- Art Gallery -




Sri Lanka, See : Flags, Maps

Avila : Images

Burgos : Images

Cordoba : Images

Granada : Images

Madrid : Images

Sevilla : Images

Toledo : Images

Valencia : Images

Valladolid : Images

Spain Gallery

Spanish Highways and Byways, Katharine Lee Bates

Northern Spain, Edgar T. A. Wigram

Wild Spain (España agreste), Abel Chapman and Walter J. Buck

Heroic Spain , Elizabeth Boyle O'Reilly

The Arts and Crafts of Older Spain, Volume I, Volume II, Volume III, Leonard Williams

Cathedrals of Spain, John Allyne Gade

The Cathedrals of Northern Spain, Charles Rudy

Cathedral Cities of Spain, W. W. Collins

Southern Spain, A.F. Calvert

The Fortunate Isles, Mary Stuart Boyd, Illustrated by A. S. Boyd

A History of Spain , Charles E. Chapman

A Short History of Spain, Mary Platt Parmele

The Moors in Spain, Stanley Lane-Poole

The Industrial Arts in Spain, Juan F. Riaño

The Autobiography of Saint Ignatius of Loyola

An Architect's Note-Book in Spain, Matthew Digby Wyatt

Modern Spanish Lyrics , E. C. Hills and S. Griswold Morley


El Greco: Domenikos Theotokopoulos, 1541-1614, Michael Scholz-Hänsel

Francisco Goya, Evan S. Connell

Francisco Goya: Los caprichos, Philip Hofer

Pablo Picasso, Mary Ann Caws

Pablo Picasso , Tim McNeese

Conversations with Picasso, Brassaï

A Picasso portfolio: prints from the Museum of Modern Art , Deborah Wye

Salvador Dali, Tim McNeese

Visionary experience in the Golden Age of Spanish art, Victor Ieronim Stoichiță

A dictionary of Spanish painters: comprehending that part of their biography , A. O'Neil

Italian and Spanish sculpture: catalogue of the J. Paul Getty Museum collection, Peggy Fogelman, Peter Fusco, Marietta Cambareri


A Spanish Anthology, Edited by J. D. M. (Jeremiah Denis Matthias) Ford

Inventing the art collection: patrons, markets, and the state in nineteenth-century spain, Oscar E. Vázquez

Spain (Europe)

Introduction ::Spain


Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World Wars I and II but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975, and rapid economic modernization (Spain joined the EU in 1986) gave Spain a dynamic and rapidly growing economy and made it a global champion of freedom and human rights. The government continues to battle the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorist organization, but its major focus for the immediate future will be on measures to reverse the severe economic recession that started in mid-2008.

Geography ::Spain

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Southwestern Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean Sea,
North Atlantic Ocean, and Pyrenees Mountains, southwest of France

Geographic coordinates:
40 00 N, 4 00 W

Map references:



total: 505,370 sq km country comparison to the world: 51 land: 498,980 sq km

water: 6,390 sq km

note: there are two autonomous cities - Ceuta and Melilla - and 17 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Morocco - Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera

Area - comparative:

slightly more than twice the size of Oregon

Land boundaries:

total: 1,917.8 km

border countries: Andorra 63.7 km, France 623 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,214 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 6.3 km, Morocco (Melilla) 9.6 km


4,964 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)


temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast


large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees in north

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m

Natural resources:

coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land

Land use:

arable land: 27.18%

permanent crops: 9.85%

other: 62.97% (2005)

Irrigated land:

37,800 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

111.1 cu km (2005)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 37.22 cu km/yr (13%/19%/68%)

per capita: 864 cu m/yr (2002)

Natural hazards:

periodic droughts, occasional flooding

volcanism: Spain experiences volcanic activity in the Canary Islands, located off Africa's northwest coast; Teide (elev. 3,715 m, 12,188 ft) has been deemed a "Decade Volcano" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; La Palma (elev. 2,426 m, 7,959 ft), which last erupted in 1971, is the most active of the Canary Islands volcanoes; Lanzarote is the only other historically active volcano

Environment - current issues:

pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note:

strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar; Spain controls a number of territories in northern Morocco including the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas

People ::Spain


46,505,963 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 27

Age structure:

0-14 years: 14.5% (male 3,021,822/female 2,842,597)

15-64 years: 67.4% (male 13,705,107/female 13,601,399)

65 years and over: 18.1% (male 3,071,394/female 4,282,683) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 40.1 years

male: 38.9 years

female: 41.5 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.493% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 154

Birth rate:

10.91 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 179

Death rate:

8.72 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 79

Net migration rate:

2.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 29


urban population: 77% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 0.9% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.065 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 3.42 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 214 male: 3.77 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 81.07 years country comparison to the world: 13 male: 78.06 years

female: 84.27 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.47 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 190

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.5% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 75

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

140,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 39

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

2,300 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 58


noun: Spaniard(s)

adjective: Spanish

Ethnic groups:

composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types


Roman Catholic 94%, other 6%


Castilian Spanish (official) 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%, are official regionally


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.9%

male: 98.7%

female: 97.2% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 17 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

4.4% of GDP (2007) country comparison to the world: 93

Government ::Spain

Country name:

conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain

conventional short form: Spain

local long form: Reino de Espana

local short form: Espana

Government type:

parliamentary monarchy


name: Madrid

geographic coordinates: 40 24 N, 3 41 W

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: Spain is divided into two time zones including the Canary Islands

Administrative divisions:

17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma) and 2 autonomous cities* (ciudades autonomas, singular - ciudad autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon, Asturias, Baleares (Balearic Islands), Ceuta*, Canarias (Canary Islands), Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Cataluna (Catalonia), Comunidad Valenciana (Valencian Community), Extremadura, Galicia, La Rioja, Madrid, Melilla*, Murcia, Navarra, Pais Vasco (Basque Country)

note: the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla plus three small islands of Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, administered directly by the Spanish central government, are all along the coast of Morocco and are collectively referred to as Places of Sovereignty (Plazas de Soberania)


1492; the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Muslim occupation that began in the early 8th century A.D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain

National holiday:

National Day, 12 October (1492); year when Columbus first set foot in the Americas


approved by legislature 31 October 1978; passed by referendum 6 December 1978; signed by the king 27 December 1978

Legal system:

civil law system with regional applications; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975); Heir Apparent Prince FELIPE, son of the monarch, born 30 January 1968

head of government: President of the Government (Prime Minister equivalent) Jose Luis Rodriguez ZAPATERO (since 17 April 2004); First Vice President (and Minister of the Interior) Alfredo Perez RUBALCABA (since 20 October 2010), Second Vice President (and Minister of Economy and Finance) Elena SALGADO Mendez (since 8 April 2009), and Third Vice President (and Minister of Regional Affairs) Manuel CHAVES Gonzalez (since 8 April 2009)

cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding

elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually proposed president by the monarch and elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 9 and 11 April 2008 (next to be held in March 2012); vice presidents appointed by the monarch on the proposal of the president

election results: Jose Luis Rodriguez ZAPATERO reelected President of the Government; percent of National Assembly vote - 46.9%

Legislative branch:

bicameral; General Courts or Las Cortes Generales (National Assembly) consists of the Senate or Senado (264 seats as of 2008; 208 members directly elected by popular vote and the other 56 - as of 2008 - appointed by the regional legislatures; members to serve four-year terms) and the Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; each of the 50 electoral provinces fills a minimum of two seats and the North African enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla fill one seat each with members serving a four-year term; the other 248 members are determined by proportional representation based on popular vote on block lists who serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 9 March 2008 (next to be held by March 2012); Congress of Deputies - last held on 9 March 2008 (next to be held by March 2012)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PP 101, PSOE 88, Entesa Catalona de Progress 12, CiU 4, PNV 2, CC 1, members appointed by regional legislatures 56; Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSOE 43.6%, PP 40.1%, CiU 3.1%, PNV 1.2%, ERC 1.2%, other 10.8%; seats by party - PSOE 169, PP 154, CiU 10, PNV 6, ERC 3, other 8; note - seats by party in the Congress of Deputies as of 15 December 2009 - PSOE 169, PP 153, CiU 10, PNV 6, ERC 3, other 9

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo

Political parties and leaders:

Basque Nationalist Party or PNV or EAJ [Inigo URKULLU Renteria];
Canarian Coalition or CC [Claudina MORALES Rodriquez] (a coalition
of five parties); Convergence and Union or CiU [Artur MAS i Gavarro]
(a coalition of the Democratic Convergence of Catalonia or CDC
[Artur MAS i Gavarro] and the Democratic Union of Catalonia or UDC
[Josep Antoni DURAN i LLEIDA]); Entesa Catalonia de Progress (a
Senate coalition grouping four Catalan parties - PSC, ERC, ICV,
EUA); Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Guillerme VAZQUEZ Vazquez];
Initiative for Catalonia Greens or ICV [Joan SAURA i Laporta];
Navarra Yes or NaBai [collective leadership] (a coalition of four
Navarran parties); Popular Party or PP [Mariano RAJOY Brey];
Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Joan PUIGCERCOS i Boixassa];
Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Jose Luis Rodriguez
ZAPATERO]; Union of People of Navarra or UPN [Yolanda BARCINA
Angulo]; Union, Progress and Democracy or UPyD [Rosa DIEZ Gonzalez];
United Left or IU [Cayo LARA Moya] (a coalition of parties including
the Communist Party of Spain or PCE and other small parties)

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Association for Victims of Terrorism or AVT (grassroots organization devoted primarily to opposing ETA terrorist attacks and supporting its victims); Basta Ya (Spanish for "Enough is Enough"); grassroots organization devoted primarily to opposing ETA terrorist attacks and supporting its victims); Nunca Mais (Galician for "Never Again"; formed in response to the oil Tanker Prestige oil spill); Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO; Trade Union Confederation of Workers' Commissions or CC.OO.

other: business and landowning interests; Catholic Church; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); university students

International organization participation:

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council
(observer), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CBSS (observer), CE, CERN,
(observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD,
OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer),

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Jorge DEZCALLAR de Mazarredo

chancery: 2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037

telephone: [1] (202) 452-0100, 728-2340
FAX: [1] (202) 833-5670

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Alan D. SOLOMONT

embassy: Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid

mailing address: PSC 61, APO AE 09642

telephone: [34] (91) 587-2200
FAX: [34] (91) 587-2303

consulate(s) general: Barcelona

Flag description:

three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms is quartered to display the emblems of the traditional kingdoms of Spain (clockwise from upper left, Castile, Leon, Navarre, and Aragon) while Granada is represented by the stylized pomegranate at the bottom of the shield; the arms are framed by two columns representing the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar; the red scroll across the two columns bears the imperial motto of "Plus Ultra" (further beyond) referring to Spanish lands beyond Europe; the triband arrangement with the center stripe twice the width of the outer dates to the 18th century

note: the red and yellow colors are related to those of the oldest Spanish kingdoms: Aragon, Castile, Leon, and Navarre

National anthem:

name: "Himno Nacional Espanol" (National Anthem of Spain)

lyrics/music: none/unknown

note: officially in use between 1770 and 1931, restored in 1939; the Spanish anthem has no lyrics; in the years prior to 1931 it became known as "Marcha Real" (The Royal March); it first appeared in a 1761 military bugle call book and was replaced by "Himno de Riego" in the years between 1931 and 1939; the long version of the anthem is used for the king, while the short version is used for the prince, prime minister, and occasions such as sporting events

Economy ::Spain

Economy - overview:

Spain's mixed capitalist economy is the 12th largest in the world, and its per capita income roughly matches that of Germany and France. However, after almost 15 years of above average GDP growth, the Spanish economy began to slow in late 2007 and entered into a recession in the second quarter of 2008. GDP contracted by 3.7% in 2009, ending a 16-year growth trend, and by another 0.4% in 2010, making Spain the last major economy to emerge from the global recession. The reversal in Spain's economic growth reflects a significant decline in the construction sector, an oversupply of housing, falling consumer spending, and slumping exports. Government efforts to boost the economy through stimulus spending, extended unemployment benefits, and loan guarantees did not prevent a sharp rise in the unemployment rate, which rose from a low of about 8% in 2007 to 20% in 2010. The government budget deficit worsened from 3.8% of GDP in 2008 to about 9.7% of GDP in 2010, more than three times the euro-zone limit. Spain's large budget deficit and poor economic growth prospects have made it vulnerable to financial contagion from other highly-indebted euro zone members despite the government's efforts to cut spending, privatize industries, and boost competitiveness through labor market reforms. Spanish banks' high exposure to the collapsed domestic construction and real estate market also poses a continued risk for the sector. The government intervened in one regional savings bank in 2009, and investors remain concerned that Madrid may need to bail out more troubled banks. The Bank of Spain, however, is seeking to boost confidence in the financial sector by pressuring banks to come clean about their losses and consolidate into stronger groups.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$1.374 trillion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 14 $1.379 trillion (2009 est.)

$1.432 trillion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$1.375 trillion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

-0.4% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 192 -3.7% (2009 est.)

0.9% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$29,500 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 48 $29,800 (2009 est.)

$31,200 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 2.9%

industry: 25.5%

services: 71.6% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

22.96 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 27

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 4.2%

industry: 24%

services: 71.7% (2009 est.)

Unemployment rate:

20% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 167 18.1% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line:

19.8% (2005)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2.6%

highest 10%: 26.6% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

32 (2005) country comparison to the world: 102 32.5 (1990)

Investment (gross fixed):

22.9% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 56

Public debt:

63.4% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 27 53.2% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

1.3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 30 -0.3% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

1.75% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 122 3% (31 December 2008)

note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

10.72% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 82 11.02% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$849.2 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 9 $856.5 billion (31 December 2009 est)

note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 16 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money:

$2.264 trillion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 9 $2.451 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$3.683 trillion (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 8 $3.451 trillion (31 December 2008 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$1.297 trillion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 11 $946.1 billion (31 December 2008)

$1.8 trillion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish


textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment

Industrial production growth rate:

-2% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 162

Electricity - production:

300.5 billion kWh (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 13

Electricity - consumption:

276.1 billion kWh (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 14

Electricity - exports:

16.92 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

5.88 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

27,230 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 71

Oil - consumption:

1.482 million bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 17

Oil - exports:

218,600 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 52

Oil - imports:

1.716 million bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 12

Oil - proved reserves:

150 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 64

Natural gas - production:

13 million cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 90

Natural gas - consumption:

33.88 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 26

Natural gas - exports:

975 million cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 35

Natural gas - imports:

34.67 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 9

Natural gas - proved reserves:

2.548 billion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 95

Current account balance:

-$66.74 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 189 -$80.38 billion (2009 est.)


$268.3 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 18 $224 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods

Exports - partners:

France 19.27%, Germany 11.11%, Portugal 9.21%, Italy 8.24%, UK 6.18% (2009)


$324.6 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 14 $286.8 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, measuring and medical control instruments

Imports - partners:

Germany 15.02%, France 12.82%, Italy 7.17%, China 5.8%, Netherlands 5.22%, UK 4.7% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$NA (31 December 2010 est.)

$28.2 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$2.166 trillion (30 June 2010) country comparison to the world: 9 $2.317 trillion (31 December 2008)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$668.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 8 $664 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$641 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 9 $634.4 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7715 (2010), 0.7179 (2009), 0.6827 (2008), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006)

Communications ::Spain

Telephones - main lines in use:

20.057 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 13

Telephones - mobile cellular:

50.991 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 23

Telephone system:

general assessment: well developed, modern facilities; fixed-line teledensity is roughly 50 per 100 persons

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is nearly 175 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 34; submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Middle East, Asia, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries

Broadcast media:

a mixture of both publicly-operated and privately-owned TV and radio stations broadcasting; overall, hundreds of TV channels are available including national, regional, local, public, and international channels; satellite and cable TV systems are accessible; multiple national radio networks, a large number of regional radio networks, and a larger number of local radio stations broadcasting; overall, hundreds of radio stations operating (2008)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

3.822 million (2010) country comparison to the world: 23

Internet users:

28.119 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 14

Transportation ::Spain


154 (2010) country comparison to the world: 35

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 97

over 3,047 m: 18

2,438 to 3,047 m: 13

1,524 to 2,437 m: 18

914 to 1,523 m: 24

under 914 m: 24 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 57

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 16

under 914 m: 38 (2010)


9 (2010)


gas 7,738 km; oil 560 km; refined products 3,445 km (2009)


total: 15,288 km country comparison to the world: 18 broad gauge: 11,919 km 1.668-m gauge (6,950 km electrified)

standard gauge: 1,392 km 1.435-m gauge (1,054 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 1,949 km 1.000-m gauge (815 km electrified); 28 km 0.914-m gauge (28 km electrified) (2008)


total: 681,298 km country comparison to the world: 10 paved: 681,298 km (includes 15,152 km of expressways) (2008)


1,000 km (2008) country comparison to the world: 65

Merchant marine:

total: 138 country comparison to the world: 44 by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 17, chemical tanker 12, container 8, liquefied gas 13, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 40, petroleum tanker 17, refrigerated cargo 5, roll on/roll off 13, vehicle carrier 5

foreign-owned: 26 (Canada 5, Denmark 2, Germany 5, Italy 1, Mexico 2, Norway 10, Switzerland 1)

registered in other countries: 107 (Angola 1, Argentina 3, Bahamas 9, Belize 1, Brazil 12, Cape Verde 1, Cyprus 7, France 1, Malta 10, Nigeria 1, Panama 40, Portugal 15, Uruguay 5, Venezuela 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Algeciras, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Tarragona, Valencia
(Spain); Las Palmas, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands)

Military ::Spain

Military branches:

Spanish Armed Forces: Army (Ejercito de Tierra), Spanish Navy
(Armada Espanola, AE; includes Marine Corps), Spanish Air Force
(Ejercito del Aire Espanola, EdA) (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

20 years of age (2004)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 9,851,306

females age 16-49: 9,574,929 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 8,040,207

females age 16-49: 7,798,254 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 193,038

female: 181,703 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

1.2% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 122

Transnational Issues ::Spain

Disputes - international:

in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); Morocco serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz

Illicit drugs:

despite rigorous law enforcement efforts, North African, Latin American, Galician, and other European traffickers take advantage of Spain's long coastline to land large shipments of cocaine and hashish for distribution to the European market; consumer for Latin American cocaine and North African hashish; destination and minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin; money-laundering site for Colombian narcotics trafficking organizations and organized crime


Hellenica World