.

United States, See : Flags, Maps

Chicago

Los Angeles

New York

San Francisco

Washington D.C.

Houston

Las Vegas

Miami

Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D.C.

Dallas Museum of Art

Higgins Armory Museum

Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art,

Walters Art Museum

USA, Images

History

The Discovery of America Vol. 1 (of 2), John Fiske

The Mayflower and Her Log; July 15, 1620-May 6, 1621, Azel Ames

The Colonization of North America, Herbert Eugene Bolton and Thomas Maitland Marshall

The Vanishing Race , Joseph Kossuth Dixon

The North American Indian , Edward S. Curtis

Geronimo's Story of His Life

Stories the Iroquois Tell Their Children, by Mabel Powers

The Indians of the Painted Desert Region by George Wharton James

Crossing the Plains, Days of '57, William Audley Maxwell

New Discoveries at Jamestown, John L. Cotter, J. Paul Hudson

Alfred Thayer Mahan : The Major Operations of the Navies in the War of American Independence ,

The Western United States, Harold Wellman Fairbanks

Stories Of Georgia, Joel Chandler Harris
Stories of New Jersey, Frank Richard Stockton
Stories Of Ohio, William Dean Howells

Oahu Traveler's guide, Bill Gleasner and Diana Gleasner

Great Cities of the United States, by Gertrude Van Duyn Southworth and Stephen Elliott Kramer

The Beauties of the State of Washington , Harry F. Giles

Oregon, Washington and Alaska; Sights and Scenes for the Tourist, E. L. Lomax

Colorado--The Bright Romance of American History, F. C. Grable

Rocky Mountain [Colorado] National Park, United States Dept. of the Interior

Through Glacier Park, Mary Roberts Rinehart

Grand Teton [Wyoming] National Park , United States. Dept. of the Interior

Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, United States. Dept. of the Interior

Sequoia [California] National Park, United States. Dept. of the Interior

The Mountains of Oregon, William Gladstone Steel

The Nation's River, United States. Dept. of the Interior

Wild Life on the Rockies, Enos A. Mills

The Book of the National Parks, Robert Sterling Yard

Camping & Tramping with Roosevelt, John Burroughs

Dutch and English on the Hudson, Maud Wilder Goodwin

The Hudson, Wallace Bruce

The Columbia River, by William Denison Lyman

How Justice Grew, Virginia Counties: An Abstract of Their Formation Martha Woodroof Hiden

The Colonial Architecture of Philadelphia , Frank Cousins and Phil M. Riley

Historic Shrines of America, John Thomson Faris

Complete Story of the San Francisco Horror, Richard Linthicum and Trumbull White and Samuel Fallows

San Francisco in Ruins, A. M. Allison

Unwritten Literature of Hawaii , Nathaniel Bright Emerson

Great Britain and the American Civil War , Ephraim Douglass Adams

The Greater Republic , Charles Morris

Curiosities of the American Stage , Laurence Hutton

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain

The Promised Land, Mary Antin

The Life Of George Washington, John Marshall

George Washington, Calista McCabe Courtenay

Washington's Masonic Correspondence, Julius F. Sachse

Abraham Lincoln, John T. Morse, Vol. I, Vol. II,

The Memoirs of General P. H. Sheridan

Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie

Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin

John Quincy Adams, John. T. Morse

Women of Achievement, Benjamin Brawley

Woman's Work in the Civil War, Linus Pierpont Brockett and Mary C. Vaughan

The Negro in Literature and Art in the United States, Benjamin Brawley

Hermann Stieffel, Soldier Artist of the West, Edgar M. Howell

The History of the Negro Church, Carter Godwin Woodson

The History of the American Expedition Fighting the Bolsheviki, Joel R. Moore and Harry H. Mead and Lewis E. Jahns

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American influence in Greece, 1917-1929, Louis P. Cassimatis

Greek Americans, struggle and success, Charles C. Moskos

Greek-American pioneer women of Illinois: the stories of Georgia Bitzis ..., Elaine Cotsirilos Thomopoulos

The Greek American Community of Essex County, New Jersey. John Antonakos

Daddy's war: Greek American stories, Irene Kacandes

Echoes from the Cobblestones: A Memoir, Nicholas A. Kefalides

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American Football, Walter Camp

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American Cookery

Pictorial Photography in America 1920

Pictorial Photography in America 1921

Pictorial Photography in America 1922

Two Centuries of Costume in America, Vol. 1 (1620-1820), Alice Morse Earle

Women's Bathing and Swimming Costume in the United States, Claudia B. Kidwell

Contemporary American Composers, Rupert Hughes

The Medallic History of the United States of America 1776-1876, J. F. Loubat

White House China of the Lincoln Administration in the Museum of History and Technology, Margaret Brown Klapthor

A Review of the Resources and Industries of the State of Washington, 1909, Ithamar Howell

Complete State of the Union Addresses, from 1790 to the Present

Art

ENGLISH

Artist from USA

William Merritt Chase: Portraits in oil, Ronald G. Pisano, D. Frederick Baker

Winslow Homer and the sea, Carl Little

African-American art, Sharon F. Patton

African American art and artists, Samella S. Lewis

Pennsylvania impressionism, Brian H. Peterson, William H. Gerdts, Sylvia Yount

American paintings and sculpture at the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Margaret C. Conrads

Paintings and Sculpture in the Collection of the National Academy of Design , David Bernard Dearinger

Paintings of Maine: a new collection selected by Carl Little, Carl Little, Arnold Skolnick

Thomas Moran: artist of the mountains, Thurman Wilkins, Caroline Lawson Hinkley

Thomas Moran, the field sketches, 1856-1923, Anne Morand

Arshile Gorky: his life and work, Hayden Herrera

East Coast/West Coast and beyond: Colin Campbell Cooper, American impressionist, William H. Gerdts, Deborah Epstein Solon, Heckscher Museum of Art, Irvine Museum

Painters of Utah's Canyons and Deserts, Donna L. Poulton, Vern G. Swanson, Donald J. (FRW) Hagerty

An American impressionist: the art and life of Alson Skinner Clark, Deborah Epstein Solon

Utah art, Utah artists: 150 year survey, Vern G. Swanson, Robert S. Olpin, Springville Museum of Art, Donna L. Poulton

Painters of the Wasatch Mountains, Robert S. Olpin, Ann W. Orton, Thomas F. Rugh

Paintings of New York, 1800-1950, Bruce Weber

San Diego Paintings by R.D. Riccoboni - Collector's Portfolio

Artists in Ohio, 1787-1900: a biographical dictionary , Mary Sayre Haverstock, Jeannette Mahoney Vance, Brian L. Meggitt, Jeffrey Weidman, Oberlin College. Library

Conrad Wise Chapman: artist & soldier of the Confederacy, Ben L. Bassham

The Art of Maynard Dixon, Donald J. Hagerty

The Life of Maynard Dixon, Donald J. Hagerty

Desert dreams: the art and life of Maynard Dixon, Donald J. Hagerty

Charles Demuth, Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.), Andrew Carnduff Ritchie

Letters of Charles Demuth, American artist, 1883-1935. Bruce Kellner, Demuth Foundation

Edna Hibel: An Artist's Story of Love and Compassion, Millie Clarkson

Twentieth-century American art, Erika Lee Doss

Religious Art of Andy Warhol, Jane Daggett Dillenberger

American Art Essentials, George Michael Cohen

Radical art: printmaking and the left in 1930s New York, Helen Langa

American dreams: American art to 1950 in the Williams College Museum of Art, Nancy Mowll Mathews

Encyclopedia of Arab American artists, Fayeq Oweis

Self-taught art: the culture and aesthetics of American vernacular art, Charles Russell

Shaman: the paintings of Susan Seddon Boulet

Susan Seddon Boulet: the goddess paintings, Michael Babcock

Susan Seddon Boulet: a retrospective, Michael Babcock

Sculpture of Brookgreen Gardens, Robin R. Salmon

Outdoor Sculpture in Baltimore: A Historical Guide to Public Art in the Monumental City, Cindy Kelly, Edwin H. Remsberg

A comprehensive guide to outdoor sculpture in Texas, Carol Morris Little

American Artists in Photographic Portraits: From the Peter A. Juley & Son Collection, Joan Stahl

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Art in Detroit public places, Dennis Alan Nawrocki, David Clements

United States (North America)

Introduction ::United States

USA National Anthem

Background:

Britain's American colonies broke with the mother country in 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris in 1783. During the 19th and 20th centuries, 37 new states were added to the original 13 as the nation expanded across the North American continent and acquired a number of overseas possessions. The two most traumatic experiences in the nation's history were the Civil War (1861-65), in which a northern Union of states defeated a secessionist Confederacy of 11 southern slave states, and the Great Depression of the 1930s, an economic downturn during which about a quarter of the labor force lost its jobs. Buoyed by victories in World Wars I and II and the end of the Cold War in 1991, the US remains the world's most powerful nation state. Over a span of more than five decades, the economy has achieved steady growth, low unemployment and inflation, and rapid advances in technology.


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Geography ::United States

Location:

North America, bordering both the North Atlantic Ocean and the North
Pacific Ocean, between Canada and Mexico

Geographic coordinates:
38 00 N, 97 00 W

Map references:

North America

Area:

total: 9,826,675 sq km country comparison to the world: 3 land: 9,161,966 sq km

water: 664,709 sq km

note: includes only the 50 states and District of Columbia

Area - comparative:

about half the size of Russia; about three-tenths the size of Africa; about half the size of South America (or slightly larger than Brazil); slightly larger than China; more than twice the size of the European Union

Land boundaries:

total: 12,034 km

border countries: Canada 8,893 km (including 2,477 km with Alaska), Mexico 3,141 km

note: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba is leased by the US and is part of Cuba; the base boundary is 28 km

Coastline:

19,924 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: not specified

Climate:

mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains

Terrain:

vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Death Valley -86 m

highest point: Mount McKinley 6,194 m

note: the peak of Mauna Kea (4,207 m above sea level) on the island of Hawaii rises about 10,200 m above the Pacific Ocean floor; by this measurement, it is the world's tallest mountain - higher than Mount Everest, which is recognized as the tallest mountain above sea level

Natural resources:

coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, rare earth elements, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, timber

note: the US has the world's largest coal reserves with 491 billion short tons accounting for 27% of the world's total

Land use:

arable land: 18.01%

permanent crops: 0.21%

other: 81.78% (2005)

Irrigated land:

223,850 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

3,069 cu km (1985)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 477 cu km/yr (13%/46%/41%)

per capita: 1,600 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:

tsunamis; volcanoes; earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; hurricanes along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts; tornadoes in the Midwest and Southeast; mud slides in California; forest fires in the west; flooding; permafrost in northern Alaska, a major impediment to development

volcanism: the United States experiences volcanic activity in the Hawaiian Islands, Western Alaska, the Pacific Northwest, and in the Northern Mariana Islands; both Mauna Loa (elev. 4,170 m, 13,678 ft) in Hawaii and Mount Rainier (elev. 4,392 m, 14,409 ft) in Washington have been deemed "Decade Volcanoes" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Pavlof (elev. 2,519 m, 8,264 ft) is the most active volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Arc and poses a significant threat to air travel since the area constitutes a major flight path between North America and East Asia; St. Helens (elev. 2,549 m, 8,363 ft), famous for the devastating 1980 eruption, remains active today; numerous other historically active volcanoes exist, mostly concentrated in the Aleutian arc and Hawaii; they include: in Alaska: Aniakchak, Augustine, Chiginagak, Fourpeaked, Iliamna, Katmai, Kupreanof, Martin, Novarupta, Redoubt, Spurr, Wrangell; in Hawaii: Trident, Ugashik-Peulik, Ukinrek Maars, Veniaminof; in the Northern Mariana Islands: Anatahan; and in the Pacific Northwest: Mount Baker, Mount Hood

Environment - current issues:

air pollution resulting in acid rain in both the US and Canada; the US is the largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers; limited natural fresh water resources in much of the western part of the country require careful management; desertification

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources,
Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Hazardous Wastes

Geography - note:

world's third-largest country by size (after Russia and Canada) and by population (after China and India); Mt. McKinley is highest point in North America and Death Valley the lowest point on the continent

People ::United States

Population:

310,232,863 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 3

Age structure:

0-14 years: 20.2% (male 31,639,127/female 30,305,704)

15-64 years: 67% (male 102,665,043/female 103,129,321)

65 years and over: 12.8% (male 16,901,232/female 22,571,696) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 36.8 years

male: 35.5 years

female: 38.1 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.97% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 121

Birth rate:

13.83 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 150

Death rate:

8.38 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 90

Net migration rate:

4.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 22

Urbanization:

urban population: 82% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 1.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.047 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 6.14 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 177 male: 6.81 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 78.24 years country comparison to the world: 49 male: 75.78 years

female: 80.81 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

2.06 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 125

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.6% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 70

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

1.2 million (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 9

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

22,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 21

Nationality:

noun: American(s)

adjective: American

Ethnic groups:

white 79.96%, black 12.85%, Asian 4.43%, Amerindian and Alaska native 0.97%, native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander 0.18%, two or more races 1.61% (July 2007 estimate)

note: a separate listing for Hispanic is not included because the US Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean persons of Spanish/Hispanic/Latino origin including those of Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, Dominican Republic, Spanish, and Central or South American origin living in the US who may be of any race or ethnic group (white, black, Asian, etc.); about 15.1% of the total US population is Hispanic

Religions:

Protestant 51.3%, Roman Catholic 23.9%, Mormon 1.7%, other Christian 1.6%, Jewish 1.7%, Buddhist 0.7%, Muslim 0.6%, other or unspecified 2.5%, unaffiliated 12.1%, none 4% (2007 est.)

Languages:

English 82.1%, Spanish 10.7%, other Indo-European 3.8%, Asian and
Pacific island 2.7%, other 0.7% (2000 census)

note: Hawaiian is an official language in the state of Hawaii

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 16 years

male: 15 years

female: 17 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

5.5% of GDP (2007) country comparison to the world: 46

Government ::United States

Country name:

conventional long form: United States of America

conventional short form: United States

abbreviation: US or USA

Government type:

Constitution-based federal republic; strong democratic tradition

Capital:

name: Washington, DC

geographic coordinates: 38 53 N, 77 02 W

time difference: UTC-5 (during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

note: the 50 United States cover six time zones

Administrative divisions:

50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas,
California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*,
Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas,
Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan,
Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New
Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North
Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South
Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia,
Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

Dependent areas:

American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island,
Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island,
Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin
Islands, Wake Island

note: from 18 July 1947 until 1 October 1994, the US administered the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands; it entered into a political relationship with all four political units: the Northern Mariana Islands is a commonwealth in political union with the US (effective 3 November 1986); the Republic of the Marshall Islands signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 21 October 1986); the Federated States of Micronesia signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 3 November 1986); Palau concluded a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 1 October 1994)

Independence:

4 July 1776 (from Great Britain)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 4 July (1776)

Constitution:

17 September 1787, effective 4 March 1789

Legal system:

federal court system based on English common law; each state has its own unique legal system of which all but one (Louisiana, which is still influenced by the Napoleonic Code) is based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Barack H. OBAMA (since 20 January 2009); Vice President Joseph R. BIDEN (since 20 January 2009); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Barack H. OBAMA (since 20 January 2009); Vice President Joseph BIDEN (since 20 January 2009)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with Senate approval (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by a college of representatives who are elected directly from each state; president and vice president serve four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 4 November 2008 (next to be held on 6 November 2012)

election results: Barack H. OBAMA elected president; percent of popular vote - Barack H. OBAMA 52.4%, John MCCAIN 46.3%, other 1.3%;

Legislative branch:

bicameral Congress consists of the Senate (100 seats, 2 members elected from each state by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the House of Representatives (435 seats; members directly elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 2 November 2010 (next to be held in November 2012); House of Representatives - last held on 2 November 2010 (next to be held in November 2012)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 51, Republican Party 47, independent 2; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 192, Republican Party 243

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court (nine justices; nominated by the president and confirmed with the advice and consent of the Senate; appointed to serve for life); United States Courts of Appeal; United States District Courts; State and County Courts

Political parties and leaders:

Democratic Party [Timothy KAINE]; Green Party; Libertarian Party
[William (Bill) REDPATH]; Republican Party [Reince PRIEBUS]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

environmentalists; business groups; labor unions; churches; ethnic groups; political action committees or PAC; health groups; education groups; civic groups; youth groups; transportation groups; agricultural groups; veterans groups; women's groups; reform lobbies

International organization participation:

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), ANZUS, APEC,
Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS,
BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CERN (observer), CICA
(observer), CP, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO,
ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA,
MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE,
Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SECI (observer),
SPC, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNITAR, UNMIL,
UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Flag description:

13 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies; the blue stands for loyalty, devotion, truth, justice, and friendship; red symbolizes courage, zeal, and fervency, while white denotes purity and rectitude of conduct; commonly referred to by its nickname of Old Glory

note: the design and colors have been the basis for a number of other flags, including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico

National anthem:

name: "The Star-Spangled Banner"

lyrics/music: Francis Scott KEY/John Stafford SMITH

note: adopted 1931; during the War of 1812, after witnessing the successful American defense of Fort McHenry in Baltimore following British naval bombardment, Francis Scott KEY wrote the lyrics to what would become the national anthem; the lyrics were set to the tune of "The Anacreontic Song;" only the first verse is sung

Economy ::United States

Economy - overview:

The US has the largest and most technologically powerful economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $47,400. In this market-oriented economy, private individuals and business firms make most of the decisions, and the federal and state governments buy needed goods and services predominantly in the private marketplace. US business firms enjoy greater flexibility than their counterparts in Western Europe and Japan in decisions to expand capital plant, to lay off surplus workers, and to develop new products. At the same time, they face higher barriers to enter their rivals' home markets than foreign firms face entering US markets. US firms are at or near the forefront in technological advances, especially in computers and in medical, aerospace, and military equipment; their advantage has narrowed since the end of World War II. The onrush of technology largely explains the gradual development of a "two-tier labor market" in which those at the bottom lack the education and the professional/technical skills of those at the top and, more and more, fail to get comparable pay raises, health insurance coverage, and other benefits. Since 1975, practically all the gains in household income have gone to the top 20% of households. The war in March-April 2003 between a US-led coalition and Iraq, and the subsequent occupation of Iraq, required major shifts in national resources to the military. Soaring oil prices between 2005 and the first half of 2008 threatened inflation and unemployment, as higher gasoline prices ate into consumers' budgets. Imported oil accounts for about 60% of US consumption. Long-term problems include inadequate investment in economic infrastructure, rapidly rising medical and pension costs of an aging population, sizable trade and budget deficits, and stagnation of family income in the lower economic groups. The merchandise trade deficit reached a record $840 billion in 2008 before shrinking to $506 billion in 2009, and ramping back up to $630 billion in 2010. The global economic downturn, the sub-prime mortgage crisis, investment bank failures, falling home prices, and tight credit pushed the United States into a recession by mid-2008. GDP contracted until the third quarter of 2009, making this the deepest and longest downturn since the Great Depression. To help stabilize financial markets, the US Congress established a $700 billion Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) in October 2008. The government used some of these funds to purchase equity in US banks and other industrial corporations, much of which had been returned to the government by early 2011. In January 2009 the US Congress passed and President Barack OBAMA signed a bill providing an additional $787 billion fiscal stimulus to be used over 10 years - two-thirds on additional spending and one-third on tax cuts - to create jobs and to help the economy recover. Approximately two-thirds of these funds were injected into the economy by the end of 2010. In March 2010, President OBAMA signed a health insurance reform bill into law that will extend coverage to an additional 32 million American citizens by 2016, through private health insurance for the general population and Medicaid for the impoverished. In July 2010, the president signed the DODD-FRANK Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, a bill designed to promote financial stability by protecting consumers from financial abuses, ending taxpayer bailouts of financial firms, dealing with troubled banks that are "too big to fail," and improving accountability and transparency in the financial system - in particular, by requiring certain financial derivatives to be traded in markets that are subject to government regulation and oversight. In late 2010, the US Federal Reserve Bank (The Fed) announced that it would purchase $600 billion worth of US Government bonds by June 2011, in an attempt to keep interest rates from rising and snuffing out the nascent recovery.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$14.72 trillion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 2 $14.33 trillion (2009 est.)

$14.72 trillion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$14.62 trillion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

2.8% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 133 -2.6% (2009 est.)

0% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$47,400 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 10 $46,700 (2009 est.)

$48,300 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 1.2%

industry: 22.2%

services: 76.7% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

153.9 million country comparison to the world: 4 note: includes unemployed (2010 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

farming, forestry, and fishing: 0.7%

manufacturing, extraction, transportation, and crafts: 20.3%

managerial, professional, and technical: 37.2%

sales and office: 24%

other services: 17.7%

note: figures exclude the unemployed (2009)

Unemployment rate:

9.6% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 107 9.3% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line:

12% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 30% (2007 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

45 (2007) country comparison to the world: 42 40.8 (1997)

Investment (gross fixed):

12.8% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 142

Public debt:

58.9% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 36 53.5% of GDP (2009 est.)

note: data cover only what the United States Treasury denotes as "Debt Held by the Public," which includes all debt instruments issued by the Treasury that are owned by non-US Government entities; the data include Treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by individual US states, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of Treasury borrowings from surpluses in the trusts for Federal Social Security, Federal Employees, Hospital Insurance (Medicare and Medicaid), Disability and Unemployment, and several other smaller trusts; if data for intra-government debt were added, "Gross Debt" would increase by about 30% of GDP

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

1.4% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 34 -0.3% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

0.5% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 137 0.86% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

3.25% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 149 5.09% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$1.74 trillion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 5 $1.722 trillion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$12.39 trillion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 3 $12.46 trillion (31 December 2008)

Stock of domestic credit:

$32.61 trillion (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 1 $31.53 trillion (31 December 2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$15.08 trillion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 1 $11.74 trillion (31 December 2008)

$19.95 trillion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

wheat, corn, other grains, fruits, vegetables, cotton; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish; forest products

Industries:

highly diversified, world leading, high-technology innovator, second largest industrial output in world; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining

Industrial production growth rate:

3.3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 96

Electricity - production:

4.11 trillion kWh (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 1

Electricity - consumption:

3.873 trillion kWh (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 1

Electricity - exports:

24.08 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

57.02 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

9.056 million bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 3

Oil - consumption:

18.69 million bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 1

Oil - exports:

1.704 million bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 13

Oil - imports:

11.31 million bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 1

Oil - proved reserves:

19.12 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 14

Natural gas - production:

593.4 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 1

Natural gas - consumption:

646.6 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 1

Natural gas - exports:

30.35 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 9

Natural gas - imports:

106.1 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 1

Natural gas - proved reserves:

6.928 trillion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 6

Current account balance:

-$561 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 190 -$378.4 billion (2009 est.)

Exports:

$1.27 trillion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 4 $1.069 trillion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

agricultural products (soybeans, fruit, corn) 9.2%, industrial supplies (organic chemicals) 26.8%, capital goods (transistors, aircraft, motor vehicle parts, computers, telecommunications equipment) 49.0%, consumer goods (automobiles, medicines) 15.0%

Exports - partners:

Canada 19.37%, Mexico 12.21%, China 6.58%, Japan 4.84%, UK 4.33%,
Germany 4.1% (2009)

Imports:

$1.903 trillion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 1 $1.575 trillion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

agricultural products 4.9%, industrial supplies 32.9% (crude oil 8.2%), capital goods 30.4% (computers, telecommunications equipment, motor vehicle parts, office machines, electric power machinery), consumer goods 31.8% (automobiles, clothing, medicines, furniture, toys)

Imports - partners:

China 19.3%, Canada 14.24%, Mexico 11.12%, Japan 6.14%, Germany 4.53% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$NA (31 December 2010 est.)

$130.8 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$13.98 trillion (30 June 2010) country comparison to the world: 1 $13.75 trillion (31 December 2008)

note: approximately 4/5ths of US external debt is denominated in US dollars; foreign lenders have been willing to hold US dollar denominated debt instruments because they view the dollar as the world's reserve currency

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$2.581 trillion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 1 $2.41 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$3.597 trillion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 1 $3.367 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

British pounds per US dollar: 1 (2010), 0.6504 (2010), 0.6494 (2009), 0.5302 (2008), 0.4993 (2007), 0.5418 (2006)

Canadian dollars per US dollar: 1.0346 (2010), 1.1548 (2009), 1.0364 (2008), 1.0724 (2007), 1.1334 (2006)

Chinese yuan per US dollar: 6.7852 (2010), 6.8249 (2009), 6.9385 (2008), 7.61 (2007), 7.97 (2006)

euros per US dollar: 0.7715 (2010), 0.7338 (2009), 0.6827 (2008), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006)

Japanese yen per US dollar: 88.67 (2010), 94.5 (2009), 103.58 (2008), 117.99 (2007), 116.18 (2006)

Communications ::United States

Telephones - main lines in use:

141 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 2

Telephones - mobile cellular:

286 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 3

Telephone system:

general assessment: a large, technologically advanced, multipurpose communications system

domestic: a large system of fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and domestic satellites carries every form of telephone traffic; a rapidly growing cellular system carries mobile telephone traffic throughout the country

international: country code - 1; multiple ocean cable systems provide international connectivity; satellite earth stations - 61 Intelsat (45 Atlantic Ocean and 16 Pacific Ocean), 5 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 4 Inmarsat (Pacific and Atlantic Ocean regions) (2000)

Broadcast media:

4 major terrestrial television networks with affiliate stations throughout the country, plus cable and satellite networks, independent stations, and a limited public broadcasting sector that is largely supported by private grants; overall, thousands of TV stations broadcasting; multiple national radio networks with large numbers of affiliate stations; while most stations are commercial, National Public Radio (NPR) has a network of some 600 member stations; satellite radio available; overall, nearly 15,000 radio stations operating (2008)

Internet country code:

.us

Internet hosts:

439 million (2010); note - the US Internet total host count includes the following top level domain host addresses: .us, .com, .edu, .gov, .mil, .net, and .org country comparison to the world: 1

Internet users:

245 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 2

Transportation ::United States

Airports:

15,079 (2010) country comparison to the world: 1

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 5,194

over 3,047 m: 189

2,438 to 3,047 m: 235

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1,479

914 to 1,523 m: 2,316

under 914 m: 975 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 9,885

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 155

914 to 1,523 m: 1,752

under 914 m: 7,971 (2010)

Heliports:

126 (2010)

Pipelines:

petroleum products 244,620 km; natural gas 548,665 km (2009)

Railways:

total: 226,427 km country comparison to the world: 1 standard gauge: 226,427 km 1.435-m gauge (2007)

Roadways:

total: 6,506,204 km country comparison to the world: 1 paved: 4,374,784 km (includes 75,238 km of expressways)

unpaved: 2,131,420 km (2008)

Waterways:

41,009 km (19,312 km used for commerce) country comparison to the world: 4 note: Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with Canada (2008)

Merchant marine:

total: 418 country comparison to the world: 26 by type: barge carrier 6, bulk carrier 58, cargo 58, carrier 3, chemical tanker 30, container 87, passenger 18, passenger/cargo 56, petroleum tanker 45, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 27, vehicle carrier 27

foreign-owned: 86 (Australia 1, Bermuda 5, Canada 1, Denmark 34, France 4, Germany 3, Malaysia 2, Norway 10, Singapore 17, Sweden 5, UK 4)

registered in other countries: 734 (Antigua and Barbuda 6, Australia 2, Bahamas 100, Belgium 2, Bermuda 25, Cambodia 4, Canada 9, Cayman Islands 54, Comoros 2, Cyprus 7, Georgia 1, Greece 7, Hong Kong 31, Indonesia 2, Ireland 2, Isle of Man 2, Italy 21, Liberia 39, Luxembourg 3, Malta 35, Marshall Islands 168, Netherlands 15, Norway 9, Panama 102, Portugal 4, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 19, Sierra Leone 1, Singapore 33, South Korea 8, UK 11, unknown 8) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

cargo ports (tonnage): Baton Rouge, Corpus Christi, Houston, Long Beach, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, Plaquemines, Tampa, Texas City

container ports (TEUs): Los Angeles (7,849,985), Long Beach (6,350,125), New York/New Jersey (5,265,058), Savannah (2,616,126), Oakland (2,236,244), Hampton Roads (2,083,278) (2008)

cruise departure ports (passengers): Miami (2,032,000), Port Everglades (1,277,000), Port Canaveral (1,189,000), Seattle (430,000), Long Beach (415,000) (2009)

Military ::United States

Military branches:

United States Armed Forces: US Army, US Navy (includes Marine Corps), US Air Force, US Coast Guard; note - Coast Guard administered in peacetime by the Department of Homeland Security, but in wartime reports to the Department of the Navy (2009)

Military service age and obligation:

18 years of age (17 years of age with parental consent) for male and female voluntary service; maximum enlistment age 42 (Army), 27 (Air Force), 34 (Navy), 28 (Marines); service obligation 8 years, including 2-5 years active duty (Army), 2 years active (Navy), 4 years active (Air Force, Marines) (2010)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 73,145,586

females age 16-49: 71,880,788 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 60,388,734

females age 16-49: 59,217,809 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 2,174,260

female: 2,065,595 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

4.06% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 24

Transnational Issues ::United States

Disputes - international:

the U.S. has intensified domestic security measures and is collaborating closely with its neighbors, Canada and Mexico, to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across the international borders; abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement in the Bering Sea still awaits Russian Duma ratification; managed maritime boundary disputes with Canada at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; The Bahamas and US have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary; US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Cuba and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island; US has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other states; Marshall Islands claims Wake Island; Tokelau included American Samoa's Swains Island among the islands listed in its 2006 draft constitution

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): the US admitted 62,643 refugees during FY04/05 including; 10,586 (Somalia); 8,549 (Laos); 6,666 (Russia); 6,479 (Cuba); 3,100 (Haiti); 2,136 (Iran) (2006)

Illicit drugs:

world's largest consumer of cocaine (shipped from Colombia through Mexico and the Caribbean), Colombian heroin, and Mexican heroin and marijuana; major consumer of ecstasy and Mexican methamphetamine; minor consumer of high-quality Southeast Asian heroin; illicit producer of cannabis, marijuana, depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, and methamphetamine; money-laundering center

World

Hellenica World

Index