Tanzania, See : Flags, Maps


Zanzibar, de stapelplaats van Oost-Afrika, Piere de Myrica

Tanzania (Africa)

Introduction ::Tanzania


Shortly after achieving independence from Britain in the early 1960s, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the nation of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule came to an end in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition have led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities.

Geography ::Tanzania

View Larger Map


Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and

Geographic coordinates:
6 00 S, 35 00 E

Map references:



total: 947,300 sq km country comparison to the world: 31 land: 885,800 sq km

water: 61,500 sq km

note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar

Tanzania People_culture 02.jpg

Area - comparative:

slightly larger than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:

total: 3,861 km

border countries: Burundi 451 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 459 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km


1,424 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands


plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m

Tanzania, Dar es Salaam

Natural resources:

hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel

Land use:

arable land: 4.23%

permanent crops: 1.16%

other: 94.61% (2005)

Irrigated land:

1,840 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

91 cu km (2001)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 5.18 cu km/yr (10%/0%/89%)

per capita: 135 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:

flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought

volcanism: Tanzania experiences limited volcanic activity; Ol Doinyo Lengai (elev. 2,962 m, 9,718 ft) has emitted lava in recent years; other historically active volcanoes include Kieyo and Meru

Environment - current issues:

soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa; bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa in the southwest

People ::Tanzania


41,892,895 country comparison to the world: 31 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2010 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 43% (male 8,853,529/female 8,805,810)

15-64 years: 54.1% (male 10,956,133/female 11,255,868)

65 years and over: 2.9% (male 513,959/female 663,233) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 18.3 years

male: 18 years

female: 18.5 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

2.032% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 52

Birth rate:

33.44 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 40

Death rate:

12.31 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 28

Net migration rate:

-0.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 151


urban population: 25% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 4.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 68.13 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 21 male: 75 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 61.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 52.49 years country comparison to the world: 207 male: 50.99 years

female: 54.03 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

4.31 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 40

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

6.2% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 12

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

1.4 million (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 6

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

96,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 7

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: very high

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and plague

water contact disease: schistosomiasis

animal contact disease: rabies (2009)


noun: Tanzanian(s)

adjective: Tanzanian

Ethnic groups:

mainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African


mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 35%; Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim


Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in
Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce,
administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in
Zanzibar), many local languages

note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources including Arabic and English; it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages


definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic

total population: 69.4%

male: 77.5%

female: 62.2% (2002 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 5 years

male: 5 years

female: 5 years (1999)

Education expenditures:

6.8% of GDP (2008) country comparison to the world: 25

Government ::Tanzania

Country name:

conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania

conventional short form: Tanzania

local long form: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania

local short form: Tanzania

former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar

Government type:



name: Dar es Salaam

geographic coordinates: 6 48 S, 39 17 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

note: legislative offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital, and the National Assembly now meets there on a regular basis; the Executive Branch with all ministries and diplomatic representation remains located in Dar es Salaam

Administrative divisions:

26 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kagera, Kigoma,
Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza,
Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida,
Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar


26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964

National holiday:

Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)


25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984

Legal system:

based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Jakaya KIKWETE (since 21 December 2005); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Jakaya KIKWETE (since 21 December 2005); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001)

note: Zanzibar elects a president who is head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; Ali Mohamed SHEIN elected to that office on 31 October 2010, sworn in 3 November 2010

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by popular vote for five-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 31 October 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Jakaya KIKWETE elected president; percent of vote - Jakaya KIKWETE 61.2%, Wilbrod SLAA 26.3%, Ibrahim LIPUMBA 8.1%, other 4.5%

Legislative branch:

unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (274 seats; 232 members elected by popular vote, 37 allocated to women nominated by the president, 5 to members of the Zanzibar House of Representatives; members serve five-year terms); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives to make laws especially for Zanzibar (the Zanzibar House of Representatives has 50 seats; members elected by universal suffrage to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 14 December 2005 (next to be held on 31 October 2010)

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CCM 206, CUF 19, CHADEMA 5, other 2, women appointed by the president 37, Zanzibar representatives 5 Zanzibar House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CCM 30, CUF 19; 1 seat was nullified with a rerun to take place soon

Judicial branch:

Permanent Commission of Enquiry (official ombudsman); Court of Appeal (consists of a chief justice and four judges); High Court (consists of a Jaji Kiongozi and 29 judges appointed by the president; holds regular sessions in all regions); District Courts; Primary Courts (limited jurisdiction and appeals can be made to the higher courts)

Political parties and leaders:

Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (Party of Democracy and
Development) or CHADEMA [Bob MAKANI]; Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM
(Revolutionary Party) [Jakaya Mrisho KIKWETE]; Civic United Front or
CUF [Ibrahim LIPUMBA]; Democratic Party [Christopher MTIKLA]
(unregistered); Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine Lyatonga
MREME]; United Democratic Party or UDP [John CHEYO]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Economic and Social Research Foundation or ESRF; Free Zanzibar;
Tanzania Media Women's Association or TAMWA

International organization participation:


Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Mwandaidi Sinare MAAJAR

chancery: 2139 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Alfonso E. LENHARDT

embassy: 686 Old Bagamoyo Road, Msasani, Dar es Salaam

mailing address: P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam

telephone: [255] (22) 266-8001
FAX: [255] (22) 266-8238, 266-8373

Flag description:

divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue; the banner combines colors found on the flags of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; green represents the natural vegetation of the country, gold its rich mineral deposits, black the native Swahili people, and blue the country's many lakes and rivers, as well as the Indian Ocean

National anthem:

name: "Mungu ibariki Afrika" (God Bless Africa)

lyrics/music: collective/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA

note: adopted 1961; the anthem, which is also a popular song in Africa, shares the same melody with that of Zambia, but has different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem

Economy ::Tanzania

Economy - overview:

Tanzania is one of the world's poorest economies in terms of per capita income, however, Tanzania average 7% GDP growth per year between 2000 and 2008 on strong gold production and tourism. The economy depends heavily on agriculture, which accounts for more than one-fourth of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs about 60% of the work force. The World Bank, the IMF, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's aging economic infrastructure, including rail and port infrastructure that are important trade links for inland countries. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private-sector growth and investment, and the government has increased spending on agriculture to 7% of its budget. Continued donor assistance and solid macroeconomic policies supported a positive growth rate, despite the world recession. In 2008, Tanzania received the world's largest Millennium Challenge Compact grant, worth $698 million. Dar es Salaam used fiscal stimulus and loosened monitary policy to ease the impact of the global recession. GDP growth in 2009-10 was a respectable 6% per year due to high gold prices and increased production.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$62.22 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 84 $58.48 billion (2009 est.)

$55.17 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$22.43 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

6.4% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 32 6% (2009 est.)

7.4% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$1,500 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 202 $1,400 (2009 est.)

$1,400 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 41.6%

industry: 18.1%

services: 38.4% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

21.86 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 29

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 80%

industry and services: 20% (2002 est.)

Unemployment rate:

Population below poverty line:

36% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2.9%

highest 10%: 26.9% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

34.6 (2000) country comparison to the world: 89 38.2 (1993)

Investment (gross fixed):

17.4% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 115

Public debt:

23.3% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 103 21.4% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

7.2% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 182 12.1% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

3.7% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 17 15.99% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

15.03% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 47 14.98% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$3.394 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 107 $2.972 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$7.44 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 111 $6.65 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$4.163 million (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 184 $3.878 million (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$NA (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 99 $1.293 billion (31 December 2008)

$541.1 million (31 December 2006)

Agriculture - products:

coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats


agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine); diamond, gold, and iron mining, salt, soda ash; cement, oil refining, shoes, apparel, wood products, fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate:

7% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 41

Electricity - production:

3.786 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 118

Electricity - consumption:

3.182 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 124

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

200 million kWh (2007 est.)

Oil - production:

0 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 127

Oil - consumption:

34,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 111

Oil - exports:

0 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 170

Oil - imports:

28,070 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 102

Oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 114

Natural gas - production:

560.7 million cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 67

Natural gas - consumption:

560.7 million cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 93

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 112

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 126

Natural gas - proved reserves:

6.513 billion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 84

Current account balance:

-$1.523 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 152 -$1.746 billion (2009 est.)


$3.809 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 118 $3.365 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton

Exports - partners:

India 8.51%, China 7.55%, Japan 7.12%, Netherlands 6.21%, UAE 5.71%,
Germany 5.17% (2009)


$6.334 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 106 $5.834 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil

Imports - partners:

India 13.97%, China 13.71%, South Africa 7.8%, Kenya 6.89%, UAE 4.65%, Japan 4.34% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$3.687 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 81 $3.206 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

note: excludes gold

Debt - external:

$7.576 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 94 $6.879 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

Exchange rates:

Tanzanian shillings (TZS) per US dollar - 1,423.3 (2010), 1,320.3 (2009), 1,178.1 (2008), 1,255 (2007), 1,251.9 (2006)

Communications ::Tanzania

Telephones - main lines in use:

173,552 (2010) country comparison to the world: 130

Telephones - mobile cellular:

17.677 million (2010) country comparison to the world: 42

Telephone system:

general assessment: telecommunications services are marginal; system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service; small aperture terminal (VSAT) system under construction

domestic: fixed-line telephone network inadequate with less than 1 connection per 100 persons; mobile-cellular service, aided by multiple providers, is increasing rapidly; trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital

international: country code - 255; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media:

a state-owned TV station and multiple privately-owned TV stations; state-owned national radio station supplemented by more than 40 privately-owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

24,182 (2010) country comparison to the world: 103

Internet users:

678,000 (2009) country comparison to the world: 111

Transportation ::Tanzania


124 (2010) country comparison to the world: 48

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 9

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 115

1,524 to 2,437 m: 19

914 to 1,523 m: 63

under 914 m: 33 (2010)


gas 254 km; oil 888 km; refined products 8 km (2009)


total: 3,689 km country comparison to the world: 46 narrow gauge: 969 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,720 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)


total: 78,892 km country comparison to the world: 61 paved: 4,741 km

unpaved: 74,151 km (2007)


Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa are principal avenues of commerce with neighboring countries; rivers are not navigable (2009)

Merchant marine:

total: 72 country comparison to the world: 59 by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 43, carrier 4, chemical tanker 2, container 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 15

foreign-owned: 1 (UAE 1)

registered in other countries: 3 (Honduras 1, Panama 2) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar

Transportation - note:

the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Indian Ocean are high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; crews have been robbed and stores or cargoes stolen

Military ::Tanzania

Military branches:

Tanzanian People's Defense Force (Jeshi la Wananchi la Tanzania, JWTZ): Army, Naval Wing (includes Coast Guard), Air Defense Command (includes Air Wing), National Service (2007)

Military service age and obligation:

18 years of age for voluntary military service (2007)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 9,683,768 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 5,667,987

females age 16-49: 5,690,331 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 498,815

female: 500,941 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

0.2% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 171

Transnational Issues ::Tanzania

Disputes - international:

Tanzania still hosts more than a half-million refugees, more than any other African country, mainly from Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, despite the international community's efforts at repatriation; disputes with Malawi over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River remain dormant

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 352,640 (Burundi); 127,973 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2007)

Illicit drugs:

targeted by traffickers moving hashish, Afghan heroin, and South American cocaine transported down the East African coastline, through airports, or overland through Central Africa; Zanzibar likely used by traffickers for drug smuggling; traffickers in the past have recruited Tanzanian couriers to move drugs through Iran into East Asia.


Hellenica World - Scientific Library