. Herodotus, bk. 7, ch. 216.

Anser, a Roman poet, whom Ovid, Tristia, bk. 3, poem 1, li. 425, calls bold and impertinent. Virgil and Propertius are said to have played upon his name with some degree of severity.

Ansibarii, a people of Germany. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 13, ch. 55.

Antæa, the wife of Proteus, called also Stenobæa. Homer, Iliad.――A goddess worshipped by the inhabitants of Antium.

Antæas, a king of Scythia, who said that the neighing of a horse was far preferable to the music of Ismenias, a famous musician who had been taken captive. Plutarch.

Antæus, a giant of Libya, son of Terra and Neptune. He was so strong in wrestling, that he boasted that he would erect a temple to his father with the skulls of his conquered antagonists. Hercules attacked him, and as he received new strength from his mother as often as he touched the ground, the hero lifted him up in the air, and squeezed him to death in his arms. Lucan, bk. 4, li. 598.—Statius, bk. 6, Thebiad, li. 893.—Juvenal, satire 3, li. 88.――A servant of Atticus. Cicero, Letters to Atticus, bk. 13, ltr. 44.――A friend of Turnus, killed by Æneas. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 10, li. 561.

Antagŏras, a man of Cos. Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 5.――A Rhodian poet, much admired by Antigonus. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 2. One day as he was cooking some fish, the king asked him whether Homer ever dressed any meals when he was recording the actions of Agamemnon. “And do you think,” replied the poet, “that he ὡ λαοι τ’ ἐπιτετραφαται και τοσσα μεμηλε (ever inquired whether any individual dressed fish in his army)?” Plutarch, Convivium Septem Sapientium & Apophthegmata Laconica.

Antalcĭdas, of Sparta, son of Leon, was sent into Persia, where he made a peace with Artaxerxes very disadvantageous to his country, by which, B.C. 387, the Greek cities of Asia became tributary to the Persian monarch. Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 1, &c.Diodorus, bk. 14.—Plutarch, Artaxerxes.

Antander, a general of Messenia, against the Spartans. Pausanias, bk. 4, ch. 7.――A brother of Agathocles tyrant of Sicily. Justin, bk. 22, ch. 7.

Antandros, now St. Dimitri, a city of Troas, inhabited by the Leleges, near which Æneas built his fleet after the destruction of Troy. It has been called Edonis, Cimmeris, Assos, and Apollonia. There is a hill in its neighbourhood called Alexandria, where Paris sat, as some suppose, when the three rival goddesses appeared before him when contending for the prize of beauty. Strabo, bk. 13.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 3, li. 6.—Mela, bk. 1, ch. 18.

Anterbrogius, an ambassador to Cæsar from the Rhemi a nation of Gaul. Cæsar, Gallic War, bk. 2, ch. 3.

Anteins Publius, was appointed over Syria by Nero. He was accused of sedition and conspiracy, and drank poison, which, operating slowly, obliged him to open his veins. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 13, &c.

Antemnæ, a city of the Sabines between Rome and the Anio, whence the name (ante amnem). Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 631.—Dionysius of Halicarnassus.

Antēnor, a Trojan prince related to Priam. It is said that, during the Trojan war, he always kept a secret correspondence with the Greeks, and chiefly with Menelaus and Ulysses. In the council of Priam, Homer introduces him as advising the Trojans to restore Helen and conclude the war. He advised Ulysses to carry away the Trojan palladium, and encouraged the Greeks to make the wooden horse which, at his persuasion, was brought into the city of Troy by a breach made in the walls. Æneas has been accused of being a partner of his guilt, and the night that Troy was taken, they had a number of Greeks stationed at the doors of their houses to protect them from harm. After the destruction of his country, Antenor migrated into Italy near the Adriatic, where he built the town of Padua. His children were also concerned in the Trojan war, and displayed much valour against the Greeks. Their names were Polybius, Acamas, Agenor, and, according to others, Polydamas and Helicaon. Livy, bk. 1, ch. 1.—Pliny, bk. 3, ch. 13.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 1, li. 242.—Tacitus, bk. 16, ch. 21.—Homer, Iliad, bks. 3, 7, 8, 11.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 13.—Dictys Cretensis, bk. 5.—Dares Phrygius, ch. 6.—Strabo, bk. 13.—Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 1.—Pausanias, bk. 10, ch. 27.――A statuary. Pausanias.――A Cretan, who wrote a history of his country. Ælian.

Antenorĭdes, a patronymic given to the three sons of Antenor, all killed during the Trojan war. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 6, li. 484.

Antĕros (ἀντι ἐρως, against love), a son of Mars and Venus. He was not, as the derivation of his name implies, a deity that presided over an opposition to love, but he was the god of mutual love and of mutual tenderness. Venus had complained to Themis that her son Cupid always continued a child, and was told that, if he had another brother, he would grow up in a short space of time. As soon as Anteros was born, Cupid felt his strength increase and his wings enlarge; but if ever his brother was at a distance from him, he found himself reduced to his ancient shape. From this circumstance it is seen, that return of passion gives vigour to love. Anteros had a temple at Athens raised to his honour, when Meles had experienced the coldness and disdain of Timagoras, whom he passionately esteemed, and for whom he had killed himself. See: Meles. Cupid and Anteros are often represented striving to seize a palm tree from one another, to teach us that true love always endeavours to overcome by kindness and gratitude. They were always painted in the Greek academies, to inform the scholars that it is their immediate duty to be grateful to their teachers, and to reward their trouble with love and reverence. Cicero, de Natura Deorum, bk. 3, ch. 23.—Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 30; bk. 6, ch. 23.――A grammarian of Alexandria, in the age of the emperor Claudius.――A freedman of Atticus. Cicero, Letters to Atticus, bk. 9, ltr. 14.

Anthēa, a town of Achaia. Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 18.――Of Messenia. Pausanias, bk. 4, ch. 31.――Of Trœzene. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 30.

Antheas, a son of Eumelus, killed in attempting to sow corn from the chariot of Triptolemus drawn by dragons. Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 18.

Anthēdon, a city of Bœotia, which received its name from the flowery plains that surround it, or from Anthedon, a certain nymph. Bacchus and Ceres had there temples. Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 10; bk. 9, ch. 22. It was formerly inhabited by Thracians. Homer, Iliad, bk. 2.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 13, li. 905.――A port of Peloponnesus. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 5.—Statius, bk. 9, li. 291.

Anthēla, a town near the Asopus, near which Ceres and Amphictyon had a temple. Herodotus, bk. 7, ch. 176.

Anthĕmis, an island in the Mediterranean, the same as the Ionian Samos. Strabo, bk. 10.

Anthemon, a Trojan. Homer, Iliad, bk. 4.

Anthĕmus, a city of Macedonia at Thermæ.――A city of Syria. Strabo.

Anthemusia, the same as Samos.――A city of Mesopotamia. Strabo.

Anthēne, a town of Peloponnesus. Thucydides, bk. 5, ch. 41.

Anthermus, a Chian sculptor, son of Micciades and grandson to Malas. He and his brother Bupalus made a statue of the poet Hipponax, which caused universal laughter on account of the deformity of its countenance. The poet was so incensed upon this, and inveighed with so much bitterness against the statuaries, that they hung themselves, according to the opinion of some authors. Pliny, bk. 36, ch. 5.

Anthes, a native of Anthedon, who first invented hymns. Plutarch, de Musica.――A son of Neptune.

Anthesphoria, festivals celebrated in Sicily in honour of Proserpine, who was carried away by Pluto as she was gathering flowers. Claudian, de Raptu Proserpinæ.――Festivals of the same name were also observed at Argos in honour of Juno, who was called Antheia. Pausanias, Corinth.—Pollux, Onomasticon, bk. 1, ch. 1.

Anthesteria, festivals in honour of Bacchus among the Greeks. They were celebrated in the month of February, called Anthesterion, whence the name is derived, and continued three days. The first was called Πιθοιγια, ἀπο του πιθους οἰγειν, because they tapped their barrels of liquor. The second day was called Χοες, from the measure χοα, because every individual drank of his own vessel, in commemoration of the arrival of Orestes, who, after the murder of his mother, came, without being purified, to Demophoon or Pandion king of Athens, and was obliged, with all the Athenians, to drink by himself for fear of polluting the people by drinking with them before he was purified of the parricide. It was usual on that day to ride out in chariots, and ridicule those that passed by. The best drinker was rewarded with a crown of leaves, or rather of gold, and with a cask of wine. The third day was called χυτροι from χυτρα, a vessel brought out full of all sorts of seeds and herbs, deemed sacred to Mercury, and therefore not touched. The slaves had the permission of being merry and free during these festivals; and at the end of the solemnity a herald proclaimed, Θυραζε, Καρες, ουκ ετ’ Ἀνθεστηρια, i.e. Depart, ye Carian slaves, the festivals are at an end. Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 2, ch. 41.

Anthēus, a son of Antenor, much esteemed by Paris.――One of the companions of Æneas. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 1, li. 514.

Anthīa, a sister of Priam, seized by the Greeks. She compelled the people of Pallene to burn their ships, and build Scione. Polyænus, bk. 7, ch. 47.――A town. See: Anthea.――A daughter of Thespius, mistress to Hercules. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 7.

Anthias. See: Antheas.

Anthippe, a daughter of Thestius.

Anthium, a town of Thrace, afterwards called Apollonia. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 11.――A city of Italy.

Anthius (flowery), a name of Bacchus worshipped at Athens. He had also a statue at Patræ.

Antho, a daughter of Amulius king of Alba.

Anthōres, a companion of Hercules, who followed Evander, and settled in Italy. He was killed in the war of Turnus against Æneas. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 10, li. 778.

Anthracia, a nymph. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 31.

Anthropinus, Tisarchus, and Diocles, three persons who laid snares for Agathocles tyrant of Sicily. Polyænus, bk. 5, ch. 3.

Anthropophăgi, a people of Scythia that fed on human flesh. They lived near the country of the Massagetæ. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 12; bk. 6, ch. 30.—Mela, bk. 2, ch. 1.

Anthylla, a city of Egypt on the Canopic mouth of the Nile. It maintained the queens of the country in shoes, or, according to Athenæus, bk. 1, in girdles. Herodotus, bk. 2, ch. 98.

Antia lex, was made for the suppression of luxury at Rome. Its particulars are not known. The enactor was Antius Restio, who afterwards never supped abroad for fear of being himself a witness of the profusion and extravagance which his law meant to destroy, but without effect. Macrobius, bk. 3, ch. 17.

Antianīra, the mother of Echion.

Antias, the goddess of fortune, chiefly worshipped at Antium.――A poet. See: Furius.

Anticlēa, a daughter of Autolycus and Amphithea. Her father, who was a famous robber, permitted Sisyphus son of Æolus to enjoy the favours of his daughter, and Anticlea was really pregnant of Ulysses when she married Laertes king of Ithaca. Laertes was nevertheless the reputed father of Ulysses. Ulysses is reproached by Ajax in Ovid, Metamorphoses, as being the son of Sisyphus. It is said that Anticlea killed herself when she heard a false report of her son’s death. Homer, Odyssey, bks. 11, 19.—Hyginus, fables 201, 243.—Pausanias, bk. 10, ch. 29.――A woman who had Periphetes by Vulcan. Apollodorus, bk. 3.――A daughter of Diocles, who married Machaon the son of Æsculapius, by whom she had Nicomachus and Gorgasus. Pausanias, bk. 4, ch. 30.

Antĭcles, an Athenian archon.――A man who conspired against Alexander with Hermolaus. Curtius, bk. 8, ch. 6.――An Athenian victor at Olympia.

Anticlīdes, a Greek historian, whose works are now lost. They are often quoted by Athenæus & Plutarch, Alexander.

Anticrăgus, a mountain of Lycia, opposite mount Cragus. Strabo, bk. 4.

Anticrătes, a Spartan who stabbed Epaminondas, the Theban general, at the battle of Mantinea. Plutarch, Agesilaus.

Anticy̆ra, two towns of Greece, the one in Phocis and the other near mount Oeta, both famous for the hellebore which they produced. This plant was of infinite service to cure diseases, and particularly insanity; hence the proverb Naviget Anticyram. The Anticyra of Phocis was anciently called Cyparissa. It had a temple of Neptune, who was represented holding a trident in one hand and resting the other on his side, with one of his feet on a dolphin. Some writers, especially Horace (Art of Poetry, li. 300), speak of three islands of this name, but this seems to be a mistake. Pausanias, bk. 10, ch. 36.—Horace, bk. 2, satire 3, li. 166; Art of Poetry, li. 300.—Persius, bk. 4, li. 16.—Strabo, bk. 9.—Mela, bk. 2, ch. 3.—Ovid, ex Ponto, bk. 4, poem 3, li. 53.――A mistress of Demetrius. Plutarch, Demetrius.

Antidŏmus, a warlike soldier of king Philip at the siege of Perinthus.

Antidŏtus, an excellent painter, pupil of Euphranor. Pliny, bk. 35, ch. 11.

Antigĕnes, one of Alexander’s generals, publicly rewarded for his valour. Curtius, bk. 5, ch. 14.

Antigenĭdas, a famous musician of Thebes, disciple to Philoxenus. He taught his pupil Ismenias to despise the judgment of the populace. Cicero, Brutus, ch. 97.

Antigŏna, daughter of Berenice, was wife to king Pyrrhus. Plutarch, Pyrrhus.

Antigŏne, a daughter of Œdipus king of Thebes by his mother Jocasta. She buried by night her brother Polynices, against the positive orders of Creon, who, when he heard of it, ordered her to be buried alive. She, however, killed herself before the sentence was executed; and Hæmon the king’s son, who was passionately fond of her, and had not been able to obtain her pardon, killed himself on her grave. The death of Antigone is the subject of one of the tragedies of Sophocles. The Athenians were so pleased with it at the first representation, that they presented the author with the government of Samos. This tragedy was represented 32 times at Athens without interruption. Sophocles, Antigone.—Hyginus, fables 67, 72, 243, 254.—Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 5.—Ovid, Tristia, bk. 3, poem 3.—Philostratus, bk. 2, ch. 29.—Statius, Thebiad, bk. 12, li. 350.――A daughter of Eurytion king of Phthia in Thessaly. Apollodorus.――A daughter of Laomedon. She was the sister of Priam, and was changed into a stork for comparing herself to Juno. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 6, li. 93.

Antigŏnia, an inland town of Epirus. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 1.――One of Macedonia, founded by Antigonus son of Gonatas. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 10.――One in Syria, on the borders of the Orontes. Strabo, bk. 16.――Another in Bithynia, called also Nicæa. Strabo, bk. 12.――Another in Arcadia, anciently called Mantinea. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 8.――One of Troas in Asia Minor. Strabo, bk. 13.

Antigŏnus, one of Alexander’s generals, universally supposed to be the illegitimate son of Philip, Alexander’s father. In the division of the provinces after the king’s death, he received Pamphylia, Lycia, and Phrygia. He united with Antipater and Ptolemy, to destroy Perdiccas and Eumenes; and after the death of Perdiccas he made continual war against Eumenes, whom, after three years of various fortune, he took prisoner, and ordered to be starved. He afterwards declared war against Cassander, whom he conquered, and had several engagements by his generals with Lysimachus. He obliged Seleucus to retire from Syria, and fly for refuge and safety to Egypt. Ptolemy, who had established himself in Egypt, promised to defend Seleucus, and from that time all friendship ceased between Ptolemy and Antigonus, and a new war was begun, in which Demetrius the son of Antigonus conquered the fleet of Ptolemy, near the island of Cyprus, and took 16,000 men prisoners, and sunk 200 ships. After this famous naval battle, which happened 26 years after Alexander’s death, Antigonus and his son assumed the title of kings, and their example was followed by all the rest of Alexander’s generals. The power of Antigonus was now become so formidable, that Ptolemy, Seleucus, Cassander, and Lysimachus combined together to destroy him; yet Antigonus despised them, saying that he would disperse them as birds. He attempted to enter Egypt in vain, though he gained several victories over his opponents, and he at last received so many wounds in a battle that he could not survive them, and died in the 80th year of his age, 301 B.C. During his life, he was master of all Asia Minor, as far as Syria; but after his death, his son Demetrius lost Asia, and established himself in Macedonia after the death of Cassander, and some time after attempted to recover his former possessions, but died in captivity in the court of his son-in-law Seleucus. Antigonus was concerned in the different intrigues of the Greeks. He made a treaty of alliance with the Ætolians, and was highly respected by the Athenians, to whom he showed himself very liberal and indulgent. Antigonus discharged some of his officers because they spent their time in taverns, and he gave their commissions to common soldiers who performed their duty with punctuality. A certain poet called him divine; but the king despised his flattery, and bade him go and inquire of his servants whether he was really what he supposed him. Strabo, bk. 13.—Diodorus, bk. 17, &c.Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 6, &c.Justin, bks. 13, 14, & 15.—Cornelius Nepos, Eumenes.—Plutarch, Demetrius, Eumenes, & Aratus.――Gonatas, son of Demetrius and grandson to Antigonus, was king of Macedonia. He restored the Armenians to liberty, conquered the Gauls, and at last was expelled by Pyrrhus, who seized his kingdom. After the death of Pyrrhus, he recovered Macedonia, and died after a reign of 34 years, leaving his son Demetrius to succeed, B.C. 243. Justin, bks. 21 & 25.—Polybius.Plutarch, Demetrius.――The guardian of his nephew Philip, the son of Demetrius, who married the widow of Demetrius and usurped the kingdom. He was called Doson, from his promising much and giving nothing. He conquered Cleomenes king of Sparta, and obliged him to retire into Egypt, because he favoured the Ætolians against the Greeks. He died, B.C. 221, after a reign of 11 years, leaving his crown to the lawful possessor, Philip, who distinguished himself by his cruelties, and the war which he made against the Romans. Justin, bks. 28 & 29.—Polybius, bk. 2.—Plutarch, Cleomenes.――A son of Aristobulus king of Judæa, who obtained an army from the king of Parthia, by promising him 1000 talents and 500 women. With these foreign troops he attacked his country, and cut the ears of Hyrcanus to make him unfit for the priesthood. Herod, with the aid of the Romans, took him prisoner, and he was put to death by Antony. Josephus, bk. 14.—Dionysius of Halicarnassus & Plutarch, Antonius.――Carystius, an historian in the age of Philadelphus, who wrote the lives of some of the ancient philosophers. Diogenes Laërtius.Athenæus.――A writer on agriculture.――A statuary, who wrote on his profession.

Antilco, a tyrant of Chalcis. After his death, oligarchy prevailed in that city. Aristotle, bk. 5, Politics.

Antilibănus, a mountain of Syria opposite mount Libanus; near which the Orontes flows. Strabo.Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 20.

Antilŏchus, a king of Messenia.――The eldest son of Nestor by Eurydice. He went to the Trojan war with his father, and was killed by Memnon the son of Aurora. Homer, Odyssey, bk. 4.—Ovid, Heroides, says he was killed by Hector.――A poet who wrote a panegyric upon Lysander, and received a hat filled with silver. Plutarch, Lysander.――An historian commended by Dionysius of Halicarnassus.

Antimăchus, a lascivious person.――An historian.――A Greek poet and musician of Ionia in the age of Socrates. He wrote a treatise on the age and genealogy of Homer, and proved him to be a native of Colophon. He repeated one of his compositions before a large audience, but his diction was so obscure and unintelligible that all retired except Plato; on which he said, Legam nihilominus, Plato enim mihi est unus instar omnium. He was reckoned the next to Homer in excellence, and the emperor Adrian was so fond of his poetry that he preferred him to Homer. He wrote a poem upon the Theban war; and before he had brought his heroes to the city of Thebes, he had filled 24 volumes. He was surnamed Clarius from Claros, a mountain near Colophon, where he was born. Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 35.—Plutarch, Lysander & Timoleon.—Propertius, bk. 2, poem 34, li. 45.—Quintilian, bk. 10, ch. 1.――Another poet of the same name, surnamed Psecas, because he praised himself. Suidas.――A Trojan whom Paris bribed to oppose the restoring of Helen to Menelaus and Ulysses, who had come as ambassadors to recover her. His sons, Hippolochus and Pisander, were killed by Agamemnon. Homer, Iliad, bk. 11, li. 123; bk. 23, li. 188.――A son of Hercules by a daughter of Thestius. Apollodorus, bks. 2 & 3.――A native of Heliopolis, who wrote a poem on the creation of the world, in 3780 verses.

Antimĕnes, a son of Deiphon. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 28.

Antinoe, one of the daughters of Pelias, whose wishes to restore her father to youthful vigour proved so fatal. Apollodorus, bk. 1.—Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 11.

Antinoeia, annual sacrifices and quinquennial games in honour of Antinous, instituted by the emperor Adrian at Mantinea, where Antinous was worshipped as a divinity.

Antinopŏlis, a town of Egypt, built in honour of Antinous.

Antinous, a youth of Bithynia, of whom the emperor Adrian was so extremely fond, that at his death he erected a temple to him, and wished it to be believed that he had been changed into a constellation. Some writers suppose that Antinous was drowned in the Nile, while others maintain that he offered himself at a sacrifice as a victim, in honour of the emperor.――A native of Ithaca, son of Eupeithes, and one of Penelope’s suitors. He was brutal and cruel in his manners; and excited his companions to destroy Telemachus, whose advice comforted his mother Penelope. When Ulysses returned home he came to the palace in a beggar’s dress, and begged for bread, which Antinous refused, and even struck him. After Ulysses had discovered himself to Telemachus and Eumæus, he attacked the suitors, who were ignorant who he was, and killed Antinous among the first. Homer, Odyssey, bks. 1, 16, 17, & 22.—Propertius, bk. 2, poem 5, li. 7.

Antiŏchia, the name of a Syrian province. Mela, bk. 1, ch. 14.――A city of Syria, once the third city of the world for beauty, greatness, and population. It was built by Antiochus and Seleucus Nicanor, partly on a hill and partly in a plain. It has the river Orontes in its neighbourhood, with a celebrated grove called Daphne; whence, for the sake of distinction, it has been called Antiochia near Daphne. Dionysius Periegeta.――A city called also Nisibis, in Mesopotamia, built by Seleucus son of Antiochus.――The capital of Pisidia, 92 miles at the east of Ephesus.――A city on mount Cragus.――Another near the river Tigris, 25 leagues from Seleucia on the west.――Another in Margiana, called Alexandria and Seleucia.――Another near mount Taurus, on the confines of Syria.――Another of Caria, on the river Meander.

Antiŏchis, the name of the mother of Antiochus the son of Seleucus.――A tribe of Athens.

Antiŏchus, surnamed Soter, was son of Seleucus, and king of Syria in Asia. He made a treaty of alliance with Ptolemy Philadelphus king of Egypt. He fell into a lingering disease, which none of his father’s physicians could cure for some time, till it was discovered that his pulse was more irregular than usual when Stratonice his stepmother entered his room, and that love for her was the cause of his illness. This was told to the father, who willingly gave Stratonice to his son, that his immoderate love might not cause his death. He died 291 B.C., after a reign of 19 years. Justin, bk. 17, ch. 2, &c.Valerius Maximus, bk. 5.—Polybius, bk. 4.—Appian.――The second of that name, surnamed Theos (God) by the Milesians, because he put to death their tyrant Timarchus, was son and successor to Antiochus Soter. He put an end to the war which had been begun with Ptolemy; and, to strengthen the peace, he married Berenice, the daughter of the Ægyptian king. This so offended his former wife Laodice, by whom he had two sons, that she poisoned him, and suborned Artemon, whose features were similar to his, to represent him as king. Artemon, subservient to her will, pretended to be indisposed, and as king, called all the ministers, and recommended to them Seleucus, surnamed Callinicus, son of Laodice, as his successor. After this ridiculous imposture, it was made public that the king had died a natural death, and Laodice placed her son on the throne, and despatched Berenice and her son, 246 years before the christian era. Appian.――The third of that name, surnamed the Great, brother to Seleucus Ceraunus, was king of Syria and Asia, and reigned 36 years. He was defeated by Ptolemy Philopater at Rapeia, after which he made war against Persia, and took Sardes. After the death of Philopater, he endeavoured to crush his infant son Epiphanes: but his guardians solicited the aid of the Romans, and Antiochus was compelled to resign his pretensions. He conquered the greatest part of Greece, of which some cities implored the aid of Rome; and Annibal, who had taken refuge at his court, encouraged him to make war against Italy. He was glad to find himself supported by the abilities of such a general; but his measures were dilatory, and not agreeable to the advice of Annibal, and he was conquered and obliged to retire beyond mount Taurus, and pay a yearly fine of 2000 talents to the Romans. His revenues being unable to pay the fine, he attempted to plunder the temple of Belus in Susiana, which so incensed the inhabitants, that they killed him with his followers, 187 years before the christian era. In his character of king, Antiochus was humane and liberal, the patron of learning, and the friend of merit; and he published an edict, ordering his subjects never to obey except his commands were consistent with the laws of the country. He had three sons, Seleucus Philopater, Antiochus Epiphanes, and Demetrius. The first succeeded him, and the two others were kept as hostages by the Romans. Justin, bks. 31 & 32.—Strabo, bk. 16.—Livy, bk. 34, ch. 59.—Florus, bk. 2, ch. 1.—Appian, Syrian Wars.――The fourth Antiochus, surnamed Epiphanes or Illustrious, was king of Syria, after the death of his brother Seleucus, and reigned 11 years. He destroyed Jerusalem, and was so cruel to the Jews, that they called him Epimanes, or Furious, and not Epiphanes. He attempted to plunder Persepolis without effect. He was of a voracious appetite, and fond of childish diversions; he used for his pleasure to empty bags of money into the streets, to see the people’s eagerness to gather it; he bathed in the public baths with the populace, and was fond of perfuming himself to excess. He invited all the Greeks he could at Antioch, and waited upon them as a servant, and danced with such indecency among the stage players, that even the most dissipate and shameless blushed at the sight. Polybius.Justin, bk. 34, ch. 3.――The fifth, surnamed Eupator, succeeded his father Epiphanes on the throne of Syria, 164 B.C. He made a peace with the Jews, and in the second year of his reign was assassinated by his uncle Demetrius, who said that the crown was lawfully his own, and that it had been seized from his father. Justin, bk. 34.—Josephus, bk. 12.――The sixth king of Syria was surnamed Entheus or Noble. His father, Alexander Bala, entrusted him to the care of Malcus, an Arabian; and he received the crown from Tryphon, in opposition to his brother Demetrius, whom the people hated. Before he had been a year on the throne, Tryphon murdered him, 143 B.C., and reigned in his place for three years. Josephus, bk. 13.――The seventh, called Sidetes, reigned nine years. In the beginning of his reign he was afraid of Tryphon, and concealed himself, but he soon obtained the means of destroying his enemy. He made war against Phraates king of Parthia, and he fell in the battle which was soon after fought, about 130 years before the christian era. Justin, bk. 36, ch. 1.—Appian, Syrian Wars.――The eighth, surnamed Grypus, from his aquiline nose, was son of Demetrius Nicanor by Cleopatra. His brother Seleucus was destroyed by Cleopatra, and he himself would have shared the same fate, had he not discovered his mother’s artifice, and compelled her to drink the poison which was prepared for himself. He killed Alexander Zebina, whom Ptolemy had set to oppose him on the throne of Syria, and was at last assassinated, B.C. 112, after a reign of 11 years. Justin, bk. 39, &c.Josephus.Appian.――The ninth, surnamed Cyzenicus, from the city of Cyzicus, where he received his education, was son of Antiochus Sidetes by Cleopatra. He disputed the kingdom with his brother Grypus, who ceded to him Cœlosyria, part of his patrimony, He was at last conquered by his nephew Seleucus near Antioch, and rather than to continue longer in his hands, he killed himself, B.C. 93. While a private man, he seemed worthy to reign; but when on the throne, he was dissolute and tyrannical. He was fond of mechanics, and invented some useful military engines. Appian.Josephus.――The tenth was ironically surnamed Pius, because he married Selena, the wife of his father and of his uncle. He was the son of Antiochus IX., and he expelled Seleucus the son of Grypus from Syria, and was killed in a battle which he fought against the Parthians, in the cause of the Galatians. Josephus.Appian. After his death the kingdom of Syria was torn to pieces by the faction of the royal family, or usurpers, who, under a good or false title, under the name of Antiochus or his relations, established themselves for a little time as sovereigns either of Syria, or Damascus, or other dependent provinces. At last Antiochus, surnamed Asiaticus, the son of Antiochus IX., was restored to his paternal throne by the influence of Lucullus the Roman general, on the expulsion of Tigranes king of Armenia from the Syrian dominions; but four years after, Pompey deposed him, and observed, that he who had hid himself while a usurper sat upon his throne, ought not to be a king. From that time, B.C. 65, Syria became a Roman province, and the race of Antiochus was extinguished. Justin, bk. 40.――A philosopher of Ascalon, famous for his writings, and the respect with which he was treated by his pupils, Lucullus, Cicero, and Brutus.—Plutarch, Lucullus.――An historian of Syracuse, son of Xenophanes, who wrote, besides other works, a history of Sicily, in nine books, in which he began at the age of king Cocalus. Strabo.Diodorus, bk. 12.――A rich king, tributary to the Romans in the age of Vespasian. Tacitus, Histories, bk. 2, ch. 81.――A sophist who refused to take upon himself the government of a state, on account of the vehemence of his passions.――A king conquered by Antony, &c. Cæsar, bk. 3, Civil War, bk. 4.――A king of Messenia. Pausanias, bk. 4.――A commander of the Athenian fleet, under Alcibiades, conquered by Lysander. Xenophon, Hellenica.――A writer of Alexandria, who published a treatise on comic poets. Athenæus.――A sceptic of Laodicea. Diogenes Laërtius, Pyrrhus.――A learned sophist. Philostratus.――A servant of Atticus. Cicero, Letters to Atticus, bk. 3, ltr. 33.――A hair-dresser mentioned by Martial, bk. 11, ltr. 85.――A son of Hercules by Medea. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 7.――A stage player. Juvenal, satire 3, li. 98.――A sculptor, said to have made the famous statue of Pallas, preserved in the Ludovisi gardens at Rome.

Antiŏpe, a daughter of Nycteus king of Thebes by Polyxo, was beloved by Jupiter, who, to deceive her, changed himself into a satyr. She became pregnant, and, to avoid the resentment of her father, she fled to mount Cithæron, where she brought forth twins, Amphion and Zethus. She exposed them, to prevent discovery, but they were preserved. After this she fled to Epopeus king of Sicyon, who married her. Some say that Epopeus carried her away, for which action Nycteus made war against him, and at his death left his crown to his brother Lycus, entreating him to continue the war, and punish the ravisher of his daughter. Lycus obeyed his injunctions, killed Epopeus, and recovered Antiope, whom he loved and married, though his niece. His first wife, Dirce, was jealous of his new connection; she prevailed upon her husband, and Antiope was delivered into her hands, and confined in a prison, where she was daily tormented. Antiope, after many years’ imprisonment, obtained means to escape, and went after her sons, who undertook to avenge her wrongs upon Lycus and his wife Dirce. They took Thebes, put the king to death, and tied Dirce to the tail of a wild bull, which dragged her till she died. Bacchus changed her into a fountain, and deprived Antiope of the use of her senses. In this forlorn situation she wandered all over Greece, and at last found relief from Phocus son of Ornytion, who cured her of her disorder, and married her. Hyginus, fable 7, says that Antiope was divorced by Lycus, because she had been ravished by Epopeus, whom he calls Epaphus, and that after her repudiation she became pregnant by Jupiter. Meanwhile Lycus married Dirce, who suspected that her husband still kept the company of Antiope, upon which she imprisoned her. Antiope, however, escaped from her confinement, and brought forth on mount Cithæron. Some authors have called her daughter of Asopus, because she was born on the banks of that river. The Scholiast on Apollonius, bk. 1, li. 735, maintains that there were two persons of the name, one the daughter of Nycteus, and the other of Asopus and mother of Amphion and Zethus. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 6; bk. 9, ch. 17.—Ovid, bk. 6, Metamorphoses, li. 110.—Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 5.—Propertius, bk. 3, poem 15.—Homer, Odyssey, bk. 11, li. 259.—Hyginus, fables 7, 8, & 155.――A daughter of Thespius or Thestius, mother of Alopius by Hercules. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 7.――A daughter of Mars, queen of the Amazons, taken prisoner by Hercules, and given in marriage to Theseus. She is also called Hippolyte. See: Hippolyte.――A daughter of Æolus, mother of Bœotus and Hellen by Neptune. Hyginus, fable 157.――A daughter of Pilon, who married Eurytus. Hippolyte, fable 14.

Antiōrus, a son of Lycurgus. Plutarch, Lycurgus.

Antipăros, a small island in the Ægean sea, opposite Paros, from which it is about six miles distant.

Antipăter, son of Iolaus, was soldier under king Philip, and raised to the rank of a general under Alexander the Great. When Alexander went to invade Asia, he left Antipater supreme governor of Macedonia, and of all Greece. Antipater exerted himself in the cause of his king; he made war against Sparta, and was soon after called into Persia with a reinforcement by Alexander. He has been suspected of giving poison to Alexander, to raise himself to power. After Alexander’s death his generals divided the empire among themselves, and Macedonia was allotted to Antipater. The wars which Greece, and chiefly Athens, meditated under Alexander’s life, now burst forth with uncommon fury as soon as the news of his death was received. The Athenians levied an army of 30,000 men, and equipped 200 ships against Antipater, who was master of Macedonia. Their expedition was attended with much success; Antipater was routed in Thessaly, and even besieged in the town of Lamia. But when Leosthenes the Athenian general was mortally wounded under the walls of Lamia, the fortune of the war was changed. Antipater obliged the enemy to raise the siege, and soon after received a reinforcement from Craterus, from Asia, with which he conquered the Athenians at Cranon in Thessaly. After this defeat Antipater and Craterus marched into Bœotia, and conquered the Ætolians, and granted peace to the Athenians, on the conditions which Leosthenes had proposed to Antipater when besieged in Lamia, i.e. that he should be absolute master over them. Besides this, he demanded from their ambassadors, Demades, Phocion, and Xenocrates, that they should deliver into his hands the orators Demosthenes and Hyperides, whose eloquence had inflamed the minds of their countrymen, and had been the primary causes of the war. The conditions were accepted, a Macedonian garrison was stationed in Athens, but the inhabitants still were permitted the free use of their laws and privileges. Antipater and Craterus were the first who made hostile preparations against Perdiccas; and during that time Polyperchon was appointed over Macedonia. Polyperchon defeated the Ætolians, who made an invasion upon Macedonia. Antipater gave assistance to Eumenes in Asia against Antigonus, according to Justin, bk. 14, ch. 2. At his death, B.C. 319, Antipater appointed Polyperchon master of all his possessions; and as he was the oldest of all the generals and successors of Alexander, he recommended that he might be the supreme ruler in their councils, that everything might be done according to his judgment. As for his son Cassander, he left him in a subordinate station under Polyperchon. But Cassander was of too aspiring a disposition tamely to obey his father’s injunctions. He recovered Macedonia, and made himself absolute. Curtius, bks. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, & 10.—Justin, bks. 11, 12, 13, &c.Diodorus, bks. 17, 18, &c.Cornelius Nepos, Phocion & Eumenes.—Plutarch, Eumenes, Alexander, &c.――A son of Cassander king of Macedonia, and son-in-law of Lysimachus. He killed his mother, because she wished his brother Alexander to succeed to the throne. Alexander, to revenge the death of his mother, solicited the assistance of Demetrius; but peace was re-established between the two brothers by the advice of Lysimachus, and soon after Demetrius killed Antipater, and made himself king of Macedonia, 294 B.C. Justin, bk. 26, ch. 1.――A king of Macedonia, who reigned only 45 days, 277 B.C.――A king of Cilicia.――A powerful prince, father to Herod. He was appointed governor of Judæa by Cæsar, whom he had assisted in the Alexandrine war. Josephus.――An Athenian archon.――One of Alexander’s soldiers, who conspired against his life with Hermolaus. Curtius, bk. 8, ch. 6.――A celebrated sophist of Hieropolis, preceptor to the children of the emperor Severus.――A Stoic philosopher of Tarsus, 144 years B.C.――A poet of Sidon, who could compose a number of verses extempore, upon any subject. He ranked Sappho among the Muses, in one of his epigrams. He had a fever every year on the day of his birth, of which at last he died. He flourished about 80 years B.C. Some of his epigrams are preserved in the Anthologia. Pliny, bk. 7, ch. 51.—Valerius Maximus, bk. 1, ch. 10.—Cicero, On Oratory, bk. 3; de Officiis, bk. 3; De Quæstiones Academicæ, bk. 4.――A philosopher of Phœnicia, preceptor to Cato of Utica. Plutarch, Cato.――A Stoic philosopher, disciple of Diogenes of Babylon. He wrote two books on divination, and died at Athens. Cicero, de Divinatione, bk. 1, ch. 3; Quæstiones Academicæ, bk. 4, ch. 6; de Officiis, bk. 3, ch. 12.――A disciple of Aristotle, who wrote two books of letters.――A poet of Thessalonica, in the age of Augustus.

Antipatria, a city of Macedonia. Livy, bk. 31, ch. 27.

Antipatrĭdas, a governor of Telmessus. Polyænus, bk. 5.

Antipătris, a city of Palestine.

Antiphănes, an ingenious statuary of Argos. Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 17.――A comic poet of Rhodes, or rather of Smyrna, who wrote above 90 comedies, and died in the 74th year of his age, by the fall of an apple upon his head.――A physician of Delos, who used to say that diseases originated from the variety of food that was eaten. Clement of Alexandria.Athenæus.

Antiphătes, a king of the Læstrygones, descended from Lamus, who founded Formiæ. Ulysses returning from Troy, came upon his coasts, and sent three men to examine the country. Antiphates devoured one of them, and pursued the others, and sunk the fleet of Ulysses with stones, except the ship in which Ulysses was. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 14, li. 232.――A son of Sarpedon. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 9, li. 696.――The grandfather of Amphiaraus. Homer, Odyssey.――A man killed in the Trojan war by Leonteus. Homer, Iliad, bk. 12, li. 191.

Antiphĭli Portus, a harbour on the African side of the Red sea. Strabo, bk. 16.

Antiphĭlus, an Athenian who succeeded Leosthenes at the siege of Lamia against Antipater. Diodorus, bk. 18.――A noble painter who represented a youth leaning over a fire and blowing it, from which the whole house seemed to be illuminated. He was an Egyptian by birth; he imitated Apelles, and was disciple to Ctesidemus. Pliny, bk. 35, ch. 10.

Antĭphon, a poet.――A native of Rhamnusia, called Nestor, from his eloquence and prudence. The 16 orations that are extant under his name, are supposititious.――An orator who promised Philip king of Macedonia that he would set on fire the citadel of Athens, for which he was put to death, at the instigation of Demosthenes. Cicero, de Divinatione, bk. 2.—Plutarch, Alcibiades & Demosthenes.――A poet who wrote on agriculture. Athenæus.――An author who wrote a treatise on peacocks.――A rich man introduced by Xenophon as disputing with Socrates.――An Athenian who interpreted dreams, and wrote a history of his art. Cicero, de Divinatione, bks. 1 & 2.――A foolish rhetorician.――A poet of Attica, who wrote tragedies, epic poems, and orations. Dionysius put him to death because he refused to praise his compositions. Being once asked by the tyrant what brass was the best, he answered, “That with which the statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton are made.” Plutarch.Aristotle.

Antiphŏnus, a son of Priam, who went with his father to the tent of Achilles to redeem Hector. Homer, Iliad, bk. 24.

Antĭphus, a son of Priam, killed by Agamemnon during the Trojan war.――A son of Thessalus, grandson to Hercules. He went to the Trojan war in 30 ships. Homer, Iliad, bk. 2, li. 185.――An intimate friend of Ulysses. Homer, Odyssey, bk. 17.――A brother of Ctimenus, was son of Ganyctor the Naupactian. These two brothers murdered the poet Hesiod, on the false suspicion that he had offered violence to their sister, and threw his body into the sea. The poet’s dog discovered them, and they were seized and convicted of the murder. Plutarch, de Sollertia Animalium.

Antipœnus, a noble Theban, whose daughters sacrificed themselves for the public safety. See: Androclea.

Antipŏlis, a city of Gaul, built by the people of Marseilles. Tacitus, Histories, bk. 2, ch. 15.

Antirrhium, a promontory of Ætolia, opposite Rhium in Peloponnesus, whence the name.

Antissa, a city at the north of Lesbos.――An island near it. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 15, li. 287.—Pliny, bk. 2, ch. 89.

Antisthĕnes, a philosopher, born of an Athenian father and of a Phrygian mother. He taught rhetoric, and had among his pupils the famous Diogenes; but when he had heard Socrates, he shut up his school, and told his pupils, “Go seek for yourselves a master; I have now found one.” He was at the head of the sect of the Cynic philosophers. One of his pupils asked him what philosophy had taught him. “To live with myself,” said he. He sold his all, and preserved only a very ragged coat, which drew the attention of Socrates, and tempted him to say to the Cynic, who carried his contempt of dress too far, “Antisthenes, I see thy vanity through the holes of thy coat.” Antisthenes taught the unity of God, but he recommended suicide. Some of his letters are extant. His doctrines of austerity were followed as long as he was himself an example of the cynical character, but after his death they were all forgotten. Antisthenes flourished 396 years B.C. Cicero, On Oratory, bk. 3, ch. 35.—Diogenes Laërtius, bk. 6.—Plutarch, Lycurgus.――A disciple of Heraclitus.――An historian of Rhodes. Diogenes Laërtius.

Antistius Labeo, an excellent lawyer at Rome, who defended the liberties of his country against Augustus, for which he is taxed with madness by Horace, bk. 1, satire 3, li. 82.—Suetonius, Augustus, ch. 54.――Petro of Gabii, was the author of a celebrated treaty between Rome and his country, in the age of Tarquin the Proud. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 4.――Caius Reginus, a lieutenant of Cæsar in Gaul. Cæsar, Gaul War, bks. 6 & 7.――A soldier of Pompey’s army, so confident of his valour, that he challenged all the adherents of Cæsar. Hirtius, ch. 25, Spanish War.

Antitaurus, one of the branches of mount Taurus, which runs in a north-east direction through Cappadocia towards Armenia and the Euphrates.

Antitheus, an Athenian archon. Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 17.

Antium, a maritime town of Italy, built by Ascanius, or, according to others, by a son of Ulysses and Circe, upon a promontory 32 miles east from Ostium. It was the capital of the Volsci, who made war against the Romans for above 200 years. Camillus took it, and carried all the beaks of their ships to Rome, and placed them in the Forum on a tribunal, which from thence was called Rostrum. This town was dedicated to the goddess of Fortune, whose statues, when consulted, gave oracles by a nodding of the head, or other different signs. Nero was born there. Cicero, de Divinatione, bk. 1.—Horace, bk. 1, ode 35.—Livy, bk. 8, ch. 14.

Antomĕnes, the last king of Corinth. After his death, magistrates with regal authority were chosen annually.

Antōnia lex, was enacted by Marcus Antony the consul, A.U.C. 710. It abrogated the lex Atia, and renewed the lex Cornelia, by taking away from the people the privilege of choosing priests, and restoring it to the college of priests, to which it originally belonged. Dio Cassius, bk. 44.――Another by the same, A.U.C. 703. It ordained that a new decury of judges should be added to the two former, and that they should be chosen from the centurions. Cicero, Philippics, speeches 1 & 5.――Another by the same. It allowed an appeal to the people, to those who were condemned de majestate, or of perfidious measures against the state.――Another by the same, during his triumvirate. It made it a capital offence to propose ever after the election of a dictator, and for any person to accept of the office. Appian, Civil Wars, bk. 3.

Antōnia, a daughter of Marcus Antony by Octavia. She married Domitius Ænobarbus, and was mother of Nero and of two daughters.――A sister of Germanicus.――A daughter of Claudius and Ælia Petina. She was of the family of the Tuberos, and was repudiated for her levity. Suetonius, Claudius, ch. 1.—Tacitus, Annals, bk. 11.――The wife of Drusus, the son of Livia and brother to Tiberius. She became mother of three children, Germanicus, Caligula’s father, Claudius the emperor, and the debauched Livia. Her husband died very early, and she never would marry again, but spent her time in the education of her children. Some people suppose that her grandson Caligula ordered her to be poisoned, A.D. 38. Valerius Maximus, bk. 4, ch. 3.――A castle of Jerusalem, which received this name in honour of Marcus Antony.

Antōnii, a patrician and plebeian family, which were said to derive their origin from Antones, a son of Hercules, as Plutarch, Antonius informs us.

Antonīna, the wife of Belisarius, &c.

Antonīnus Titus, surnamed Pius, was adopted by the emperor Adrian, to whom he succeeded. This prince is remarkable for all the virtues that can form a perfect statesman, philosopher, and king. He rebuilt whatever cities had been destroyed by wars in former reigns. In cases of famines or inundation, he relieved the distressed, and supplied their wants with his own money. He suffered the governors of the provinces to remain long in the administration, that no opportunity of extortion might be given to new comers. In his conduct towards his subjects, he behaved with affability and humanity, and listened with patience to every complaint brought before him. When told of conquering heroes, he said with Scipio, “I prefer the life and preservation of a citizen to the death of 100 enemies.” He did not persecute the christians like his predecessors, but his life was a scene of universal benevolence. His last moments were easy, though preceded by a lingering illness. When consul of Asia, he lodged at Smyrna in the house of a sophist, who in civility obliged the governor to change his house at night. The sophist, when Antoninus became emperor, visited Rome, and was jocosely desired to use the palace as his own house, without any apprehension of being turned out at night. He extended the boundaries of the Roman province in Britain, by raising a rampart between the friths of Clyde and Forth; but he waged no war during his reign, and only repulsed the enemies of the empire who appeared in the field. He died in the 75th year of his age, after a reign of 23 years, A.D. 161. He was succeeded by his adopted son Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, surnamed the philosopher, a prince as virtuous as his father. He raised to the imperial dignity his brother Lucius Verus, whose voluptuousness and dissipation were as conspicuous as the moderation of the philosopher. During their reign, the Quadi, Parthians, and Marcomanni were defeated. Antoninus wrote a book in Greek, entitled τα καθ’ ἑαυτον, concerning himself, the best editions of which are the 4to, Oxford, 1704. After the war with the Quadi had been finished, Verus died of an apoplexy, and Antoninus survived him eight years, and died in his 61st year, after a reign of 29 years and 10 days. Dio Cassius.――Bassianus Caracalla, son of the emperor Septimus Severus, was celebrated for his cruelties. He killed his brother Geta in his mother’s arms, and attempted to destroy the writings of Aristotle, observing that Aristotle was one of those who sent poison to Alexander. He married his mother, and publicly lived with her, which gave occasion to the people of Alexandria to say, that he was an Œdipus, and his wife a Jocasta. This joke was fatal to them; and the emperor, to punish their ill language, slaughtered many thousands in Alexandria. After assuming the name and dress of Achilles, and styling himself the conqueror of provinces which he had never seen, he was assassinated at Edessa by Macrinus, April 8, in the 43rd year of his age, A.D. 217. His body was sent to his wife Julia, who stabbed herself at the sight.――There is extant a Greek itinerary, and another book called Iter Britannicum, which some have attributed to the emperor Antoninus, though it was more probably written by a person of that name whose age is unknown.

Antoniopŏlis, a city of Mesopotamia. Marcellinus, bk. 8.

Marcus Antōnius Gnipho, a poet of Gaul, who taught rhetoric at Rome. Cicero and other illustrious men frequented his school. He never asked anything for his lectures, whence he received more from the liberality of his pupils. Suetonius, Lives of the Grammarians, ch. 7.――An orator, grandfather to the triumvir of the same name. He was killed in the civil wars of Marius, and his head was hung in the Forum. Valerius Maximus, bk. 9, ch. 2.—Lucan, bk. 2, li. 121.――Marcus, the eldest son of the orator of the same name, by means of Cotta and Cethegus, obtained from the senate the office of managing the corn on the maritime coasts of the Mediterranean, with unlimited power. This gave him many opportunities of plundering the provinces and enriching himself. He died of a broken heart. Sallust. Fragments of the Histories.――Caius, a son of the orator of that name, who obtained a troop of horse from Sylla, and plundered Achaia. He was carried before the pretor Marcus Lucullus, and banished from the senate by the censors for pillaging the allies, and refusing to appear when summoned before justice.――Caius, son of Antonius Caius, was consul with Cicero, and assisted him to destroy the conspiracy of Catiline in Gaul. He went to Macedonia as his province, and fought with ill success against the Dardani. He was accused at his return, and banished.――Marcus, the triumvir, was grandson to the orator Marcus Antonius, and son of Antonius, surnamed Cretensis from his wars in Crete. He was augur and tribune of the people, in which he distinguished himself by his ambitious views. He always entertained a secret resentment against Cicero, which arose from Cicero’s having put to death Cornelius Lentulus, who was concerned in Catiline’s conspiracy. This Lentulus had married Antonius’s mother after his father’s death. When the senate was torn by the factions of Pompey’s and Cæsar’s adherents, Antony proposed that both should lay aside the command of their armies in the provinces; but as this proposition met not with success, he privately retired from Rome to the camp of Cæsar, and advised him to march his army to Rome. In support of his attachment, he commanded the left wing of his army at Pharsalia, and, according to a premeditated scheme, offered him a diadem in the presence of the Roman people. When Cæsar was assassinated in the senate house, his friend Antony spoke an oration over his body; and to ingratiate himself and his party with the populace, he reminded them of the liberal treatment they had received from Cæsar. He besieged Mutina, which had been allotted to Decimus Brutus, for which the senate judged him an enemy to the republic at the remonstration of Cicero. He was conquered by the consuls Hirtius and Pansa, and by young Cæsar, who soon after joined his interest with that of Antony, and formed the celebrated triumvirate, which was established with such cruel proscriptions, that Antony did not even spare his own uncle, that he might strike off the head of his enemy Cicero. The triumvirate divided the Roman empire among themselves; Lepidus was set over all Italy, Augustus had the west, and Antony returned into the east, where he enlarged his dominions by different conquests. Antony had married Fulvia, whom he repudiated to marry Octavia the sister of Augustus, and by this connection to strengthen the triumvirate. He assisted Augustus at the battle of Philippi against the murderers of Julius Cæsar, and he buried the body of Marcus Brutus, his enemy, in a most magnificent manner. During his residence in the east, he became enamoured of the fair Cleopatra queen of Egypt, and repudiated Octavia to marry her. This divorce incensed Augustus, who now prepared to deprive Antony of all his power. Antony, in the mean time, assembled all the forces of the east, and with Cleopatra marched against Octavius Cæsar. These two enemies met at Actium, where a naval engagement soon began, but Cleopatra, by flying with 60 sail, drew Antony from the battle, and ruined his cause. After the battle of Actium, Antony followed Cleopatra into Egypt, where he was soon informed of the defection of all his allies and adherents, and saw the conqueror on his shores. He stabbed himself, and Cleopatra likewise killed herself by the bite of an asp. Antony died in the 56th year of his age, B.C. 30, and the conqueror shed tears when he was informed that his enemy was no more. Antony left seven children by his three wives. He has been blamed for his great effeminacy, for his uncommon love of pleasures, and his fondness of drinking. It is said that he wrote a book in praise of drunkenness. He was fond of imitating Hercules, from whom, according to some accounts, he was descended; and he is often represented as Hercules, with Cleopatra in the form of Omphale, dressed in the arms of her submissive lover, and beating him with her sandals. In his public character, Antony was brave and courageous, but, with the intrepidity of Cæsar, he possessed all his voluptuous inclinations. He was prodigal to a degree, and did not scruple to call, from vanity, his sons by Cleopatra, kings of kings. His fondness for low company, and his debauchery, form the best parts of Cicero’s Philippics. It is said, that the night of Cæsar’s murder, Cassius supped with Antony; and, being asked whether he had a dagger with him, answered, “Yes, if you, Antony, aspire to sovereign power.” Plutarch has written an account of his life. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 8, li. 685.—Horace, ltr. 9.—Juvenal, satire 10, li. 122.—Cornelius Nepos, Atticus.—Cicero, Philippics.—Justin, bks. 41 & 42.――Julius, son of Antony the triumvir by Fulvia, was consul with Paulus Fabius Maximus. He was surnamed Africanus, and put to death by order of Augustus. Some say that he killed himself. It is supposed that he wrote an heroic poem on Diomede, in 12 books. Horace dedicated his Ode 4 to him. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 4, ch. 44.――Lucius, the triumvir’s brother, was besieged in Pelusium by Augustus, and obliged to surrender himself, with 300 men, by famine. The conqueror spared his life. Some say that he was killed at the shrine of Cæsar.――A noble but unfortunate youth. His father Julius was put to death by Augustus for his criminal conversation with Julia, and he himself was removed by the emperor to Marseilles, on pretence of finishing his education. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 4, ch. 44.――Felix, a freedman of Claudius, appointed governor of Judæa. He married Drusilla the daughter of Antony and Cleopatra. Tacitus, Histories, bk. 4, ch. 9.――Flamma, a Roman condemned for extortion under Vespasian. Tacitus, Histories, bk. 4, ch. 45.――Musa, a physician of Augustus. Pliny, bk. 29, ch. 1.――Merenda, a decemvir at Rome, A.U.C. 304. Livy, bk. 3, ch. 35.――Quintus Merenda, a military tribune, A.U.C. 332. Livy, bk. 4, ch. 42.

Antorĭdes, a painter, disciple to Aristippus. Pliny.

Antro Coracius. See: Coracius.

Reference not found.

Antylla. See: Anthylla.

Anūbis, an Egyptian deity, represented under the form of a man with the head of a dog, because when Osiris went on his expedition against India, Anubis accompanied him, and clothed himself in a sheep’s skin. His worship was introduced from Egypt into Greece and Italy. He is supposed by some to be Mercury, because he is sometimes represented with a caduceus. Some make him brother of Osiris, some his son by Nepthys the wife of Typhon. Diodorus, bk. 1.—Lucan, bk. 8, li. 331.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 9, li. 686.—Plutarch, de Iside et Osiride.—Herodotus, bk. 4.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 8, li. 698.

Anxius, a river of Armenia, falling into the Euphrates.

Anxur, called also Tarracina, a city of the Volsci, taken by the Romans, A.U.C. 348. It was sacred to Jupiter, who is called Jupiter Anxur, and represented in the form of a beardless boy. Livy, bk. 4, ch. 59.—Horace, bk. 1, satire  5, li. 26.—Lucan, bk. 3, li. 84.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 799.

Anyta, a Greek woman, some of whose elegant verses are still extant.

Any̆tus, an Athenian rhetorician, who, with Melitus and Lycon, accused Socrates of impiety, and was the cause of his condemnation. These false accusers were afterwards put to death by the Athenians. Diogenes Laërtius.Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 2, ch. 13.—Horace, bk. 2, satire 4, li. 3.—Plutarch, Alcibiades.――One of the Titans.

Anzābe, a river near the Tigris. Marcellinus, bk. 18.

Aollius, a son of Romulus by Hersilia, afterwards called Abillius.

Aon, a son of Neptune, who came to Eubœa and Bœotia from Apulia, where he collected the inhabitants into cities, and reigned over them. They were called Aones, and the country Aonia, from him.

Aŏnes, the inhabitants of Aonia, called afterwards Bœotia. They came there in the age of Cadmus, and obtained his leave to settle with the Phœnicians. The muses have been called Aonides, because Aonia was more particularly frequented by them. Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 3.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bks. 3, 7, 10, 13; Tristia, poem 5, li. 10; Fasti, bk. 3, li. 456; bk. 4, li. 245.—Virgil, Georgics, bk. 3, li. 11.

Aonia, one of the ancient names of Bœotia.

Aōris, a famous hunter, son of Aras king of Corinth. He was so fond of his sister Arathyræa, that he called part of the country by her name. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 12.――The wife of Neleus, called more commonly Chloris. Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 36.

Aornos, Aornus, Aornis, a lofty rock, supposed to be near the Ganges in India, taken by Alexander. Hercules had besieged it, but was never able to conquer it. Curtius, bk. 8, ch. 11.—Arrian, bk. 4.—Strabo, bk. 15.—Plutarch, Alexander.――A place in Epirus, with an oracle. Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 80.――A certain lake near Tartessus.――Another near Baiæ and Puteoli. It was also called Avernus. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 6, li. 242.

Aōti, a people of Thrace, near the Getæ, on the Ister. Pliny, bk. 4.

Apaĭtæ, a people of Asia Minor. Strabo.

Apāma, a daughter of Artaxerxes, who married Pharnabazus satrap of Ionia.――A daughter of Antiochus. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 8.

Apāme, the mother of Nicomedes by Prusias king of Bithynia.――The mother of Antiochus Soter by Seleucus Nicanor. Soter founded a city which he called by his mother’s name.

Apamia, or Apamēa, a city of Phrygia, on the Marsyas.――A city of Bithynia,――of Media,――of Mesopotamia.――Another near the Tigris.

Aparni, a nation of shepherds near the Caspian sea. Strabo.

Apatūria, a festival of Athens, which received its name from ἀπατη, deceit, because it was instituted in memory of a stratagem by which Xanthus king of Bœotia was killed by Melanthus king of Athens, upon the following occasion. When a war arose between the Bœotians and Athenians about a piece of ground which divided their territories, Xanthus made a proposal to the Athenian king to decide the battle by single combat. Thymœtes, who was then on the throne of Athens, refused, and his successor Melanthus accepted the challenge. When they began the engagement, Melanthus exclaimed that his antagonist had some person behind him to support him; upon which Xanthus looked behind, and was killed by Melanthus. From this success Jupiter was called ἀπατηνωρ, deceiver, and Bacchus, who was supposed to be behind Xanthus, was called Μελαναιγις, clothed in the skin of a black goat. Some derive the word from ἀπατορια, i.e. ὁμοτορια, because, on the day of the festival, the children accompanied their fathers to be registered among the citizens. The festival lasted three days. The first day was called δορπια, because suppers, δορποι, were prepared for each separate tribe. The second day was called ἀναρρυσις ἀπο του ἀνω ἐρυειν, because sacrifices were offered to Jupiter and Minerva, and the head of the victim was generally turned up towards the heavens. The third was called Κουρεωτις, from Κουρος, a youth, or Κουρα, shaving, because the young men had their hair cut off before they were registered, when their parents swore that they were freeborn Athenians. They generally sacrificed two ewes and a she-goat to Diana. This festival was adopted by the Ionians, except the inhabitants of Ephesus and Colophon.――A surname of Minerva,――of Venus.

Apeauros, a mountain of Peloponnesus. Polybius, bk. 4.

Apella, a word, Horace, bk. 1, satire  5, li. 10, which has given much trouble to critics and commentators. Some suppose it to mean circumcised (sine pelle), an epithet highly applicable to a Jew. Others maintain that it is a proper name, upon the authority of Cicero, Letters to Atticus, bk. 12, ltr. 19, who mentions a person of the same name.

Apelles, a celebrated painter of Cos, or, as others say, of Ephesus or Colophon, son of Pithius. He lived in the age of Alexander the Great, who honoured him so much that he forbade any man but Apelles to draw his picture. He was so attentive to his profession that he never spent a day without employing his pencil, whence the proverb of Nulla dies sine lineâ. His most perfect picture was Venus Anadyomene, which was not totally finished when the painter died. He made a painting of Alexander holding thunder in his hand, so much like life that Pliny, who saw it, says that the hand of the king with the thunder seemed to come out of the picture. This picture was placed in Diana’s temple at Ephesus. He made another of Alexander, but the king expressed not much satisfaction at the sight of it: and at that moment a horse, passing by, neighed at the horse which was represented in the piece, supposing it to be alive; upon which the painter said, “One would imagine that the horse is a better judge of painting than your Majesty.” When Alexander ordered him to draw the picture of Campaspe, one of his mistresses, Apelles became enamoured of her, and the king permitted him to marry her. He wrote three volumes upon painting, which were still extant in the age of Pliny. It is said that he was accused in Egypt of conspiring against the life of Ptolemy, and that he would have been put to death had not the real conspirator discovered himself, and saved the painter. Apelles never put his name to any pictures but three; a sleeping Venus, Venus Anadyomene, and an Alexander. The proverb of Ne sutor ultra crepidam is applied to him by some. Pliny, bk. 35, ch. 10.—Horace, bk. 2, ltr. 1, li. 238.—Cicero, Letters to his Friends, bk. 1, ltr. 9.—Ovid, Ars Amatoria, bk. 3, li. 401.—Valerius Maximus, bk. 8, ch. 11.――A tragic writer. Suetonius, Caligula, ch. 33.――A Macedonian general, &c.

Apellĭcon, a Teian peripatetic philosopher, whose fondness for books was so great that he is accused of stealing them, when he could not obtain them with money. He bought the works of Aristotle and Theophrastus, but greatly disfigured them by his frequent interpolations. The extensive library, which he had collected at Athens, was carried to Rome when Sylla had conquered the capital of Attica, and among the valuable books was found an original manuscript of Aristotle. He died about 86 B.C. Strabo, bk. 13.

Apennīnus, a ridge of high mountains which run through the middle of Italy, from Liguria to Ariminum and Ancona. They are joined to the Alps. Some have supposed that they ran across Sicily by Rhegium before Italy was separated from Sicily. Lucan, bk. 2, li. 306.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 2, li. 226.—Silius Italicus, bk. 4, li. 743.—Strabo, bk. 2.—Mela, bk. 2, ch. 4.

Aper Marcus, a Latin orator of Gaul, who distinguished himself as a politician, as well as by his genius. The dialogue of the orators, inserted with the works of Tacitus and Quintilian, is attributed to him. He died A.D. 85.――Another. See: Numerianus.

Aperopia, a small island on the coast of Argolis. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 34.

Apĕsus, Apesas, or Apesantus, a mountain of Peloponnesus near Lerna. Statius, Thebiad, bk. 3, li. 461.

Aphaca, a town of Palestine, where Venus was worshipped, and where she had a temple and an oracle.

Aphæa, a name of Diana, who had a temple in Ægina. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 30.

Aphar, the capital city of Arabia, near the Red sea. Arrian, Periplus of the Euxine Sea.

Apharētus, fell in love with Marpessa daughter of Œnomaus, and carried her away.

Aphareus, a king of Messenia, son of Perieres and Gorgophone, who married Arene daughter of Œbalus, by whom he had three sons. Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 1.――A relation of Isocrates, who wrote 37 tragedies.

Aphas, a river of Greece, which falls into the bay of Ambracia. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 1.

Aphellas, a king of Cyrene, who, with the aid of Agathocles, endeavoured to reduce all Africa under his power. Justin, bk. 22, ch. 7.

Aphĕsas, a mountain in Peloponnesus, whence, as the poets have imagined, Perseus attempted to fly to heaven. Statius, Thebiad, bk. 3, li. 461.

Aphētæ, a city of Magnesia, where the ship Argo was launched. Apollodorus.

Aphīdas, a son of Arcas king of Arcadia. Pausanias, bk. 8.

Aphidna, a part of Attica, which received its name from Aphidnus, one of the companions of Theseus. Herodotus.

Aphidnus, a friend of Æneas, killed by Turnus. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 9, li. 702.

Aphœbētus, one of the conspirators against Alexander. Curtius, bk. 6, ch. 7.

Aphrīces, an Indian prince, who defended the rock Aornus, with 20,000 foot and 15 elephants. He was killed by his troops, and his head sent to Alexander.

Aphrodisia, an island in the Persian gulf, where Venus is worshipped.――Festivals in honour of Venus, celebrated in different parts of Greece, but chiefly in Cyprus. They were first instituted by Cinyras, from whose family the priests of the goddess were always chosen. All those that were initiated offered a piece of money to Venus as a harlot, and received as a mark of the favours of the goddess, a measure of salt and a θαλλος; the salt, because Venus arose from the sea; the θαλλος, because she is the goddess of wantonness. They were celebrated at Corinth by harlots, and in every part of Greece they were very much frequented. Strabo, bk. 14.—Athenæus.

Aphrodisias, a town of Caria, sacred to Venus. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 3, ch. 62.

Aphrodisium (or a), a town of Apulia, built by Diomede in honour of Venus.

Aphrodīsum, a city on the eastern parts of Cyprus, nine miles from Salamis.――A promontory with an island of the same name on the coast of Spain. Pliny, bk. 3, ch. 3.

Aphrodīte, the Grecian name of Venus, from ἀφρος, froth, because Venus is said to have been born from the froth of the ocean. Hesiod, Theogony, li. 195.—Pliny, bk. 36, ch. 5.

Aphȳtæ, or Aphytis, a city of Thrace, near Pallena, where Jupiter Ammon was worshipped. Lysander besieged the town; but the god of the place appeared to him in a dream, and advised him to raise the siege, which he immediately did. Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 18.

Apia, an ancient name of Peloponnesus, which it received from king Apis. It was afterwards called Ægialea, Pelasgia, Argia, and at last Peloponnesus, or the island of Pelops. Homer, Iliad, bk. 1, li. 270. Also the name of the earth, worshipped among the Lydians as a powerful deity. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 59.

Apiānus, or Apion, was born at Oasis in Egypt, whence he went to Alexandria, of which he was deemed a citizen. He succeeded Theus in the profession of rhetoric in the reign of Tiberius, and wrote a book against the Jews, which Josephus refuted. He was at the head of an embassy which the people of Alexandria sent to Caligula, to complain of the Jews. Seneca, ltr. 88.—Pliny, preface, Natural History.

Apicāta, married Sejanus, by whom she had three children. She was repudiated. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 4, ch. 3.

Apicius, a famous glutton in Rome. There were three of the same name, all famous for their voracious appetite. The first lived in the time of the republic, the second in the reign of Augustus and Tiberius, and the third under Trajan. The second was the most famous, as he wrote a book on the pleasures and incitements of eating. He hanged himself after he had consumed the greatest part of his estate. The best edition of Apicius Cælius de Arte Coquinariâ, is that of Amsterdam, 12mo, 1709. Juvenal, satire 11, li. 3.—Martial, bk. 2, ltr. 69.

Apidănus, one of the chief rivers of Thessaly, at the south of the Peneus, into which it falls a little above Larissa. Lucan, bk. 6, li. 372.

Apĭna and Apinæ, a city of Apulia, destroyed with Trica, in its neighbourhood, by Diomedes; whence came the proverb of Apina et Trica, to express trifling things. Martial, bk. 14, ltr. 1.—Pliny, bk. 3, ch. 11.

Apiŏla and Apiolæ, a town of Italy, taken by Tarquin the Proud. The Roman Capitol was begun with the spoils taken from that city. Pliny, bk. 3, ch. 5.

Apion, a surname of Ptolemy, one of the descendants of Ptolemy Lagus.――A grammarian. See: Apianus.

Apis, one of the ancient kings of Peloponnesus, son of Phoroneus and Laodice. Some say that Apollo was his father, and that he was king of Argos, while others call him king of Sicyon, and fix the time of his reign above 200 years earlier, which is enough to show he is but obscurely known, if known at all. He was a native of Naupactum, and descended from Inachus. He received divine honours after death, as he had been munificent and humane to his subjects. The country where he reigned was called Apia; and afterwards it received the name of Pelasgia, Argia, or Argolis, and at last that of Peloponnesus, from Pelops. Some, amongst whom is Varro and St. Augustine, have imagined that Apis went to Egypt with a colony of Greeks, and that he civilized the inhabitants, and polished their manners, for which they made him a god after death, and paid divine honours to him under the name of Serapis. This tradition, according to some of the moderns, is without foundation. Æschylus, Suppliant Maidens.—Augustine, City of God, bk. 18, ch. 5.—Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 5.—Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 1.――A son of Jason, born in Arcadia; he was killed by the horses of Ætolus. Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 1.――A town of Egypt on the lake Mareotis.――A god of the Egyptians, worshipped under the form of an ox. Some say that Isis and Osiris are the deities worshipped under this name, because during their reign they taught the Egyptians agriculture. The Egyptians believed that the soul of Osiris was really departed into the ox, where it wished to dwell, because that animal had been of the most essential service in the cultivation of the ground, which Osiris had introduced into Egypt. The ox that was chosen was always distinguished by particular marks: his body was black; he had a square white spot upon the forehead, the figure of an eagle upon the back, a knot under the tongue like a beetle; the hairs of his tail were double, and his right side was marked with a whitish spot, resembling the crescent of the moon. Without these, an ox could not be taken as the god Apis; and it is to be imagined that the priests gave these distinguishing characteristics to the animal on which their credit and even prosperity depended. The festival of Apis lasted seven days; the ox was led in a solemn procession by the priests, and every one was anxious to receive him into his house, and it was believed that the children who smelt his breath received the knowledge of futurity. The ox was conducted to the banks of the Nile with much ceremony, and if he had lived to the time which their sacred books allowed, they drowned him in the river, and embalmed his body, and buried it in solemn state in the city of Memphis. After his death, which sometimes was natural, the greatest cries and lamentations were heard in Egypt, as if Osiris was just dead; the priests shaved their heads, which was a sign of the deepest mourning. This continued till another ox appeared, with the proper characteristics to succeed as the deity, which was followed with the greatest acclamations, as if Osiris was returned to life. This ox, which was found to represent Apis, was left 40 days in the city of the Nile before he was carried to Memphis, during which time none but women were permitted to appear before him, and this they performed, according to their superstitious notions, in a wanton and indecent manner. There was also an ox worshipped at Heliopolis, under the name of Mnevis; some suppose that he was Osiris, but others maintain that the Apis of Memphis was sacred to Osiris, and Mnevis to Isis. When Cambyses came into Egypt, the people were celebrating the festivals of Apis with every mark of joy and triumph, which the conqueror interpreted as an insult upon himself. He called the priests of Apis, and ordered the deity itself to come before him. When he saw that an ox was the object of their veneration, and the cause of such rejoicings, he wounded it on the thigh, ordered the priests to be chastised, and commanded his soldiers to slaughter such as were found celebrating such riotous festivals. The god Apis had generally two stables, or rather temples. If he ate from the hand, it was a favourable omen; but if he refused the food that was offered him, it was interpreted as unlucky. From this Germanicus, when he visited Egypt, drew the omens of his approaching death. When his oracle was consulted, incense was burnt on an altar, and a piece of money placed upon it, after which the people that wished to know futurity applied their ear to the mouth of the god, and immediately retired, stopping their ears till they had departed from the temple. The first sounds that were heard, were taken as the answer of the oracle to their questions. Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 22.—Herodotus, bks. 2 & 3.—Pliny, bk. 8, ch. 38, &c.Strabo, bk. 7.—Plutarch, Iside et Osiride.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 7; bk. 2, ch. 1.—Mela, bk. 1, ch. 9.—Pliny, bk. 8, ch. 39, &c.Strabo, bk. 7.—Ælian, Varia Historia, bks. 4 & 6.—Diodorus, bk. 1.

Apisāon, son of Hippasus, assisted Priam against the Greeks, at the head of a Pæonian army. He was killed by Lycomedes. Homer, Iliad, bk. 17, li. 348.――Another on the same side.

Apitius Galba, a celebrated buffoon in the time of Tiberius. Juvenal, satire 5, li. 4.

Apollināres ludi, games celebrated at Rome in honour of Apollo. They originated from the following circumstance. An old prophetic poem informed the Romans, that if they instituted yearly games to Apollo, and made a collection of money for his service, they would be able to repel the enemy whose approach already threatened their destruction. The first time they were celebrated, Rome was alarmed by the approach of the enemy, and instantly the people rushed out of the city, and saw a cloud of arrows discharged from the sky on the troops of the enemy. With this heavenly assistance they easily obtained the victory. The people generally sat crowned with laurel at the representation of these games, which were usually celebrated at the option of the pretor, till the year A.U.C. 545, when a law was passed to settle the celebration yearly on the same day about the nones of July. When this alteration happened, Rome was infested with a dreadful pestilence, which, however, seemed to be appeased by this act of religion. Livy, bk. 25, ch. 12.

Apollināris, Caius Sulpitius, a grammarian of Carthage, in the second century, who is supposed to be the author of the verses prefixed to Terence’s plays as arguments.――A writer better known by the name of Sidonius. See: Sidonius.

Apollinīdes, a Greek in the wars of Darius and Alexander, &c. Curtius, bk. 4, ch. 5.

Apollĭnis arx, a place at the entrance of the Sibyl’s cave. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 6.――Promontorium, a promontory of Africa. Livy, bk. 30, ch. 24.――Templum, a place in Thrace,――in Lycia. Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 6, ch. 9.

Apollo, son of Jupiter and Latona, called also Phœbus, is often confounded with the sun. According to Cicero, bk. 3, de Natura Deorum, there were four persons of this name. The first was son of Vulcan, and the tutelary god of the Athenians. The second was son of Corybas, and was born in Crete, for the dominion of which he disputed even with Jupiter himself. The third was son of Jupiter and Latona, and came from the nations of the Hyperboreans to Delphi. The fourth was born in Arcadia, and called Nomion, because he gave laws to the inhabitants. To the son of Jupiter and Latona all the actions of the others seem to have been attributed. The Apollo, son of Vulcan, was the same as the Orus of the Egyptians, and was the most ancient, from whom the actions of the others have been copied. The three others seem to be of Grecian origin. The tradition that the son of Latona was born in the floating island of Delos, is taken from the Egyptian mythology, which asserts that the son of Vulcan, which is supposed to be Orus, was saved by his mother Isis from the persecution of Typhon, and entrusted to the care of Latona, who concealed him in the island of Chemmis. When Latona was pregnant by Jupiter, Juno, who was ever jealous of her husband’s amours, raised the serpent Python to torment Latona, who was refused a place to give birth to her children, till Neptune, moved at the severity of her fate, raised the island of Delos from the bottom of the sea, where Latona brought forth Apollo and Diana. Apollo was the god of all the fine arts, of medicine, music, poetry, and eloquence, of all which he was deemed the inventor. He had received from Jupiter the power of knowing futurity, and he was the only one of the gods whose oracles were in general repute over the world. His amours with Leucothoe, Daphne, Issa, Bolina, Coronis, Clymene, Cyrene, Chione, Acacallis, Calliope, &c., are well known, and the various shapes he assumed to gratify his passion. He was very fond of young Hyacinthus, whom he accidentally killed with a quoit; as also of Cyparissus, who was changed into a cypress tree. When his son Æsculapius had been killed with the thunders of Jupiter for raising the dead to life, Apollo, in his resentment, killed the Cyclops who had fabricated the thunderbolts. Jupiter was incensed at this act of violence, and he banished Apollo from heaven, and deprived him of his dignity. The exiled deity came to Admetus king of Thessaly, and hired himself to be one of his shepherds, in which ignoble employment he remained nine years; from which circumstance he was called the god of shepherds, and at his sacrifices a wolf was generally offered, as that animal is the declared enemy of the sheepfold. During his residence in Thessaly, he rewarded the tender treatment of Admetus. He gave him a chariot drawn by a lion and a bull, with which he was able to obtain in marriage Alceste the daughter of Pelias; and soon after, the Parcæ granted, at Apollo’s request, that Admetus might be redeemed from death, if another person laid down his life for him. He assisted Neptune in building the walls of Troy; and when he was refused the promised reward from Laomedon the king of the country, he destroyed the inhabitants by a pestilence. As soon as he was born, Apollo destroyed with arrows the serpent Python, whom Juno had sent to persecute Latona; hence he was called Pythius; and he afterwards vindicated the honour of his mother, by putting to death the children of the proud Niobe. See: Niobe. He was not the inventor of the lyre, as some have imagined, but Mercury gave it him, and received as a reward the famous caduceus with which Apollo was wont to drive the flocks of Admetus. His contest with Pan and Marsyas, and the punishment inflicted upon Midas, are well known. He received the surnames of Phœbus, Delius, Cynthius, Pœan, Delphicus, Nomius, Lycius, Clarius, Ismenius, Vulturius, Smintheus, &c., for reasons which are explained under those words. Apollo is generally represented with long hair, and the Romans were fond of imitating his figure, and therefore in their youth they were remarkable for their fine heads of hair, which they cut short at the age of 17 or 18. He is always represented as a tall, beardless young man, with a handsome shape, holding in his hand a bow, and sometimes a lyre; his head is generally surrounded with beams of light. He was the deity who, according to the notions of the ancients, inflicted plagues, and in that moment he appeared surrounded with clouds. His worship and power were universally acknowledged: he had temples and statues in every country, particularly in Egypt, Greece, and Italy. His statue, which stood upon mount Actium, as a mark to mariners to avoid the dangerous coasts, was particularly famous, and it appeared to a great distance at sea. Augustus, before the battle of Actium, addressed himself to it for victory. The griffin, the cock, the grasshopper, the wolf, the crow, the swan, the hawk, the olive, the laurel, the palm tree, &c., were sacred to him; and in his sacrifices, wolves and hawks were offered, as they were the natural enemies of the flocks, over which he presided. Bullocks and lambs were also immolated to him. As he presided over poetry, he was often seen on mount Parnassus with the nine muses. His most famous oracles were at Delphi, Delos, Claros, Tenedos, Cyrrha, and Patara. His most splendid temple was at Delphi, where every nation and individual made considerable presents when they consulted the oracle. Augustus, after the battle of Actium, built him a temple on mount Palatine, which he enriched with a valuable library. He had a famous colossus in Rhodes, which was one of the seven wonders of the world. Apollo has been taken for the sun; but it may be proved by different passages in the ancient writers, that Apollo, the Sun, Phœbus, and Hyperion, were all different characters and deities, though confounded together. When once Apollo was addressed as the Sun, and represented with a crown of rays on his head, the idea was adopted by every writer, and from thence arose the mistake. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 1, fables 9 & 10; bk. 4, fable 3, &c.Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 7; bk. 5, ch. 7; bk. 7, ch. 20; bk. 9, ch. 30, &c.Hyginus, fables 9, 14, 50, 93, 140, 161, 202, 203, &c.Statius, bk. 1, Thebiad, li. 560.—Tibullus, bk. 2, poem 3.—Plutarch, de Amore Prolis.—Homer, Iliad & Hymn to Apollo.—Virgil, Æneid, bks. 2, 3, &c.; Georgics, bk. 4, li. 323.—Horace, bk. 1, ode 10.—Lucian, Dialogi Deorum.—Propertius, bk. 1, poem 28.—Callimachus, Hymn to Apollo.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, chs. 3, 4, & 9; bk. 2, ch. 5; bk. 3, chs. 5, 10, & 12.――One of the ships in the fleet of Æneas. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 10, li. 171.――Also a temple of Apollo upon mount Leucas, which appeared at a great distance at sea; and served as a guide to mariners, and reminded them to avoid the dangerous rocks that were along the coast. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 3, li. 275.

‘Dial. Mer. & Vulc.’ replaced with ‘Dialogi Deorum’

Apollocrătes, a friend of Dion, supposed by some to be the son of Dionysius.

Apollodōrus, a famous grammarian and mythologist of Athens, son of Asclepias and disciple to Panætius the Rhodian philosopher. He flourished about 115 years before the christian era, and wrote a history of Athens, besides other works. But of all his compositions, nothing is extant but his Bibliotheca, a valuable work, divided into three books. It is an abridged history of the gods, and of the ancient heroes, of whose actions and genealogy it gives a true and faithful account. The best edition is that of Heyne, Göttingen, in 8vo, 4 vols., 1782. Athenæus.Pliny, bk. 7, ch. 37.—Diodorus, bks. 4 & 13.――A tragic poet of Cilicia, who wrote tragedies entitled Ulysses, Thyestes, &c.――A comic poet of Gela in Sicily, in the age of Menander, who wrote 47 plays.――An architect of Damascus, who directed the building of Trajan’s bridge across the Danube. He was put to death by Adrian, to whom, when in a private station, he had spoken in too bold a manner.――A writer who composed a history of Parthia.――A disciple of Epicurus, the most learned of his school, and deservedly surnamed the illustrious. He wrote about 40 volumes on different subjects. Diogenes Laërtius.――A painter of Athens, to whom Zeuxis was a pupil. Two of his paintings were admired at Pergamus, in the age of Pliny; a priest in a suppliant posture, and Ajax struck with Minerva’s thunders. Pliny, bk. 35, ch. 9.――A statuary in the age of Alexander. He was of such an irascible disposition, that he destroyed his own pieces upon the least provocation. Pliny, bk. 34, ch. 8.――A rhetorician of Pergamus, preceptor and friend to Augustus, who wrote a book on rhetoric. Strabo, bk. 13.――A tragic poet of Tarsus.――A Lemnian who wrote on husbandry.――A physician of Tarentum.――Another of Cytium.

Apollonia, a festival at Ægialea in honour of Apollo and Diana. It arose from this circumstance: these two deities came to Ægialea, after the conquest of the serpent Python; but they were frightened away, and fled to Crete. Ægialea was soon visited with an epidemical distemper, and the inhabitants, by the advice of their prophets, sent seven chosen boys, with the same number of girls, to entreat them to return to Ægialea. Apollo and Diana granted their petition, in honour of which a temple was raised to πειθω, the goddess of persuasion; and ever after a number of youths, of both sexes, were chosen to march in solemn procession, as if anxious to bring back Apollo and Diana. Pausanias, Corinth.――A town of Mygdonia,――of Crete,――of Sicily,――on the coast of Asia Minor.――Another on the coast of Thrace, part of which was built on a small island of Pontus, where Apollo had a temple.――A town of Macedonia, on the coasts of the Adriatic.――A city of Thrace.――Another on mount Parnassus.

Apolloniădes, a tyrant of Sicily, compelled to lay down his power by Timoleon.

Apollonias, the wife of Attalus king of Phrygia, to whom she bore four children.

Apollonĭdes, a writer of Nicæa.――A physician of Cos at the court of Artaxerxes, who became enamoured of Amytis, the monarch’s sister, and was some time after put to death for slighting her after the reception of her favours.

Apollonius, a Stoic philosopher of Chalcis, sent for by Antoninus Pius, to instruct his adopted son Marcus Antoninus. When he came to Rome, he refused to go to the palace, observing that the master ought not to wait upon his pupil, but the pupil upon him. The emperor hearing this, said, laughing, “It was then easier for Apollonius to come from Chalcis to Rome, than from Rome to the palace.”――A geometrician of Perge in Pamphylia, whose works are now lost. He lived about 240 years before the christian era, and composed a commentary on Euclid, whose pupils he attended at Alexandria. He wrote treatises on conic sections, eight of which are now extant; and he first endeavoured to explain the causes of the apparent stopping and retrograde motion of the planets, by cycles and epicycles, or circles within circles. The best edition of Apollonius is Dr. Halley’s, Oxford, folio, 1710.――A poet of Naucratis in Egypt, generally called Apollonius of Rhodes, because he lived for some time there. He was pupil, when young, to Callimachus and Panætius, and succeeded to Eratosthenes as third librarian of the famous library of Alexandria, under Ptolemy Evergetes. He was ungrateful to his master Callimachus, who wrote a poem against him, in which he denominated him Ibis. Of all his works, nothing remains but his poem on the expedition of the Argonauts, in four books. The best editions of Apollonius are those printed at Oxford, in 4to, by Shaw, 1777, 2 vols.; and in 1 vol., 8vo, 1779; and that of Brunck, Strasbourg, 12mo, 1780. Quintilian, bk. 10, ch. 1.――A Greek orator, surnamed Molo, was a native of Alabanda in Caria. He opened a school of rhetoric at Rhodes and Rome, and had Julius Cæsar and Cicero among his pupils. He discouraged the attendance of those whom he supposed incapable of distinguishing themselves as orators, and he recommended to them pursuits more congenial to their abilities. He wrote a history, in which he did not candidly treat the people of Judæa, according to the complaint of Josephus, against Apion.—Cicero, On Oratory, bk. 1, chs. 28, 75, 126, & 130; Letters to his Friends, bk. 3, ltr. 16; De Inventione, bk. 1, ch. 81.—Quintilian, bk. 3, ch. 1; bk. 12, ch. 6.—Suetonius, Cæsar, ch. 4.—Plutarch, Cæsar.――A Greek historian about the age of Augustus, who wrote upon the philosophy of Zeno and of his followers. Strabo, bk. 14.――A Stoic philosopher, who attended Cato of Utica in his last moments. Plutarch, Cato.――An officer set over Egypt by Alexander. Curtius, bk. 4, ch. 8.――A wrestler. Pausanias, bk. 5.――A physician of Pergamus, who wrote on agriculture. Varro.――A grammarian of Alexandria.――A writer in the age of Antoninus Pius.――Thyaneus, a Pythagorean philosopher, well skilled in the secret arts of magic. Being one day haranguing the populace at Ephesus, he suddenly exclaimed, “Strike the tyrant, strike him; the blow is given, he is wounded, and fallen!” At that very moment the emperor Domitian had been stabbed at Rome. The magician acquired much reputation when this circumstance was known. He was courted by kings and princes, and commanded unusual attention by his numberless artifices. His friend and companion, called Damis, wrote his life, which 200 years after engaged the attention of Philostratus. In his history the biographer relates so many curious and extraordinary anecdotes of the hero, that many have justly deemed it a romance; yet for all this, Hierocles had the presumption to compare the impostures of Apollonius with the miracles of Jesus Christ.――A sophist of Alexandria, distinguished for his Lexicon Græcum Iliadis et Odysseæ, a book that was beautifully edited by Villoison, in 4to, 2 vols., Paris, 1773. Apollonius was one of the pupils of Didymus, and flourished in the beginning of the first century.――A physician.――A son of Sotades at the court of Ptolemy Philadelphus.――Syrus, a Platonic philosopher.――Herophilus, wrote concerning ointments.――A sculptor of Rhodes.

Apollŏphănes, a Stoic, who greatly flattered king Antigonus, and maintained that there existed but one virtue, prudence. Diogenes Laërtius.――A physician in the court of Antiochus. Polybius, bk. 5.――A comic poet. Ælian, De Natura Animalium, bk. 6.

Apomyīos, a surname of Jupiter.

Aponiana, an island near Lilybæum. Hirtius, African War, ch. 2.

Marcus Aponius, a governor of Mœsia, rewarded with a triumphal statue by Otho, for defeating 9000 barbarians. Tacitus, Histories, bk. 1, ch. 79.

Apŏnus, now Abano, a fountain, with a village of the same name, near Patavium in Italy. The waters of the fountain, which were hot, were wholesome, and were supposed to have an oracular power. Lucan, bk. 7, li. 194.—Suetonius, Tiberius, ch. 14.

Apostrophia, a surname of Venus in Bœotia, who was distinguished under these names, Venus Urania, Vulgaria, and Apostrophia. The former was the patroness of a pure and chaste love; the second of carnal and sensual desires; and the last incited men to illicit and unnatural gratifications, to incests, and rapes. Venus Apostrophia was invoked by the Thebans, that they might be saved from such unlawful desires. She is the same as the Verticordia of the Romans. Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 16.—Valerius Maximus, bk. 8, ch. 15.

Apotheōsis, a ceremony observed by the ancient nations of the world, by which they raised their kings, heroes, and great men to the rank of deities. The nations of the east were the first who paid divine honours to their great men, and the Romans followed their example, and not only deified the most prudent and humane of their emperors, but also the most cruel and profligate. Herodian, bk. 4, ch. 2, has left us an account of the apotheosis of a Roman emperor. After the body of the deceased was burnt, an ivory image was laid on a couch for seven days, representing the emperor under the agonies of disease. The city was in sorrow, the senate visited it in mourning, and the physicians pronounced it every day in a more decaying state. When the death was announced, a band of young senators carried the couch and image to the Campus Martius, where it was deposited on an edifice in the form of a pyramid, where spices and combustible materials were thrown. After this the knights walked round the pile in solemn procession, and the images of the most illustrious Romans were drawn in state, and immediately the new emperor, with a torch, set fire to the pile, and was assisted by the surrounding multitude. Meanwhile an eagle was let fly from the middle of the pile, which was supposed to carry the soul of the deceased to heaven, where he was ranked among the gods. If the deified was a female, a peacock, and not an eagle, was sent from the flames. The Greeks observed ceremonies much of the same nature.

Appia via, a celebrated road leading from the porta Capena at Rome to Brundusium, through Capua. Appius Claudius made it as far as Capua, and it received its name from him. It was continued and finished by Gracchus, Julius Cæsar, and Augustus. See: Via. Lucan, bk. 3, li. 285.—Statius, bk. 2, Sylvæ, poem 2, li. 12.—Martial, bk. 9, ltr. 104.—Suetonius, Tiberias, ch. 14.

Appiădes, a name given to these five deities, Venus, Pallas, Vesta, Concord, and Peace, because a temple was erected to them near the Appian road. The name was also applied to those courtesans at Rome who lived near the temple of Venus by Appiæ Aquæ, and the forum of Julius Cæsar. Ovid, de Ars Amatoria, bk. 3, li. 452.

Appiānus, a Greek historian of Alexandria, who flourished A.D. 123. His universal history, which consisted of 24 books, was a series of history of all the nations that had been conquered by the Romans, in the order of time; and in the composition, the writer displayed, with a style simple and unadorned, a great knowledge of military affairs, and described his battles in a masterly manner. This excellent work is greatly mutilated, and there is extant now only the account of the Punic, Syrian, Parthian, Mithridatic, and Spanish wars, with those of Illyricum and the civil dissensions, with a fragment of the Celtic wars. In his preface, Appian has enlarged on the boundaries of that mighty empire, of which he was the historian. The best editions are those of Tollius and Variorum, 2 vols., 8vo, Amsterdam, 1670, and that of Schweigheuserus, 3 vols., 8vo, Lipscomb, 1785. He was so eloquent that the emperor highly promoted him in the state.

Appii Forum, now Borgo Longo, a little village not far from Rome, built by the consul Appius. Horace, bk. 1, satire 5.

Appius, the prænomen of an illustrious family at Rome.――A censor of that name, A.U.C. 442. Horace, bk. 1, satire 6.

Appius Claudius, a decemvir who obtained his power by force and oppression. He attempted the virtue of Virginia, whom her father killed to preserve her chastity. This act of violence was the cause of a revolution in the state, and the ravisher destroyed himself when cited to appear before the tribunal of his country. Livy, bk. 3, ch. 33.――Claudius Cæcus, a Roman orator, who built the Appian way and many aqueducts in Rome. When Pyrrhus, who was come to assist the Tarentines against Rome, demanded peace of the senators, Appius, grown old in the service of the republic, caused himself to be carried to the senate house, and by his authority dissuaded them from granting a peace which would prove dishonourable to the Roman name. Ovid, Fasti, bk. 6, li. 203.—Cicero, Brutus & Tusculanæ Disputationes, bk. 4.――A Roman who, when he heard that he had been proscribed by the triumvirs, divided his riches among his servants, and embarked with them for Sicily. In their passage the vessel was shipwrecked, and Appius alone saved his life. Appian, bk. 4.――Claudius Crassus, a consul, who, with Spurius Naut. Rutilius, conquered the Celtiberians, and was defeated by Perseus king of Macedonia. Livy.――Claudius Pulcher, a grandson of Appius Claudius Cæcus, consul in the age of Sylla, retired from grandeur to enjoy the pleasures of a private life.――Clausus, a general of the Sabines, who, upon being ill treated by his countrymen, retired to Rome with 5000 of his friends, and was admitted into the senate in the early ages of the republic. Plutarch, Poplicola [Publicola].――Herdonius, seized the capitol with 4000 exiles, A.U.C. 292, and was soon after overthrown. Livy, bk. 3, ch. 15.—Florus, bk. 3, ch. 19.――Claudius Lentulus, a consul with Marcus Perpenna.――A dictator who conquered the Hernici.――The name of Appius was common in Rome, and particularly to many consuls, whose history is not marked by any uncommon event.

Appŭla, an immodest woman, &c. Juvenal, satire 6, li. 64.

Apries and Aprius, one of the kings of Egypt in the age of Cyrus, supposed to be the Pharaoh Hophra of Scripture. He took Sidon, and lived in great prosperity till his subjects revolted to Amasis, by whom he was conquered and strangled. Herodotus, bk. 2, ch. 159, &c.Diodorus, bk. 1.

Apsinthii, a people of Thrace. They received their name from a river called Apsinthus, which flowed through their territory. Dionysius Periegetes.

Apsinus, an Athenian sophist in the third century, author of a work called Præceptor de Arte Rhetoricâ.

Apsus, a river of Macedonia falling into the Ionian sea between Dyrrhachium and Apollonia. Lucan, bk. 5, li. 46.

Aptĕra, an inland town of Crete. Ptolemy.Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 12.

Apuleia lex, was enacted by Lucius Apuleius the tribune, A.U.C. 652, for inflicting a punishment upon such as were guilty of raising seditions, or showing violence in the city.――Varilia, a granddaughter of Augustus, convicted of adultery with a certain Manlius, in the reign of Tiberius. Tacitus, Annals, ch. 50.

Apuleius, a learned man, born at Madaura in Africa. He studied at Carthage, Athens, and Rome, where he married a rich widow called Pudentilla, for which he was accused by some of her relations of using magical arts to win her heart. His apology was a masterly composition. In his youth, Apuleius had been very expensive; but he was, in a maturer age, more devoted to study, and learnt Latin without a master. The most famous of his works extant is the Golden Ass, in 11 books, an allegorical piece, replete with morality. The best editions of Apuleius are the Delphin, 2 vols., 4to, Paris, 1688, and Pricæi, 8vo, Goudæ, 1650.

Apūlia, now Puglia, a country of Italy between Daunia and Calabria. It was part of the ancient Magna Græcia, and generally divided into Apulia Daunia and Apulia Peucetia. It was famous for its wool, superior to all the produce of Italy. Some suppose that it is called after Apulus, an ancient king of the country before the Trojan war. Pliny, bk. 3, ch. 11.—Cicero, de Divinatione, bk. 1, ch. 43.—Strabo, bk. 6.—Mela, bk. 2, ch. 4.—Martial, Apophoreta, ltr. 155.

Apuscidāmus, a lake of Africa. All bodies, however heavy, were said to swim on the surface of its waters. Pliny, bk. 32, ch. 2.

Aquarius, one of the signs of the zodiac, rising in January and setting in February. Some suppose that Ganymede was changed into this sign. Virgil, Georgics, bk. 3, li. 304.

Aquilaria, a place of Africa. Cæsar, bk. 2, Civil War, ch. 23.

Aquileia, or Aquilegia, a town founded by a Roman colony, called from its grandeur, Roma secunda, and situate at the north of the Adriatic sea, on the confines of Italy. The Romans built it chiefly to oppose the frequent incursions of the barbarians. The Roman emperors enlarged and beautified it, and often made it their residence. Silius Italicus, bk. 8, li. 605.—Martial, bk. 4, ltr. 25.—Mela, bk. 2, ch. 4.

Aquilius Niger, an historian mentioned by Suetonius, Augustus, ch. 11.――Marcus, a Roman consul who had the government of Asia Minor. Justin, bk. 36, ch. 4.――Sabinus, a lawyer of Rome, surnamed the Cato of his age. He was father to Aquilia Severus, whom Heliogabalus married.――Severus, a poet and historian in the age of Valentinian.

Aquillia and Aquilia, a patrician family at Rome, from which few illustrious men rose.

Aquĭlo, a wind blowing from the north. Its name is derived, according to some, from Aquila, on account of its keenness and velocity.

Aquilonia, a city of the Hirpini in Italy. Livy, bk. 10, ch. 38.

Aquinius, a poet of moderate capacity. Cicero, bk. 5, Tusculanæ Disputationes.

Aquīnum, a town of Latium, on the borders of the Samnites, where Juvenal was born. A dye was invented there, which greatly resembled the real purple. Horace, bk. 1, ltr. 10, li. 27.—Strabo.Silius Italicus, bk. 8, li. 404.—Juvenal, satire 3, li. 319.

Aquitania, a country of Gaul, bounded on the west by Spain, north by the province of Lugdunum, south by the province called Gallia Narbonensis. Its inhabitants are called Aquitani. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 17.—Strabo, bk. 4.

Ara, a constellation, consisting of seven stars, near the tail of the Scorpion. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 2, li. 138.

Ara lugdunensis, a place at the confluence of the Arar and Rhone. Juvenal, satire 1, li. 44.

Arabarches, a vulgar person among the Egyptians, or perhaps an unusual expression for the leaders of the Arabians, who resided in Rome. Juvenal, satire 1, li. 130. Some believe that Cicero, bk. 2, ltr. 17, Letters to Atticus, alluded to Pompey under the name of Arabarches.

Arăbia, a large country of Asia, forming a peninsula between the Arabian and Persian gulfs. It is generally divided into three different parts, Petræa, Deserta, and Felix. It is famous for its frankincense and aromatic plants. The inhabitants were formerly under their own chiefs, an uncivilized people, who paid adoration to the sun, moon, and even serpents, and who had their wives in common, and circumcised their children. The country has often been invaded, but never totally subdued. Alexander the Great expressed his wish to place the seat of his empire in their territories. The soil is rocky and sandy, the inhabitants are scarce, the mountains rugged, and the country without water. In Arabia, whatever woman was convicted of adultery was capitally punished. The Arabians for some time supported the splendour of literature which was extinguished by the tyranny and superstition which prevailed in Egypt, and to them we are indebted for the invention of algebra, or the application of signs and letters to represent lines, numbers, and quantities, and also for the numerical characters of 1, 2, 3, &c., first used in Europe, A.D. 1253.—Herodotus, bks. 1, 2, 3.—Diodorus, bks. 1 & 2.—Pliny, bks. 12 & 14.—Strabo, bk. 16.—Xenophon.Tibullus, bk. 2, poem 2.—Curtius, bk. 5, ch. 1.—Virgil, Georgics, bk. 1, li. 57.――Also the name of the wife of Ægyptus. Apollodorus.

Arabĭcus sinus, a sea between Egypt and Arabia, different, according to some authors, from the Red sea, which they supposed to be between Æthiopia and India, and the Arabian gulf further above, between Egypt and Arabia. It is about 40 days’ sail in length, and not half a day’s in its most extensive breadth. Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 11.—Strabo.

Arăbis, Arabius, Arbis, an Indian river. Curtius, bk. 9, ch. 10.

Arabs and Arăbus, a son of Apollo and Babylone, who first invented medicine, and taught it in Arabia, which is called after his name. Pliny, bk. 7, ch. 56.

Aracca and Arecca, a city of Susiana. Tibullus, bk. 4, poem 1.

Arachne, a woman of Colophon, daughter to Idmon a dyer. She was so skilful in working with the needle, that she challenged Minerva, the goddess of the art, to a trial of skill. She represented on her work the amours of Jupiter with Europa, Antiope, Leda, Asteria, Danae, Alcmene, &c.; but though her piece was perfect and masterly, she was defeated by Minerva, and hanged herself in despair, and was changed into a spider by the goddess. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 6, fable 1, &c.――A city of Thessaly.

Arachosia, a city of Asia, near the Massagetæ. It was built by Semiramis.――One of the Persian provinces beyond the Indus. Pliny, bk. 6, ch. 23.—Strabo, bk. 11.

Arachōtæ and Arachōti, a people of India, who received their name from the river Arachotus which flows down from mount Caucasus. Dionysius Periegetes.Curtius, bk. 9, ch. 7.

Arachthias, one of the four capital rivers of Epirus near Nicopolis, falling into the bay of Ambracia. Strabo, bk. 7.

Aracillum, a town of Hispania Tarraconensis. Florus, bk. 4, ch. 12.

Aracosii, an Indian nation. Justin, bk. 13, ch. 4.

Aracynthus, a mountain of Acarnania, between the Achelous and Evenus, not far from the shore, and thence called Actæus. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 2.—Virgil, Eclogues, poem 2, li. 24.

Arădus, an island near Phœnicia, joined to the continent by a bridge. Dionysius Periegetes.

Aræ, rocks in the middle of the Mediterranean, between Africa and Sardinia, where the Romans and Africans ratified a treaty. It was upon them that Æneas lost the greatest part of his fleet. They are supposed to be those islands which are commonly called Ægates. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 1, li. 113.

Aræ Philænorum, a maritime city of Africa, on the borders of Cyrene. Sallust, Jugurthine War, chs. 19 & 79.

Arar, now the Saone, a river of Gaul, flowing into the Rhone, over which Cæsar’s soldiers made a bridge in one day. Cæsar, Gallic War, bk. 1, ch. 12.—Silius Italicus, bk. 3, li. 452.

Arărus, a Scythian river flowing through Armenia. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 48.

Arathyrea, a small province of Achaia, afterwards called Asophis, with a city of the same name. Homer, Iliad, bk. 2.—Strabo, bk. 8.

Arātus, a Greek poet of Cilicia, about 277 B.C. He was greatly esteemed by Antigonus Gonatas king of Macedonia, at whose court he passed much of his time, and by whose desire he wrote a poem on astronomy, in which he gives an account of the situations, rising and setting, number and motion of the stars. Cicero represented him as unacquainted with astrology, yet capable of writing upon it in elegant and highly finished verses, which, however, from the subject, admit of little variety. Aratus wrote, besides, hymns and epigrams, &c., and had among his interpreters and commentators many of the learned men of Greece whose works are lost, besides Cicero, Claudius, and Germanicus Cæsar, who in their youth, or moments of relaxation, translated the Phænomena into Latin verse. The best editions of Aratus are, Grotius, 4to, apud Raphalengius, 1600; and Oxford, 8vo, 1672. Cicero, de Natura Deorum, bk. 2, ch. 41.—Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 2.—Ovid, Amores, bk. 1, poem 15, li. 26.――The son of Clinias and Aristodama, was born at Sicyon in Achaia, near the river Asopus. When he was but seven years of age, his father, who held the government of Sicyon, was assassinated by Abantidas, who made himself absolute. After some revolutions, the sovereignty came into the hands of Nicocles, whom Aratus murdered to restore his country to liberty. He was so jealous of tyrannical power, that he even destroyed a picture which was the representation of a tyrant. He joined the republic of Sicyon to the Achæan league, which he strengthened, by making a treaty of alliance with the Corinthians, and with Ptolemy king of Egypt. He was chosen chief commander of the forces of the Achæans, and drove away the Macedonians from Athens and Corinth. He made war against the Spartans, but was conquered in a battle by their king Cleomenes. To repair the losses he had sustained, he solicited the assistance of king Antigonus, and drove away Cleomenes from Sparta, who fled to Egypt, where he killed himself. The Ætolians soon after attacked the Achæans; and Aratus, to support his character, was obliged to call to his aid Philip king of Macedonia. His friendship with this new ally did not long continue. Philip showed himself cruel and oppressive; and put to death some of the noblest of the Achæans, and even seduced the wife of the son of Aratus. Aratus, who was now advanced in years, showed his displeasure by withdrawing himself from the society and friendship of Philip. But this rupture was fatal. Philip dreaded the power and influence of Aratus, and therefore he caused him and his son to be poisoned. Some days before his death, Aratus was observed to spit blood; when apprised of it by his friends, he replied, “Such are the rewards which a connection with kings will produce.” He was buried with great pomp by his countrymen; and two solemn sacrifices were annually made to him, the first on the day that he delivered Sicyon from tyranny, and the second on the day of his birth. During those sacrifices, which were called Arateia, the priests wore a ribbon bespangled with white and purple spots, and the public schoolmaster walked in procession at the head of his scholars, and was always accompanied by the richest and most eminent senators, adorned with garlands. Aratus died in the 62nd year of his age, B.C. 213. He wrote a history of the Achæan league, much commended by Polybius. Plutarch, Lives of the Roman Emperors.—Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 8.—Cicero, de Officiis, bk. 2, ch. 23.—Strabo, bk. 14.—Livy, bk. 27, ch. 31.—Polybius, bk. 2.

Araxes, now Arras, a celebrated river which separates Armenia from Media, and falls into the Caspian sea. Lucan, bk. 1, li. 19; bk. 7, li. 188.—Strabo, bk. 8.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 8, li. 728.—Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 202, &c.――Another in Europe, now called Wolga.

Arbāces, a Mede who revolted with Belesis against Sardanapalus, and founded the empire of Media upon the ruins of the Assyrian power, 820 years before the christian era. He reigned above 50 years, and was famous for the greatness of his undertakings, as well as for his valour. Justin, bk. 1, ch. 3.—Paterculus, bk. 1, ch. 6.

Arbēla (orum), now Irbil, a town of Persia, on the river Lycus, famous for a battle fought there between Alexander and Darius, the 2nd of October, B.C. 331. Curtius, bk. 5, ch. 1.—Plutarch, Alexander.

Arbĕla, a town of Sicily, whose inhabitants were very credulous.

Arbis, a river on the western boundaries of India. Strabo.

Arbocāla, a city taken by Annibal as he marched against Rome.

Arbuscŭla, an actress on the Roman stage, who laughed at the hisses of the populace while she received the applauses of the knights. Horace, bk. 1, satire 10, li. 77.

Arcădia, a country in the middle of Peloponnesus, surrounded on every side by land, situate between Achaia, Messenia, Elis, and Argolis. It received its name from Arcas son of Jupiter, and was anciently called Drymodes, on account of the great number of oaks (δρυς) which it produced, and afterwards Lycaonia and Pelasgia. The country has been much celebrated by the poets, and was famous for its mountains. The inhabitants were for the most part all shepherds, who lived upon acorns, were skilful warriors, and able musicians. They thought themselves more ancient than the moon. Pan, the god of shepherds, chiefly lived among them.—Aristotle, bk. 4, Metaphysics, says that the wine of Arcadia, when placed in a goat’s skin near a fire, will become chalky, and at last be turned into salt. Strabo, bk. 1.—Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 5.—Pausanias, bk. 8, chs. 1, 2, &c.Athenæus, bk. 14.――A fortified village of Zacynthus.

Arcadius, eldest son of Theodosius the Great, succeeded his father A.D. 395. Under him the Roman power was divided into the eastern and western empire. He made the eastern empire his choice, and fixed his residence at Constantinople; while his brother Honorius was made emperor of the west, and lived in Rome. After this separation of the Roman empire, the two powers looked upon one another with indifference; and, soon after, their indifference was changed into jealousy, and contributed to hasten their mutual ruin. In the reign of Arcadius, Alaricus attacked the western empire, and plundered Rome. Arcadius married Eudoxia, a bold and ambitious woman, and died in the 31st year of his age, after a reign of 13 years, in which he bore the character of an effeminate prince, who suffered himself to be governed by favourites, and who abandoned his subjects to the tyranny of ministers, while he lost himself in the pleasures of a voluptuous court.

Arcānum, a villa of Cicero’s near the Minturni. Cicero, bk. 7, Letters to Atticus, ltr. 10.

Arcas, a son of Jupiter and Calisto. He nearly killed his mother, whom Juno had changed into a bear. He reigned in Pelasgia, which from him was called Arcadia, and taught his subjects agriculture and the art of spinning wool. After his death, Jupiter made him a constellation with his mother. As he was one day hunting, he met a wood nymph, who begged his assistance, because the tree over which she presided, and on whose preservation her life depended, was going to be carried away by the impetuous torrent of a river. Arcas changed the course of the waters, and preserved the tree, and married the nymph, by whom he had three sons, Azan, Aphidas, and Elatus, among whom he divided his kingdom. The descendants of Azan planted colonies in Phrygia. Aphidas received for his share Tegea, which on that account has been called the inheritance of Aphidas; and Elatus became master of mount Cyllene, and some time after passed into Phocis. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 4.—Hyginus, fables 155 & 176.—Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 8.—Strabo, bk. 8.—Ovid, Fasti, bk. 1, li. 470.――One of Actæon’s dogs.

Arce, a daughter of Thaumas, son of Pontus and Terra. Ptolemy Hephæstion.

Arcēna, a town of Phœnicia, where Alexander Severus was born.

Arcens, a Sicilian who permitted his son to accompany Æneas into Italy, where he was killed by Mezentius. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 9, li. 581, &c.

Arcesilāus, son of Battus king of Cyrene, was driven from his kingdom in a sedition, and died B.C. 575. The second of that name died B.C. 550. Polyænus, bk. 8, ch. 41.—Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 159.――One of Alexander’s generals, who obtained Mesopotamia at the general division of the provinces after the king’s death.――A chief of Catana, which he betrayed to Dionysius the elder. Diodorus, bk. 14.――A philosopher of Pitane in Æolia, disciple of Polemon. He visited Sardis and Athens, and was the founder of the middle academy, as Socrates founded the ancient, and Carneades the new one. He pretended to know nothing, and accused others of the same ignorance. He acquired many pupils in the character of teacher; but some of them left him for Epicurus, though no Epicurean came to him; which gave him occasion to say that it is easy to make a eunuch of a man, but impossible to make a man of a eunuch. He was very fond of Homer, and generally divided his time among the pleasures of philosophy, love, reading, and the table. He died in his 75th year, B.C. 241, or 300 according to some. Diogenes Laërtius, Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers.—Persius, bk. 3, li. 78.—Cicero, de Finibus.――The name of two painters,――a statuary,――a leader of the Bœotians during the Trojan war.――A comic and elegiac poet.

Arcēsius, son of Jupiter, was grandfather to Ulysses. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 13, li. 144.

Archæa, a city of Æolia.

Archæănax of Mitylene, was intimate with Pisistratus tyrant of Athens. He fortified Sigæum with a wall from the ruins of ancient Troy. Strabo, bk. 13.

Archæatĭdas, a country of Peloponnesus. Polybius.

Archăgăthus, son of Archagathus, was slain in Africa by his soldiers, B.C. 285. He killed his grandfather, Agathocles tyrant of Syracuse. Diodorus, bk. 20.—Justin, bk. 22, ch. 5, &c., says that he was put to death by Archesilaus.――A physician at Rome, B.C. 219.

Archander, father-in-law to Danaus. Herodotus, bk. 2, ch. 98.

Archandros, a town of Egypt.

Arche, one of the Muses, according to Cicero.

Archegētes, a surname of Hercules.

Archelāus, a name common to some kings of Cappadocia. One of them was conquered by Sylla, for assisting Mithridates.――A person of that name married Berenice, and made himself king of Egypt; a dignity he enjoyed only six months, as he was killed by the soldiers of Gabinius, B.C. 56. He had been made priest of Comana by Pompey. His grandson was made king of Cappadocia by Antony, whom he assisted at Actium, and he maintained his independence under Augustus, till Tiberius perfidiously destroyed him.――A king of Macedonia, who succeeded his father Perdiccas II. As he was but a natural child, he killed the legitimate heirs to gain the kingdom. He proved himself to be a great monarch; but he was at last killed by one of his favourites, because he had promised him his daughter in marriage, and given her to another, after a reign of 23 years. He patronized the poet Euripides. Diodorus, bk. 14.—Justin, bk. 7, ch. 4.—Ælian. Varia Historia, bks. 2, 8, 12, 14.――A king of the Jews, surnamed Herod. He married Glaphyre, daughter of Archelaus king of Macedonia, and widow of his brother Alexander. Cæsar banished him, for his cruelties, to Vienna, where he died. Dio Cassius.――A king of Lacedæmon, son of Agesilaus. He reigned 42 years with Charilaus, of the other branch of the family. Herodotus, bk. 7, ch. 204.—Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 2.――A general of Antigonus the younger appointed governor of the Acrocorinth, with the philosopher Persæus. Polyænus, bk. 6, ch. 5.――A celebrated general of Mithridates against Sylla. Polyænus, bk. 8, ch. 8.――A philosopher of Athens or Messenia, son of Apollodorus and successor to Anaxagoras. He was preceptor to Socrates, and was called Physicus. He supposed that heat and cold were the principles of all things. He first discovered the voice to be propagated by the vibration of the air. Cicero, Tusculanæ Disputationes, bk. 5.—Diogenes Laërtius, Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers.—Augustine, City of God, bk. 8.――A man set over Susa by Alexander, with a garrison of 3000 men. Curtius, bk. 5, ch. 2.――A Greek philosopher, who wrote a history of animals, and maintained that goats breathed not through the nostrils, but through the ears. Pliny, bk. 8, ch. 50.――A son of Electryon and Anaxo. Apollodorus, bk. 2.――A Greek poet who wrote epigrams. Varro, de Re Rustica, bk. 3, ch. 16.――A sculptor of Priene, in the age of Claudius. He made an apotheosis of Homer, a piece of sculpture highly admired, and said to have been discovered under ground, A.D. 1658.――A writer of Thrace.

Archemăchus, a Greek writer, who published a history of Eubœa. Athenæus, bk. 6.――A son of Hercules,――of Priam. Apollodorus, bks. 2 & 3.

Archemŏrus, or Opheltes, son of Lycurgus king of Nemæa, in Thrace, by Eurydice, was brought up by Hypsipyle queen of Lemnos, who had fled to Thrace, and was employed as a nurse in the king’s family. Hypsipyle was met by the army of Adrastus, who was going against Thebes: and she was forced to show them a fountain where they might quench their thirst. To do this more expeditiously, she put down the child on the grass, and at her return found him killed by a serpent. The Greeks were so afflicted at this misfortune, that they instituted games in honour of Archemorus, which were called Nemæan, and king Adrastus enlisted among the combatants, and was victorious. Apollodorus, bks. 2 & 3.—Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 48.—Statius, Thebiad, bk. 6.

Archepŏlis, a man in Alexander’s army, who conspired against the king with Dymnus. Curtius, bk. 6, ch. 7.

Archeptolĕmus, son of Iphitus king of Elis, went to the Trojan war, and fought against the Greeks. As he was fighting near Hector, he was killed by Ajax son of Telamon. It is said that he re-established the Olympic games. Homer, Iliad, bk. 8, li. 128.

Archestrătus, a tragic poet, whose pieces were acted during the Peloponnesian war. Plutarch, Aristotle.――A man so small and lean, that he could be placed in a dish without filling it, though it contained no more than an obolus.――A follower of Epicurus, who wrote a poem in commendation of gluttony.

Archetīmus, the first philosophical writer in the age of the seven wise men of Greece. Diogenes Laërtius.

Archetius, a Rutulian, killed by the Trojans. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 12, li. 459.

Archia, one of the Oceanides, wife to Inachus. Hyginus, fable 143.

Archias, a Corinthian descended from Hercules. He founded Syracuse, B.C. 732. Being told by an oracle to make choice of health or riches, he chose the latter. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 2.――A poet of Antioch, intimate with the Luculli. He obtained the rank and name of a Roman citizen by the means of Cicero, who defended him in an elegant oration, when his enemies had disputed his privileges of citizen of Rome. He wrote a poem on the Cimbrian war and began another concerning Cicero’s consulship, which are now lost. Some of his epigrams are preserved in the Anthologia. Cicero, For Archias.――A polemarch of Thebes, assassinated in the conspiracy of Pelopidas, which he could have prevented, if he had not deferred to the morrow the reading of a letter which he had received from Archias the Athenian high priest, and which gave him information of his danger. Plutarch, Pelopidas.――A high priest of Athens, contemporary and intimate with the polemarch of the same name. Plutarch, Pelopidas.――A Theban taken in the act of adultery, and punished according to the law, and tied to a post in the public place, for which punishment he abolished the oligarchy. Aristotle.

Archibiădes, a philosopher of Athens, who affected the manners of the Spartans, and was very inimical to the views and measures of Phocion. Plutarch, Phocion.――An ambassador of Byzantium, &c. Polyænus, bk. 4, ch. 44.

Archibius, the son of the geographer Ptolemy.

Archidamia, a priestess of Ceres, who, on account of her affection for Aristomenes, restored him to liberty when he had been taken prisoner by her female attendants at the celebration of their festivals. Pausanias, bk. 4, ch. 17.――A daughter of Cleadas, who upon hearing that her countrymen the Spartans were debating whether they should send away their women to Crete against the hostile approach of Pyrrhus, seized a sword, and ran to the senate house, exclaiming that the women were as able to fight as the men. Upon this the decree was repealed. Plutarch, Pyrrhus.—Polyænus, bk. 8, ch. 8.

Archidāmus, son of Theopompus king of Sparta, died before his father. Pausanias.――Another, king of Sparta, son of Anaxidamus, succeeded by Agasicles.――Another, son of Agesilaus of the family of the Proclidæ.――Another, grandson of Leotychidas by his son Zeuxidamus. He succeeded his grandfather, and reigned in conjunction with Plistoanax. He conquered the Argives and Arcadians, and privately assisted the Phocians in plundering the temple of Delphi. He was called to the aid of Tarentum against the Romans, and killed there in a battle, after a reign of 33 years. Diodorus, bk. 16.—Xenophon.――Another, son of Eudamidas.――Another, who conquered the Helots, after a violent earthquake. Diodorus, bk. 11.――A son of Agesilaus, who led the Spartan auxiliaries to Cleombrotus at the battle of Leuctra, and was killed in a battle against the Lucanians. B.C. 338.――A son of Xenius Theopompus. Pausanias.

Archidas, a tyrant of Athens, killed by his troops.

Archidēmus, a Stoic philosopher, who willingly exiled himself among the Parthians. Plutarch, de Exilio.

Archidēus, a son of Amyntas king of Macedonia. Justin, bk. 7, ch. 4.

Archidium, a city of Crete, named after Archidius son of Tegeates. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 53.

Archigallus, the high priest of Cybele’s temple. See: Galli.

Archigĕnes, a physician, born at Apamea in Syria. He lived in the reign of Domitian, Nerva, and Trajan, and died in the 73rd year of his age. He wrote a treatise on adorning the hair, as also 10 books on fevers. Juvenal, satire 6, li. 235.

Archilŏchus, a poet of Paros; who wrote elegies, satires, odes, and epigrams, and was the first who introduced iambics in his verses. He had courted Neobule the daughter of Lycambes, and had received promises of marriage; but the father gave her to another superior to the poet in rank and fortune; upon which Archilochus wrote such a bitter satire, that Lycambes hanged himself in a fit of despair. The Spartans condemned his verses on account of their indelicacy, and banished him from their city as a petulant and dangerous citizen. He flourished 685 B.C., and it is said that he was assassinated. Some fragments of his poetry remain, which display vigour and animation, boldness and vehemence, in the highest degree; from which reason, perhaps, Cicero calls virulent edicts, Archilochia edicta. Cicero, Tusculanæ Disputationes, bk. 1.—Quintilian, bk. 10, ch. 1.—Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 12.—Horace, Art of Poetry, li. 79.—Athenæus, bks. 1, 2, &c.――A son of Nestor, killed by Memnon in the Trojan war. Homer, Iliad, bk. 2.――A Greek historian who wrote a chronological table, and other works, about the 20th or 30th olympiad.

Archimēdes, a famous geometrician of Syracuse, who invented a machine of glass that faithfully represented the motion of all the heavenly bodies. When Marcellus the Roman consul besieged Syracuse Archimedes constructed machines which suddenly raised up in the air the ships of the enemy from the bay before the city, and let them fall with such violence into the water that they sunk. He set them also on fire with his burning glasses. When the town was taken, the Roman general gave strict orders to his soldiers not to hurt Archimedes, and he even offered a reward to him who should bring him alive and safe into his presence. All these precautions were useless; the philosopher was so deeply engaged in solving a problem, that he was even ignorant that the enemy were in possession of the town; and a soldier, without knowing who he was, killed him, because he refused to follow him, B.C. 212. Marcellus raised a monument over him, and placed upon it a cylinder and a sphere; but the place remained long unknown, till Cicero, during his questorship in Sicily, found it near one of the gates of Syracuse, surrounded with thorns and brambles. Some suppose that Archimedes raised the site of the towns and villages of Egypt, and began those mounds of earth by means of which communication is kept from town to town during the inundations of the Nile. The story of his burning glasses had always appeared fabulous to some of the moderns, till the experiments of Buffon demonstrated it beyond contradiction. These celebrated glasses were supposed to be reflectors made of metal, and capable of producing their effect at the distance of a bowshot. The manner in which he discovered how much brass a goldsmith had mixed with gold in making a golden crown for the king is well known to every modern hydrostatic, as well as the pumping screw which still bears his name. Among the wild schemes of Archimedes, is his saying that, by means of his machines, he could move the earth with ease, if placed on a fixed spot near it. Many of his works are extant, especially treatises de sphærâ et cylindro, circuli dimensio, de lineis spiralibus, de quadraturâ paraboles, de numero arenæ, &c.; the best edition of which is that of David Rivaltius, folio, Paris, 1615. Cicero, Tusculanæ Disputationes, bk. 1, ch. 25; De Natura Deorum, bk. 2, ch. 34.—Livy, bk. 24, ch. 34.—Quintilian, bk. 1, ch. 10.—Vitruvius, bk. 9, ch. 3.—Polybius, bk. 7.—Plutarch, Marcellus.—Valerius Maximus, bk. 8, ch. 7.

Archīnus, a man who, when he was appointed to distribute new arms among the populace of Argos, raised a mercenary band, and made himself absolute. Polyænus, bk. 3, ch. 8.――A rhetorician of Athens.

Archipĕlăgus, a part of the sea where islands in great number are interspersed such as that part of the Mediterranean which lies between Greece and Asia Minor, and is generally called Mare Ægeum.

Archipŏlis, or Archepolis, a soldier who conspired against Alexander with Dymnus. Curtius, bk. 6, ch. 7.

Archippe, a city of the Marsi, destroyed by an earthquake, and lost in the lake of Fucinus. Pliny, bk. 3, ch. 19.

Archippus, a king of Italy, from whom, perhaps, the town of Archippe received its name. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 752.――A philosopher of Thebes, pupil to Pythagoras.――An archon at Athens.――A comic poet of Athens, of whose eight comedies only one obtained the prize.――A philosopher in the age of Trajan.

Archītis, a name of Venus, worshipped on mount Libanus.

Archon, one of Alexander’s generals, who received the provinces of Babylon, at the general division after the king’s death. Diodorus, bk. 18.

Archontes, the name of the chief magistrates of Athens. They were nine in number, and none were chosen but such as were descended from ancestors who had been free citizens of the republic for three generations. They were also to be without deformity in all the parts and members of their body, and were obliged to produce testimonies of their dutiful behaviour to their parents, of the services they had rendered their country, and the competency of their fortune to support their dignity. They took a solemn oath that they would observe the laws, administer justice with impartiality, and never suffer themselves to be corrupted. If they ever received bribes, they were compelled by the laws to dedicate to the god of Delphi a statue of gold of equal weight with their body. They all had the power of punishing malefactors with death. The chief among them was called Archon. The year took its denomination from him; he determined all causes between man and wife, and took care of legacies and wills; he provided for orphans, protected the injured, and punished drunkenness with uncommon severity. If he suffered himself to be intoxicated during the time of his office, the misdemeanour was punished with death. The second of the archons was called Basileus . It was his office to keep good order, and to remove all causes of quarrel in the families of those who were dedicated to the service of the gods. The profane and the impious were brought before his tribunal; and he offered public sacrifices for the good of the state. He assisted at the celebration of the Eleusinian festivals, and other religious ceremonies. His wife was to be related to the whole people of Athens, and of a pure and unsullied life. He had a vote among the Areopagites, but was obliged to sit among them without his crown. The Polemarch was another archon of inferior dignity. He had the care of all foreigners, and provided a sufficient maintenance from the public treasury for the families of those who had lost their lives in defence of their country. These three chief archons generally chose each of them two persons of respectable character, and of an advanced age, whose counsels and advice might assist and support them in their public capacity. The six other archons were indistinctly called Thesmothetæ, and received complaints against persons accused of impiety, bribery, and ill behaviour. They settled all disputes between the citizens, redressed the wrongs of strangers and forbade any laws to be enforced but such as were conducive to the safety of the state. These officers of state were chosen after the death of king Codrus; their power was originally for life, but afterwards it was limited to 10 years, and at last to one year. After some time, the qualifications which were required to be an archon were not strictly observed. Adrian, before he was elected emperor of Rome, was made archon at Athens, though a foreigner; and the same honours were conferred upon Plutarch. The perpetual archons, after the death of Codrus, were Medon, whose office began B.C. 1070; Acastus, 1050; Archippus, 1014; Thersippus, 995; Phorbas, 954; Megacles, 923; Diognetus, 893; Pherecles, 865; Ariphron, 846; Thespius, 826; Agamestor, 799; Æschylus, 778; Alcmæon, 756; after whose death the archons were decennial, the first of whom was Charops, who began 753; Æsimedes, 744; Clidicus, 734; Hippomenes, 724; Leocrates, 714; Apsander, 704; Eryxias, 694; after whom the office became annual, and of these annual archons Creon was the first. Aristophanes, The Clouds & The Birds.—Plutarch, Convivium Septem Sapientium, ch. 1.—Demosthenes.Pollux.Lysias.

Archy̆lus Thurius, a general of Dionysius the elder. Diodorus, bk. 14.

Archytas, a musician of Mitylene, who wrote a treatise on agriculture. Diogenes Laërtius.――The son of Hestiæus of Tarentum, was a follower of the Pythagorean philosophy, and an able astronomer and geometrician. He redeemed his master, Plato, from the hands of the tyrant Dionysius, and for his virtues he was seven times chosen, by his fellow-citizens, governor of Tarentum. He invented some mathematical instruments, and made a wooden pigeon which could fly. He perished in a shipwreck about 394 years before the christian era. He is also the reputed inventor of the screw and the pulley. A fragment of his writings has been preserved by Porphyry. Horace, bk. 1, ode 28.—Cicero, bk. 3, On Oratory.—Diogenes Laërtius, Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers.

Arcĭtĕnens, an epithet applied to Apollo, from his bearing a bow, with which, as soon as born, he destroyed the serpent Python. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 3, li. 75.

Arctīnus, a Milesian poet, said to be pupil to Homer. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 1.

Arctophy̆lax, a star near the great bear, called also Bootes. Cicero, de Natura Deorum, bk. 2, ch. 42.

Arctos, a mountain near Propontis, inhabited by giants and monsters.――Two celestial constellations near the north pole, commonly called Ursa Major and Minor; supposed to be Arcas and his mother, who were made constellations. Virgil, Georgics, bk. 1.—Aratus.Ovid, Fasti, bk. 3, li. 107.

Arctūrus, a star near the tail of the great bear, whose rising and setting were generally supposed to portend great tempests. Horace, bk. 3, ode 1. The name is derived from its situation, ἀρκτος ursus, οὐρα cauda. It rises now about the beginning of October, and Pliny tells us it rose in his age on the 12th, or, according to Columella, on the 5th of September.

Ardălus, a son of Vulcan, said to have been the first who invented the pipe. He gave it to the Muses, who on that account have been called Ardalides and Ardalīotides. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 31.

Ardalia, a country of Egypt. Strabo.

Ardaxānus, a small river of Illyricum. Polybius.

Ardea, formerly Ardua, a town of Latium, built by Danae, or, according to some, by a son of Ulysses and Circe. It was the capital of the Rutuli. Some soldiers set it on fire, and the inhabitants publicly reported that their city had been changed into a bird, called by the Latins Ardea. It was rebuilt, and it became a rich and magnificent city, whose enmity to Rome rendered it famous. Tarquin the Proud was pressing it with a siege, when his son ravished Lucretia. A road called Ardeatina branched from the Appian road to Ardea. Cornelius Nepos, Atticus, ch. 14.—Livy, bk. 1, ch. 57; bk. 3, ch. 71; bk. 4, ch. 9, &c.Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 412.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 14, li. 573.—Strabo, bk. 5.

Ardericca, a small town on the Euphrates, north of Babylon.

Ardiæi, a people of Illyricum, whose capital was called Ardia. Strabo, bk. 7.

Ardonea, a town of Apulia. Livy, bk. 24, ch. 20.

Ardua, an ancient name of Ardea. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 411.

Arduenna, now Ardenne, a large forest of Gaul, in the time of Julius Cæsar, which extended 50 miles from the Rhine to the borders of the Nervii. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 8, ch. 42.—Cæsar, Gallic War, bk. 6, ch. 29.

Arduine, the goddess of hunting among the Gauls; represented with the same attributes as the Diana of the Romans.

Ardyenses, a nation near the Rhone. Polybius, bk. 3.

Ardys, a son of Gyges king of Lydia, who reigned 49 years, took Priene, and made war against Miletus. Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 15.

Area, a surname of Minerva, from her temple on Mars’ hill (ἀρης) erected by Orestes. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 28.

Areacidæ, a nation of Numidia. Polybius.

Areas, a general chosen by the Greeks against Ætolia. Justin, bk. 24, ch. 1.

Aregŏnis, the mother of Mopsus by Ampyx. Orpheus, Argonautica.

Arelātum, a town of Gallia Narbonensis. Strabo, bk. 4.—Mela, bk. 2, ch. 5.

Arellius, a celebrated painter of Rome in the age of Augustus. He painted the goddesses in the form of his mistresses. Pliny, bk. 35, ch. 10.――A miser in Horace.

Aremorĭca, a part of Gaul, at the north of the Loire, now called Britany. Pliny, bk. 4.

Arēna and Arene, a city of Messenia in Peloponnesus. Homer, Iliad, bk. 2.

Arenăcum, a town of Germany. Tacitus, Histories, bk. 5, ch. 20.

Areopagītæ, the judges of the Areopagus, a seat of justice on a small eminence near Athens, whose name is derived from Αρεος παγος, the hill of Mars, because Mars was the first who was tried there, for the murder of Hallirhotius, who had offered violence to his daughter Alcippe. Some say that the place received the name of Areopagus because the Amazons pitched their camp there, and offered sacrifices to their progenitor Mars, when they besieged Athens; and others maintain that the name was given to the place because Mars is the god of bloodshed, war, and murder, which were generally punished by that court. The time in which this celebrated seat of justice was instituted is unknown. Some suppose that Cecrops, the founder of Athens, first established it, while others give the credit of it to Cranaus, and others to Solon. The number of judges that composed this august assembly is not known. They have been limited by some to 9, to 31, to 51, and sometimes to a greater number. The most worthy and religious of the Athenians were admitted as members, and such archons as had discharged their duty with care and faithfulness. In the latter ages of the republic, this observance was often violated, and we find some of their members of loose and debauched morals. If any of them were convicted of immorality, if they were seen sitting at a tavern, or had used any indecent language, they were immediately expelled from the assembly, and held in the greatest disgrace, though the dignity of a judge of the Areopagus always was for life. The Areopagites took cognizance of murders, impiety, and immoral behaviour, and particularly of idleness, which they deemed the cause of all vice. They watched over the laws, and they had the management of the public treasury; they had the liberty of rewarding the virtuous, and of inflicting severe punishment upon such as blasphemed against the gods, or slighted the celebration of the holy mysteries. They always sat in the open air, because they took cognizance of murder; and by their laws it was not permitted for the murderer and his accuser to be both under the same roof. This custom also might originate because the persons of the judges were sacred, and they were afraid of contracting pollution by conversing in the same house with men who had been guilty of shedding innocent blood. They always heard causes and passed sentence in the night, that they might not be prepossessed in favour of the plaintiff or of the defendant by seeing them. Whatever causes were pleaded before them, were to be divested of all oratory and fine speaking, lest eloquence should charm their ears and corrupt their judgment. Hence arose the most just and most impartial decisions, and their sentence was deemed sacred and inviolable, and the plaintiff and defendant were equally convinced of its justice. The Areopagites generally sat on the 27th, 28th, and 29th days of every month. Their authority continued in its original state till Pericles, who was refused admittance among them, resolved to lessen their consequence and destroy their power. From that time the morals of the Athenians were corrupted, and the Areopagites were no longer conspicuous for their virtue and justice; and when they censured the debaucheries of Demetrius, one of the family of Phalereus, he plainly told them, that if they wished to make a reform in Athens, they must begin at home.

Areopăgus, a hill in the neighbourhood of Athens. See: Areopagitæ.

Arestæ, a people of India, conquered by Alexander. Justin, bk. 12, ch. 8.

Aresthanas, a countryman, whose goat suckled Æsculapius, when exposed by his mother. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 26.

Arestorĭdes, a patronymic given to the hundred-eyed Argus, as son of Arestor. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 1, li. 584.

Arĕta, the mother of Aristippus the philosopher. Diogenes Laërtius, bk. 2.――A daughter of Dionysius, who married Dion. She was thrown into the sea. Plutarch, Dion.――A female philosopher of Cyrene, B.C. 377.

Arēta, a daughter of Rhexenor, descended from Neptune, who married her uncle Alcinous, by whom she had Nausicaa. Homer, Odyssey, bks. 7 & 8.—Apollodorus, bk. 1.

Aretæus, a physician of Cappadocia, very inquisitive after the operations of nature. His treatise on agues has been much admired. The best edition of his works which are extant, is that of Boerhaave, Leiden, folio, 1735.

Aretaphĭla, the wife of Melanippus, a priest of Cyrene. Nicocrates murdered her husband to marry her. She, however, was so attached to Melanippus, that she endeavoured to poison Nicocrates, and at last caused him to be assassinated by his brother Lysander, whom she married. Lysander proved as cruel as his brother, upon which Aretaphila ordered him to be thrown into the sea. After this she retired to a private station. Plutarch, de Mulierum Virtutes.—Polyænus, bk. 8, ch. 38.

Aretāles, a Cnidian, who wrote a history of Macedonia, besides a treatise on islands. Plutarch.

Arēte. See: Areta.

Arētes, one of Alexander’s officers. Curtius, bk. 4, ch. 15.

Arethūsa, a nymph of Elis, daughter of Oceanus, and one of Diana’s attendants. As she returned one day from hunting, she sat near the Alpheus, and bathed in the stream. The god of the river was enamoured of her, and he pursued her over the mountains and all the country, when Arethusa, ready to sink under fatigue, implored Diana, who changed her into a fountain. The Alpheus immediately mingled his streams with hers, and Diana opened a secret passage under the earth and under the sea, where the waters of Arethusa disappeared, and rose in the island of Ortygia, near Syracuse in Sicily. The river Alpheus followed her also under the sea, and rose also in Ortygia; so that, as mythologists relate, whatever is thrown into the Alpheus in Elis, rises again, after some time, in the fountain Arethusa near Syracuse. See: Alpheus. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 5, fable 10.—Athenæus, bk. 7.—Pausanias.――One of the Hesperides. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 5.――A daughter of Herileus, mother of Abas by Neptune. Hyginus, fable 157.――One of Actæon’s dogs. Hyginus, fable 181.――A lake of Upper Armenia, near the fountains of the Tigris. Nothing can sink under its waters. Pliny, bk. 2, ch. 103.――A town of Thrace.――Another in Syria.

Aretīnum, a Roman colony in Etruria. Silius Italicus, bk. 5, li. 123.

Arētus, a son of Nestor and Anaxibia. Homer, Odyssey, bk. 3, li. 413.――A Trojan against the Greeks. He was killed by Automedon. Homer, Iliad, bk. 17, li. 494.――A famous warrior, whose only weapon was an iron club. He was treacherously killed by Lycurgus king of Arcadia. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 11.

Areus, a king of Sparta, preferred in the succession to Cleonymus, brother of Acrotatus, who had made an alliance with Pyrrhus. He assisted Athens when Antigonus besieged it, and died at Corinth. Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 6.—Plutarch.――A king of Sparta, who succeeded his father Acrotatus II., and was succeeded by his son Leonidas, son of Cleonymus.――A philosopher of Alexandria, intimate with Augustus. Suetonius.――A poet of Laconia.――An orator mentioned by Quintilian.

Argæus and Argēus, a son of Apollo and Cyrene. Justin, bk. 13, ch. 7.――A son of Perdiccas, who succeeded his father in the kingdom of Macedonia. Justin, bk. 7, ch. 1.――A mountain of Cappadocia, covered with perpetual snows, at the bottom of which is the capital of the country called Maxara. Claudian.――A son of Ptolemy, killed by his brother. Pausanias, bk. 1.――A son of Licymnius. Apollodorus, bk. 2.

Argălus, a king of Sparta, son of Amyclas. Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 1.

Argathŏna, a huntress of Cios in Bithynia, whom Rhesus married before he went to the Trojan war. When she heard of his death, she died in despair. Parthenius, Narrationum Amatoriarum Libellus, ch. 36.

Argathōnius, a king of Tartessus, who, according to Pliny, bk. 7, ch. 48, lived 120 years, and 300 according to Silius Italicus, bk. 3, li. 396.

Arge, a beautiful huntress changed into a stag by Apollo. Hyginus, fable 205.――One of the Cyclops. Hesiod.――A daughter of Thespius, by whom Hercules had two sons. Apollodorus, bk. 2.――A nymph, daughter of Jupiter and Juno. Apollodorus, bk. 1.

Argea, a place at Rome where certain Argives were buried.

Argæāthæ, a village of Arcadia. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 23.

Argennum, a promontory of Ionia.

Arges, a son of Cœlus and Terra, who had only one eye in his forehead. Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 1.

Argestrătus, a king of Lacedæmon, who reigned 35 years.

Argēus, a son of Perdiccas king of Macedonia, who obtained the kingdom when Amyntas was deposed by the Illyrians. Justin, bk. 7, ch. 2.

Argi (plural, masculine). See: Argos.

Argīa, daughter of Adrastus, married Polynices, whom she loved with uncommon tenderness. When he was killed in the war, she buried his body in the night, against the positive orders of Creon, for which pious action she was punished with death. Theseus revenged her death by killing Creon. Hyginus, fables 69 & 72.—Statius, Thebiad, bk. 12. See: Antigone and Creon.――A country of Peloponnesus, called also Argolis, of which Argos was the capital.――One of the Oceanides. Hyginus, preface.――The wife of Inachus, and mother of Io. Hyginus, fable 145.――The mother of Argos by Polybus. Hyginus, fable 145.――A daughter of Autesion, who married Aristodemus, by whom she had two sons, Eurysthenes and Procles. Apollodorus, bk. 2.—Pausanias, bk. 4, ch. 3.

Argias, a man who founded Chalcedon, A.U.C. 148.

Argilētum, a place at Rome near the Palatium, where the tradesmen generally kept their shops. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 8, li. 355.—Martial, bk. 1, ltr. 4.

Argilius, a favourite youth of Pausanias, who revealed his master’s correspondence with the Persian king to the Ephori. Cornelius Nepos, Pausanias.

Argillus, a mountain of Egypt near the Nile.

Argĭlus, a town of Thrace near the Strymon, built by a colony of Andrians. Thucydides, bk. 4, ch. 103.—Herodotus, bk. 7, ch. 115.

Arginūsæ, three small islands near the continent, between Mitylene and Methymna, where the Lacedæmonian fleet was conquered by Conon the Athenian. Strabo, bk. 13.

Argiŏpe, a nymph of mount Parnassus, mother of Thamyris by Philammon the son of Apollo. Pausanias, bk. 4, ch. 33.

Argiphontes, a surname given to Mercury, because he killed the hundred-eyed Argus, by order of Jupiter.

Argippēi, a nation among the Sauromatians, born bald, and with flat noses. They lived upon trees. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 23.

Argīva, a surname of Juno, worshipped at Argos. She had also a temple at Sparta, consecrated to her by Eurydice the daughter of Lacedæmon. Pausanias, bk. 4, ch. 13.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 3, li. 547.

Argīvi, the inhabitants of the city of Argos and the neighbouring country. The word is indiscriminately applied by the poets to all the inhabitants of Greece.

Argius, a steward of Galba, who privately interred the body of his master in his gardens. Tacitus, Histories, bk. 1, ch. 49.

Argo, the name of the famous ship which carried Jason and his 54 companions to Colchis, when they resolved to recover the golden fleece. The derivation of the word Argo has often been disputed. Some derive it from Argos, the person who first proposed the expedition, and who built the ship. Others maintain that it was built at Argos, whence its name. Cicero, Tusculanæ Disputationes, bk. 1, ch. 20, calls it Argo, because it carried Grecians, commonly called Argives. Diodorus, bk. 4, derives the word from ἀργος, which signifies swift. Ptolemy says, but falsely, that Hercules built the ship, and called it Argo after a son of Jason, who bore the same name. The ship Argo had 50 oars. According to many authors, she had a beam on her prow, cut in the forest of Dodona by Minerva, which had the power of giving oracles to the Argonauts. This ship was the first that ever sailed on the sea, as some report. After the expedition was finished, Jason ordered her to be drawn aground at the isthmus of Corinth, and consecrated to the god of the sea. The poets have made her a constellation in heaven. Jason was killed by a beam which fell from the top, as he slept on the ground near it. Hyginus, fable 14; Poetica astronomica, bk. 2, ch. 37.—Catullus, Marriage of Peleus and Thetis.—Valerius Flaccus, bk. 1, li. 93, &c.Phædras, bk. 4, fable 6.—Seneca, Medea.—Apollonius, Argonautica.—Apollodorus.Cicero, de Natura Deorum.—Pliny, bk. 7, ch. 56.—Marcus Manilius, bk. 1.

Argolĭcus sinus, a bay on the coast of Argolis.

Argŏlis and Argia, a country of Peloponnesus between Arcadia and the Ægean sea. Its chief city was called Argos.

Argon, one of the descendants of Hercules, who reigned in Lydia 505 years before Gyges. Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 7.

Argonautæ, a name given to those ancient heroes who went with Jason on board the ship Argo to Colchis, about 79 years before the taking of Troy, or 1263 B.C. The causes of this expedition arose from the following circumstance:—Athamas king of Thebes had married Ino the daughter of Cadmus, whom he divorced to marry Nephele, by whom he had two children, Phryxus and Helle. As Nephele was subject to certain fits of madness, Athamas repudiated her, and took a second time Ino, by whom he had soon after two sons, Learchus and Melicerta. As the children of Nephele were to succeed to their father by right of birth, Ino conceived an immortal hatred against them, and she caused the city of Thebes to be visited by a pestilence, by poisoning all the grain which had been sown in the earth. Upon this the oracle was consulted; and as it had been corrupted by means of Ino, the answer was, that Nephele’s children should be immolated to the gods. Phryxus was apprised of this, and he immediately embarked with his sister Helle, and fled to the court of Æetes king of Colchis, one of his near relations. In the voyage Helle died, and Phryxus arrived safe at Colchis, and was received with kindness by the king. The poets have embellished the flight of Phryxus, by supposing that he and Helle fled through the air on a ram which had a golden fleece and wings, and was endowed with the faculties of speech. This ram, as they say, was the offspring of Neptune’s amours, under the form of a ram, with the nymph Theopane. As they were going to be sacrificed, the ram took them on his back, and instantly disappeared in the air. On their way Helle was giddy, and fell into that part of the sea which from her was called the Hellespont. When Phryxus came to Colchis, he sacrificed the ram to Jupiter, or, according to others, to Mars, to whom he also dedicated the golden fleece. He soon after married Chalciope the daughter of Æetes; but his father-in-law envied him the possession of the golden fleece, and therefore to obtain it he murdered him. Some time after this event, when Jason the son of Æson demanded of his uncle Pelias the crown which he usurped [See: Pelias, Jason, Æson], Pelias said that he would restore it to him, provided he avenged the death of their common relation Phryxus, whom Æetes had basely murdered in Colchis. Jason, who was in the vigour of youth, and of an ambitious soul, cheerfully undertook the expedition, and embarked with all the young princes of Greece in the ship Argo. They stopped at the island of Lemnos, where they remained two years, and raised a new race of men from the Lemnian women who had murdered their husbands. See: Hypsipyle. After they had left Lemnos, they visited Samothrace, where they offered sacrifices to the gods, and thence passed to Troas and Cyzicum. Here they met with a favourable reception from Cyzicus the king of the country. The night after their departure, they were driven back by a storm again on the coast of Cyzicum, and the inhabitants, supposing them to be their enemies, the Pelasgi, furiously attacked them. In this nocturnal engagement the slaughter was great, and Cyzicus was killed by the hand of Jason, who, to expiate the murder he had ignorantly committed, buried him in a magnificent manner, and offered a sacrifice to the mother of the gods, to whom he built a temple on mount Dindymus. From Cyzicum they visited Bebrycia, otherwise called Bithynia, where Pollux accepted the challenge of Amycus king of the country in the combat of the cestus, and slew him. They were driven from Bebrycia by a storm to Salmydessa, on the coast of Thrace, where they delivered Phineus king of the place from the persecution of the harpies. Phineus directed their course through the Cyanean rock or the Symplegades [See: Cyaneæ], and they safely entered the Euxine sea. They visited the country of the Mariandynians, where Lycus reigned, and lost two of their companions, Idmon, and Tiphys their pilot. After they had left this coast, they were driven upon the island of Arecia, where they found the children of Phryxus, whom Æetes their grandfather had sent to Greece to take possession of their father’s kingdom. From this island they at last arrived safe in Æa, the capital of Colchis. Jason explained the causes of his voyage to Æetes; but the conditions on which he was to recover the golden fleece were so hard, that the Argonauts must have perished in the attempt, had not Medea the king’s daughter fallen in love with their leader. She had a conference with Jason, and after mutual oaths of fidelity in the temple of Hecate, Medea pledged herself to deliver the Argonauts from her father’s hard conditions, if Jason married her, and carried her with him to Greece. He was to tame two bulls, which had brazen feet and horns, and which vomited clouds of fire and smoke, and to tie them to a plough made of adamant stone, and to plough a field of two acres of ground never before cultivated. After this he was to sow in the plain the teeth of a dragon, from which an armed multitude were to rise up, and to be all destroyed by his hands. This done, he was to kill an ever-watchful dragon, which was at the bottom of the tree, on which the golden fleece was suspended. All these labours were to be performed in one day; and Medea’s assistance, whose knowledge of herbs, magic, and potions was unparalleled, easily extricated Jason from all danger to the astonishment and terror of his companions, and of Æetes, and the people of Colchis, who had assembled to be spectators of this wonderful action. He tamed the bulls with ease, ploughed the field, sowed the dragon’s teeth, and when the armed men sprang from the earth, he threw a stone in the midst of them, and they immediately turned their weapons one against the other, till they all perished. After this he went to the dragon and by means of enchanted herbs, and a draught which Medea had given him he lulled the monster to sleep, and obtained the golden fleece, and immediately set sail with Medea. He was soon pursued by Absyrtus the king’s son, who came up to them, and was seized and murdered by Jason and Medea. The mangled limbs of Absyrtus were strewed in the way through which Æetes was to pass, that his further pursuit might be stopped. After the murder of Absyrtus, they entered the Palus Mæotis, and by pursuing their course towards the left, according to the foolish account of poets who were ignorant of geography, they came to the island Peucestes, and to that of Circe. Here Circe informed Jason that the cause of all his calamities arose from the murder of Absyrtus, of which she refused to expiate him. Soon after, they entered the Mediterranean by the columns of Hercules, and passed the straits of Charybdis and Scylla, where they must have perished, had not Tethys the mistress of Peleus, one of the Argonauts, delivered them. They were preserved from the Sirens by the eloquence of Orpheus, and arrived in the island of the Phæacians, where they met the enemy’s fleet, which had continued their pursuit by a different course. It was therefore resolved that Medea should be restored, if she had not been actually married to Jason; but the wife of Alcinous the king of the country, being appointed umpire between the Colchians and Argonauts, had the marriage privately consummated by night, and declared that the claims of Æetes to Medea were now void. From Phæacia the Argonauts came to the bay of Ambracia, whence they were driven by a storm upon the coast of Africa, and, after many disasters, at last came in sight of the promontory of Melea in the Peloponnesus, where Jason was purified of the murder of Absyrtus, and soon after arrived safe in Thessaly. The impracticability of such a voyage is well known. Apollonius Rhodius gives another account, equally improbable. He says that they sailed from the Euxine up one of the mouths of the Danube, and that Absyrtus pursued them by entering another mouth of the river. After they had continued their voyage for some leagues, the waters decreased, and they were obliged to carry the ship Argo across the country to the Adriatic, upwards of 150 miles. Here they met with Absyrtus, who had pursued the same measures, and conveyed his ships in like manner over the land. Absyrtus was immediately put to death; and soon after the beam of Dodona [See: Argo] gave an oracle, that Jason should never return home if he was not previously purified of the murder. Upon this they sailed to the island of Æa, where Circe, who was the sister of Æetes, expiated him without knowing who he was. There is a third tradition, which maintains that they returned to Colchis a second time, and visited many places of Asia. This famous expedition has been celebrated in the ancient ages of the world; it has employed the pen of many writers, and among the historians, Diodorus, Siculus, Strabo, Apollodorus, and Justin; and among the poets, Onomacritus, more generally called Orpheus, Apollonius Rhodius, Pindar, and Valerius Flaccus, have extensively given an account of its most remarkable particulars. The number of the Argonauts is not exactly known. Apollodorus and Diodorus say that they were 54. Tzetzes admits the number of 50, but Apollodorus mentions only 45. The following list is drawn from the various authors who have made mention of the Argonautic expedition. Jason son of Æson, as is well known, was the chief of the rest. His companions were Acastus son of Pelias, Actor son of Hippasus, Admetus son of Pheres, Æsculapius son of Apollo, Ætalides son of Mercury and Eupoleme, Almenus son of Mars, Amphiaraus son of Œcleus, Amphidamus son of Aleus, Amphion son of Hyperasius, Anceus a son of Lycurgus, and another of the same name, Areus, Argus the builder of the ship Argo, Argus son of Phryxus, Armenus, Ascalaphus son of Mars, Asterion son of Cometes, Asterius son of Neleus, Augeas son of Sol, Atalanta daughter of Schœneus, disguised in a man’s dress, Autolycus son of Mercury, Azorus, Buphagus, Butes son of Teleon, Calais son of Boreas, Canthus son of Abas, Castor son of Jupiter, Ceneus son of Elatus, Cepheus son of Aleus, Cius, Clytius and Iphitus sons of Eurythus, Coronus, Deucalion son of Minos, Echion son of Mercury and Antianira, Ergynus son of Neptune, Euphemus son of Neptune and Macionassa, Eribotes, Euryalus son of Cisteus, Eurydamus and Eurythion sons of Iras, Eurytus son of Mercury, Glaucus, Hercules son of Jupiter, Idas son of Aphareus, Ialmenus son of Mars, Idmon son of Abas, Iolaus son of Iphiclus, Iphiclus son of Thestius, Iphiclus son of Philacus, Iphis son of Alector, Lynceus son of Aphareus, Iritus son of Naubolus, Laertes son of Arcesius, Laocoon, Leodatus son of Bias, Leitus son of Alector, Meleager son of Œneus, Menœtius son of Actor, Mopsus son of Amphycus, Nauplius son of Neptune, Neleus the brother of Peleus, Nestor son of Neleus, Oileus the father of Ajax, Orpheus son of Œager, Palemon son of Ætolus, Peleus and Telamon sons of Æacus, Periclymenes son of Neleus, Peneleus son of Hipalmus, Philoctetes son of Pœan, Phlias, Pollux son of Jupiter, Polyphemus son of Elates, Pœas son of Thaumacus, Phanus son of Bacchus, Phalerus son of Alcon, Phocas and Priasus sons of Ceneus one of the Lapithæ, Talaus, Tiphys son of Aginus, Staphilus son of Bacchus, two of the name of Iphitus, Theseus son of Ægeus, with his friend Pirithous. Among these Æsculapius was physician, and Tiphys was pilot.

Argos (singular neuter, and Argi, masculine plural), an ancient city, capital of Argolis in Peloponnesus, about two miles from the sea, on the bay called Argolicus sinus. Juno was the chief deity of the place. The kingdom of Argos was founded by Inachus 1856 years before the christian era, and after it had flourished for about 550 years, it was united to the crown of Mycenæ. Argos was built according to Euripides, Iphigeneia in Aulis, lis. 152, 534, by seven Cyclops who came from Syria. These Cyclops were not Vulcan’s workmen. The nine first kings of Argos were called Inachides, in honour of the founder. Their names were Inachus, Phoroneus, Apis, Argus, Chryasus, Phorbas, Triopas, Stelenus, and Gelanor. Gelanor gave a kind reception to Danaus, who drove him from his kingdom in return for his hospitality. The descendants of Danaus were called Belides. Agamemnon was king of Argos during the Trojan war; and, 80 years after, the Heraclidæ seized the Peloponnesus and deposed the monarchs. The inhabitants of Argos were called Argivi and Argolici; and this name has been often applied to all the Greeks without distinction. Pliny, bk. 7, ch. 56.—Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 15, &c.Horace, bk. 1, ode 7.—Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 9, ch. 15.—Strabo, bk. 8.—Mela, bk. 1, ch. 13, &c.; bk. 2, ch. 3.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 1, 4to, &c.――A town of Thessaly, called Pelasgicon by the Pelasgians. Lucan, bk. 6, li. 355.――Another in Epirus, called Amphilochium.

Argus, a king of Argos, who reigned 70 years.――A son of Arestor, whence he is often called Arestorides. He married Ismene the daughter of the Asopus. As he had 100 eyes, of which only two were asleep at one time, Juno set him to watch Io, whom Jupiter had changed into a heifer: but Mercury, by order of Jupiter, slew him, by lulling all his eyes asleep with the sound of his lyre. Juno put the eyes of Argus on the tail of the peacock, a bird sacred to her divinity. Moschus, Idyl.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 1, fables 12 & 13.—Propertius, bk. 1, li. 585, &c.; poem 3.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 9; bk. 2, ch. 1.――A son of Agenor. Hyginus, fable 145.――A son of Danaus, who built the ship Argo. Hyginus, fable 14.――A Son of Jupiter and Niobe, the first child which the father of the gods had by a mortal. He built Argos, and married Evadne the daughter of Strymon. Hyginus, fable 145.――A son of Pyras and Callirhoe. Hyginus, fable 145.――A son of Phryxus. Hyginus, fable 3.――A son of Polybus. Hyginus, fable 14.――One of Actæon’s dogs. Apollodorus.――A dog of Ulysses, which knew his master after an absence of 20 years. Homer, Odyssey, bk. 17, li. 300.

Argyllæ, an ancient name of Cære in Etruria. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 652; bk. 8, li. 478.

Argynnis, a name of Venus, which she received from Argynnus, a favourite youth of Agamemnon, who was drowned in the Cephisus. Propertius, bk. 3, poem 5, li. 52.

Argy̆ra, a nymph greatly beloved by a shepherd called Selimnus. She was changed into a fountain, and the shepherd into a river of the same name, whose waters made lovers forget the object of their affections. See: Selimnus. Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 23.――A city of Troas.――Also the native place of Diodorus Siculus in Sicily.

Argy̆raspĭdes, a Macedonian legion which received this name from their silver helmets. Curtius, bk. 4, ch. 13.

Argy̆re, an island beyond the mouth of the river Indus, abounding in metal. Mela, bk. 3, ch. 7.

Argyrĭpa, a town of Apulia built by Diomedes after the Trojan war, and called by Polybius Argipana. Only ruins remain to show where it once stood, though the place still preserves the name of Arpi. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 11, li. 246.

Aria, a country of Asia, situate at the east of Parthia. Mela, bk. 1, ch. 2; bk. 2, ch. 7.――The wife of Pætus Cecinna of Padua, a Roman senator who was accused of conspiracy against Claudius, and carried to Rome by sea. She accompanied him, and in the boat she stabbed herself, and presented the sword to her husband, who followed her example. Pliny, bk. 7.

Ariadne, daughter of Minos II. king of Crete by Pasiphae, fell in love with Theseus, who was shut up in the labyrinth to be devoured by the Minotaur, and gave him a clue of thread, by which he extricated himself from the difficult windings of his confinement. After he had conquered the Minotaur, he carried her away according to the promise he had made, and married her; but when he arrived at the island of Naxos he forsook her, though she was already pregnant, and repaid his love with the most endearing tenderness. Ariadne was so disconsolate upon being abandoned by Theseus, that she hung herself, according to some; but Plutarch says that she lived many years after, and had some children by Onarus the priest of Bacchus. According to some writers, Bacchus loved her after Theseus had forsaken her, and he gave her a crown of seven stars, which, after her death, was made a constellation. The Argives showed Ariadne’s tomb, and when one of their temples was repaired, her ashes were found in an earthen urn. Homer, Odyssey, bk. 11, li. 320, says that Diana detained Ariadne at Naxos. Plutarch, Theseus.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 8, fable 2; Heroides, poem 10; De Ars Amatoria, bk. 2; Fasti, bk. 3, li. 462.—Catullus, Marriage of Peleus and Thetis; poem 61.—Hyginus, fables 14, 43, 270.—Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 1.

Ariæus, an officer who succeeded to the command of the surviving army after the death of Cyrus the younger, after the battle of Cunaxa. He made peace with Artaxerxes. Xenophon.

Ariāni and Ariēni, a people of Asia. Dionysius Periegetes, li. 714.

Ariantas, a king of Scythia, who yearly ordered every one of his subjects to present him with an arrow. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 81.

Ariamnes, a king of Cappadocia, son of Ariarathes III.

Ariarāthes, a king of Cappadocia, who joined Darius Ochus in his expedition against Egypt, where he acquired much glory.――His nephew, the second of that name, defended his kingdom against Perdiccas the general of Alexander, but he was defeated and hung on a cross in the 81st year of his age, 321 B.C.――His son Ariarathes III. escaped the massacre which attended his father and his followers; and after the death of Perdiccas, he recovered Cappadocia, by conquering Amyntas the Macedonian general. He was succeeded by his son Ariamnes.――Ariarathes IV. succeeded his father Ariamnes, and married Stratonice daughter of Antiochus Theos. He died after a reign of 28 years, B.C. 220, and was succeeded by his son Ariarathes V., a prince who married Antiochia the daughter of king Antiochus, whom he assisted against the Romans. Antiochus being defeated, Ariarathes saved his kingdom from invasion by paying the Romans a large sum of money remitted at the instance of the king of Pergamus.――His son, the sixth of that name, called Philopater, from his piety, succeeded him 166 B.C. An alliance with the Romans shielded him against the false claims that were laid to his crown by one of the favourites of Demetrius king of Syria. He was maintained on his throne by Attalus, and assisted his friends of Rome against Aristonicus the usurper of Pergamus; but he was killed in the war, B.C. 130, leaving six children, five of whom were murdered by his surviving wife Laodice.――The only one who escaped, Ariarathes VII., was proclaimed king, and soon after married Laodice the sister of Mithridates Eupator, by whom he had two sons. He was murdered by an illegitimate brother, upon which his widow Laodice gave herself and kingdom to Nicomedes king of Bithynia. Mithridates made war against the new king, and raised his nephew to the throne. The young king, who was the eighth of the name of Ariarathes, made war against the tyrannical Mithridates, by whom he was assassinated in the presence of both armies, and the murderer’s son, a child eight years old, was placed on the vacant throne. The Cappadocians revolted, and made the late monarch’s brother, Ariarathes IX., king; but Mithridates expelled him, and restored his own son. The exiled prince died of a broken heart, and Nicomedes of Bithynia, dreading the power of the tyrant, interested the Romans in the affairs of Cappadocia. The arbiters wished to make the country free; but the Cappadocians demanded a king, and received Ariobarzanes, B.C. 91. On the death of Ariobarzanes, his brother ascended the throne, under the name of Ariarathes X.; but his title was disputed by Sisenna, the eldest son of Glaphyra by Arthelaus priest of Comana. Marcus Antony, who was umpire between the contending parties, decided in favour of Sisenna; but Ariarathes recovered it for a while, though he was soon after obliged to yield in favour of Archelaus, the second son of Glaphyra, B.C. 36. Diodorus, bk. 18.—Justin, bks. 13 & 29.—Strabo, bk. 12.

Aribbæus, a general mentioned by Polyænus, bk. 7, ch. 29.

Arīcia, an Athenian princess, niece to Ægeus, whom Hippolytus married after he had been raised from the dead by Æsculapius. He built a city in Italy, which he called by her name. He had a son by her called Virbius. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 15, li. 544.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 762, &c.――A very ancient town of Italy, now Riccia, built by Hippolytus son of Theseus, after he had been raised from the dead by Æsculapius, and transported into Italy by Diana. In a grove in the neighbourhood of Aricia, Theseus built a temple to Diana, where he established the same rites as were in the temple of that goddess in Tauris. The priest of this temple, called Rex, was always a fugitive, and the murderer of his predecessor, and went always armed with a dagger, to prevent whatever attempts might be made upon his life by one who wished to be his successor. The Arician forest, frequently called nemorensis or nemoralis sylva, was very celebrated, and no horses would ever enter it, because Hippolytus had been killed by them. Egeria, the favourite nymph, and invisible protectress of Numa, generally resided in this famous grove, which was situated on the Appian way, beyond mount Albanus. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 15; Fasti, bk. 3, li. 263.—Lucan, bk. 6, li. 74.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 761, &c.

Aricīna, a surname of Diana, from her temple near Aricia. See: Aricia.――The mother of Octavius. Cicero, bk. 3, Philippics, ch. 6.

Aridæus, a companion of Cyrus the younger. After the death of his friend he reconciled himself to Artaxerxes, by betraying to him the surviving Greeks in their return. Diodorus.――An illegitimate son of Philip, who, after the death of Alexander, was made king of Macedonia till Roxane, who was pregnant by Alexander brought into the world a legitimate male successor. Aridæus had not the free enjoyment of his senses; and therefore Perdiccas, one of Alexander’s generals, declared himself his protector, and even married his sister to strengthen their connection. He was seven years in possession of the sovereign power, and was put to death, with his wife Eurydice, by Olympias. Justin, bk. 9, ch. 8.—Diodorus.

Ariēnis, daughter of Alyattes, married Astyages king of Media. Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 74.

Arigæum, a town of India, which Alexander found burnt, and without inhabitants. Arrian, bk. 4.

Arīi, a savage people of India,――of Arabia. Pliny, bk. 6.――Of Scythia. Herodotus.――Of Germany. Tacitus.

Arĭma, a place of Cilicia or Syria, where Typhœus was overwhelmed under the ground. Homer, Iliad, bk. 2.

Arimarius, a god of Persia and Media.

Arimaspi, a people conquered by Alexander the Great. Curtius, bk. 7, ch. 3.—Mela, bk. 2, ch. 1.

Arimaspias, a river of Scythia with golden sands. The neighbouring inhabitants had but one eye, in the middle of their forehead, and waged continual wars against the griffins, monstrous animals that collected the gold of the river. Pliny, bk. 7, ch. 3.—Herodotus, bks. 3 & 4.—Strabo, bks. 1 & 13.

Arimasthæ, a people near the Euxine sea. Orpheus, Argonautica.

Arimazes, a powerful prince of Sogdiana, who treated Alexander with much insolence, and even asked whether he could fly to aspire to so extensive a dominion. He surrendered and was exposed on a cross with his friends and relations. Curtius, bk. 7, ch. 11.

Arĭmi, a nation of Syria. Strabo.

Arīmĭnum (now Rimini), an ancient city of Italy, near the Rubicon, on the borders of Gaul, on the Adriatic founded by a colony of Umbrians. It was the cause of Cæsar’s civil wars. Lucan, bk. 1, li. 231.—Pliny, bk. 3, ch. 15.

Ariminus, a river of Italy rising in the Apennine mountains. Pliny, bk. 3, ch. 15.

Arimphœi, a people of Scythia near the Riphæan mountains, who lived chiefly upon berries in the woods, and were remarkable for their innocence and mildness. Pliny, bk. 6, ch. 7.

Arĭmus, a king of Mysia. Varro.

Ariobarzānes, a man made king of Cappadocia by the Romans, after the troubles which the false Ariarathes had raised had subsided. Mithridates drove him from his kingdom, but the Romans restored him. He followed the interest of Pompey, and fought at Pharsalia against Julius Cæsar. He and his kingdom were preserved by means of Cicero. Cicero, bk. 5, Letters to Atticus, ltr. 29.—Horace, ltr. 6, li. 38.—Florus, bk. 3, ch. 5.――A satrap of Phrygia, who, after the death of Mithridates, invaded the kingdom of Pontus, and kept it for 26 years. He was succeeded by the son of Mithridates. Diodorus, bk. 17.――A general of Darius, who defended the passes of Susa with 15,000 foot against Alexander. After a bloody encounter with the Macedonians, he was killed as he attempted to seize the city of Persepolis. Diodorus, bk. 17.—Curtius, bks. 4 & 5.――A Mede of elegant stature and great prudence, whom Tiberius appointed to settle the troubles of Armenia. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 2, ch. 4.――A mountain between Parthia and the country of the Massagetæ.――A satrap, who revolted from the Persian king.

Ariomandes, son of Gobryas, was general of Athens against the Persians. Plutarch, Cimon.

Ariomardus, a son of Darius, in the army of Xerxes when he went against Greece. Herodotus, bk. 7, ch. 78.

Ariomēdes, a pilot of Xerxes.

Arīon, a famous lyric poet and musician, son of Cyclos of Methymna, in the island of Lesbos. He went into Italy with Periander tyrant of Corinth, where he obtained immense riches by his profession. Some time after, he wished to revisit his country; and the sailors of the ship in which he embarked resolved to murder him, to obtain the riches which he was carrying to Lesbos. Arion, seeing them inflexible in their resolution, begged that he might be permitted to play some melodious tune; and as soon as he had finished it, he threw himself into the sea. A number of dolphins had been attracted round the ship by the sweetness of his music; and it is said that one of them carried him safe on his back to Tænarus, whence he hastened to the court of Periander, who ordered all the sailors to be crucified at their return. Hyginus, fable 194.—Herodotus, bk. 1, chs. 23 & 24.—Ælian, de Natura Animalium, bk. 13, ch. 45.—Silius Italicus, bk. 11.—Propertius, bk. 2, poem 26, li. 17.—Plutarch, Convivium Septem Sapientium.――A horse, sprung from Ceres and Neptune. Ceres, when she travelled over the world in quest of her daughter Proserpine, had taken the figure of a mare, to avoid the importuning addresses of Neptune. The god changed himself also into a horse, and from their union arose a daughter called Hera, and the horse Arion, which had the power of speech, the feet on the right side like those of a man, and the rest of the body like a horse. Arion was brought up by the Nereides, who often harnessed him to his father’s chariot, which he drew over the sea with uncommon swiftness. Neptune gave him to Copreus, who presented him to Hercules. Adrastus king of Argos received him as a present from Hercules and with this wonderful animal he won the prize at the Nemæan games. Arion, therefore, is often called the horse of Adrastus. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 25.—Propertius, bk. 2, poem 34, li. 37.—Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 6.

Ariovistus, a king of Germany, who professed himself a friend of Rome. When Cæsar was in Gaul, Ariovistus marched against him, and was conquered with the loss of 80,000 men. Cæsar, Gallic War, bk. 1.—Tacitus, Histories, bk. 4.

Aris, a river of Messenia. Pausanias, bk. 4, ch. 31.

Arisba, a town of Lesbos, destroyed by an earthquake. Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 31.――A colony of the Mityleneans in Troas, destroyed by the Trojans before the coming of the Greeks. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 9, li. 264.—Homer, Iliad, bk. 7.――The name of Priam’s first wife, divorced that the monarch might marry Hecuba.

Aristænĕtus, a writer whose epistles have been beautifully edited by Abresch. Zwollæ, 1749.

Aristæum, a city of Thrace at the foot of mount Hæmus. Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 11.

Aristæus, son of Apollo and the nymph Cyrene, was born in the deserts of Libya, and brought up by the Seasons, and fed upon nectar and ambrosia. His fondness for hunting procured him the surname of Nomus and Agreus. After he had travelled over the greatest part of the world, Aristæus came to settle in Greece, where he married Autonoe the daughter of Cadmus, by whom he had a son called Actæon. He fell in love with Eurydice the wife of Orpheus, and pursued her in the fields. She was stung by a serpent that lay in the grass, and died, for which the gods destroyed all the bees of Aristæus. In this calamity he applied to his mother, who directed him to seize the sea-god Proteus, and consult him how he might repair the losses he had sustained. Proteus advised him to appease the manes of Eurydice by the sacrifice of four bulls and four heifers; and as soon as he had done it and left them in the air, swarms of bees immediately sprang from the rotten carcases, and restored Aristæus to his former prosperity. Some authors say that Aristæus had the care of Bacchus when young, and that he was initiated in the mysteries of this god. Aristæus went to live on mount Hæmus, where he died. He was, after death, worshipped as a demi-god. Aristæus is said to have learned from the nymphs the cultivation of olives, and the management of bees, &c., which he afterwards communicated to the rest of mankind. Virgil, Georgics, bk. 4, li. 317.—Diodorus, bk. 4.—Justin, bk. 13, ch. 7.—Ovid, Fasti, bk. 1, li. 363.—Cicero, de Natura Deorum, bk. 3, ch. 18.—Pausanias, bk. 10, ch. 17.—Hyginus, fables 161, 180, 247.—Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 4.—Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 4, &c.Polyænus, bk. 1, ch. 24.――A general who commanded the Corinthian forces at the siege of Potidæa. He was taken by the Athenians and put to death.

Aristagŏras, a writer who composed a history of Egypt. Pliny, bk. 36, ch. 12.――A son-in-law of Histiæus tyrant of Miletus, who revolted from Darius, and incited the Athenians against Persia, and burnt Sardis. This so exasperated the king, that every evening before supper he ordered his servants to remind him of punishing Aristagoras. He was killed in a battle against the Persians, B.C. 499. Herodotus, bk. 5, ch. 30, &c.; bk. 7, ch. 8.—Polyænus, bk. 1, ch. 14.――A man of Cyzicus.――Another of Cumæ. Herodotus, bk. 4.

Aristander, a celebrated soothsayer, greatly esteemed by Alexander. Plutarch, Alexander.—Pliny, bk. 17, ch. 25.――An Athenian, who wrote on agriculture.

Aristandros, a statuary of Sparta. Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 18.

Aristarche, a matron of Ephesus, who by order of Diana sailed to the coasts of Gaul with the Phocæans, and was made priestess. Strabo, bk. 4.

Aristarchus, a celebrated grammarian of Samos, disciple of Aristophanes. He lived the greatest part of his life at Alexandria, and Ptolemy Philometer entrusted him with the education of his sons. He was famous for his critical powers, and he revised the poems of Homer with such severity that ever after all severe critics were called Aristarchi. He wrote above 800 commentaries on different authors, much esteemed in his age. In his old age he became dropsical, upon which he starved himself, and died in his 72nd year, B.C. 157. He left two sons called Aristarchus and Aristagoras, both famous for their stupidity. Horace, Art of Poetry, li. 499.—Ovid, bk. 3, ex Ponto, ltr. 9, li. 24.—Cicero, Letters to his Friends, bk. 3, ltr. 11; Letters to Atticus, bk. 1, ltr. 14.—Quintilian, bk. 10, ch. 1.――A tragic poet of Tegea in Arcadia, about 454 years B.C. He composed 70 tragedies, of which two only were rewarded with the prize. One of them, called Achilles, was translated into Latin verse by Ennius. Suidas.――A physician to queen Berenice the widow of Antiochus. Polyænus, bk. 8.――An orator of Ambracia.――An astronomer of Samos, who first supposed that the earth turned round its axis, and revolved round the sun. This doctrine nearly proved fatal to him, as he was accused of disturbing the peace of the gods Lares. He maintained that the sun was 19 times further distant from the earth than the moon, and that the moon was 56 semi-diameters of our globe, and little more than one-third, and the diameter of the sun six or seven times more than that of the earth. The age in which he flourished is not precisely known. His treatise on the largeness and the distance of the sun and moon is extant, of which the best edition is that of Oxford, 8vo, 1688.

Aristazānes, a noble Persian in favour with Artaxerxes Ochus. Diodorus, bk. 16.

Aristeas, a poet of Proconnesus, who, as fables report, appeared seven years after his death to his countrymen, and 540 years after to the people of Metapontum in Italy, and commanded them to raise him a statue near the temple of Apollo. He wrote an epic poem on the Arimaspi in three books, and some of his verses are quoted by Longinus. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 13.—Strabo, bk. 14.—Maximus Tyrius, bk. 22.――A physician of Rhodes.――A geometrician, intimate with Euclid.――A poet, son of Demochares, in the age of Crœsus.

‘physican’ replaced with ‘physician’

Aristĕræ, an island on the coast of Peloponnesus. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 34.

Aristeus, a man of Argos, who excited king Pyrrhus to take up arms against his countrymen the Argives. Polyænus, bk. 8, ch. 68.

Aristhĕnes, a shepherd who found Æsculapius, when he had been exposed in the woods by his mother Coronis.

Aristhus, an historian of Arcadia. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 1.

Aristībus, a river of Pæonia. Polyænus, bk. 4, ch. 12.

Aristīdes, a celebrated Athenian, son of Lysimachus, whose great temperance and virtue procured him the surname of Just. He was rival to Themistocles, by whose influence he was banished for 10 years, B.C. 484; but before six years of his exile had elapsed, he was recalled by the Athenians. He was at the battle of Salamis, and was appointed chief commander with Pausanias against Mardonius, who was defeated at Platæa. He died so poor, that the expenses of his funeral were defrayed at the public charge, and his two daughters, on account of their father’s virtues, received a dowry from the public treasury when they were come to marriageable years. Poverty, however, seemed hereditary in the family of Aristides, for the grandson was seen in the public streets, getting his livelihood by explaining dreams. The Athenians became more virtuous in imitating their great leader: and from the sense of his good qualities, at the representation of one of the tragedies of Æschylus, on the mentioning of a sentence concerning moral goodness, the eyes of the audience were all at once turned from the actor to Aristides. When he sat as judge, it is said that the plaintiff, in his accusation, mentioned the injuries his opponent had done to Aristides. “Mention the wrongs you have received,” replied the equitable Athenian; “I sit here as judge, and the lawsuit is yours, and not mine.” Cornelius Nepos & Plutarch, Parallel Lives.――An historian of Miletus, fonder of stories, and of anecdotes, than of truth. He wrote a history of Italy, of which the 40th volume has been quoted by Plutarch, Parallela minora.――An athlete, who obtained a prize at the Olympian, Nemæan, and Pythian games. Pausanias, bk. 6, ch. 16.――A painter of Thebes in Bœotia, in the age of Alexander the Great, for one of whose pieces Attalus offered 6000 sesterces. Pliny, bks. 7 & 35.――A Greek orator who wrote 50 orations, besides other tracts. When Smyrna was destroyed by an earthquake, he wrote so pathetic a letter to Marcus Aurelius, that the emperor ordered the city immediately to be rebuilt, and a statue was in consequence raised to the orator. His works consist of hymns in prose in honour of the gods, funeral orations, apologies, panegyrics, and harangues, the best edition of which is that of Jebb, 2 vols., 4to, Oxoford, 1722, and that in a smaller size in 12mo, 3 vols., of Canterus apud P. Steph. 1604.――A man of Locris, who died by the bite of a weasel. Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 14.――A philosopher of Mysia, intimate with Marcus Antoninus.――An Athenian, who wrote treatises on animals, trees, and agriculture.

Aristillus, a philosopher of the Alexandrian school, who about 300 years B.C. attempted, with Timocharis, to determine the place of the different stars in the heavens, and to trace the course of the planets.

Aristio, a sophist of Athens, who by the support of Archelaus, the general of Mithridates, seized the government of his country, and made himself absolute. He poisoned himself when defeated by Sylla. Livy, bks. 81, 82.

Aristippus, the elder, a philosopher of Cyrene, disciple to Socrates, and founder of the Cyrenaic sect. He was one of the flatterers of Dionysius of Sicily, and distinguished himself for his epicurean voluptuousness, in support of which he wrote a book, as likewise a history of Libya. When travelling in the deserts of Africa, he ordered his servants to throw away the money they carried, as too burdensome. On another occasion, discovering that the ship in which he sailed belonged to pirates, he designedly threw his property into the sea, adding, that he chose rather to lose it than his life. Many of his sayings and maxims are recorded by Diogenes Laërtius, in his life. Horace, bk. 2, satire 3, li. 100.――His grandson of the same name, called the younger, was a warm defender of his opinions, and supported that the principles of all things were pain and pleasure. He flourished about 363 years B.C.――A tyrant of Argos, whose life was one continued series of apprehension. He was killed by a Cretan in a battle against Aratus, B.C. 242. Diogenes Laërtius.――A man who wrote a history of Arcadia. Diogenes Laërtius, bk. 2.

Marcus Aristius, a tribune of the soldiers in Cæsar’s army. Cæsar, Gallic War, bk. 7, ch. 42.――Another. See: Fuscus.――A satirist, who wrote a poem called Cyclops.

Aristo. See: Ariston.

Aristobūla, a name given to Diana by Themistocles.

Aristobūlus, a name common to some of the high priests and kings of Judæa, &c. Josephus.――A brother of Epicurus.――One of Alexander’s attendants, who wrote the king’s life, replete with adulation and untruth.――A philosopher of Judæa, B.C. 150.

Aristoclēa, a beautiful woman, seen naked by Strato as she was offering a sacrifice. She was passionately loved by Callisthenes, and was equally admired by Strato. The two rivals so furiously contended for her hand, that she died during their quarrel, upon which Strato killed himself, and Callisthenes was never seen after. Plutarch, Amatoriæ Narrationes.

Aristŏcles, a peripatetic philosopher of Messenia, who reviewed, in a treatise on philosophy, the opinions of his predecessors. The 14th book of this treatise is quoted, &c. He also wrote on rhetoric, and likewise nine books on morals.――A grammarian of Rhodes.――A stoic of Lampsacus.――An historian. Strabo, bk. 4.――A musician. Athenæus, &c.――A prince of Tegæa, &c. Polyænus.――This name is common to many Greeks, of whom few or no particulars are recorded.

Aristoclīdes, a tyrant of Orchomenes, who, because he could not win the affection of Stymphalis, killed her and her father, upon which all Arcadia took up arms and destroyed the murderer.

Aristocrătes, a king of Arcadia, put to death by his subjects for offering violence to the priestess of Diana. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 5.――His grandson, of the same name, was stoned to death for taking bribes, during the second Messenian war, and being the cause of the defeat of his Messenian allies, B.C. 682. Pausanias, ibid.――A Rhodian.――A man who endeavoured to destroy the democratical power at Athens.――An Athenian general sent to the assistance of Corcyra with 25 galleys. Diodorus, bk. 15.――An Athenian who was punished with death for flying from the field of battle.――A Greek historian, son of Hipparchus. Plutarch, Lycurgus.

Aristocreon, the writer of a book on geography.

Aristocrĭtus, wrote a treatise concerning Miletus.

Aristodēme, a daughter of Priam.

Aristodēmus, son of Aristomachus, was one of the Heraclidæ. He, with his brothers Temenus and Cresphontes, invaded Peloponnesus, conquered it, and divided the country among themselves, 1104 years before the christian era. He married Argia, by whom he had the twins Procles and Eurysthenes. He was killed by a thunderbolt at Naupactum, though some say that he died at Delphi in Phocis. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 18; bk. 3, chs. 1 & 16.—Herodotus, bk. 7, ch. 204; bk. 8, ch. 131.――A king of Messenia, who maintained a famous war against Sparta. After some losses, he recovered his strength, and so effectually defeated the enemy’s forces, that they were obliged to prostitute their women to repeople their country. The offspring of this prostitution were called Partheniæ, and 30 years after their birth they left Sparta, and seized upon Tarentum. Aristodemus put his daughter to death for the good of his country; but being afterwards persecuted in a dream by her manes, he killed himself, after a reign of six years and some months, in which he had obtained much military glory, B.C. 724. His death was lamented by his countrymen, who did not appoint him a successor, but only invested Damis, one of his friends, with absolute power to continue the war, which was at last terminated after much bloodshed and many losses on both sides. Pausanias, Messenia.――A tyrant of Cumæ.――A philosopher of Ægina.――An Alexandrian who wrote some treatises, &c.――A Spartan who taught the children of Pausanias.――A man who was preceptor to the children of Pompey.――A tyrant of Arcadia.――A Carian who wrote a history of painting.――A philosopher of Nysa, B.C. 68.

Aristogĕnes, a physician of Cnidos, who obtained great reputation by the cure of Demetrius Gonatus king of Macedonia.――A Thasian who wrote 24 books on medicine.

Aristogīton and Harmodius, two celebrated friends of Athens, who by their joint efforts delivered their country from the tyranny of the Pisistratidæ, B.C. 510. They received immortal honours from the Athenians, and had statues raised to their memory. These statues were carried away by Xerxes when he took Athens. The conspiracy of Aristogiton was so secretly planned, and so wisely carried into execution, that it is said a courtesan bit her tongue off, not to betray the trust reposed in her. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 29.—Herodotus, bk. 5, ch. 55.—Plutarch, Lives of the Ten Orators.――An Athenian orator, surnamed Canis, from his impudence. He wrote orations against Timarchus, Timotheus, Hyperides, and Thrasyllus.――A statuary. Pausanias.

Aristolāus, a painter. Pliny, bk. 31, ch. 11.

Aristomăche, the wife of Dionysius of Syracuse. Cicero, Tusculanæ Disputationes, bk. 5, ch. 20.――The wife of Dion.――A poetess. Plutarch, Convivium Septem Sapientium.――A daughter of Priam, who married Critolaus. Pausanias, bk. 10, ch. 26.

Aristomăchus, an Athenian, who wrote concerning the preparation of wine. Pliny, bk. 14, ch. 9.――A man so excessively fond of bees, that he devoted 58 years of his life in raising swarms of them. Pliny, bk. 11, ch. 9.――The son of Cleodæus and grandson of Hyllus, whose three sons, Cresphontes, Temenus, and Aristodemus, called Heraclidæ, conquered Peloponnesus. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 7; bk. 3, ch. 15.—Herodotus, bks. 6, 7, & 8.――A man who laid aside his sovereign power at Argos, at the persuasion of Aratus. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 8.

Aristomēdes, a Thessalian general in the interest of Darius III. Curtius, bk. 3, ch. 9.

Aristomĕnes, a commander of the fleet of Darius on the Hellespont, conquered by the Macedonians. Curtius, bk. 4, ch. 1.――A famous general of Messenia, who encouraged his countrymen to shake off the Lacedæmonian yoke under which they had laboured for above 30 years. He once defended the virtue of some Spartan women, whom his soldiers had attempted; and when he was taken prisoner and carried to Sparta, the women whom he had protected interested themselves so warmly in his cause that they procured his liberty. He refused to assume the title of king, but was satisfied with that of commander. He acquired the surname of Just, from his equity, to which he joined the true valour, sagacity, and perseverance of a general. He often entered Sparta without being known and was so dexterous in eluding the vigilance of the Lacedæmonians, who had taken him captive, that he twice escaped from them. As he attempted to do it a third time, he was unfortunately killed, and his body being opened, his heart was found all covered with hair. He died 671 years B.C., and it is said that he left dramatical pieces behind him. Diodorus, bk. 15.—Pausanias, Messenia.――A Spartan sent to the assistance of Dionysius. Polyænus, bk. 2.

Ariston, the son of Agasicles king of Sparta. Being unable to raise children by two wives, he married another famous for her beauty, by whom he had, after seven months, a son Demaratus, whom he had the impudence to call not his own. Herodotus, bk. 6, ch. 61, &c.――A general of Ætolia.――A sculptor.――A Corinthian who assisted the Syracusans against the Athenians.――An officer in Alexander’s army.――A tyrant of Methymna, who, being ignorant that Chios had surrendered to the Macedonians, entered into the harbour, and was taken and put to death. Curtius, bk. 4, ch. 9.――A philosopher of Chios, pupil to Zeno the stoic, and founder of a sect which continued but a little while. He supported that the nature of the divinity is unintelligible. It is said that he died by the heat of the sun, which fell too powerfully upon his bald head. In his old age he was much given to sensuality. Diogenes Laërtius.――A lawyer in Trajan’s reign, whose eulogium has been written by Pliny, ltr. 22, bk. 1.――A peripatetic philosopher of Alexandria, who wrote concerning the course of the Nile. Strabo.――A wrestler of Argos, under whom Plato performed some exercises.――A musician of Athens.――A tragic poet.――A peripatetic of Cos.――A native of Pella, in the age of Adrian, who wrote on the rebellion of the Jews.

Aristonautæ, the naval dock of Pellene. Pausanias, bk. 2.

Aristonīcus, son of Eumenes by a concubine of Ephesus, 126 B.C., invaded Asia and the kingdom of Pergamus, which Attalus had left by his will to the Roman people. He was conquered by the consul Perpenna, and strangled in prison. Justin, bk. 36, ch. 4.—Florus, bk. 2, ch. 20.――A musician of Olynthus.――A grammarian of Alexandria, who wrote a commentary on Hesiod and Homer, besides a treatise on the museum established in Alexandria by the Ptolemies.

Aristonĭdes, a noble statuary. Pliny, bk. 34, ch. 14.

Aristŏnus, a captain of Alexander’s cavalry. Curtius, bk. 9, ch. 5.

Aristony̆mus, a comic poet under Philadelphus, keeper of the library at Alexandria. He died of a retention of urine, in his 77th year. Athenæus.――One of Alexander’s musicians. Plutarch, Alexander.

Aristophănes, a celebrated comic poet of Athens, son of Philip of Rhodes. He wrote 54 comedies, of which only 11 are come down to us. He lived in the age of Socrates, Demosthenes, and Euripides, B.C. 434, and lashed the vices of his age with a masterly hand. The wit and excellence of his comedies are well known; but they abound sometimes too much with obscenity; and his attack upon the venerable character of Socrates has been always censured, and with justice. As a reward for his mental greatness, the poet received a crown of olive, in a public assembly; but if he deserved praise, he merited blame for his licentiousness, which spared not even the gods, and was so offensive to his countrymen, that Alcibiades made a law at Athens, which forbade the comic writers from mimicking or representing on the stage any living character by name. Aristophanes has been called the prince of ancient comedy, as Menander of the new. The play called Nubes is pointedly against Socrates, and the philosopher is exposed to ridicule, and his precepts placed in a most ludicrous point of view by the introduction of one of his pupils in the characters of the piece. It is said that St. Chrysostom used to keep the comedies of Aristophanes under his pillow, on account of the brilliancy of the composition. Plutarch has made a comparison between the princes of the new and old comedy, which abounds with many anecdotes concerning these original characters. The best editions of the works of Aristophanes are, Kuster’s, folio, Amsterdam, 1710, and the 12mo, Leiden, 1670, and that of Brunck, 4 vols., 8vo, Strasbourg, 1783, which would still be more perfect did it contain the valuable scholia. Quintilian, bk. 10, ch. 1.—Paterculus, bk. 1, ch. 16.—Horace, bk. 1, satire 4, li. 1.――A grammarian of Byzantium, keeper of the library of Alexandria under Ptolemy Evergetes. He wrote a treatise on the harlots of Attica. Diogenes Laërtius, Plutarch & Epicurus.—Athenæus, bk. 9.――A Greek historian of Bœotia, quoted by Plutarch, de Herodoti Malignitate.――A writer on agriculture.

Aristophilīdes, a king of Tarentum in the reign of Darius son of Hystaspes. Herodotus, bk. 3.

Aristŏphon, a painter in the age of Socrates. He drew the picture of Alcibiades softly reclining on the bosom of the courtesan Nemea, and all the people of Athens ran in crowds to be spectators of the masterly piece. He also made a painting of Mars leaning on the arm of Venus. Plutarch, Alcibiades.—Athenæus, bk. 13.—Pliny, bk. 35, ch. 11.――A comic poet in the age of Alexander, many of whose fragments are collected in Athenæus.

Aristor, the father of Argus the hundred-eyed keeper of Io.

Aristorĭdes, the patronymic of Argus. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 1, li. 624.

Aristoteleia, festivals in honour of Aristotle, because he obtained the restitution of his country from Alexander.

Aristotĕles, a famous philosopher, son of the physician Nicomachus by Festiada, born at Stagira. After his father’s death he went to Athens to hear Plato’s lectures, where he soon signalized himself by the brightness of his genius. He had been of an inactive and dissolute disposition in his youth, but now he applied himself with uncommon diligence; and after he had spent 20 years in hearing the instructions of Plato, he opened a school for himself, for which he was accused of ingratitude and illiberality by his ancient master. He was moderate in his meals; he slept little, and always had one arm out of his couch with a bullet in it, which by falling into a brazen basin underneath, early awakened him. He was, according to some, 10 years preceptor to Alexander, who received his instructions with much pleasure and deference, and always respected him. According to Plutarch, the improvement that Alexander made under Aristotle was of more service to him than all the splendour and power which he received from Philip. Almost all his writings, which are composed on a variety of subjects, are extant: he gave them to Theophrastus at his death, and they were bought by one of the Ptolemies, and placed in the famous library of Alexandria. Diogenes Laertes has given us a very extensive catalogue of them. Aristotle had a deformed countenance, but his genius was a sufficient compensation for all his personal defects. He has been called by Plato the philosopher of truth; and Cicero compliments him with the title of a man of eloquence, universal knowledge, readiness and acuteness of invention, and fecundity of thought. The writings of Aristotle have been compared with those of Plato; but the one are the effusions of a lively and fruitful imagination, whilst the philosopher of Stagira studied nature more than art, and had recourse to simplicity of expression more than ornament. He neither worshipped nor cared for the divinity, concerning which his opinions were ever various and dissonant; and the more he disregarded the mythology of the ancients, the greater was the credit he acquired over his less philosophical predecessors. He was so authoritative in his opinions, that, as Bacon observes, he wished to establish the same dominion over men’s minds, as his pupil over nations. Alexander, it is said, wished and encouraged his learned tutor to write the history of animals; and the more effectually to assist him, he supplied him with 800 talents, and in his Asiatic expedition employed above 1000 men to collect animals, either in fishing, hunting, or hawking, which were carefully transmitted to the philosopher. Aristotle’s logic has long reigned in the schools, and been regarded as the perfect model of all imitation. As he expired, the philosopher is said to have uttered the following sentiment: Fœde hunc mundum intravi, anxius vixi, perturbatus egredior, causa causarum miserere mei. The letter which Philip wrote to Aristotle has been preserved, and is in these words: “I inform you I have a son; I thank the gods, not so much for making me a father, as for giving me a son in an age when he can have Aristotle for his instructor. I hope you will make him a successor worthy of me, and a king worthy of Macedonia.” Aristotle wished to make his wife Pythias a deity, and to pay her the same worship as was paid to Ceres. He died in the 63rd year of his age, B.C. 322. His treatises have been published separately; but the best edition of the works collectively, is that of Duval, 2 vols., folio, Paris, 1629. Tyrwhitt’s edition of the Poetica, Oxford, 4to, 1794, is a valuable acquisition to literature. He had a son whom he called Nicomachus, by the courtesan Herpyllis. Some have accused him of being accessary to the death of Alexander, and said that he drowned himself in the Euripus, because he could not find out the cause of its flux and reflux. There are, however, different reports about the manner of his death, and some believe that he died at Athens of a cholic, two years after Alexander’s death. The people of Stagira instituted festivals in his honour, because he had rendered important services to their city. Diogenes Laërtius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers.—Plutarch, Alexander & de Alexandri Magni Fortuna Aut Virtute, &c.Cicero, Academica Quæstiones, bk. 4; On Oratory, bk. 3; de Finibus, bk. 5.—Quintilian, bks. 1, 2, 5, 10.—Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 4.—Justin, bk. 12.—Justin Martyr.Augustine, City of God, bk. 8.—Pliny, bks. 2, 4, 5, &c.Athenæus.Valerius Maximus, bk. 5, ch. 6, &c. There were besides seven of the same name. A magistrate of Athens.――A commentator on Homer’s Iliad.――An orator of Sicily, who answered the panegyric of Isocrates.――A friend of Æschines.――A man of Cyrene who wrote on poetry.――A schoolmaster mentioned in Plato’s life, written by Aristoxenus.――An obscure grammarian. Diogenes Laërtius, Aristotle.

Aristotīmus, a tyrant of Elis, 271 years B.C. Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 5.

Aristoxĕnus, a celebrated musician, disciple of Aristotle, and born at Tarentum. He wrote 453 different treatises on philosophy, history, &c., and was disappointed in his expectations of succeeding in the school of Aristotle, for which he always spoke with ingratitude of his learned master. Of all his works nothing remains but three books upon music, the most ancient on that subject extant.――A philosopher of Cyrene. Athenæus.――A physician whose writings are quoted by Galen.――A poet of Selinus.――A Pythagorean philosopher.

Aristus, a Greek historian of Salamas, who wrote an account of Alexander’s expedition. Strabo, bk. 14.—Arrian, bk. 7.

Aristyllus, an obscure poet. Aristophanes.――An astronomer of Alexandria, 292 B.C.

Arius, a river of Gaul, and――of Asia. The inhabitants in the neighbourhood are called Arii.――A celebrated writer, the origin of the Arian controversy, that denied the eternal divinity and consubstantiality of the Word. Though he was greatly persecuted for his opinions, he gained the favour of the emperor Constantine, and triumphed over his powerful antagonist Athanasius. He died the very night he was going to enter the church of Constantinople in triumph. Pressed by nature, he went aside to ease himself; but his bowels gushed out, and he expired on the spot, A.D. 336. Athanasius.

Armĕnes, a son of Nabis, led in triumph at Rome. Livy, bk. 34, ch. 1.

Armenia, a large country of Asia, divided into Upper and Lower Armenia. Upper Armenia, called also Major, has Media on the east, Iberia on the north, and Mesopotamia on the south. Lower Armenia, or Minor, is bounded by Cappadocia, Armenia Major, Syria, Cilicia, and the Euphrates. The Armenians were a long time under the dominion of the Medes and Persians, till they were conquered with the rest of Asia, by Alexander and his successors. The Romans made it one of their provinces, and under some of the emperors the Armenians had the privilege of choosing their own kings, but they were afterwards reduced. The country received its name from Armenus, who was one of the Argonauts, and of Thessalian origin. They borrowed the names and attributes of their deities from the Persians. They paid great adoration to Venus Anaitis, and the chiefest of the people always prostituted their daughters in honour of this goddess. Armenia Major is now called Turcomania, and Minor, Aladulia. Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 194; bk. 5, ch. 49.—Curtius, bk. 4, ch. 12; bk. 5, ch. 1.—Strabo, bks. 1 & 11.—Mela, bk. 3, chs. 5 & 8.—Pliny, bk. 6, ch. 4, &c.Lucan, bk. 2.

Armentarius, a Cæsar in Diocletian’s reign.

Armillatus, one of Domitian’s favourites. Juvenal, satire 4, li. 53.

Armilustrium, a festival at Rome on the 19th of October. When the sacrifices were offered, all the people appeared under arms. The festival has often been confounded with that of the Salii, though easily distinguished; because the latter was observed the 2nd of March, and on the celebration of the Armilustrium they always played on a flute, and the Salii played upon the trumpet. It was instituted A.U.C. 543. Varro, de Lingua Latina, bk. 5, ch. 3.—Livy, bk. 27, ch. 37.

Arminius, a warlike general of the Germans, who supported a bloody war against Rome for some time, and was at last conquered by Germanicus in two great battles. He was poisoned by one of his friends, A.D. 19, in the 37th year of his age. Dio Cassius, bk. 56.—Tacitus, Annals, bk. 1, &c.

Armorĭcæ, cities of Celtic Gaul, famous for the warlike, rebellious, and inconstant disposition of the inhabitants called Armorici. Armorica extended between the rivers Liger and Sequana, and comprehended those rich and populous provinces now called Britany and Normandy. Cæsar, Gallic War.

Arne, a city of Lycia, called afterwards Xanthus.――A town of Umbria in Italy.――A daughter of Æolus, who gave her name to two towns, one in Thessaly, the other in Bœotia. Neptune changed himself into a bull to enjoy her company. Strabo, bks. 1 & 2.—Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 40.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 6, fable 4.

Arni, a people of Italy, destroyed by Hercules.

Arniensis, a tribe in Rome. Livy, bk. 6.

Arnobius, a philosopher in Diocletian’s reign, who became a convert to christianity. He applied for ordination, but was refused by the bishops till he gave them a proof of his sincerity. Upon this he wrote his celebrated treatise, in which he exposed the absurdity of irreligion, and ridiculed the heathen gods. Opinions are various concerning the purity of his style, though all agree in praise of his extensive erudition. The book that he wrote, De Rhetoricâ Institutione, is not extant. The best edition of his treatise Adversus Gentes is the 4to, printed Leiden, 1651.

Arnus, a river of Etruria, rising in the Apennine mountains, and falling into the Mediterranean. Livy, bk. 22, ch. 2.

Aroa, a town of Achaia. Pausanias, bk. 7.

Aroma, a town of Caria,――of Cappadocia.

Arpāni, a people of Italy.

Arpi, a city of Apulia, built by Diomedes after the Trojan war. Justin, bk. 20, ch. 1.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 10, li. 28.

Arpīnum, a town of the Volsci, famous for giving birth to Cicero and Marius. The words Arpinæ chartæ are sometimes applied to Cicero’s works. Martial, bk. 10, ltr. 19.—Juvenal, satire 8, li. 237.—Cicero, De Lege Agraria contra Rullum, speech 3.――A town of Magna Græcia.

Arræi, a people of Thrace. Pliny.

Arrharæus, the king of a nation in the neighbourhood of Macedonia, who greatly distressed Archelaus. Aristotle, bk. 5, Politics, ch. 10.

Arria. See: Aria.

Arria Galla, a beautiful but immodest woman in the reign of the emperors. Tacitus, bk. 15, ch. 19.

Arriānus, a philosopher of Nicomedia, priest of Ceres and Proserpine, and disciple of Epictetus, called a second Xenophon, from the elegance and sweetness of his diction, and distinguished for his acquaintance with military and political life. He wrote seven books on Alexander’s expedition, the periplus of the Euxine and Red seas, four books on the dissertations of Epictetus, besides an account of the Alani, Bithynians, and Parthians. He flourished about the 140th year of Christ, and was rewarded with the consulship and government of Cappadocia, by Marcus Antoninus. The best edition of Arrian’s Expeditio Alexandri, is the folio Gronovii, Leiden, 1704, and the 8vo, à Raphelio, 2 vols., 1757, and the Tactica, 8vo, Amsterdam, 1683.――A Greek historian.――An Athenian who wrote a treatise on hunting, and the manner of keeping dogs.――A poet who wrote an epic poem in 24 books on Alexander; also another poem on Attalus king of Pergamus. He likewise translated Virgil’s Georgics into Greek verse.

Arrius, a friend of Cicero, whose sumptuous feast Horace describes, bk. 2, satire 3, li. 86.――Aper, a Roman general who murdered the emperor, &c.

Arrius and Arius, a philosopher of Alexandria, who so ingratiated himself with Augustus, after the battle of Actium, that the conqueror declared the people of Alexandria owed the preservation of their city to three causes; because Alexander was their founder, because of the beauty of the situation, and because Arrius was a native of the place. Plutarch, Antonius.

Arruntius, a Roman consul.――A famous geographer who, upon being accused of adultery and treason, under Tiberius, opened his veins. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 6.

Arsabes, a satrap of Armenia.――Of Persia. Polyænus.

Arsăces, a man of obscure origin, who, upon seeing Seleucus defeated by the Gauls, invaded Parthia, and conquered the governor of the province called Andragoras, and laid the foundations of an empire, 250 B.C. He added the kingdom of the Hyrcani to his newly acquired possessions, and spent his time in establishing his power, and regulating the laws. After death he was made a god of his nation, and all his successors were called, in honour of his name, Arsacidæ. Justin, bk. 41, chs. 5 & 6.—Strabo, bks. 11 & 12.――His son and successor bore the same name. He carried war against Antiochus the son of Seleucus, who entered the field with 100,000 foot and 20,000 horse. He afterwards made peace with Antiochus, and died B.C. 217. Justin, bk. 41, ch. 5.――The third king of Parthia, of the family of the Arsacidæ, bore the same name, and was also called Priapatius. He reigned 12 years, and left two sons, Mithridates and Phraates. Phraates succeeded as being the elder, and at his death he left his kingdom to his brother, though he had many children; observing that a monarch ought to have in view, not the dignity of his family, but the prosperity of his subjects. Justin, bk. 31, ch. 5.――A king of Pontus and Armenia, in alliance with the Romans. He fought long with success against the Persians, till he was deceived by the snares of king Sapor, his enemy, who put out his eyes, and soon after deprived him of life. Marcellinus.――The eldest son of Artabanus, appointed over Armenia by his father, after the death of king Artaxias. Tacitus, Histories, bk. 6.――A servant of Themistocles.

Arsacĭdæ, a name given to some of the monarchs of Parthia, in honour of Arsaces, the founder of the empire. Their power subsisted till the 229th year of the christian era, when they were conquered by Artaxerxes king of Persia. Justin, bk. 41.

Arsamĕnes, a satrap of Persia, at the battle of the Granicus.

Arsametes, a river of Asia, near Parthia. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 15.

Arsamosāta, a town of Armenia Major, 70 miles from the Euphrates. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 15.

Arsānes, the son of Ochus and father of Codomanus.

Arsanias, a river of Armenia, which, according to some, flows into the Tigris, and afterwards into the Euphrates. Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 24.

Arsēna, a marsh of Armenia Major whose fishes are all of the same sort. Strabo.

Arses, the youngest son of Ochus, whom the eunuch Bagoas raised to the throne of Persia, and destroyed with his children, after a reign of three years. Diodorus, bk. 17.

Arsia, a wood of Etruria, famous for a battle between the Romans and the Veientes. Plutarch, Poplicola.――A small river between Illyricum and Istria, falling into the Adriatic.――A river of Italy, flowing through Campania.

Arsidæus, a son of Datames, &c.

Arsinoe, daughter of Leucippus and Philodice, was mother of Æsculapius by Apollo, according to some authors. She received divine honours after death at Sparta. Apollodorus, bk. 3.—Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 26; bk. 3, ch. 12.――A daughter of Phlegeus, promised in marriage to Alcmæon. Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 7.――A fountain of Peloponnesus. Pausanias, Messenia.――The sister and wife of Ptolemy Philadelphus, worshipped after death under the name of Venus Zephyritis. Dinochares began to build her a temple with loadstones, in which there stood a statue of Arsinoe suspended in the air by the power of the magnet; but the death of the architect prevented its being perfected. Pliny, bk. 34, ch. 14.――A daughter of Ptolemy Lagus, who married Lysimachus king of Macedonia. After her husband’s death, Ceraunus, her own brother, married her, and ascended the throne of Macedonia. He previously murdered Lysimachus and Philip, the sons of Arsinoe by Lysimachus, in their mother’s arms. Arsinoe was some time after banished to Samothrace. Justin, bk. 17, ch. 1, &c.――A younger daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, sister to Cleopatra. Antony despatched her to gain the good graces of her sister. Hirtius, Alexandrine War, ch. 4.—Appian.――The wife of Magas king of Cyrene, who committed adultery with her son-in-law. Justin, bk. 26, ch. 3.――A daughter of Lysimachus. Pausanias.――A town of Egypt, situated near the lake of Mœris, on the western shore of the Nile, where the inhabitants paid the highest veneration to the crocodiles. They nourished them in a splendid manner, and embalmed them after death, and buried them in the subterraneous cells of the labyrinth. Strabo.――A town of Cilicia,――of Æolia,――of Syria,――of Cyprus,――of Lycia, &c.

Arsites, a satrap of Paphlagonia.

Artabānus, son of Hystaspes, was brother to Darius I. He dissuaded his nephew Xerxes from making war against the Greeks, and at his return, he assassinated him with the hopes of ascending the throne. Darius the son of Xerxes was murdered in a similar manner; and Artaxerxes his brother would have shared the same fate, had not he discovered the snares of the assassin, and punished him with death. Diodorus, bk. 11.—Justin, bk. 3, ch. 1, &c.Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 38; bk. 7, ch. 10, &c.――A king of Parthia, after the death of his nephew Phraates II. He undertook a war against a nation of Scythia, in which he perished. His son Mithridates succeeded him, and merited the appellation of Great. Justin, bk. 42, ch. 2.――A king of Media, and afterwards of Parthia, after the expulsion of Vonones, whom Tiberius had made king there. He invaded Armenia, from whence he was driven away by one of the generals of Tiberius. He was expelled from his throne, which Tiridates usurped; and some time after he was restored again to his ancient power, and died A.D. 48. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 5, &c.――A king of Parthia, very inimical to the interest of Vespasian.――Another king of Parthia, who made war against the emperor Caracalla, who had attempted his life on pretence of courting his daughter. He was murdered, and the power of Parthia abolished, and the crown transferred to the Persian monarchs. Dio Cassius.Herodian.

Artabazānes, or Artamĕnes, the eldest son of Darius, when a private person. He attempted to succeed to the Persian throne, in preference to Xerxes. Justin.

Artabāzus, a son of Pharnaces, general in the army of Xerxes. He fled from Greece upon the ill success of Mardonius. Herodotus, bks. 7, 8, & 9.――A general who made war against Artaxerxes, and was defeated. He was afterwards reconciled to his prince, and became the familiar friend of Darius III. After the murder of this prince, he surrendered himself up with his sons to Alexander, who treated him with much humanity and confidence. Curtius, bk. 5, chs. 9 & 12; bk. 6, ch. 5; bk. 7, chs. 3 & 5; bk. 8, ch. 1.――An officer of Artaxerxes against Datames. Diodorus, bk. 15.

Artabri and Artabrĭtæ, a people of Lusitania, who received their name from Artabrum, a promontory on the coast of Spain, now called Finisterre. Silius Italicus, bk. 3, li. 362.

Artacæas, an officer in the army of Xerxes, the tallest of all the troops, the king excepted.

Artacæna, a city of Asia, near Aria.

Artăce, a town and seaport near Cyzicus. It did not exist in the age of Pliny. There was in its neighbourhood a fountain called Artacia. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 14.—Procopius, The Persian War, bk. 1, ch. 25.—Strabo, bk. 13.—Pliny, bk. 5, ch. 32.――A city of Phrygia.――A fortified place of Bithynia.

Artacēne, a country of Assyria near Arbela, where Alexander conquered Darius. Strabo, bk. 16.

Artăcia, a fountain in the country of the Læstrygones. Tibullus, bk. 4, poem 1, li. 60.

Artæi, a name by which the Persians were called among their neighbours. Herodotus, bk. 7, ch. 61.

Artagreras, a town of Upper Armenia. Strabo.

Artagerses, a general in the army of Artaxerxes, killed by Cyrus the younger.—Plutarch, Artaxerxes.

Artanes, a king of the southern parts of Armenia. Strabo, bk. 11.――A river of Thrace flowing into the Ister. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 49.――A river of Colchis.

Artaphernes, a general whom Darius sent into Greece with Datis. He was conquered at the battle of Marathon, by Miltiades. See: Datis. Cornelius Nepos, Miltiades.—Herodotus.

Artatus, a river of Illyria. Livy, bk. 43, ch. 19.

Artavasdes, a son of Tigranes king of Upper Armenia, who wrote tragedies, and shone as an elegant orator and faithful historian. He lived in alliance with the Romans, but Crassus was defeated, partly on account of his delay. He betrayed Marcus Antony in his expedition against Parthia, for which Antony reduced his kingdom, and carried him to Egypt, where he adorned the triumph of the conqueror led in golden chains. He was some time after murdered. Strabo, bk. 11.――The crown of Armenia was given by Tiberius to a person of the same name, who was expelled.――Augustus had also raised to the throne of Armenia a person of the same name. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 2.

Artaxa and Artaxias, a general of Antiochus the Great, who erected the province of Armenia into a kingdom, by his reliance on the friendship of the Romans. King Tigranes was one of his successors. Strabo, bk. 11.

Artaxăta (orum), now Ardesh, a strongly fortified town of Upper Armenia, the capital of the empire, where the kings generally resided. It is said that Annibal built it for Artaxias the king of the country. It was burnt by Corbulo, and rebuilt by Tiridates, who called it Neronea, in honour of Nero. Strabo, bk. 11.

Artaxerxes I., succeeded to the kingdom of Persia, after his father Xerxes. He destroyed Artabanus, who had murdered Xerxes, and attempted to cut off the whole royal family to raise himself to the throne. He made war against the Bactrians, and reconquered Egypt that had revolted, with the assistance of the Athenians, and was remarkable for his equity and moderation. One of his hands was longer than the other, whence he has been called Macrochir or Longimanus. He reigned 39 years, and died B.C. 425. Cornelius Nepos, Kings.—Plutarch, Artaxerxes.――The second of that name, king of Persia, was surnamed Mnemon, on account of his extensive memory. He was son of Darius II. by Parysatis the daughter of Artaxerxes Longimanus, and had three brothers, Cyrus, Ostanes, and Oxathres. His name was Arsaces, which he changed into Artaxerxes when he ascended the throne. His brother Cyrus was of such an ambitious disposition, that he resolved to make himself king, in opposition to Artaxerxes. Parysatis always favoured Cyrus; and when he had attempted the life of Artaxerxes, she obtained his pardon by her entreaties and influence. Cyrus, who had been appointed over Lydia and the sea coasts, assembled a large army under various pretences, and at last marched against his brother at the head of 100,000 barbarians and 13,000 Greeks. He was opposed by Artaxerxes with 900,000 men, and a bloody battle was fought at Cunaxa, in which Cyrus was killed, and his forces routed. It has been reported that Cyrus was killed by Artaxerxes, who was so desirous of the honour, that he put to death two men for saying that they had killed him. The Greeks, who had assisted Cyrus against his brother, though at the distance of above 600 leagues from their country, made their way through the territories of the enemy; and nothing is more famous in the Grecian history, than the retreat of the 10,000. After he was delivered from the attacks of his brother, Artaxerxes stirred up a war among the Grecian states against Sparta, and exerted all his influence to weaken the power of the Greeks. He married two of his own daughters, called Atossa and Amestria, and named his eldest son Darius to be his successor. Darius, however, conspired against his father, and was put to death; and Ochus, one of the younger sons, called also Artaxerxes, made his way to the throne, by causing his elder brothers Ariaspes and Arsames to be assassinated. It is said that Artaxerxes died of a broken heart, in consequence of his son’s unnatural behaviour, in the 94th year of his age, after a reign of 46 years, B.C. 358. Artaxerxes had 150 children by his 350 concubines, and only four legitimate sons. Plutarch, Parallel Lives.—Cornelius Nepos, Kings.—Justin, bk. 10, ch. 1, &c.Diodorus, bk. 13, &c.――The third, surnamed Ochus, succeeded his father Artaxerxes II., and established himself on his throne by murdering above 80 of his nearest relations. He punished with death one of his officers who conspired against him, and recovered Egypt, which had revolted, destroyed Sidon, and ravaged all Syria. He made war against the Cadusii, and greatly rewarded a private man called Codomanus for his uncommon valour. But his behaviour in Egypt, and his cruelty towards the inhabitants, offended his subjects, and Bagoas at last obliged his physician to poison him, B.C. 337, and afterwards gave his flesh to be devoured by cats, and made handles for swords with his bones. Codomanus, on account of his virtues, was soon after made king by the people; and that he might seem to possess as much dignity as the house of Artaxerxes, he reigned under the name of Darius III. Justin, bk. 10, ch. 3.—Diodorus, bk. 17.—Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 6, ch. 8.

Artaxerxes, or Artaxares I., a common soldier of Persia, who killed Artabanus, A.D. 228, and erected Persia again into a kingdom, which had been extinct since the death of Darius. Severus the Roman emperor conquered him, and obliged him to remain within his kingdom. Herodian, bk. 5.――One of his successors, son of Sapor, bore his name, and reigned 11 years, during which he distinguished himself by his cruelties.

Artaxias, son of Artavasdes king of Armenia, was proclaimed king by his father’s troops. He opposed Antony, by whom he was defeated, and became so odious that the Romans, at the request of the Armenians, raised Tigranes to the throne.――Another, son of Polemon, whose original name was Zeno. After the expulsion of Vonones from Armenia, he was made king by Germanicus. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 6, ch. 31.――A general of Antiochus. See: Artaxa.

Artayctes, a Persian appointed governor of Sestos by Xerxes. He was hung on a cross by the Athenians for his cruelties. Herodotus, bks. 7 & 9.

Artaynta, a Persian lady whom Xerxes gave in marriage to his son Darius. She was one of the mistresses of her father-in-law. Herodotus, bk. 9, ch. 103, &c.

Artayntes, a Persian appointed over a fleet in Greece by Xerxes. Herodotus, bk. 8, ch. 13; bk. 9, ch. 107.

Artembares, a celebrated Mede in the reign of Cyrus the Great. Herodotus, bks. 1 & 9.

Artemidōrus, a native of Ephesus, who wrote a history and description of the earth, in 11 books. He flourished about 104 years B.C.――A physician in the age of Adrian.――A man in the reign of Antoninus, who wrote a learned work on the interpretation of dreams, still extant; the best edition of which is that of Rigaltius, Paris, 4to, 1604, to which is annexed Achmetis oneirocritica.――A man of Cnidus, son to the historian Theopompus. He had a school at Rome, and he wrote a book on illustrious men, not extant. As he was the friend of Julius Cæsar, he wrote down an account of the conspiracy which was formed against him. He gave it to the dictator from among the crowd as he was going to the senate, but Julius Cæsar put it with other papers which he held in his hand, thinking it to be of no material consequence. Plutarch, Cæsar.

Artĕmis, the Greek name of Diana. Her festivals, called Artemisia, were celebrated in several parts of Greece, particularly at Delphi, where they offered to the goddess a mullet, which, as was supposed, bore some affinity to the goddess of hunting, because it is said to hunt and kill the sea-hare. There was a solemnity of the same name at Syracuse; it lasted three days, which were spent in banqueting and diversions. Athenæus, bk. 7.

Artemisia, daughter of Lygdamis of Halicarnassus, reigned over Halicarnassus and the neighbouring country. She assisted Xerxes in his expedition against Greece with a fleet, and her valour was so great that the monarch observed that all his men fought like women, and all his women like men. The Athenians were so ashamed of fighting against a woman, that they offered a reward of 10,000 drachms for her head. It is said that she was fond of a youth of Abydos, called Dardanus, and that, to punish his disdain, she put out his eyes while he was asleep, and afterwards leaped down the promontory of Leucas. Herodotus, bk. 7, ch. 99; bk. 8, ch. 68, &c.Justin, bk. 2, ch. 12.――There was also another queen of Caria of that name, often confounded with the daughter of Lygdamis. She was daughter of Hecatomnus king of Caria or Halicarnassus, and was married to her own brother Mausolus famous for his personal beauty. She was so fond of her husband, that at his death she drank in her liquor his ashes after his body had been burned, and erected to his memory a monument, which, for its grandeur and magnificence, was called one of the seven wonders of the world. This monument she called Mausoleum, a name which has been given from that time to all monuments of unusual splendour. She invited all the literary men of her age, and proposed rewards to him who composed the best elegiac panegyric upon her husband. The prize was adjudged to Theopompus. She was so inconsolable for the death of her husband that she died through grief two years after. Vitruvius.Strabo, bk. 14.—Pliny, bk. 25, ch. 7; bk. 36, ch. 5.

Artemisia. See: Artemis.

Artemisium, a promontory of Eubœa, where Diana had a temple. The neighbouring part of the sea bore the same name. The fleet of Xerxes had a skirmish there with the Grecian ships. Herodotus, bk. 7, ch. 175, &c.――A lake near the grove Aricia, with a temple sacred to Artemis, whence the name.

Artemīta, a city at the east of Seleucia.――An island opposite the mouth of the Achelous. Strabo.

Artĕmon, an historian of Pergamus.――A native of Clazomenæ, who was with Pericles at the siege of Samos, where it is said he invented the battering ram, the testudo, and other equally valuable military engines.――A man who wrote a treatise on collecting books.――A native of Magnesia, who wrote the history of illustrious women.――A physician of Clazomenæ.――A painter.――A Syrian, whose features resembled, in the strongest manner, those of Antiochus. The queen, after the king’s murder, made use of Artemon to represent her husband in a lingering state, that, by his seeming to die a natural death, she might conceal her guilt, and effect her wicked purpose. See: Antiochus.

Artimpasa, a name of Venus among the Scythians. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 59.

Artobarzănes, a son of Darius, who endeavoured to ascend the throne in preference to his brother Xerxes, but to no purpose. Herodotus, bk. 7, chs. 2 & 3.

Artochmes, a general of Xerxes, who married one of the daughters of Darius. Herodotus, bk. 7, ch. 73.

Artōna, a town of the Latins, taken by the Æqui. Livy, bk. 2, ch. 43.

Artontes, a son of Mardonius. Pausanias, Bœotia.

Artonius, a physician of Augustus, who, on the night previous to the battle of Philippi, saw Minerva in a dream, who told him to assure Augustus of victory. Valerius Maximus, bk. 1, ch. 7.

Artoxares, a eunuch of Paphlagonia, in the reign of Artaxerxes I., cruelly put to death by Parysatis.

Arturius, an obscure fellow, raised to honours and wealth by his flatteries, &c. Juvenal, satire 3, li. 29.

Artynes, a king of Media.

Artynia, a lake of Asia Minor.

Artystŏna, a daughter of Darius. Herodotus, bk. 3, ch. 88.

Aruæ, a people of Hyrcania, where Alexander kindly received the chief officers of Darius. Curtius, bk. 6, ch. 4.

Arvāles, a name given to 12 priests who celebrated the festivals called Ambarvalia. According to some, they were descended from the 12 sons of Acca Laurentia, who suckled Romulus. They wore a crown of ears of corn, and a white fillet. Varro, de Lingua Latina, bk. 4. See: Ambarvalia.

Arueris, a god of the Egyptians, son of Isis and Osiris. According to some accounts, Osiris and Isis were married together in their mother’s womb, and Isis was pregnant of Arueris before she was born.

Arverni, a powerful people of Gaul, now Auvergne, near the Ligeris, who took up arms against Julius Cæsar. They were conquered with great slaughter. They pretended to be descended from the Trojans as well as the Romans. Cæsar, Gallic War, bk. 7.—Strabo, bk. 14.

Arvĭrăgus, a king of Britain. Juvenal, satire 4, li. 127.

Arvīsium and Arvīsus, a promontory of Chios, famous for its wine. Virgil, Eclogues, poem 5.

Lucius Arunculeius Costa [Cotta], an officer sent by Julius Cæsar against the Gauls, by whom he was killed. Cæsar, Gallic War.

Aruns, an Etrurian soothsayer in the age of Marius. Lucan, bk. 1, li. 586.――A soldier who slew Camilla, and was killed by a dart of Diana. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 11, li. 759.――A brother of Tarquin the Proud. He married Tullia, who murdered him to espouse Tarquin, who had assassinated his wife.――A son of Tarquin the Proud, who, in the battle that was fought between the partisans of his father and the Romans, attacked Brutus the Roman consul, who wounded him and threw him down from his horse. Livy, bk. 2, ch. 6.――A son of Porsenna king of Etruria, sent by his father to take Aricia. Livy, bk. 2, ch. 14.

Aruntius, a Roman who ridiculed the rites of Bacchus, for which the god inebriated him to such a degree that he offered violence to his daughter Medullina, who murdered him when she found that he acted so dishonourably to her virtue. Plutarch, Parallela minora.――A man who wrote an account of the Punic wars in the style of Sallust, in the reign of Augustus. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 1.—Seneca, ltr. 14.――Another Latin writer. Seneca, de Beneficiis, bk. 6.――Paterculus, a man who gave Æmylius Censorinus tyrant of Ægesta a brazen horse to torment criminals. The tyrant made the first experiment upon the body of the donor. Plutarch, Parallela minora.――Stella, a poet descended of a consular family in the age of Domitian.

Arupīnus, a maritime town of Istria. Tibullus, bk. 4, poem 1, li. 110.

Aruspex. See: Haruspex.

Aryxăta, a town of Armenia, near the Araxes. Strabo, bk. 11.

Aryandes, a Persian appointed governor of Egypt by Cambyses. He was put to death because he imitated Darius in whatever he did, and wished to make himself immortal. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 166.

Arybas, a native of Sidon, whose daughter was carried away by pirates. Homer, Odyssey, bk. 15, li. 425.――A king of the Molossi, who reigned 10 years.

Aryptæus, a prince of the Molossi, who privately encouraged the Greeks against Macedonia, and afterwards embraced the party of the Macedonians.

Asander, a man who separated, by a wall, Chersonesus Taurica from the continent. Strabo, bk. 7.

Asbestæ and Asbystæ, a people of Libya above Cyrene, where the temple of Ammon is built. Jupiter is sometimes called, on that account, Asbystius. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 170.—Ptolemy, bk. 4, ch. 3.

Asbŏlus (black hair), one of Actæon’s dogs. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 3.

Ascalăphus, a son of Mars and Astyoche, who was among the Argonauts, and went to the Trojan war at the head of the Ochomenians, with his brother Ialmenus. He was killed by Deiphobus. Homer, Iliad, bk. 2, li. 13; bk. 9, li. 82; bk. 13, li. 518.――A son of Acheron by Gorgyra or Orphne, stationed by Pluto to watch over Proserpine in the Elysian fields. When Ceres had obtained from Jupiter her daughter’s freedom and return upon earth, provided she had eaten nothing in the kingdom of Pluto, Ascalaphus discovered that she had eaten some pomegranates from a tree; upon which Proserpine was ordered by Jupiter to remain six months with Pluto, and the rest of the year with her mother. Proserpine was so displeased with Ascalaphus, that she sprinkled water on his head, and immediately turned him into an owl. Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 5; bk. 2, ch. 5.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 5, fable 8.

Ascălon, a town of Syria, near the Mediterranean, about 520 stadia from Jerusalem, still in being. It was anciently famous for its onions. Josephus, The Jewish War, bk. 3, ch. 2.—Theophrastus, Enquiry into Plants, bk. 7, ch. 4.

Ascania, an island of the Ægean sea.――A city of Troas, built by Ascanius.

Ascănius, son of Æneas by Creusa, was saved from the flames of Troy by his father, whom he accompanied in his voyage to Italy. He was afterwards called Iulus. He behaved with great valour in the war which his father carried on against the Latins, and succeeded Æneas in the kingdom of Latinus, and built Alba, to which he transferred the seat of his empire from Lavinium. The descendants of Ascanius reigned in Alba for above 420 years, under 14 kings, till the age of Numitor. Ascanius reigned 38 years; 30 at Lavinium, and eight at Alba; and was succeeded by Sylvius Posthumus son of Æneas by Lavinia. Iulus the son of Ascanius disputed the crown with him; but the Latins gave it in favour of Sylvius, as he was descended from the family of Latinus, and Iulus was invested with the office of high priest, which remained a long while in his family. Livy, bk. 1, ch. 3.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 1, &c.――According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, bk. 1, ch. 15, &c., the son of Æneas by Lavinia was also called Ascanius.――A river of Bithynia. Virgil, Georgics, bk. 3, li. 270.

Ascii, a nation of India, in whose country objects at noon have no shadow. Pliny, bk. 2.

Asclēpia, festivals in honour of Asclepius, or Æsculapius, celebrated all over Greece, when prizes for poetical and musical compositions were honourably distributed. At Epidaurus they were called by a different name.

Asclēpiădes, a rhetorician in the age of Eumenes, who wrote an historical account of Alexander. Arrian.――A disciple of Plato.――A philosopher, disciple to Stilpo, and very intimate with Menedemus. The two friends lived together, and that they might not be separated when they married, Asclepiades married the daughter, and Menedemus, though much the younger, the mother. When the wife of Asclepiades was dead, Menedemus gave his wife to his friend, and married another. He was blind in his old age, and died in Eretria. Plutarch.――A physician of Bithynia, B.C. 90, who acquired great reputation at Rome, and was the founder of a sect in physic. He relied so much on his skill that he laid a wager he should never be sick; and won it, as he died of a fall, in a very advanced age. Nothing of his medical treatises is now extant.――An Egyptian, who wrote hymns on the gods of his country, and also a treatise on the coincidence of all religions.――A native of Alexandria, who gave a history of the Athenian archons.――The writer of a treatise on Demetrius Phalereus.――A disciple of Isocrates, who wrote six books on those events which had been the subject of tragedies.――A physician in the age of Pompey.――A tragic poet.――Another physician of Bithynia, under Trajan. He lived 70 years, and was a great favourite of the emperor’s court.

Asclepiodōrus, a painter in the age of Apelles, 12 of whose pictures of the gods were sold, for 300 minæ each, to an African prince. Pliny, bk. 35.――A soldier who conspired against Alexander with Hermolaus. Curtius, bk. 8, ch. 6.

Asclepiodotus, a general of Mithridates.

Asclepius. See: Æsculapius.

Ascletarion, a mathematician in the age of Domitian, who said that he should be torn by dogs. The emperor ordered him to be put to death, and his body carefully secured; but as soon as he was set on the burning pile, a sudden storm arose which put out the flames, and the dogs came and tore to pieces the mathematician’s body. Suetonius, Domitian, ch. 15.

Asclus, a town of Italy. Silius Italicus, bk. 8.

Ascolia, a festival in honour of Bacchus, celebrated about December by the Athenian husbandmen, who generally sacrificed a goat to the god, because that animal is a great enemy to the vine. They made a bottle with the skin of the victim, which they filled with oil and wine, and afterwards leaped upon it. He who could stand upon it first was victorious, and received the bottle as a reward. This was called ἀσκωλιαζειν παρα το ἐπι ἀσκον ἀλλεσθαι, leaping upon the bottle, whence the name of the festival is derived. It was also introduced in Italy, where the people besmeared their faces with the dregs of wine, and sang hymns to the god. They always hanged some small images of the god on the tallest trees in their vineyards, and these images they called Oscilla. Virgil, Georgics, bk. 2, li. 384.—Pollux, bk. 9, ch. 7.

Asconius Labeo, a preceptor of Nero.――Pedia, a man intimate with Virgil and Livy.――Another of the same family in the age of Vespasian, who became blind in his old age, and lived 12 years after. He wrote, besides some historical treatises, annotations on Cicero’s orations.

Ascra, a town of Bœotia, built, according to some, by the giants Otus and Ephialtes, at the foot of Mount Helicon. Hesiod was born there, whence he is often called the Ascrean poet, and whatever poem treats on agricultural subjects Ascræum carmen. The town received its name from Ascra, a nymph, mother of Œoclus by Neptune. Strabo, bk. 9.—Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 29.—Paterculus, bk. 1.

Ascŭlum, now Ascoli, a town of Picenum, famous for the defeat of Pyrrhus by Curius and Fabricius. Florus, bk. 3, ch. 18.――Another in Apulia, near the Aufidus.

Asdrŭbal, a Carthaginian, son-in-law of Hamilcar. He distinguished himself in the Numidian war, and was appointed chief general on the death of his father-in-law, and for eight years presided with much prudence and valour over Spain, which submitted to his arms with cheerfulness. Here he laid the foundation of new Carthage, and saw it complete. To stop his progress towards the east, the Romans, in a treaty with Carthage, forbade him to pass the Iberus, which was faithfully observed by the general. He was killed in the midst of his soldiers, B.C. 220, by a slave whose master he had murdered. The slave was caught and put to death in the greatest torments, which he bore with patience, and even ridiculed. Some say that he was killed in hunting. Silius Italicus, bk. 1, li. 165.—Appian, Wars in Spain.—Polybius, bk. 2.—Livy, bk. 21, ch. 2, &c.――A son of Hamilcar, who came from Spain with a large reinforcement for his brother Annibal. He crossed the Alps and entered Italy; but some of his letters to Annibal having fallen into the hands of the Romans, the consuls Marcus Livius Salinator and Claudius Nero attacked him suddenly near the Metaurus, and defeated him, B.C. 207. He was killed in the battle, and 56,000 of his men shared his fate, and 5400 were taken prisoners; about 8000 Romans were killed. The head of Asdrubal was cut off, and some days after thrown into the camp of Annibal, who, in the moment that he was in the greatest expectations for a promised supply, exclaimed at the sight, “In losing Asdrubal, I lose all my happiness, and Carthage all her hopes.” Asdrubal had before made an attempt to penetrate into Italy by sea, but had been defeated by the governor of Sardinia. Livy, bks. 21, 23, 27, &c.Polybius.Horace, bk. 4, ode 4.――A Carthaginian general, surnamed Calvus, appointed governor of Sardinia, and taken prisoner by the Romans. Livy.――Another, son of Gisgon, appointed general of the Carthaginian forces in Spain, in the time of the great Annibal. He made head against the Romans in Africa, with the assistance of Scyphax, but he was soon after defeated by Scipio. He died B.C. 206. Livy.――Another, who advised his countrymen to make peace with Rome, and upbraided Annibal for laughing in the Carthaginian senate. Livy.――A grandson of Masinissa, murdered in the senate house by the Carthaginians.――Another, whose camp was destroyed in Africa by Scipio, though at the head of 20,000 men, in the last Punic war. When all was lost, he fled to the enemy, and begged his life. Scipio showed him to the Carthaginians, upon which his wife, with a thousand imprecations, threw herself and her two children into the flames of the temple of Æsculapius, which she and others had set on fire. He was not of the same family as Annibal. Livy, bk. 51.――A Carthaginian general, conquered by Lucius Cæcilius Metellus in Sicily, in a battle in which he lost 130 elephants. These animals were led in triumph all over Italy by the conquerors.

Asellio Sempronius, an historian and military tribune, who wrote an account of the actions in which he was present. Dionysius of Halicarnassus.

Asia, one of the three parts of the ancient world, separated from Europe by the Tanais, the Euxine, Ægean, and Mediterranean seas. The Nile and Egypt divide it from Africa. It received its name from Asia the daughter of Oceanus. This part of the globe has given birth to many of the greatest monarchies of the universe, and to the ancient inhabitants of Asia we are indebted for most of the arts and sciences. The soil is fruitful, and abounds with all the necessaries as well as luxuries of life. Asia was divided into many different empires, provinces, and states, of which the most conspicuous were the Assyrian and Persian monarchies. The Assyrian monarchy, according to Eusebius, lasted 1240 years, and according to Justin 1300 years, down to the year of the world 4380. The empire of Persia existed 228 years, till the death of Darius III., whom Alexander the Great conquered. The empire of the Medes lasted 259 years, according to Eusebius, or less, according to others, till the reign of Astyages, who was conquered by Cyrus the Great, who transferred the power from the Medes, and founded the Persian monarchy. It was in Asia that the military valour of the Macedonians, and the bold retreat of the 10,000 Greeks, were so conspicuously displayed. It is in that part of the world that we are to look for the more visible progress of luxury, despotism, sedition, effeminacy, and dissipation. Asia was generally divided into Major and Minor. Asia Major was the most extensive, and comprehended all the eastern parts; and Asia Minor was a large country in the form of a peninsula, whose boundaries may be known by drawing a line from the bay of Issus, in a northern direction, to the eastern part of the Euxine sea. Asia Minor has been subject to many revolutions. It was tributary to the Scythians for upwards of 1500 years, and was a long time in the power of the Lydians, Medes, &c. The western parts of Asia Minor were the receptacle of all the ancient emigrations from Greece, and it was totally peopled by Grecian colonies. The Romans generally and indiscriminately called Asia Minor by the name of Asia. Strabo.Mela.Justin.Pliny.Tacitus, &c.――One of the Oceanides, who married Japetus, and gave her name to one of the three divisions of the ancient globe. Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 2.――One of the Nereides. Hyginus.――A mountain of Laconia. Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 24.

Asia Palus, a lake in Mysia. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 701.

Asiātĭcus, a Gaul in the age of Vitellius. Tacitus, Histories, bk. 2.――The surname of one of the Scipios, and others, from their conquests or campaigns in Asia.

Asĭlas, an augur, who assisted Æneas against Turnus.――A Trojan officer. Virgil, Æneid, bks. 9, 10, &c.

Asināria, a festival in Sicily, in commemoration of a victory obtained over Demosthenes and Nicias at the river Asinarius.

Asinārius, a river of Sicily, where the Athenian generals, Demosthenes and Nicias, were taken prisoners.

Asĭne, one of the Sporades.――An island of the Adriatic.――Three towns of Peloponnesus bore that name, viz. in Laconia, Argolis, and Messenia.

Asĭnes, a river of Sicily.

Asinius Gallus, son of Asinius Pollio the orator, married Vipsania, after she had been divorced by Tiberius. This marriage gave rise to a secret enmity between the emperor and Asinius, who starved himself to death, either voluntarily, or by order of his imperial enemy. He had six sons by his wife. He wrote a comparison between his father and Cicero, in which he gave a decided superiority to the former. Tacitus bks. 1 & 5, Annals.—Dio Cassius, bk. 58.—Pliny, bk. 7, ltr. 4.――Marcellus, grandson of Asinius Pollio, was accused of some misdemeanours, but acquitted, &c. Tacitus, bk. 14, Annals.――Pollio, an excellent orator, poet, and historian, intimate with Augustus. He triumphed over the Dalmatians, and wrote an account of the wars of Cæsar and Pompey, in 17 books, besides poems. He refused to answer some verses against him by Augustus, “because,” said he, “you have the power to proscribe me, should my answer prove offensive.” He died in the 80th year of his age, A.D. 4. He was consul with Cnaeus Domitius Calvinus, A.U.C. 714. It is to him that the fourth of Virgil’s Bucolics is inscribed. Quintilian.Suetonius, Cæsar, chs. 30 & 55.—Dio Cassius, bks. 37, 49, 55.—Seneca, de Tranquilitate Animi & ltr. 100.—Pliny, bk. 7, ch. 30.—Tacitus, bk. 6.—Paterculus, bk. 2.—Plutarch, Cæsar.――A commander of Mauritania, under the first emperors, &c. Tacitus, Histories, bk. 2.――An historian in the age of Pompey.――Another in the third century.――Quadratus, a man who published the history of Parthia, Greece, and Rome.

Asius, a son of Dymas, brother of Hecuba. He assisted Priam in the Trojan war, and was killed by Idomeneus. Homer, Iliad, bk. 2, li. 342; bk. 12, li. 95; bk. 13, li. 384.――A poet of Samos, who wrote about the genealogy of ancient heroes and heroines. Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 4.――A son of Imbracus, who accompanied Æneas into Italy. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 10, li. 123.

Asius Campus, a place near the Cayster.

Asnāus, a mountain of Macedonia, near which the river Aous flows. Livy, bk. 32, ch. 5.

Asōphis, a small country of Peloponnesus, near the Asopus.

Asōpia, the ancient name of Sicyon. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 1.

Asōpiădes, a patronymic of Æacus, son of Ægina, the daughter of Asopus. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 7, li. 484.

Asōpis, the daughter of the Asopus.――A daughter of Thespius mother of Mentor. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 7.

Asōpus, a river of Thessaly, falling into the bay of Malta at the north of Thermopylæ. Strabo, bk. 8.――A river of Bœotia, rising near Platæa, and flowing into the Euripus, after it has separated the country of the Thebans and Platæans. Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 4.――A river of Asia, flowing into the Lycus, near Laodicea.――A river of Peloponnesus, passing by Sicyon.――Another of Macedonia, flowing near Heraclea. Strabo, &c.――A river of Phœnicia.――A son of Neptune, who gave his name to a river of Peloponnesus. Three of his daughters are particularly celebrated, Ægina, Salamis, and Ismene. Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 9; bk. 3, ch. 12.—Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 12.

Aspa, a town of Parthia, now Ispahan, the capital of the Persian empire.

Aspamithres, a favourite eunuch of Xerxes, who conspired with Artabanus to destroy the king and the royal family, &c. Ctesias.

Asparagium, a town near Dyrrhachium. Cæsar, Civil War, bk. 3, ch. 30.

Aspăsia, a daughter of Hermotimus of Phocæa, famous for her personal charms and elegance. She was priestess of the sun, mistress to Cyrus, and afterwards to his brother Artaxerxes, from whom she passed to Darius. She was called Milto, vermilion, on account of the beauty of her complexion. Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 12, ch. 1.—Plutarch, Artaxerxes.――Another woman, daughter of Axiochus, born at Miletus. She came to Athens, where she taught eloquence, and Socrates was proud to be among her scholars. She so captivated Pericles, by her mental and personal accomplishments, that he became her pupil, and at last took her for his mistress and wife. He was so fond of her, that he made war against Samos at her instigation. The behaviour of Pericles towards Aspasia greatly corrupted the morals of the Athenians, and introduced dissipation and lasciviousness into the state. She, however, possessed the merit of a superior excellence in mind as well as person, and her instructions helped to form the greatest and most eloquent orators of Greece. Some have confounded the mistress of Pericles with Aspasia the daughter of Hermotimus. Plutarch, Pericles.—Quintilian, bk. 11.――The wife of Xenophon was also called Aspasia, if we follow the improper interpretation given by some to Cicero, de Inventione, bk. 1, ch. 31.

Aspasius, a peripatetic philosopher in the second century, whose commentaries on different subjects were highly valued.――A sophist, who wrote a panegyric on Adrian.

Aspastes, a satrap of Carmania, suspected of infidelity to his trust while Alexander was in the east. Curtius, bk. 9, ch. 20.

Aspathīnes, one of the seven noblemen of Persia who conspired against the usurper Smerdis. Herodotus, bk. 5, ch. 70, &c.――A son of Prexaspes. Herodotus, bk. 7.

Aspendus, a town of Pamphylia, at the mouth of the river Eurymedon. Cicero, Against Verres, bk. 1, ch. 20. The inhabitants sacrificed swine to Venus.

Asphaltītes, a lake. See: Mare Mortuum.

Aspis, a satrap of Chaonia, who revolted from Artaxerxes. He was reduced by Datames. Cornelius Nepos, Datames.――A city and mountain of Africa.――One of the Cyclades.――A city of Macedonia.

Asplēdon, a son of Neptune by the nymph Midea. He gave his name to a city of Bœotia, whose inhabitants went to the Trojan war. Homer, Iliad, bk. 2, li. 18.—Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 38.

Asporēnus, a mountain of Asia Minor near Pergamus, where the mother of the gods was worshipped, and called Asporena. Strabo, bk. 13.

Assa, a town near mount Athos.

Assabīnus, the Jupiter of the Arabians.

Assărăcus, a Trojan prince, son of Tros by Callirhoe. He was father to Capys, the father of Anchises. The Trojans were frequently called the descendants of Assaracus, Gens Assaraci. Homer, Iliad, bk. 20.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 1.――Two friends of Æneas in the Rutulian war. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 10, li. 124.

Asserīni, a people of Sicily.

Assōrus, a town of Sicily, between Enna and Argyrium.

Assos, a town of Lycia on the sea coast.

Assy̆ria, a large country of Asia, whose boundaries have been different in its flourishing times. At first it was bounded by the Lycus and Caprus; but the name of Assyria, more generally speaking, is applied to all that territory which lies between Media, Mesopotamia, Armenia, and Babylon. The Assyrian empire is the most ancient in the world. It was founded by Ninus or Belus, B.C. 2059, according to some authors, and lasted till the reign of Sardanapalus, the 31st sovereign since Ninus, B.C. 820. According to Eusebius, it flourished for 1240 years; according to Justin, 1300 years; but Herodotus says that its duration was not above 500 or 600 years. Among the different monarchs of the Assyrian empire Semiramis greatly distinguished herself, and extended the boundaries of her dominions as far as Æthiopia and Libya. In ancient authors the Assyrians are often called Syrians, and the Syrians Assyrians. The Assyrians assisted Priam in the Trojan war, and sent him Memnon with an army. The king of Assyria generally styled himself king of kings, as a demonstration of his power and greatness. The country is now called Curdistan. See: Syria. Strabo, bk. 16.—Herodotus, bks. 1 & 2.—Justin, bk. 1.—Pliny, bk. 6, chs. 13 & 26.—Ptolemy, bk. 1, ch. 2.—Diodorus, bk. 2.—Mela, bk. 1, ch. 2.

Asta, a city in Spain.

Astacœni, a people of India near the Indus. Strabo, bk. 15.

Astăcus, a town of Bithynia, built by Acastus son of Neptune and Olbia, or rather by a colony from Megara and Athens. Lysimachus destroyed it, and carried the inhabitants to the town of Nicomedia, which was then lately built. Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 12.—Arrian.Strabo, bk. 17.――A city of Acarnania. Pliny, bk. 5.

Astăpa, a town of Hispania Bætica. Livy, bk. 38, ch. 20.

Astăpus, a river of Æthiopia, falling into the Nile.

Astarte, a powerful divinity of Syria, the same as the Venus of the Greeks. She had a famous temple at Hierapolis in Syria, which was served by 300 priests, who were always employed in offering sacrifices. She was represented in medals with a long habit, and a mantle over it, tucked up on the left arm. She had one hand stretched forward, and held in the other a crooked staff in the form of a cross. Lucian, de Deâ Syriâ.—Cicero, de Natura Deorum, bk. 3, ch. 23.

Aster, a dexterous archer of Amphipolis, who offered his service to Philip king of Macedonia. Upon being slighted, he retired into the city, and aimed an arrow at Philip, who pressed it with a siege. The arrow, on which was written “Aimed at Philip’s right eye,” struck the king’s eye, and put it out; and Philip, to return the pleasantry, threw back the same arrow, with these words, “If Philip takes the town, Aster shall be hanged.” The conqueror kept his word. Lucian, Quomodo historia conscribenda sit.

Astĕria, a daughter of Ceus, one of the Titans, by Phœbe daughter of Cœlus and Terra. She married Perses son of Crius, by whom she had the celebrated Hecate. She enjoyed for a long time the favours of Jupiter, under the form of an eagle; but falling under his displeasure, she was changed into a quail, called Ortyx by the Greeks; whence the name of Ortygia, given to that island in the Archipelago, where she retired. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 6, fable 4.—Hyginus, fable 58.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 2, &c.――A town of Greece, whose inhabitants went to the Trojan war. Homer, Iliad, bk. 2, li. 782.――One of the daughters of Danaus, who married Chætus son of Ægyptus. Apollodorus, bk. 2.――One of the daughters of Atlas, mother of Œnomaus king of Pisa. Hyginus, fable 250.――A mistress of Gyges, to whom Horace wrote three odes to comfort her during her lover’s absence.

Astĕrion and Astĕrius, a river of Peloponnesus, which flowed through the country of Argolis. This river had three daughters, Eubœa, Prosymna, and Acræa, who nursed the goddess Juno. Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 17.――A son of Cometes, who was one of the Argonauts. Apollonius, bk. 1.――A statuary, son of Æschylus. Pausanias.――A son of Minos II., king of Crete, by Pasiphæ. He was killed by Theseus, though he was thought the strongest of his age. Apollodorus supposes him to be the same as the famous Minotaur. According to some, Asterion was son of Teutamus, one of the descendants of Æolus, and they say that he was surnamed Jupiter, because he had carried away Europa, by whom he had Minus I. Diodorus, bk. 4.—Apollodorus, bk. 3.—Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 31.――A son of Neleus and Chloris. Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 12.

Asterodia, the wife of Endymion. Pausanias, bk. 5, ch. 1.

Asterŏpe and Asteropēa, one of the Pleiades, who were beloved by the gods and most illustrious heroes, and made constellations after death.――A daughter of Pelias king of Iolchos, who assisted her sisters to kill her father, whom Medea promised to restore to life. Her grave was seen in Arcadia, in the time of Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 11.――A daughter of Deion by Diomede. Apollodorus, bk. 1.――The wife of Æsacus. Apollodorus, bk. 3.

Asteropæus, a king of Pæonia, son of Pelegon. He assisted Priam in the Trojan war, and was killed, after a brave resistance, by Achilles. Homer, Iliad, bk. 17, &c.

Asterūsius, a mountain at the south of Crete.――A town of Arabia Felix.

Astinŏme, the wife of Hipponous.

Astiŏchus, a general of Lacedæmon, who conquered the Athenians near Cnidus, and took Phocæa and Cumæ, B.C. 411.

Astræa, a daughter of Astræus king of Arcadia, or, according to others, of Titan, Saturn’s brother, by Aurora. Some make her daughter of Jupiter and Themis, and others consider her to be the same as Rhea wife of Saturn. She was called Justice, of which virtue she was the goddess. She lived upon the earth, as the poets mention, during the golden age, which is often called the age of Astræa; but the wickedness and impiety of mankind drove her to heaven in the brazen and iron ages, and she was placed among the constellations of the zodiac, under the name of Virgo. She is represented as a virgin, with a stern but majestic countenance, holding a pair of scales in one hand and a sword in the other. Seneca, Octavia.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 1, li. 149.—Aratus, bk. 1, Phænomena, li. 98.—Hesiod, Theogony.

Astræus, one of the Titans who made war against Jupiter.――A river of Macedonia, near Thermæ. Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 15, ch. 1.

Astu, a Greek word which signifies city, generally applied, by way of distinction, to Athens, which was the most capital city of Greece. The word urbs is applied with the same meaning of superiority to Rome, and πολις to Alexandria the capital of Ægypt, as also to Troy.

Astur, an Etrurian who assisted Æneas against Turnus. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 10, li. 180.

Astŭra, a small river and village of Latium, where Antony’s soldiers cut off Cicero’s head.

Astŭres, a people of Hispania Tarraconensis, who spent all their lives in digging for mines of ore. Lucan, bk. 4, li. 298.—Silius Italicus, bk. 1, li. 231.

Astyăge, a daughter of Hypseus, who married Periphas, by whom she had some children, among whom was Antion the father of Ixion.

Astyăges, a son of Cyaxares, was the last king of Media. He was father to Mandane, whom he gave in marriage to Cambyses, an ignoble person of Persia, because he was told by a dream that his daughter’s son would dispossess him of his crown. From such a marriage he hoped that none but mean and ignorant children could be raised; but he was disappointed, and though he had exposed his daughter’s son by the effects of a second dream, he was deprived of his crown by his grandson, after a reign of 35 years. Astyages was very cruel and oppressive; and Harpagus, one of his officers, whose son he had wantonly murdered, encouraged Mandane’s son, who was called Cyrus, to take up arms against his grandfather, and he conquered him and took him prisoner, 559 B.C. Xenophon, in his Cyropædia, relates a different story, and asserts that Cyrus and Astyages lived in the most undisturbed friendship together. Justin, bk. 1, ch. 4, &c.Herodotus, bk. 1, chs. 74, 75, &c.――A grammarian who wrote a commentary on Callimachus.――A man changed into a stone by Medusa’s head. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 5, fable 6.

Astyălus, a Trojan killed by Neoptolemus. Homer, Iliad, bk. 6.

Astyănax, a son of Hector and Andromache. He was very young when the Greeks besieged Troy; and when the city was taken, his mother saved him in her arms from the flames. Ulysses, who was afraid lest the young prince should inherit the virtues of his father, and one day avenge the ruin of his country upon the Greeks, seized him, and threw him down from the walls of Troy. According to Euripides, he was killed by Menelaus; and Seneca says that Pyrrhus the son of Achilles put him to death. Hector had given him the name of Scamandrius; but the Trojans, who hoped he might prove as great as his father, called him Astyanax, or the bulwark of the city. Homer, Iliad, bk. 6, li. 400; bk. 22, li. 500.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 2, li. 457; bk. 3, li. 489.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 13, li. 415.――An Arcadian, who had a statue in the temple of Jupiter, on mount Lyceus. Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 38.――A son of Hercules. Apollodorus, bk. 2, ch. 7.――A writer in the age of Gallienus.

Astycratia, a daughter of Æolus. Homer, Iliad.――A daughter of Amphion and Niobe.

Astydămas, an Athenian, pupil to Isocrates. He wrote 240 tragedies, of which only 15 obtained the poetical prize.――A Milesian, three times victorious at Olympia. He was famous for his strength, as well as for his voracious appetite. He was once invited to a feast by king Ariobarzanes, and he ate what had been prepared for nine persons. Athenæus, bk. 10.――Two tragic writers bore the same name, one of whom was disciple to Socrates.――A comic poet of Athens.

Astydămīa, or Astyadamia, daughter of Amyntor king of Orchomenos in Bœotia, married Acastus son of Pelias, who was king of Iolchos. She became enamoured of Peleus son of Æacus, who had visited her husband’s court, and because he refused to gratify her passion, she accused him of attempting her virtue. Acastus readily believed his wife’s accusation; but as he would not violate the laws of hospitality by punishing his guest with instant death, he waited for a favourable opportunity, and dissembled his resentment. At last they went in a hunting party to mount Pelion, where Peleus was tied to a tree by order of Acastus, that he might be devoured by wild beasts. Jupiter was moved at the innocence of Peleus, and sent Vulcan to deliver him. When Peleus was set at liberty, he marched with an army against Acastus, whom he dethroned, and punished with death the cruel and false Astydamia. She is called by some Hippolyte, and by others Cretheis. Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 13.—Pindar, Nemean, bk. 4.――A daughter of Ormenus, carried away by Hercules, by whom she had Tlepolemus. Ovid, Heroides, poem 9, li. 50.

Asty̆lus, one of the centaurs who had the knowledge of futurity. He advised his brothers not to make war against the Lapithæ. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 12, li. 338.――A man of Crotona, who was victorious three successive times at the Olympic games. Pausanias.

Astymedūsa, a woman whom Œdipus married after he had divorced Jocasta.

Astynŏme, the daughter of Chryses the priest of Apollo, sometimes called Chryseis. She fell to the share of Achilles, at the division of the spoils of Lyrnessus.――A daughter of Amphion,――of Talaus. Hyginus.

Astynous, a Trojan prince. Homer, Iliad, bk. 5, li. 144.

Astyŏche and Astyochīa, a daughter of Actor, who had by Mars, Ascalaphus and Ialmenus, who were at the Trojan war. Homer, Iliad, bk. 2, li. 20.――A daughter of Phylas king of Ephyre, who had a son called Tlepolemus by Hercules. Hyginus, fables 97, 162.――A daughter of Laomedon by Strymo. Apollodorus, bk. 3.――A daughter of Amphion and Niobe. Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 4.――A daughter of the Simois, who married Erichthonius. Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 12.――The wife of Strophius, sister to Agamemnon.

Astypalæa, one of the Cyclades, between Cos and Carpathos, called after Astypalæa the daughter of Phœnix, and mother of Ancæus by Neptune. Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 4.—Strabo, bk. 14.

Astyphĭlus, a soothsayer, well skilled in the knowledge of futurity. Plutarch, Cimon.

Astȳron, a town built by the Argonauts on the coast of Illyricum. Strabo.

Asychis, a king of Egypt, who succeeded Mycerinus, and made a law, that whoever borrowed money, must deposit his father’s body in the hand of his creditors, as a pledge of his promise of payment. He built a magnificent pyramid. Herodotus, bk. 2, ch. 136.

Asȳlas, a friend of Æneas, skilled in auguries. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 9, li. 571; bk. 10, li. 175.

Asyllus, a gladiator. Juvenal, satire 6, li. 266.

Atābŭlus, a wind which was frequent in Apulia. Horace, bk. 1, satire 5, li. 78.

Atabȳris, a mountain in Rhodes, where Jupiter had a temple, whence he was surnamed Atabyris. Strabo, bk. 14.

Atăce, a town of Gaul, whence the adjective Atacinus.

Atalanta, a daughter of Schœneus king of Scyros. According to some she was the daughter of Jasus or Jasius by Clymene; but others say that Menalion was her father. This uncertainty of not rightly knowing the name of her father has led the mythologists into error, and some have maintained that there were two persons of that name, though their supposition is groundless. Atalanta was born in Arcadia, and according to Ovid she determined to live in perpetual celibacy; but her beauty gained her many admirers, and to free herself from their importunities, she proposed to run a race with them. They were to run without arms, and she was to carry a dart in her hand. Her lovers were to start first, and whoever arrived at the goal before her would be made her husband; but all those whom she overtook were to be killed by the dart with which she had armed herself. As she was almost invincible in running, many of her suitors perished in the attempt, till Hippomenes the son of Macareus proposed himself as her admirer. Venus had presented him with three golden apples from the garden of the Hesperides, or, according to others, from an orchard in Cyprus; and as soon as he had started in the course, he artfully threw down the apples at some distance one from the other. While Atalanta, charmed at the sight, stopped to gather the apples, Hippomenes hastened on his course, arrived first at the goal, and obtained Atalanta in marriage. These two fond lovers, in the impatience of consummating their nuptials, entered the temple of Cybele; and the goddess was so offended at their impiety, and at the profanation of her house, that she changed them into two lions. Apollodorus says that Atalanta’s father was desirous of raising male issue, and that therefore she was exposed to wild beasts as soon as born. She was, however, suckled by a she-bear, and preserved by shepherds. She dedicated her time to hunting, and resolved to live in celibacy. She killed two centaurs, Hyleus and Rhecus, who attempted her virtue. She was present at the hunting of the Calydonian boar, which she first wounded, and she received the head as a present from Meleager, who was enamoured of her. She was also at the games instituted in honour of Pelias, where she conquered Peleus; and when her father, to whom she had been restored, wished her to marry, she consented to give herself to him who could overcome her in running, as has been said above. She had a son called Parthenopæus by Hippomenes. Hyginus says that that son was the fruit of her love with Meleager; and Apollodorus says she had him by Milanion, or, according to others, by the god Mars. See: Meleager. Apollodorus, bk. 1, ch. 8; bk. 3, ch. 9, &c.Pausanias, bk. 1, chs. 36, 45, &c.Hyginus, fables 99, 174, 185, 270.—Ælian, Varia Historia, bk. 13.—Diodorus, bk. 4.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 8, fable 4; bk. 10, fable 11.—Euripides, Phœnician Women.――An island near Eubœa and Locris. Pausanias.

Atarantes, a people of Africa, ten days’ journey from the Garamantes. There was in their country a hill of salt with a fountain of sweet water upon it. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 184.

Atarbĕchis, a town in one of the islands of the Delta, where Venus had a temple.

Atargătis, a divinity among the Syrians represented as a Syren. She is considered by some to be the same as Venus, and honoured by the Assyrians under the name of Astarte. Strabo, bk. 16.

Atarnea, a part of Mysia opposite Lesbos, with a small town in the neighbourhood of the same name. Pausanias, bk. 4, ch. 35.

Atas and Athas, a youth of wonderful velocity, who is said to have run 75 miles between noon and the evening. Martial, bk. 4, ltr. 19.—Pliny, bk. 7.

Atax, now Aude, a river of Gaul Narbonensis, rising in the Pyrenean mountains, and falling into the Mediterranean sea. Mela, bk. 2.

Ate, the goddess of all evil, and daughter of Jupiter. She raised such jealousy and sedition in heaven among the gods, that Jupiter dragged her away by the hair, and banished her for ever from heaven, and sent her to dwell on earth, where she incited mankind to wickedness, and sowed commotions among them. Homer, Iliad, bk. 19. She is the same as the Discord of the Latins.

Atella, a town of Campania, famous for a splendid amphitheatre, where interludes were first exhibited, and thence called Atellanæ fabulæ. Juvenal, satire 6.

Atenomārus, a chieftain of Gaul, who made war against the Romans. Plutarch, Parallela minora.

Athamānes, an ancient people of Epirus, who existed long before the Trojan war, and still preserved their name and customs in the age of Alexander. There was a fountain in their territories, whose waters, about the last quarter of the moon, were so sulphureous that they would set wood on fire. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 15, li. 311.—Strabo, bk. 7.—Pliny, bk. 2, ch. 103.—Mela, bk. 2, ch. 3.

Athămas, king of Thebes in Bœotia, was son of Æolus. He married Themisto, whom some call Nephele, and Pindar, Demotice, and by her he had Phryxus and Helle. Some time after, on pretence that Nephele was subject to fits of madness, he married Ino the daughter of Cadmus, by whom he had two sons, Learchus and Melicerta. Ino became jealous of the children of Nephele. Because they were to ascend their father’s throne in preference to her own, therefore she resolved to destroy them; but they escaped from her fury to Colchis, on a golden ram. See: Phryxus and Argonautæ. According to the Greek scholiast of Lycophron, li. 22, Ino attempted to destroy the corn of the country; and as if it were the consequence of divine vengeance, the soothsayers, at her instigation, told Athamas, that before the earth would yield her usual increase, he must sacrifice one of the children of Nephele to the gods. The credulous father led Phryxus to the altar, where he was saved by Nephele. The prosperity of Ino was displeasing to Juno, and more particularly because she was descended from Venus. The goddess therefore sent Tisiphone, one of the furies, to the house of Athamas, who became inflamed with such sudden fury that he took Ino to be a lioness, and her two sons to be whelps. In this fit of madness he snatched Learchus from her, and killed him against a wall; upon which Ino fled with Melicerta, and, with him in her arms, she threw herself into the sea from a high rock, and was changed into a sea deity. After this, Athamas recovered the use of his senses; and as he was without children, he adopted Coronus and Aliartus, the sons of Thersander his nephew. Hyginus, fables 1, 2, 5, 239.—Apollodorus, bk. 1, chs. 7 & 9.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 4, li. 467, &c.; Fasti, bk. 6, li. 419.—Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 34.――A servant of Atticus. Cicero, Letters to Atticus, bk. 12, ltr. 10.――A stage dancer. Cicero, Piso, ch. 36.――A tragic poet. Cicero, Piso, ch. 20.――One of the Greeks, concealed in the wooden horse at the siege of Troy. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 2, li. 263.

Athamantiădes, a patronymic of Melicerta, Phryxus, or Helle, children of Athamas. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 13, li. 319; Fasti, bk. 4, li. 903.

Athanasius, a bishop of Alexandria, celebrated for his sufferings, and the determined opposition he maintained against Arius and his doctrines. His writings, which were numerous, and some of which have perished, contain a defence of the mystery of the Trinity, the divinity of the Word and of the Holy Ghost, and an apology to Constantine. The creed which bears his name, is supposed by some not to be his composition. Athanasius died 2nd May, 373 A.D., after filling the archiepiscopal chair 47 years, and leading alternately a life of exile and of triumph. The latest edition of his works is that of the Benedictines, 3 vols., folio, Paris, 1698.

Athanis, a man who wrote an account of Sicily. Athenæus, bk. 3.

Atheas, a king of Scythia, who implored the assistance of Philip of Macedonia against the Istrians, and laughed at him when he had furnished him with an army. Justin, bk. 9, ch. 2.

Athēna, the name of Minerva among the Greeks; and also among the Egyptians, before Cecrops had introduced the worship of the goddess into Greece. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 2.

Athēnæ, a celebrated city of Attica, founded about 1556 years before the christian era, by Cecrops and an Egyptian colony. It was called Cecropia from its founder, and afterwards Athenæ in honour of Minerva, who had obtained the right of giving it a name in preference to Neptune. See: Minerva. It was governed by 17 kings in the following order:—After a reign of 50 years, Cecrops was succeeded by Cranaus, who began to reign 1506 B.C.; Amphictyon, 1497; Erichthonius, 1487; Pandion, 1437; Erichtheus, 1397; Cecrops II., 1347; Pandion II., 1307; Ægeus, 1283; Theseus, 1235; Menestheus, 1205; Demophoon, 1182; Oxyntes, 1149; Aphidas, 1137; Thymœtes, 1136; Melanthus, 1128; and Codrus, 1091, who was killed after a reign of 21 years. The history of the 12 first of these monarchs is mostly fabulous. After the death of Codrus the monarchical power was abolished, and the state was governed by 13 perpetual, and 317 years after, by seven decennial, and lastly, B.C. 684, after an anarchy of three years, by annual magistrates, called Archons. See: Archontes. Under this democracy, the Athenians signalized themselves by their valour in the field, their munificence, and the cultivation of the fine arts. They were deemed so powerful by the Persians, that Xerxes, when he invaded Greece, chiefly directed his arms against Athens, which he took and burnt. Their military character was chiefly displayed in the battles of Marathon, of Salamis, of Platæa, and of Mycale. After these immortal victories, they rose in consequence and dignity, and they demanded the superiority in the affairs of Greece. The town was rebuilt and embellished by Themistocles, and a new and magnificent harbour erected. Their success made them arrogant, and they raised contentions among the neighbouring states, that they might aggrandize themselves by their fall. The luxury and intemperance, which had been long excluded from the city by the salutary laws of their countrymen, Draco and Solon, crept by degrees among all ranks of people, and soon after all Greece united to destroy that city, which claimed a sovereign power over all the rest. The Peloponnesian war, though at first a private quarrel, was soon fomented into a universal war; and the arms of all the states of Peloponnesus [See: Peloponnesiacum bellum] were directed against Athens, which, after 28 years of misfortunes and bloodshed, was totally ruined, the 24th April, 404 years before the christian era, by Lysander. After this, the Athenians were oppressed by 30 tyrants, and for a while laboured under the weight of their own calamities. They recovered something of their usual spirit in the age of Philip, and boldly opposed his ambitious views; but their short-lived efforts were not of great service to the interest of Greece, and they fell into the hands of the Romans, B.C. 86. The Athenians have been admired in all ages for their love of liberty, and for the great men that were born among them; but favour there was attended with danger; and there are very few instances in the history of Athens that can prove that the jealousy and frenzy of the people did not persecute and disturb the peace of the man who had fought their battles and exposed his life in the defence of his country. Perhaps, not one single city in the world can boast, in such a short space of time, of such a number of truly illustrious citizens, equally celebrated for their humanity, their learning, and their military abilities. The Romans, in the more polished ages of their republic, sent their youths to finish their education at Athens, and respected the learning, while they despised the military character of the inhabitants. The reputation which the Athenian schools had acquired under Socrates and Plato was maintained by their degenerate and less learned successors; and they flourished with diminished lustre, till an edict of emperor Justinian suppressed, with the Roman consulship, the philosophical meetings of the academy. It has been said by Plutarch that the good men whom Athens produced were the most just and equitable in the world; but that its bad citizens could not be surpassed in any age or country, for their impiety, perfidiousness, or cruelties. Their criminals were always put to death by drinking the juice of hemlock. The ancients, to distinguish Athens in a more particular manner, called it Astu, one of the eyes of Greece, the learned city, the school of the world, the common patroness of Greece. The Athenians thought themselves the most ancient nation of Greece, and supposed themselves the original inhabitants of Attica, for which reason they were called ἀυτοχθονες, produced from the same earth which they inhabited, γηγενες sons of the earth, and τεττιγες grasshoppers. They sometimes wore golden grasshoppers in their hair as badges of honour, to distinguish them from other people of later origin and less noble extraction, because those insects are supposed to be sprung from the ground. The number of men able to bear arms at Athens in the reign of Cecrops was computed at 20,000, and there appeared no considerable augmentation in the more civilized age of Pericles; but in the time of Demetrius Phalereus there were found 21,000 citizens, 10,000 foreigners, and 40,000 slaves. Among the numerous temples and public edifices none was more celebrated than that of Minerva, which, after being burnt by the Persians, was rebuilt by Pericles, with the finest marble, and still exists a venerable monument of the hero’s patriotism, and of the abilities of the architect. Cicero, Letters to Atticus, Against Verres, &c.Thucydides, bk. 1, &c.Justin, bk. 2, &c.Diodorus, bk. 13, &c.Ælian, Varia Historia.—Pliny, bk. 7, ch. 56.—Xenophon, Memorabilia.—Plutarch, in vitis, &c.Strabo, bk. 9, &c.Pausanias, bk. 1, &c.Valerius Maximus.Livy, bk. 31, &c.Cornelius Nepos, Miltiades, &c.Polybius.Paterculus.

Athenæa, festivals celebrated at Athens in honour of Minerva. One of them was called Panathenæa, and the other Chalcea; for an account of which see those words.

‘Bana, thenæe’ replaced with ‘Panathenæa’

Athenæum, a place at Athens sacred to Minerva, where the poets, philosophers, and rhetoricians generally declaimed and repeated their compositions. It was public to all the professors of the liberal arts. The same thing was adopted at Rome by Adrian, who made a public building for the same laudable purposes.――A promontory of Italy.――A fortified place between Ætolia and Macedonia. Livy, bk. 38, ch. 1; bk. 39, ch. 25.

Athenæus, a Greek cosmographer.――A peripatetic philosopher of Cilicia in the time of Augustus. Strabo.――A Spartan sent by his countrymen to Athens, to settle the peace during the Peloponnesian war.――A grammarian of Naucratis, who composed an elegant and miscellaneous work, called Deipnosophistæ, replete with very curious and interesting remarks and anecdotes of the manners of the ancients, and likewise valuable for the scattered pieces of ancient poetry which it preserves. The work consists of 15 books, of which the two first, part of the third, and almost the whole of the last, are lost. Athenæus wrote, besides this, a history of Syria, and other works now lost. He died A.D. 194. The best edition of his works is that of Casaubon, folio, 2 vols., Lugdunum, 1612, by far superior to the editions of 1595 and 1657.――An historian, who wrote an account of Semiramis. Diodorus.――A brother of king Eumenes II., famous for his paternal affection.――A Roman historian, in the age of Gallienus, who is supposed to have written a book on military engines.――A physician of Cilicia in the age of Pliny, who made heat, cold, wet, dry, and air the elements, instead of the four commonly received.

‘Deipnosphistæ’ replaced with ‘Deipnosophistæ’

Athenagŏras, a Greek in the time of Darius, to whom Pharnabazus gave the government of Chios, &c. Curtius, bk. 8, ch. 5.――A writer on agriculture. Varro.――A christian philosopher, in the age of Aurelius, who wrote a treatise on the resurrection, and an apology for the christians, still extant. He died A.D. 177. The best edition of his works is that of Dechair, 8vo, Oxford, 1706. The romance of Theagenes and Charis is falsely ascribed to him.

Athenāis, a Sibyl of Erythræa, in the age of Alexander. Strabo.――A daughter of the philosopher Leontius.

Athenion, a peripatetic philosopher, 108 B.C.――A general of the Sicilian slaves.――A tyrant of Athens, surnamed Ariston.

Athenŏcles, a general, &c. Polyænus, bk. 6.――A turner of Mitylene. Pliny, bk. 34.

Athenodōrus, a philosopher of Tarsus, intimate with Augustus. The emperor often profited by his lessons, and was advised by him always to repeat the 24 letters of the Greek alphabet before he gave way to the impulse of anger. Athenodorus died in his 82nd year, much lamented by his countrymen. Suetonius.――A poet who wrote comedy, tragedy, and elegy, in the age of Alexander. Plutarch, Alexander.――A stoic philosopher of Cana, near Tarsus, in the age of Augustus. He was intimate with Strabo. Strabo, bk. 14.――A philosopher, disciple to Zeno, and keeper of the royal library at Pergamus.――A marble sculptor.――A man assassinated at Bactra for making himself absolute.

Atheos, a surname of Diagoras and Theodorus, because they denied the existence of a deity. Cicero, de Natura Deorum, bk. 1, ch. 1.

Athĕsis, now Adige, a river of Cisalpine Gaul, near the Po, falling into the Adriatic sea. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 9, li. 680.

Athos, a mountain of Macedonia, 150 miles in circumference, projecting into the Ægean sea like a promontory. It is so high that it overshadows the island of Lemnos, though at the distance of 87 miles; or, according to modern calculation, only 8 leagues. When Xerxes invaded Greece, he made a trench of a mile and a half in length at the foot of the mountain, into which he brought the sea water, and conveyed his fleet over it, so that two ships could pass one another, thus desirous either to avoid the danger of sailing round the promontory, or to show his vanity and the extent of his power. A sculptor, called Dinocrates, offered Alexander to cut mount Athos, and to make with it a statue of the king holding a town in his left hand, and in the right a spacious basin to receive all the waters which flowed from it. Alexander greatly admired the plan, but objected to the place; and he observed, that the neighbouring country was not sufficiently fruitful to produce corn and provisions for the inhabitants which were to dwell in the city, in the hand of the statue. Athos is now called Monte Santo, famous for monasteries, said to contain some ancient and valuable manuscripts. Herodotus, bk. 6, ch. 44; bk. 7, ch. 21, &c.Lucan, bk. 2, li. 672.—Ælian, de Natura Animalium, bk. 13, ch. 20, &c.Pliny, bk. 4, ch. 10.—Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon.

Athrulla, a town of Arabia. Strabo.

Athymbra, a city of Caria, afterwards called Nyssa. Strabo, bk. 14.

Atia, a city of Campania.――A law enacted A.U.C. 690 by Titus Atius Labienus, the tribune of the people. It abolished the Cornelian law, and put in full force the Lex Domitia, by transferring the right of electing priests from the college of priests to the people.――The mother of Augustus. See: Accia.

Atilia lex, gave the pretor and a majority of the tribunes power of appointing guardians to those minors who were not previously provided for by their parents. It was enacted about A.U.C. 560.――Another, A.U.C. 443, which gave the people power of electing 20 tribunes of the soldiers in four legions. Livy, bk. 9, ch. 30.

Atilius, a freedman, who exhibited combats of gladiators at Fidenæ. The amphitheatre, which contained the spectators, fell during the exhibition, and about 50,000 persons were killed or mutilated. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 4, ch. 62.

Atilla, the mother of the poet Lucan. She was accused of conspiracy by her son, who expected to clear himself of the charge. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 15, ch. 56.

Atīna, an ancient town of the Volsci, one of the first which began hostilities against Æneas. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 630.

Atinas, a friend of Turnus, &c. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 11, li. 869.

Atinia lex, was enacted by the tribune Atinius. It gave a tribune of the people the privileges of a senator, and the right of sitting in the senate.

Atlantes, a people of Africa, in the neighbourhood of mount Atlas, who lived chiefly on the fruits of the earth, and were said not to have their sleep at all disturbed by dreams. They daily cursed the sun at his rising and at his setting, because his excessive heat scorched and tormented them. Herodotus.

Atlantiades, a patronymic of Mercury as grandson of Atlas. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 1, li. 639.

Atlantĭdes, a people of Africa near mount Atlas. They boasted of being in possession of the country in which all the gods of antiquity received their birth. Uranus was their first king, whom, on account of his knowledge in astronomy, they enrolled in the number of their gods. Diodorus, bk. 3.――The daughters of Atlas, were seven in number, Maia, Electra, Taygeta, Asterope, Merope, Alcyone, and Celæno. They married some of the gods, and most illustrious heroes, and their children were founders of many nations and cities. The Atlantides were called nymphs, and even goddesses, on account of their great intelligence and knowledge. The name of Hesperides was also given them, on account of their mother Hesperis. They were made constellations after death. See: Pleiades.

Atlantis, a celebrated island mentioned by the ancients. Its situation is unknown, and even its existence is doubted by some writers.

Atlas, one of the Titans, son of Japetus and Clymene, one of the Oceanides. He was brother to Epimetheus, Prometheus, and Menœtius. His mother’s name, according to Apollodorus, was Asia. He married Pleione daughter of Oceanus, or Hesperis, according to others, by whom he had seven daughters, called Atlantides. See: Atlantides. He was king of Mauritania, and master of 1000 flocks of every kind, as also of beautiful gardens, abounding in every species of fruit, which he had entrusted to the care of a dragon. Perseus, after the conquest of the Gorgons, passed by the palace of Atlas, and demanded hospitality. The king, who was informed by an oracle of Themis that he should be dethroned by one of the descendants of Jupiter, refused to receive him, and even offered him violence. Perseus, who was unequal in strength, showed him Medusa’s head, and Atlas was instantly changed into a large mountain. This mountain, which runs across the deserts of Africa east and west, is so high that the ancients have imagined that the heavens rested on its top, and that Atlas supported the world on his shoulders. Hyginus says that Atlas assisted the giants in their wars against the gods, for which Jupiter compelled him to bear the heavens on his shoulders. The fable that Atlas supported the heavens on his back, arises from his fondness for astronomy, and his often frequenting elevated places and mountains, whence he might observe the heavenly bodies. The daughters of Atlas were carried away by Busiris king of Egypt, but redeemed by Hercules, who received, as a reward from the father, the knowledge of astronomy, and a celestial globe. This knowledge Hercules communicated to the Greeks; whence the fable has further said, that he eased for some time the labours of Atlas by taking upon his shoulders the weight of the heavens. According to some authors there were two other persons of that name, a king of Italy, father of Electra, and a king of Arcadia, father of Maia the mother of Mercury. Virgil,, Æneid, bk. 4, li. 481; bk. 8, li. 186.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 4, fable 17.—Diodorus, bk. 3.—Lucan, bk. 9, li. 667, &c.Valerius Flaccus, bk. 5.—Hyginus, fables 83, 125, 155, 157, 192.—Aratus, Astronomia.—Apollodorus, bk. 1.—Hesiod, Theogony, li. 508, &c.――A river flowing from mount Hæmus into the Ister. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 49.

Atossa, a daughter of Cyrus, who was one of the wives of Cambyses, of Smerdis, and afterwards of Darius, by whom she had Xerxes. She was cured of a dangerous cancer by Democedes. She is supposed by some to be the Vashti of scripture. Herodotus, bk. 3, ch. 68, &c.

Atrăces, a people of Ætolia, who received their name from Atrax son of Ætolus. Their country was called Atracia.

Atramyttium, a town of Mysia.

Atrăpes, an officer of Alexander, who, at the general division of the provinces, received Media. Diodorus, bk. 18.

Atrax, son of Ætolus, or, according to others, of the river Peneus. He was king of Thessaly, and built a town which he called Atrax or Atracia. This town became so famous that the word Atracias has been applied to any inhabitant of Thessaly. He was father of Hippodamia, who married Pirithous, and whom we must not confound with the wife of Pelops, who bore the same name. Propertius, bk. 1, poem 8, li. 25.—Statius, bk. 1, Thebiad, li. 106.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 12, li. 209.――A city of Thessaly, whence the epithet of Atracius.――A river of Ætolia, which falls into the Ionian sea.

Atrebātæ, a people of Britain, who were in possession of the modern counties of Berks, Oxford, &c.

Atrĕbātes, now Artois, a people of Gaul, who, together with the Nervii, opposed Julius Cæsar with 15,000 men. They were conquered, and Comius, a friend of the general, was set over them as king. They were reinstated in their former liberty and independence, on account of the services of Comius. Cæsar, Gallic War, bk. 2, &c.

Atrēni, a people of Armenia.

Atreus, a son of Pelops by Hippodamia, daughter of Œnomaus king of Pisa, was king of Mycenæ, and brother to Pittheus, Trœzon, Thyestes, and Chrysippus. As Chrysippus was an illegitimate son, and at the same time a favourite of his father, Hippodamia resolved to remove him. She persuaded her sons Thyestes and Atreus to murder him; but their refusal exasperated her more, and she executed it herself. This murder was grievous to Pelops: he suspected his two sons, who fled away from his presence. Atreus retired to the court of Eurystheus king of Argos, his nephew, and upon his death he succeeded him on the throne. He married, as some report, Ærope, his predecessor’s daughter, by whom he had Plisthenes, Menelaus, and Agamemnon. Others affirm that Ærope was the wife of Plisthenes, by whom he had Agamemnon and Menelaus, who are the reputed sons of Atreus, because that prince took care of their education, and brought them up as his own. See: Plisthenes. Thyestes had followed his brother to Argos, where he lived with him, and debauched his wife, by whom he had two, or, according to some, three children. This incestuous commerce offended Atreus, and Thyestes was banished from his court. He was, however, soon after recalled by his brother, who determined cruelly to revenge the violence offered to his bed. To effect this purpose, he invited his brother to a sumptuous feast, where Thyestes was served up with the flesh of the children he had had by his sister-in-law the queen. After the repast was finished, the arms and the heads of the murdered children were produced, to convince Thyestes of what he had feasted upon. This action appeared so cruel and impious, that the sun is said to have shrunk back in his course at the bloody sight. Thyestes immediately fled to the court of Thesprotus, and thence to Sicyon, where he ravished his own daughter Pelopea, in a grove sacred to Minerva, without knowing who she was. This incest he committed intentionally, as some report, to revenge himself on his brother Atreus, according to the words of the oracle, which promised him satisfaction for the cruelties he had suffered only from the hand of a son who should be born of himself and his own daughter. Pelopea brought forth a son whom she called Ægisthus, and soon after she married Atreus, who had lost his wife. Atreus adopted Ægisthus, and sent him to murder Thyestes, who had been seized at Delphi and imprisoned. Thyestes knew his son, and made himself known to him; he made him espouse his cause, and instead of becoming his father’s murderer, he rather avenged his wrongs, and returned to Atreus, whom he assassinated. See: Thyestes, Ægisthus, Pelopea, Agamemnon, and Menelaus. Hyginus, fables 83, 86, 87, 88, & 258.—Euripides, Orestes; Iphigeneia in Taurus.—Plutarch, Parallela minora.—Pausanias, bk. 9, ch. 40.—Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 10.—Seneca on Atreus.

Atrīdæ, a patronymic given by Homer to Agamemnon and Menelaus, as being the sons of Atreus. This is false, upon the authority of Hesiod, Lactantius [Placidus], Dictys of Crete, &c., who maintain that these princes were not the sons of Atreus, but of Plisthenes, and that they were brought up in the house and under the eye of their grandfather. See: Plisthenes.

Atronius, a friend of Turnus, killed by the Trojans. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 10.

Atropatia, a part of Media. Strabo.

Atrŏpos, one of the Parcæ, daughters of Nox and Erebus. According to the derivation of her name (a non, τρεπω muto), she is inexorable and inflexible, and her duty among the three sisters is to cut the thread of life, without any regard to sex, age, or quality. She was represented by the ancients in a black veil, with a pair of scissors in her hand. See: Parcæ.

T. Q. Atta, a writer of merit in the Augustan age, who seems to have received this name from some deformity in his legs or feet. His compositions, dramatical as well as satirical, were held in universal admiration, though Horace thinks of them with indifference. Horace, bk. 2, ltr. 1, li. 79.

Attălia, a city of Pamphylia, built by king Attalus. Strabo.

Attalĭcus. See: Attalus III.

Attălus I., king of Pergamus, succeeded Eumenes I. He defeated the Gauls who had invaded his dominions, extended his conquests to mount Taurus, and obtained the assistance of the Romans against Antiochus. The Athenians rewarded his merit with great honours. He died at Pergamus after a reign of 44 years, B.C. 197. Livy, bks. 26, 27, 28, &c.Polybius, bk. 5.—Strabo, bk. 13.――The second of that name was sent on an embassy to Rome by his brother Eumenes II., and at his return was appointed guardian to his nephew Attalus III., who was then an infant. Prusias made successful war against him, and seized his capital; but the conquest was stopped by the interference of the Romans, who restored Attalus to his throne. Attalus, who has received the name of Philadelphus, from his fraternal love, was a munificent patron of learning, and the founder of several cities. He was poisoned by his nephew in the 82nd year of his age, B.C. 138. He had governed the nation with great prudence and moderation for 20 years. Strabo, bk. 13.—Polybius, bk. 5.――The third succeeded to the kingdom of Pergamus, by the murder of Attalus II., and made himself odious by his cruelty to his relations and his wanton exercise of power. He was son to Eumenes II., and surnamed Philopater. He left the cares of government to cultivate his garden, and to make experiments on the melting of metals. He lived in great amity with the Romans; and as he died without issue by his wife Berenice, he left in his will the words Populus Romanus meorum hæres esto, which the Romans interpreted as themselves, and therefore took possession of his kingdom, B.C. 133, and made of it a Roman province, which they governed by a proconsul. From this circumstance, whatever was a valuable acquisition, or an ample fortune, was always called by the epithet Attalicus. Attalus, as well as his predecessors, made themselves celebrated for the valuable libraries which they collected at Pergamus, and for the patronage which merit and virtue always found at their court. Livy, bk. 24, &c.Pliny, bks. 7, 8, 33, &c.Justin, bk. 39.—Horace, bk. 1, ode 1.――An officer in Alexander’s army. Curtius, bk. 4, ch. 13.――Another very inimical to Alexander. He was put to death by Parmenio, and Alexander was accused of the murder. Curtius, bk. 6, ch. 9; bk. 8, ch. 1.――A philosopher, preceptor to Seneca. Seneca ltr. 108.――An astronomer of Rhodes.

Attarras, an officer who seized those that had conspired with Dymnus against Alexander. Curtius, bk. 6.

Atteius Capĭto, a consul in the age of Augustus, who wrote treatises on sacerdotal laws, public courts of justice, and the duty of a senator. See: Ateius.

No reference to ‘Ateius’ found.

Attes, a son of Calaus of Phrygia, who was born impotent. He introduced the worship of Cybele among the Lydians, and became a great favourite of the goddess. Jupiter was jealous of his success, and sent a wild boar to lay waste the country and destroy Attes. Pausanias, bk. 7, ch. 17.

Atthis, a daughter of Cranaus II. king of Athens, who gave her name to Attica, according to Apollodorus, bk. 3, ch. 14.

Attĭca, a country of Achaia or Hellas, at the south of Bœotia, west of the Ægean sea, north of the Saronicus Sinus, and east of Megara. It received its name from Atthis, the daughter of Cranaus. It was originally called Ionia, from the Ionians, who settled there; and also Acte, which signifies shore, and Cecropia, from Cecrops the first of its kings. The most famous of its cities is called Athens, whose inhabitants sometimes bear the name of Attici. Attica was famous for its gold and silver mines, which constituted the best part of the public revenues. The face of the country was partly level and partly mountainous, divided into the 13 tribes of Acamantis, Æantis, Antiochis, Attalis, Ægeis, Erechtheis, Adrianis, Hippothoontis, Cecropis, Leontis, Æneis, Ptolemais, and Pandionis; whose inhabitants were numbered in the 116th olympiad, at 31,000 citizens, and 400,000 slaves, within 174 villages, some of which were considerable towns. See: Athenæ.

Attĭcus, one of Galba’s servants, who entered his palace with a bloody sword, and declared he had killed Otho. Tacitus, Histories, bk. 1.――Titus Pomponius, a celebrated Roman knight, to whom Cicero wrote a great number of letters, which contained the general history of the age. They are now extant, and divided into 17 books. In the time of Marius and Sylla, Atticus retired to Athens, where he so endeared himself to the citizens, that after his departure they erected statues to him in commemoration of his munificence and liberality. He was such a perfect master of the Greek writers, and spoke their language so fluently, that he was surnamed Atticus; and, as a proof of his learning, he favoured the world with some of his compositions. He behaved in such a disinterested manner, that he offended neither of the inimical parties at Rome, and both were equally anxious of courting his approbation. He lived in the greatest intimacy with the illustrious men of his age, and he was such a lover of truth, that he not only abstained from falsehood even in a joke, but treated with the greatest contempt and indignation a lying tongue. It is said that he refused to take aliments when unable to get the better of a fever; and died in the 77th year, B.C. 32, after bearing the amiable character of peacemaker among his friends. Cornelius Nepos, one of his intimate friends, has written a minute account of his life. Cicero, Letters to Atticus, &c.――Herodes, an Athenian in the age of the Antonines, descended from Miltiades, and celebrated for his munificence. His son of the same name was honoured with the consulship, and he generously erected an aqueduct at Troas, of which he had been made governor by the emperor Adrian, and raised, in other parts of the empire, several public buildings as useful as they were magnificent. Philostratus, Lives of the Sophists, bk. 2, p. 548.—Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticæ.――A consul in the age of Nero, &c. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 15.

Attĭla, a celebrated king of the Huns, a nation in the southern parts of Scythia, who invaded the Roman empire in the reign of Valentinian, with an army of 500,000 men, and laid waste the provinces. He took the town of Aquileia, and marched against Rome; but his retreat and peace were purchased with a large sum of money by the feeble emperor. Attila, who boasted in the appellation of the scourge of God, died A.D. 453, of an uncommon effusion of blood, the first night of his nuptials. He had expressed his wish to extend his conquests over the whole world; and he often feasted his barbarity by dragging captive kings in his train. Jornandes, Getica.

Attilius, a Roman consul in the first Punic war. See: Regulus.――Calatinus, a Roman consul who fought the Carthaginian fleet.――Marcus, a poet who translated the Electra of Sophocles into Latin verse, and wrote comedies whose unintelligible language procured him the appellation of Ferreus.――Regulus, a Roman censor who built a temple to the goddess of concord. Livy, bk. 23, ch. 23, &c.――The name of Attilius was common among the Romans, and many of the public magistrates are called Attilii; their life, however, is not famous for any illustrious event.

Attinas, an officer set over Bactriana by Alexander. Curtius, bk. 8.

Attius Pelignus, an officer of Cæsar. Cæsar, Civil War, bk. 1.――Tullius, the general of the Volsci, to whom Coriolanus fled when banished from Rome. Livy.――Varius seized Auxinum in Pompey’s name, whence he was expelled. After this he fled to Africa, which he alienated from Julius Cæsar. Cæsar, bk. 1, Civil War.――A poet. See: Accius.――The family of the Attii was descended from Atys, one of the companions of Æneas, according to the opinion which Virgil has adopted, Æneid, bk. 5, li. 568.

Atūrus, a river of Gaul, now the Adour, which runs at the foot of the Pyrenean mountains into the bay of Biscay. Lucan, bk. 1, li. 420.

Atyădæ, the descendants of Atys the Lydian.

Atys, an ancient king of Lydia, who sent away his son Tyrrhenus with a colony of Lydians, who settled in Italy. Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 7.――A son of Crœsus king of Lydia. He was forbidden the use of all weapons by his father, who had dreamt that he had been killed. Some time after this, Atys prevailed on his father to permit him to go to hunt a wild boar which laid waste the country of Mysia, and he was killed in the attempt by Adrastus, whom Crœsus had appointed guardian over his son, and thus the apprehensions of the monarch were realized. Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 34, &c. See: Adrastus.――A Trojan who came to Italy with Æneas, and is supposed to be the progenitor of the family of the Atti at Rome. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 5, li. 568.――A youth to whom Ismene the daughter of Œdipus was promised in marriage. He was killed by Tydeus before his nuptials. Statius, Thebiad, bk. 8, li. 598.――A son of Limniace the daughter of the river Ganges, who assisted Cepheus in preventing the marriage of Andromeda, and was killed by Perseus with a burning log of wood. Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 5, li. 47.――A celebrated shepherd of Phrygia, of whom the mother of the gods, generally called Cybele, became enamoured. She entrusted him with the care of her temple, and made him promise that he always would live in celibacy. He violated his vow by an amour with the nymph Sangaris, for which the goddess made him so insane and delirious, that he castrated himself with a sharp stone. This was afterwards intentionally done by his sacerdotal successors in the service of Cybele, to prevent their breaking their vows of perpetual chastity. This account is the most general and most approved. Others say that the goddess became fond of Atys, because he had introduced her festivals in the greatest part of Asia Minor, and that she herself mutilated him. Pausanias relates, in Achaia, ch. 17, that Atys was the son of the daughter of the Sangar, who became pregnant by putting the bough of an almond tree in her bosom. Jupiter, as the passage mentions, once had an amorous dream, and some of the impurity of the god fell upon the earth, which soon after produced a monster of a human form, with the characteristics of the two sexes. This monster was called Agdistis, and was deprived by the gods of those parts which distinguished the male sex. From the mutilated parts which were thrown upon the ground, rose an almond tree, one of whose branches a nymph of the Sangar gathered, and placed in her bosom as mentioned above. Atys, as soon as born, was exposed in a wood, but preserved by a she-goat. The genius Agdistis saw him in the wood, and was captivated with his beauty. As Atys was going to celebrate his nuptials with the daughter of the king of Pessinus, Agdistis, who was jealous of his rival, inspired by his enchantments the king and his future son-in-law with such an uncommon fury, that they both attacked and mutilated one another in the struggle. Ovid says, Metamorphoses, bk. 10, fable 2, &c., that Cybele changed Atys into a pine tree as he was going to lay violent hands upon himself, and ever after that tree was sacred to the mother of the gods. After his death, Atys received divine honours, and temples were raised to his memory, particularly at Dymæ. Catullus, the Adventures of Atys [Attis] and Berecynthia [Cybele].—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 10, fable 3; Fasti, bk. 4, li. 223, &c.Lucian, Deâ Syriâ.――Sylvius, son of Albius Sylvius, was king of Alba. Livy, bk. 1, ch. 3.

‘multilated’ replaced with ‘mutilated’

Avarīcum, a strong and fortified town of Gaul, now called Bourges, the capital of Berry. Cæsar, Gallic War, bk. 7.

Avella, a town of Campania, abounding in nuts, whence nuts have been called avellinæ. Silius Italicus, bk. 8, li. 45, &c.Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 740.

‘Book 7’ omitted from reference

Aventīnus, a son of Hercules by Rhea, who assisted Turnus against Æneas, and distinguished himself by his valour. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 657.――A king of Alba, buried upon mount Aventine. Ovid, Fasti, bk. 4, li. 51.――One of the seven hills on which part of the city of Rome was built, it was 13,300 feet in circumference, and was given to the people to build houses upon, by king Ancus Martius. It was not reckoned within the precincts of the city till the reign of the emperor Claudius, because the soothsayers looked upon it as a place of ill omen, as Remus had been buried there, whose blood had been criminally shed. The word is derived, according to some, ab avibus, because birds were fond of the place. Others suppose that it receives its name because Aventinus, one of the Alban kings, was buried upon it. Juno, the Moon, Diana, Bona Dea, Hercules, and the goddess of Victory and Liberty, had magnificent temples built upon it. Varro, de Lingua Latina, bk. 4.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 8, li. 235.—Livy, bk. 1, ch. 33.

Avernus, or Averna, a lake of Campania near Baiæ, whose waters were so unwholesome and putrid, that no birds were seen on its banks; hence its original name was ἀορνος, avibus carens. The ancients made it the entrance of hell, as also one of its rivers. Its circumference was five stadia, and its depth could not be ascertained. The waters of the Avernus were indispensably necessary in all enchantments and magical processes. It may be observed, that all lakes whose stagnated waters were putrid and offensive to the smell, were indiscriminately called Averna. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 4, lis. 5, 12, &c.; bk. 6, li. 201, &c.Mela, bk. 2, ch. 4.—Strabo, bk. 5.—Diodorus, bk. 4.—Aristotle, on Admethics [Ethics].

Avesta, a book composed by Zoroaster.

Aufeia aqua, called afterwards Marcia, was the sweetest and most wholesome water in Rome, and it was first conveyed into the city by Ancus Martius.

Aufidēna, now Alfidena, a city of the Peligni in Italy, whose inhabitants, called Aufidenates, were among the Sabines. Livy, bk. 10, ch. 12.

Aufĭdia lex, was enacted by the tribune Aufidius Lurco, A.U.C. 692. It ordained, that if any candidate, in canvassing for an office, promised money to the tribunes, and failed in the performance, he should be excused; but if he actually paid it, he should be compelled to pay every tribune 6000 sesterces.

Aufidius, an effeminate person of Chios. Juvenal, satire 9, li. 25.――Bassus, a famous historian in the age of Quintilian, who wrote an account of Germany, and of the civil wars.――A Roman senator, famous for his blindness and abilities. Cicero, Tusculanæ Disputations, bk. 5.――Lurco, a man who enriched himself by fattening peacocks, and selling them for meat. Pliny, bk. 10.――Luscus, a man obscurely born, and made pretor of Fundi, in the age of Horace. Horace, bk. 1, satire 5, li. 34.

Aufĭdus, a river of Apulia falling into the Adriatic sea, and now called Ofanto. It was on its banks that the Romans were defeated by Hannibal at Cannæ. The spot is still shown by the inhabitants, and bears the name of the field of blood. Horace, bk. 3, ode 30; bk. 4, ode 9.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 11, li. 405.

Auga, Auge, and Augea, daughter of Aleus king of Tegea by Neæra, was ravished by Hercules, and brought forth a son, whom she exposed in the woods to conceal her amours from her father. The child was preserved, and called Telephus. Aleus was informed of his daughter’s shame, and gave her to Nauplius to be put to death. Nauplius refused to perform the cruel office, and gave Auge to Teuthras king of Mysia, who, being without issue, adopted her as his daughter. Some time after the dominions of Teuthras were invaded by an enemy, and the king promised his crown and daughter to him who could deliver him from the impending calamity. Telephus, who had been directed by the oracle to go to the court of Teuthras, if he wished to find his parents, offered his services to the king, and they were accepted. As he was going to unite himself to Auge, in consequence of the victory he had obtained, Auge rushed from him with secret horror, and the gods sent a serpent to separate them. Auge implored the aid of Hercules, who made her son known to her, and she returned with him to Tegea. Pausanias says, that Auge was confined in a coffer with her infant son, and thrown into the sea, where, after being preserved and protected by Minerva, she was found by king Teuthras. Apollodorus, bks. 2 & 3.—Pausanias, bk. 8, ch. 4.—Hyginus, fables 99 & 100.

Augarus, an Arabian who, for his good offices obtained the favours of Pompey, whom he vilely deceived. Dio Cassius.――A king of Osroene, whom Caracalla imprisoned, after he had given him solemn promises of friendship and support. Dio Cassius, bk. 78.

Augeæ, a town of Laconia. Pausanias, bk. 3, ch. 21.――Another of Locris.

Augias and Augeas, son of Eleus, or Elius, was one of the Argonauts, and afterwards ascended the throne of Elis. He had an immense number of oxen and goats, and the stables in which they were kept had never been cleaned, so that the task seemed an impossibility to any man. Hercules undertook it, on promise of receiving as a reward the tenth part of the herds of Augias, or something equivalent. The hero changed the course of the river Alpheus, or, according to others, of the Peneus, which immediately carried away the dung and filth from the stables. Augias refused the promised recompense on pretence that Hercules had made use of artifice, and had not experienced any labour or trouble, and he further drove his own son Phyleus from his kingdom, because he supported the claims of the hero. The refusal was a declaration of war. Hercules conquered Elis, put to death Augias, and gave the crown to Phyleus. Pausanias says, bk. 5, chs. 2 & 3, that Hercules spared the life of Augias for the sake of his son, and that Phyleus went to settle in Dulichium; and that at the death of Augias his other son, Agasthenes succeeded to the throne. Augias received, after his death, the honours which were generally paid to a hero. Augias has been called the son of Sol, because Elius signifies the sun. The proverb of Augean stable is now applied to an impossibility. Hyginus, fables 14, 30, 157.—Pliny, bk. 17, ch. 9.—Strabo, bk. 8.—Apollodorus, bk. 2.

Augĭlæ, a people of Africa, who supposed that there were no gods except the manes of the dead, of whom they sought oracles. Mela, bk. 1.

Augīnus, a mountain of Liguria. Livy, bk. 39, ch. 2.

Augŭres, certain officers at Rome who foretold future events, whence their name, ab avium garritu. They were first created by Romulus, to the number of three. Servius Tullius added a fourth, and the tribunes of the people, A.U.C. 454, increased the number to nine; and Sylla added six more during his dictatorship. They had a particular college, and the chief amongst them was called Magister collegii. Their office was honourable; and if any one of them was convicted of any crime, he could not be deprived of his privileges; an indulgence granted to no other sacerdotal body at Rome. The augur generally sat on a high tower to make his observations. His face was turned towards the east, and he had the north to his left, and the south at his right. With a crooked staff he divided the face of the heavens into four different parts, and afterwards sacrificed to the gods, covering his head with his vestment. There were generally five things from which the augurs drew omens. The first consisted in observing the phænomena of the heavens, such as thunder, lightning, comets, &c. The second kind of omen was drawn from the chirping or flying of birds. The third was from the sacred chickens, whose eagerness or indifference in eating the bread which was thrown to them, was looked upon as lucky or unlucky. The fourth was from quadrupeds, from their crossing or appearing in some unaccustomed place. The fifth was from different casualties, which were called Dira, such as spilling salt upon a table, or wine upon one’s clothes, hearing strange noises, stumbling or sneezing, meeting a wolf, hare, fox, or pregnant bitch. From such superstitious notions did the Romans draw their prophecies. The sight of birds on the left hand was always deemed a lucky object, and the words sinister and lævus, though generally supposed to be terms of ill luck, were always used by the augurs in an auspicious sense. Cicero, de Divinatione.—Livy, bk. 1, &c.Dionysius of Halicarnassus.Ovid, Fasti.

Augurīnus Julius, a Roman knight who conspired against Nero, &c. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 15, ch. 70.

‘Tugurīnus Julius’ replaced with ‘Augurīnus Julius’
Placed in correct alphebetical order.

‘H. 15, c. 70’ replaced with ‘Annals, bk. 15, ch. 50’

Augusta, a name given to 70 cities in the Roman provinces in honour of Augustus Cæsar.――London, as capital of the country of the Trinobantes, was called Augusta Trinobantia.――Messalina, famous for her debaucheries, was called Augusta, as wife of the emperor Claudius. Juvenal, satire 6, li. 118.

Augustālia, a festival at Rome, in commemoration of the day on which Augustus returned to Rome, after he had established peace over the different parts of the empire.

Augustīnus, a bishop of Hippo in Africa, distinguished himself by his writings, as well as by the austerity of his life. In his works, which are numerous, he displayed the powers of a great genius, and an extensive acquaintance with the philosophy of Plato. He died in the 76th year of his age, A.D. 430. The best edition of his works is that of the Benedict, folio, Antwerp, 1700 to 1703, 12 vols.

Augustodūnum, now Autun, a town of Gaul, the capital of the ancient Ædui.

Augustŭlus, the last Roman emperor of the west, A.D. 475, conquered by Odoacer king of the Heruli.

Augustus Octaviānus Cæsar, second emperor of Rome, was son of Octavius a senator, and Accia daughter of Julius, and sister to Julius Cæsar. He was adopted by his uncle Cæsar, and inherited the greatest part of his fortune. He lost his father at the age of four; and though only 18 when his uncle was murdered, he hastened to Rome, where he ingratiated himself with the senate and people, and received the honours of the consulship two years after, as the reward of his hypocrisy. Though his youth and his inexperience were ridiculed by his enemies, who branded him with the appellation of boy, yet he rose in consequence by his prudence and valour, and made war against his opponents, on pretence of avenging the death of his murdered uncle. But when he perceived that by making him fight against Antony, the senate wished to debilitate both antagonists, he changed his views, and uniting himself with his enemy, soon formed the second triumvirate, in which his cruel proscriptions shed the innocent blood of 300 senators and 200 knights, and did not even spare the life of his friend Cicero. By the divisions which were made among the triumvirs, Augustus retained for himself the more important provinces of the west, and banished, as it were, his colleagues, Lepidus and Antony, to more distant territories. But as long as the murderers of Cæsar were alive, the reigning tyrants had reason for apprehension, and therefore the forces of the triumvirate were directed against the partisans of Brutus and the senate. The battle was decided at Philippi, where it is said that the valour and conduct of Antony alone preserved the combined armies, and effected the defeat of the republican forces. The head of the unfortunate Brutus was carried to Rome, and in insolent revenge thrown at the feet of Cæsar’s statue. On his return to Italy, Augustus rewarded his soldiers with the lands of those that had been proscribed; but among the sufferers were many who had never injured the conqueror of Philippi, especially Virgil, whose modest application procured the restitution of his property. The friendship which subsisted between Augustus and Antony was broken as soon as the fears of a third rival vanished away, and the aspiring heir of Cæsar was easily induced to take up arms by the little jealousies and resentment of Fulvia. Her death, however, retarded hostilities; the two rivals were reconciled; their united forces were successfully directed against the younger Pompey; and, to strengthen their friendship, Antony agreed to marry Octavia the sister of Augustus. But as this step was political, and not dictated by affection, Octavia was slighted, and Antony resigned himself to the pleasures and company of the beautiful Cleopatra. Augustus was incensed, and immediately took up arms to avenge the wrongs of his sister, and perhaps more eagerly to remove a man whose power and existence kept him in continual alarms, and made him dependent. Both parties met at Actium, B.C. 31, to decide the fate of Rome. Antony was supported by all the power of the east, and Augustus by Italy. Cleopatra fled from the battle with 60 ships, and her flight ruined the interest of Antony, who followed her into Egypt. The conqueror soon after passed into Egypt, besieged Alexandria, and honoured, with a magnificent funeral, the unfortunate Roman and the celebrated queen, whom the fear of being led in the victor’s triumph at Rome had driven to commit suicide. After he had established peace all over the world, Augustus shut up the gates of the temple of Janus, the year our Saviour was born. It is said he twice resolved to lay down the supreme power, immediately after the victory obtained over Antony, and afterwards on account of his ill-health; but his friend Mecænas dissuaded him, and observed that he would leave it to be the prey of the most powerful, and expose himself to ingratitude and to danger. He died at Nola, in the 76th year of his age, A.D. 14, after he had held the sovereign power during 44 years. Augustus was an active emperor, and consulted the good of the Romans with the most anxious care. He visited all the provinces except Africa and Sardinia, and his consummate prudence and experience gave rise to many salutary laws, but it may be said, that be finished with a good grace what he began with cruelty. While making himself absolute, he took care to leave his countrymen the shadow of liberty; and if, under the character and office of perpetual tribune, of priest and imperator, he was invested with all the power of sovereignty, he guarded against offending the jealous Romans, by not assuming the regal title. His refusal to read the letters he found after Pompey’s defeat arose more from fear than honour, and he dreaded the discovery of names which would have perhaps united to sacrifice his ambition. His good qualities, and many virtues he perhaps never possessed, have been transmitted to posterity by the pen of adulation or gratitude, in the poems of Virgil, Horace, and Ovid. To distinguish himself from the obscurity of the Octavii, and, if possible, to suppress the remembrance of his uncle’s violent fate, he aspired after a new title; and the submissive senate yielded to his ambition, by giving him the honourable appellation of Augustus. He has been accused of licentiousness and adultery by his biographer; but the goodness of his heart, and the fidelity of his friendship, which in some instances he possessed, made some amends for his natural foibles. He was ambitious of being thought handsome; and as he was publicly reported to be the son of Apollo, according to his mother’s declaration, he wished his flatterers to represent him with the figure and attributes of that god. Like Apollo, his eyes were clear, and he affected to have it thought that they possessed some divine irradiation; and was well pleased if, when he fixed his looks upon anybody, they held down their eyes as if overcome by the glaring brightness of the sun. He distinguished himself by his learning; he was a perfect master of the Greek language, and wrote some tragedies, besides memoirs of his life, and other works, all now lost. He was married three times; to Claudia, to Scribonia, and to Livia; but he was unhappy in his matrimonial connections, and his only daughter Julia by Scribonia disgraced herself and her father by the debauchery and licentiousness of her manners. He recommended, at his death, his adopted son Tiberius as his successor. He left his fortune, partly to Tiberius and to Drusus, and made donations to the army and to the Roman people. Virgil wrote his heroic poem at the desire of Augustus, whom he represented under the amiable and perfect character of Æneas. Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars.—Horace.Virgil.Pausanias.Tacitus.Paterculus.Dio Cassius.Ovid.――The name of Augustus was afterwards given to the successors of Octavianus in the Roman empire as a personal, and the name of Cæsar as a family, distinction. In a more distant period of the empire, the title of Augustus was given only to the emperor, while that of Cæsar was bestowed on the second person in the state, who was considered as presumptive heir.

‘or’ replaced with ‘of’

Avĭdiēnus, a rich and sordid man, whom Horace styles happy, bk. 2, satire 2, li. 55.

Avidius Cassius, a man saluted emperor, A.D. 175. He reigned only three months, and was assassinated by a centurion. He was called a second Catiline, from his excessive love of bloodshed. Diodorus.

Rufus Festus Aviēnus, a poet in the age of Theodosius, who translated the phænomena of Aratus, as also all Livy, into iambic verses. The best edition of what remains of him is that of Cannegetier, 8vo, 1731.

Avitus, a governor of Britain under Nero. Tacitus, Annals, bk. 14.――Alcinus, a christian poet, who wrote a poem in six books on original sin, &c.

Avium, a city between Tyre and Sidon. Strabo, bk. 16.

Aulerci, a people of Gaul, between the Seine and the Loire.

Aulestes, a king of the Etrurians when Æneas came into Italy. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 12, li. 290.

Aulētes, a general who assisted Æneas in Italy, with 100 ships. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 10, li. 207.――The surname of one of the Ptolemean kings, father to Cleopatra.

Aulis, a daughter of Ogyges. Pausanias, Bœotia.――A town of Bœotia near Chalcis on the sea coast, where all the Greeks conspired against Troy. They were detained there by contrary winds, by the anger of Diana, whose favourite stag had been killed by Agamemnon. To appease the resentment of the goddess, Agamemnon was obliged to sacrifice his own daughter Iphigenia, whom, however, Diana spared by substituting a ram. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 4, li. 426.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 12, li. 9, &c.Homer, Iliad, bk. 2, li. 303.

Aulon, a mountain of Calabria, opposite Tarentum, famous for its wine, which, according to Horace bk. 2, ode 6, li. 18, is superior to that of Falernum. Martial, bk. 13, ltr. 125.—Strabo, bk. 6.――A place of Messenia. Pausanias.

Aulonius, a surname of Æsculapius.

Aulus, a prænomen common among the Romans.――Gellius. See: Gellius.

Auras, a European river, flowing into the Ister from mount Hæmus. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 49.

Aurelia lex, was enacted A.U.C. 653, by the pretor Lucius Aurelius Cotta, to invest the Senatorian and Equestrian orders, and the Tribuni Ærarii, with judicial power.――Another, A.U.C. 678. It abrogated a clause of the Lex Cornelia and permitted the tribunes to hold other offices after the expiration of the tribuneship.

Aurelia, a town of Hispania Bætica.――The mother of Julius Cæsar. Suetonius, Cæsar, ch. 74.――A fishwoman. Juvenal, satire 4, li. 98.

Aureliānus, emperor of Rome after Flavius Claudius, was austere, and even cruel in the execution of the laws, and punished his soldiers with unusual severity. He rendered himself famous for his military character; and his expedition against Zenobia, the celebrated queen of Palmyra, gained him great honours. He beautified Rome, was charitable to the poor, and the author of many salutary laws. He was naturally brave, and in all the battles he fought, it is said, he killed no less than 800 men with his own hand. In his triumph, he exhibited to the Romans people of 15 different nations, all of which he had conquered. He was the first emperor who wore a diadem. After a glorious reign of six years, as he marched against the northern barbarians, he was assassinated near Byzantium, A.D. 275, January 29th, by his soldiers, whom Mnestheus had incited to rebellion against their emperor. This Mnestheus had been threatened with death, for some ill behaviour to the emperor, and therefore he meditated his death. The soldiers, however, soon repented of their ingratitude and cruelty to Aurelian, and threw Mnestheus to be devoured by wild beasts.――A physician of the fourth century.

Aurelius, emperor of Rome. See: Antoninus Bassianus.――A painter in the age of Augustus. Pliny, bk. 35.――Victor, an historian in the age of Julian, two of whose compositions are extant—an account of illustrious men, and a biography of all the Cæsars to Julian. The best edition of Aurelius are the 4to of Artuzenius, Amsterdam, 1733, and the 8vo of Pitiscus, Utrecht, 1696.――Antoninus, an emperor. See: Antoninus.

Aureolus, a general who assumed the purple in the age of Gallienus.

Aurinia, a prophetess held in great veneration by the Germans. Tacitus, Germania, ch. 8.

Aurōra, a goddess, daughter of Hyperion and Thia or Thea, or, according to others, of Titan and Terra. Some say that Pallas, son of Crius and brother to Perseus, was her father; hence her surname of Pallantias. She married Astræus, by whom she had the winds, the stars, &c. Her amours with Tithonus and Cephalus are also famous; by the former she had Memnon and Æmathion, and Phaeton by the latter. See: Cephalus and Tithonus. She had also an intrigue with Orion, whom she carried to the island of Delos, where he was killed by Diana’s arrows. Aurora is generally represented by the poets drawn in a rose-coloured chariot, and opening with her rosy fingers the gates of the east, pouring the dew upon the earth, and making the flowers grow. Her chariot is generally drawn by white horses, and she is covered with a veil. Nox and Somnus fly before her, and the constellations of heaven disappear at her approach. She always sets out before the sun, and is the forerunner of his rising. The Greeks call her Eos. Homer, Iliad, bk. 8; Odyssey, bk. 10; Hymn to Aphrodite.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bks. 3, 9, 15.—Apollodorus, bks. 1, 3.—Virgil, Æneid, bk. 6, li. 535.—Varro, de Lingua Latina, bk. 5, &c.Hesiod, Theogony.—Hyginus, preface to fables.

Aurunce, an ancient town of Latium, built by Auson the son of Ulysses by Calypso. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 7, li. 727, &c.

Auschīsæ, a people of Libya. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 171.

Ausci, a people of Gaul.

Auser, Auseris, and Anser, a river of Etruria, which joins the Arnus before it falls into the Tyrrhene sea.

Auses, a people of Africa, whose virgins yearly fight with sticks in honour of Minerva. She who behaves with the greatest valour receives unusual honour, &c. Herodotus, bk. 4, ch. 180.

Auson, a son of Ulysses and Calypso, from whom the Ausones, a people of Italy, are descended.

Ausonia, one of the ancient names of Italy, which it received from Auson the son of Ulysses. If Virgil makes Æneas speak of Ausonia, it is by anticipation. Virgil, Æneid, bk. 3, li. 171.

Decimius Magnus Ausōnius, a poet, born at Bordeaux in Gaul, in the fourth century, preceptor to Gratian son of the emperor Valentinian, and made consul by the means of his pupil. His compositions have been long admired. The thanks he returned the emperor Gratian is one of the best of his poems, which were too often hurried for publication, and consequently not perfect. He wrote the consular fasti of Rome, a useful performance, now lost. His style is occasionally obscene, and he has attempted upon the words of Virgil, what revolts everything against his indelicacy. The best edition is that of Tollius, 8vo, Leiden, 1671; or that of Jaubert, with a French translation, 4 vols., 12mo, Paris, 1769.

Auspĭces, a sacerdotal order at Rome, nearly the same as the Augurs. See: Augures.

Auster, one of the winds blowing from the south, whose breath was pernicious to flowers as well as to health. He was parent of rain. Virgil, Eclogues, poem 2, li. 58. See: Venti.

Austesion, a Theban, son of Tisamenus. His son Theras led a colony into an island which, from him, was called Thera. Herodotus, bk. 4.—Pausanias.

Autobūlus, a painter. Pliny, bk. 35.

Autochthŏnes, the original inhabitants of a country who are the first possessors of it, and who never have mingled with other nations. The Athenians called themselves Autochthones, and boasted that they were as old as the country which they inhabited. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 14.—Tacitus, Germania.—Cicero, On Oratory, bk. 3, ch. 83.

Autŏcles, an Athenian, sent by his countrymen with a fleet to the assistance of Alexander of Pheræ.

Autocrătes, an historian mentioned by Athenæus, bks. 9 & 11.

Autolŏlæ, a people of Mauritania descended from the Gætuli. They excelled all their neighbours in running. Lucan, bk. 4, li. 677.

Autŏly̆cus, a son of Mercury by Chione a daughter of Dædalion. He was one of the Argonauts. His craft as a thief has been greatly celebrated. He stole the flocks of his neighbours, and mingled them with his own, after he had changed their marks. He did the same to Sisyphus son of Æolus; but Sisyphus was as crafty as Autolycus, and he knew his own oxen by a mark which he had made under their feet. Autolycus was so pleased with the artifice of Sisyphus, that he immediately formed an intimacy with him, and even permitted him freely to enjoy the company of his daughter Anticlea, who became pregnant of Ulysses, and was soon after married to Laertes. See: Sisyphus, Laertes. Hyginus, fable 200, &c.Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 1, fable 8.—Apollodorus, bk. 1.—Homer, Odyssey, bk. 14.――A son of Phryxus and Chalciope. Hyginus, fable 14.

Automăte, one of the Cyclades, called also Hera. Pliny, bks. 2, 6, 37.――A daughter of Danaus.

Automĕdon, a son of Dioreus, who went to the Trojan war with 10 ships. He was the charioteer of Achilles, after whose death he served Pyrrhus in the same capacity. Homer, Iliad, bks. 9, 16, &c.Virgil, Æneid, bk. 2, li. 477.

Automedūsa, a daughter of Alcathous, killed by Tydeus. Apollodorus, bk. 2.

Automĕnes, one of the Heraclidæ, king of Corinth. At his death, B.C. 779, annual magistrates, called Prytanes, were chosen at Corinth, and their power continued 90 years, till Cypselus and his son Periander made themselves absolute.

Automŏli, a nation of Æthiopia. Herodotus, bk. 2.

Autonoe, a daughter of Cadmus, who married Aristæus, by whom she had Actæon, often called Autoneius heros. The death of her son [See: Actæon] was so painful to her, that she retired from Bœotia to Megara, where she soon after died. Pausanias, bk. 1, ch. 44.—Hyginus, fable 179.—Ovid, Metamorphoses, bk. 3, li. 720.――One of the Danaides. Apollodorus, bk. 2.――One of the Nereides. Hesiod, Theogony.――A female servant of Penelope. Homer, Odyssey, bk. 18.

Autophradātes, a satrap of Lydia, who revolted from Artaxerxes. Diodorus.

Autūra, the Eure, a river of Gaul which falls into the Seine.

Auxesia and Damia, two virgins who came from Crete to Trœzene, where the inhabitants stoned them to death in a sedition. The Epidaurians raised them statues by order of the oracle, when their country was become barren. They were held in great veneration at Trœzene. Herodotus, bk. 5, ch. 82.—Pausanias, bk. 2, ch. 30.

Axĕnus, the ancient name of the Euxine sea. The word signifies inhospitable, which was highly applicable to the manners of the ancient inhabitants of the coast. Ovid,