Togo Togo

Togo, See : Flags, Maps

Togo (Africa)

Introduction ::Togo


French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967 and maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. After years of political unrest and condemnation from international organizations for human rights abuses, Togo is finally being re-welcomed into the international community.

Geography ::Togo


Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana

Geographic coordinates:
8 00 N, 1 10 E

Map references:



total: 56,785 sq km country comparison to the world: 125 land: 54,385 sq km

water: 2,400 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:

total: 1,647 km

border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km


56 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 30 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north


gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mont Agou 986 m

Natural resources:

phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land

Land use:

arable land: 44.2%

permanent crops: 2.11%

other: 53.69% (2005)

Irrigated land:

70 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

14.7 cu km (2001)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 0.17 cu km/yr (53%/2%/45%)

per capita: 28 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:

hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:

deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna

People ::Togo


6,587,239 country comparison to the world: 100 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2010 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 41.4% (male 1,252,389/female 1,244,914)

15-64 years: 55.8% (male 1,645,885/female 1,719,810)

65 years and over: 2.8% (male 66,192/female 102,618) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 19.2 years

male: 18.9 years

female: 19.4 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

2.773% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 20

Birth rate:

35.88 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 31

Death rate:

8.15 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 102

Net migration rate:

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population country comparison to the world: 104


urban population: 42% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 4.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 53.23 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 45 male: 60.29 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 45.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 62.25 years country comparison to the world: 178 male: 59.74 years

female: 64.83 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

4.74 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 32

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

3.3% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 21

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

130,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 41

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

9,100 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 35

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: very high

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever

water contact disease: schistosomiasis

respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis

animal contact disease: rabies

note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)


noun: Togolese (singular and plural)

adjective: Togolese

Ethnic groups:

African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and
Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%


Christian 29%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 51%


French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 60.9%

male: 75.4%

female: 46.9% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 10 years

male: 11 years

female: 7 years (2007)

Education expenditures:

3.7% of GDP (2007) country comparison to the world: 123

Government ::Togo

Country name:

conventional long form: Togolese Republic

conventional short form: Togo

local long form: Republique togolaise

local short form: none

former: French Togoland

Government type:

republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule


name: Lome

geographic coordinates: 6 08 N, 1 13 E

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes


27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 27 April (1960)


adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992

Legal system:

French-based court system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations


18 years of age; universal (adult)

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005);

head of government: Prime Minister Gilbert HOUNGBO (since 7 September 2008)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 4 March 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE 60.9%, Jean-Pierre FABRE 33.9%, Yawovi AGBOYIBO 3%, other 2.2%

Legislative branch:

unicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 14 October 2007 (next to be held in 2012)

election results: percent of vote by party - RPT 39.4%, UFC 37.0%, CAR 8.2%, independents 2.5%, other 12.9%; seats by party - RPT 50, UFC 27, CAR 4

Judicial branch:

Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders:

Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yawovi AGBOYIBO]; Democratic
Convention of African Peoples or CDPA; Democratic Party for Renewal
or PDR; Juvento [Monsilia DJATO]; Movement of the Believers of Peace
and Equality or MOCEP; Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP;
Rally for the Support for Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry
OLYMPIO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [Faure GNASSINGBE];
Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR; Union for Democracy and Social
Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]; Union of Forces for Change or UFC
[Gilchrist OLYMPIO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

International organization participation:

IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF,

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Kadangha Limbiya BARIKI

chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Patricia McMahon HAWKINS

embassy: 4332 Blvd. Gnassingbe Eyadema, Cite OUA, Lome

mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome; 2300 Lome Place, Washington, DC 20512-2300

telephone: [228] 261-5470
FAX: [228] 261-5501

Flag description:

five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; a white five-pointed star on a red square is in the upper hoist-side corner; the five horizontal stripes stand for the five different regions of the country; the red square is meant to express the loyalty and patriotism of the people; green symbolizes hope, fertility, and agriculture; yellow represents mineral wealth and faith that hard work and strength will bring prosperity; the star symbolizes life, purity, peace, dignity, and Togo's independence

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia

National anthem:

name: "Salut a toi, pays de nos aieux" (Hail to Thee, Land of Our Forefathers)

lyrics/music: Alex CASIMIR-DOSSEH

note: adopted 1960, restored 1992; this anthem was replaced by another during one-party rule between 1979 and 1992

Economy ::Togo

Economy - overview:

This small, sub-Saharan economy suffers from anemic economic growth and depends heavily on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for 65% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is the world's fourth-largest producer of phosphate. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Progress depends on follow through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors. Togo is on track with its IMF Extended Credit Facility and reached a HIPC debt relief completion point in 2010 at which 95% of the country's debt was forgiven. Economic growth prospects remain marginal due to declining cotton production and underinvestment in phosphate mining.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$5.927 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 156 $5.738 billion (2009 est.)

$5.565 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$3.074 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

3.3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 107 3.1% (2009 est.)

1.8% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$900 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 220 $900 (2009 est.)

$900 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 47.4%

industry: 25.4%

services: 27.2% (2009 est.)

Labor force:

2.595 million (2007) country comparison to the world: 109

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 65%

industry: 5%

services: 30% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate:

Population below poverty line:

32% (1989 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 3.3%

highest 10%: 27.1% (2006)

Investment (gross fixed):

18.2% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 107

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

2.6% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 80 2% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

4.25% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 94 4.75% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

NA% (31 December 2009 est.)

NA% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$754.5 million (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 146 $789.7 million (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$1.238 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 156 $1.306 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$817.7 million (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 153 $862.4 million (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

Agriculture - products:

coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish


phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages

Industrial production growth rate:

2.5% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 123

Electricity - production:

230 million kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 175

Electricity - consumption:

640 million kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 152

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

514 million kWh; note - electricity supplied by Ghana (2007 est.)

Oil - production:

0 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 126

Oil - consumption:

21,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 123

Oil - exports:

1,547 bbl/day (2005) country comparison to the world: 118

Oil - imports:

15,270 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 122

Oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 113

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 119

Natural gas - consumption:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 168

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 109

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 124

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 127

Current account balance:

-$339 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 103 -$236 million (2009 est.)


$859 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 155 $818 million (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa

Exports - partners:

Germany 17.57%, Ghana 12.74%, Burkina Faso 11.02%, India 10.22%,
Belgium 7.1%, Benin 6.92%, Netherlands 5.94%, Mali 4.41% (2009)


$1.337 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 166 $1.261 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products

Imports - partners:

China 36.58%, France 8.64%, Netherlands 6.76%, India 5.06%, US 4.4% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$686 million (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 116 $703.2 million (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$NA (31 December 2010)

$1.573 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Exchange rates:

Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 507.71 (2010), 472.19 (2009), 447.81 (2008), 482.71 (2007), 522.59 (2006)

Communications ::Togo

Telephones - main lines in use:

178,700 (2009) country comparison to the world: 128

Telephones - mobile cellular:

2.187 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 129

Telephone system:

general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system

domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 40 telephones per 100 persons with mobile-cellular use predominating

international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie

Broadcast media:

2 state-owned TV stations with multiple transmission sites; 5 private TV stations broadcast locally; cable TV service is available; state-owned radio network with multiple stations; several dozen private radio stations and a few community radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are obtainable (2007)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

860 (2010) country comparison to the world: 168

Internet users:

356,300 (2009) country comparison to the world: 123

Transportation ::Togo


8 (2010) country comparison to the world: 162

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 2 (2010)


total: 532 km country comparison to the world: 113 narrow gauge: 532 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)


total: 7,520 km country comparison to the world: 145 paved: 2,376 km

unpaved: 5,144 km (2000)


50 km (seasonally on Mono River depending on rainfall) (2008) country comparison to the world: 104

Merchant marine:

total: 53 country comparison to the world: 69 by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 40, chemical tanker 2, container 2, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: 23 (China 2, Greece 1, Lebanon 6, Romania 1, Syria 5, Turkey 4, UAE 1, UK 3) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Kpeme, Lome

Military ::Togo

Military branches:

Togolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Togolaise, FAT): Ground Forces,
Togolese Navy (Marine du Togo), Togolese Air Force (Force Aerienne
Togolaise, TAF), National Gendarmerie (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year service obligation (2006)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 1,462,206

females age 16-49: 1,463,189 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 983,283

females age 16-49: 1,004,887 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 71,081

female: 69,969 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

1.6% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 96

Transnational Issues ::Togo

Disputes - international:

in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; in 2006, 14,000 Togolese refugees remain in Benin and Ghana out of the 40,000 who fled there in 2005

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 5,000 (Ghana)

IDPs: 1,500 (2007)

Illicit drugs:

transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem



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