The Feynman Lectures on Physics is a physics textbook based on some lectures by Richard Feynman, a Nobel laureate who has sometimes been called "The Great Explainer".[1] The lectures were presented before undergraduate students at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), during 1961–1963. The book's co-authors are Feynman, Robert B. Leighton, and Matthew Sands.

The Feynman Lectures on Physics is perhaps the most popular physics book ever written. More than 1.5 million English-language copies have been sold; probably even more copies have been sold in a dozen foreign-language editions.[2] A 2013 review in Nature described the book as having "simplicity, beauty, unity ... presented with enthusiasm and insight".[3]

Description

The textbook comprises three volumes. The first volume focuses on mechanics, radiation, and heat, including relativistic effects. The second volume covers mainly electromagnetism and matter. The third volume covers quantum mechanics; for example, it shows how the double-slit experiment demonstrates the essential features of quantum mechanics. The book also includes chapters on the relationship between mathematics and physics, and the relationship of physics to other sciences.

In 2013, Caltech in cooperation with The Feynman Lectures Website made the book freely available, on the web site.[4]

Background

Feynman the “Great Explainer”: The Feynman Lectures on Physics found an appreciative audience beyond the undergraduate community.

By 1960, Richard Feynman’s research and discoveries in physics had resolved a number of troubling inconsistencies in several fundamental theories. In particular, it was his work in quantum electrodynamics for which he was awarded the 1965 Nobel Prize in physics. At the same time that Feynman was at the pinnacle of his fame, the faculty of the California Institute of Technology was concerned about the quality of the introductory courses for undergraduate students. It was thought the courses were burdened by an old-fashioned syllabus and the exciting discoveries of recent years, many of which had occurred at Caltech, were not being taught to the students.

Thus, it was decided to reconfigure the first physics course offered to students at Caltech, with the goal being to generate more excitement in the students. Feynman readily agreed to give the course, though only once. Aware of the fact that this would be a historic event, Caltech recorded each lecture and took photographs of each drawing made on the blackboard by Feynman.

Based on the lectures and the tape recordings, a team of physicists and graduate students put together a manuscript that would become The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Although Feynman's most valuable technical contribution to the field of physics may have been in the field of quantum electrodynamics, the Feynman Lectures were destined to become his most widely-read work.

The Feynman Lectures are considered to be one of the most sophisticated and comprehensive college-level introductions to physics.[5] Feynman himself stated in his original preface that he was “pessimistic” with regard to his success in reaching all of his students. The Feynman lectures were written “to maintain the interest of very enthusiastic and rather smart students coming out of high schools and into Caltech”. Feynman was targeting the lectures to students who, “at the end of two years of our previous course, [were] very discouraged because there were really very few grand, new, modern ideas presented to them”. As a result, some physics students find the lectures more valuable after they have obtained a good grasp of physics by studying more traditional texts, and the books are sometimes seen as more helpful for teachers than for students.[6]

While the two-year course (1961–1963) was still underway, rumors of it spread throughout the physics research and teaching community. In a special preface to the 1989 edition, David Goodstein and Gerry Neugebauer claimed that as time went on, the attendance of registered undergraduate students dropped sharply but was matched by a compensating increase in the number of faculty and graduate students. Co-author Matthew Sands, in his memoir accompanying the 2005 edition, contested this claim. Goodstein and Neugebauer also stated that, “it was [Feynman’s] peers — scientists, physicists, and professors — who would be the main beneficiaries of his magnificent achievement, which was nothing less than to see physics through the fresh and dynamic perspective of Richard Feynman”, and that his "gift was that he was an extraordinary teacher of teachers".

Addison-Wesley published a collection of exercises and problems to accompany The Feynman Lectures on Physics. The problem sets were first used in the 1962-1963 academic year, and were organized by Robert B. Leighton. Some of the problems are sophisticated and difficult enough to require an understanding of advanced topics, such as Kolmogorov's zero–one law. The original set of books and supplements contained a number of errors, some of which rendered problems insoluble. Various errata were issued, which are now available online.[7]

Addison-Wesley also released in CD format all the audio tapes of the lectures, over 103 hours with Richard Feynman, after remastering the sound and clearing the recordings. For the CD release, the order of the lectures was rearranged from that of the original texts. The publisher has released a table showing the correspondence between the books and the CDs.

In March 1964, Feynman appeared once again before the freshman physics class as a lecturer, but the notes for this particular guest lecture were lost for a number of years. They were finally located, restored, and made available as Feynman's Lost Lecture: The Motion of Planets Around the Sun.

In 2005, Michael A. Gottlieb and Ralph Leighton co-authored Feynman's Tips on Physics, which includes four of Feynman's freshman lectures which had not been included in the main text (three on problem solving, one on inertial guidance), a memoir by Matthew Sands about the origins of the Feynman Lectures on Physics, and exercises (with answers) that were assigned to students by Robert B. Leighton and Rochus Vogt in recitation sections of the Feynman Lectures course at Caltech. Also released in 2005, was a "Definitive Edition" of the lectures which included corrections to the original text.

An account of the history of these famous volumes is given by Sands in his memoir article “Capturing the Wisdom of Feynman",[8] and another article "Memories of Feynman" by the physicist T. A. Welton.[9]

In a September 13, 2013 email to members of the Feynman Lectures online forum, Gottlieb announced the launch of a new website by Caltech and The Feynman Lectures Website which offers "[A] free high-quality online edition" of the lecture text. To provide a device-independent reading experience, the website takes advantage of modern web technologies like HTML5, SVG, and MathJax to present text, figures, and equations in any sizes while maintaining the display quality.[10]

Contents

Volume I: Mainly mechanics, radiation, and heat

Preface: “When new ideas came in, I would try either to deduce them if they were deducible or to explain that it was a new idea … and which was not supposed to be provable.”

Chapters

Atoms in motion

Basic Physics

The relation of physics to other sciences

Conservation of energy

Time and distance

Probability

The theory of gravitation

Motion

Newton's laws of dynamics

Conservation of momentum

Vectors

Characteristics of force

Work and potential energy (A)

Work and potential energy (conclusion)

The special theory of relativity

Relativistic energy and momentum

Space-time

Rotation in two dimensions

Center of mass; Moment of inertia

Rotation in space

The harmonic oscillator

Algebra

Resonance

Transients

Linear systems and review

Optics: The principle of least time

Geometrical optics

Electromagnetic radiation

Interference

Diffraction

The origin of the refractive index

Radiation damping. Light scattering

Polarization

Relativistic effects in radiation

Color vision

Mechanisms of seeing

Quantum behavior

The Relation of Wave and particle viewpoints

The kinetic theory of gases

The principles of statistical mechanics

The brownian movement

Applications of kinetic theory

Diffusion

The laws of thermodynamics

Illustrations of thermodynamics

Ratchet and pawl

Sound. The wave equation

Beats

Modes

Harmonics

Waves

Symmetry in physical laws

Volume II: Mainly electromagnetism and matter

Chapters

Electromagnetism

Differential calculus of vector fields

Vector integral calculus

Electrostatics

Application of Gauss' law

The electric field in various circumstances

The electric field in various circumstances (continued)

Electrostatic energy

Electricity in the atmosphere

Dielectrics

Inside dielectrics

Electrostatic analogs

Magnetostatics

The magnetic field in various situations

The vector potential

Induced currents

The laws of induction

The Maxwell equations

Principle of least action

Solutions of Maxwell's equations in free space

Solutions of Maxwell's equations with currents and charges

AC circuits

Cavity resonators

Waveguides

Electrodynamics in relativistic notation

Lorentz transformations of the fields

Field energy and field momentum

Electromagnetic mass (ref. to Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory)

The motion of charges in electric and magnetic fields

The internal geometry of crystals

Tensors

Refractive index of dense materials

Reflection from surfaces

The magnetism of matter

Paramagnetism and magnetic resonance

Ferromagnetism

Magnetic materials

Elasticity

Elastic materials

The flow of dry water

The flow of wet water

Curved space

Volume III: Quantum mechanics

Chapters

Quantum behavior

The relation of wave and particle viewpoints

Probability amplitudes

Identical particles

Spin one

Spin one-half

The dependence of amplitudes on time

The Hamiltonian matrix

The ammonia maser

Other two-state systems

More two-state systems

The hyperfine splitting in hydrogen

Propagation in a crystal lattice

Semiconductors

The independent particle approximation

The dependence of amplitudes on position

Symmetry and conservation laws

Angular momentum

The hydrogen atom and the periodic table

Operators

The Schrödinger equation in a classical context: a seminar on superconductivity

Abbreviated editions

Six readily-accessible chapters were later compiled into a book entitled Six Easy Pieces: Essentials of Physics Explained by Its Most Brilliant Teacher. Six more chapters are in the book Six Not So Easy Pieces: Einstein's Relativity, Symmetry and Space-Time.

“Six Easy Pieces grew out of the need to bring to as wide an audience as possible, a substantial yet nontechnical physics primer based on the science of Richard Feynman... General readers are fortunate that Feynman chose to present certain key topics in largely qualitative terms without formal mathematics…”[11]

Six Easy Pieces (1994)

Chapters:

Atoms in motion

Basic Physics

The relation of physics to other sciences

Conservation of energy

The theory of gravitation

Quantum behavior

Six Not-So-Easy Pieces (1998)

Chapters:

Vectors

Symmetry in physical laws

The special theory of relativity

Relativistic energy and momentum

Space-time

Curved space

The Very Best of The Feynman Lectures (Audio, 2005)

Chapters:

The Theory of Gravitation (Vol. I, Chapter 7)

Curved Space (Vol. II, Chapter 42)

Electromagnetism (Vol. II, Chapter 1)

Probability (Vol. I, Chapter 6)

The Relation of Wave and Particle Viewpoints (Vol. III, Chapter 2)

Superconductivity (Vol. III, Chapter 21)

Publishing information

Feynman R, Leighton R, and Sands M. The Feynman Lectures on Physics . 3 volumes 1964, 1966. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 63-20717

ISBN 0-201-02115-3 (1970 paperback three-volume set)

ISBN 0-201-50064-7 (1989 commemorative hardcover three-volume set)

ISBN 0-8053-9045-6 (2006 the definitive edition, 2nd printing, hardcover)

Feynman's Tips On Physics: A Problem-Solving Supplement to the Feynman Lectures on Physics (hardcover) ISBN 0-8053-9063-4

Six Easy Pieces (hardcover book with original Feynman audio on CDs) ISBN 0-201-40896-1

Six Easy Pieces (paperback book) ISBN 0-201-40825-2

Six Not-So-Easy Pieces (paperback book with original Feynman audio on CDs) ISBN 0-201-32841-0

Six Not-So-Easy Pieces (paperback book) ISBN 0-201-32842-9

Exercises for the Feynman Lectures (paperback book) ISBN 2-35648-789-1 (out of print)

Feynman R, Leighton R, and Sands M. "The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Volume I" (online edition), The Feynman Lectures Website, September 2013.

See also

Berkeley Physics Course – another contemporaneously-developed and influential college-level physics series

The Character of Physical Law – a condensed series of Feynman lectures for scientists and non-scientists

Project Tuva

List of textbooks on classical and quantum mechanics

List of textbooks on electromagnetism

List of textbooks on thermodynamics and statistical mechanics

References

LeVine, Harry (2009). The Great Explainer: The Story of Richard Feynman. Greensboro, North Carolina: Morgan Reynolds. ISBN 978-1-59935-113-1.

"Tales of The Feynman Lectures on Physics". www.feynmanlectures.info. Retrieved 2012-02-27.

Phillips, Rob (2013-12-05). "In retrospect: The Feynman Lectures on Physics". Nature. 504 (7478): 30–31. Bibcode:2013Natur.504...30P. doi:10.1038/504030a. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 24305137.

"The Feynman Lectures in Physics". Retrieved 20 May 2020.

Rohrlich, Fritz (1989), From paradox to reality: our basic concepts of the physical world, Cambridge University Press, p. 157, ISBN 978-0-521-37605-1 Extract of page 157

Crease, Robert P. (2014). "Feynman's failings". Physics World. 27 (3): 25. Bibcode:2014PhyW...27c..25C. doi:10.1088/2058-7058/27/03/34. ISSN 2058-7058.

"Errata for The Feynman Lectures on Physics". www.feynmanlectures.info. Retrieved 2012-02-17.

Sands, Matthew (2005-04-01). "Capturing the Wisdom of Feynman". Physics Today. 58 (4): 49–55. Bibcode:2005PhT....58d..49S. doi:10.1063/1.1955479. ISSN 0031-9228.

Welton, Theodore A. (2007-02-01). "Memories of Feynman". Physics Today. 60 (2): 46–52. Bibcode:2007PhT....60b..46W. doi:10.1063/1.2711636.

Footnote on homepage of website The Feynman Lectures on Physics.

Feynman, Richard Phillips; Leighton, Robert B.; Sands, Matthew (2011). Six Easy Pieces: Essentials of Physics Explained by Its Most Brilliant Teacher. Basic Books. p. vii. ISBN 978-0-465-02529-9. Extract of page vii

External links

The Feynman Lectures on Physics California Institute of Technology (Caltech) – HTML edition.

The Feynman Lectures on Physics The Feynman Lectures Website – HTML edition and also exercises and other related material..

Hellenica World - Scientific Library

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