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The Tokamak à configuration variable (TCV, literally "variable configuration tokamak") is a Swiss research fusion reactor of the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL). As the largest experimental facility of the Swiss Plasma Center[1], the TCV Tokamak explores the physics of nuclear fusion by magnetic confinement. Its distinguishing feature over other tokamaks is that its torus section is three times higher than wide. This allows studying several shapes of plasmas, which is particularly relevant since the shape of the plasma has links to the performance of the reactor. This asset has earned its choice as one of the three national machines in Europe involved in the design of the international reactor ITER[2], as well as in the development of ITER’s successor DEMO, a prototype of a commercial reactor. The TCV was set up in November 1992.
Contents

Characteristics

Plasma height: 1.40 metres
Minor radius: 0.25 metre
Major radius: 0.88 metre
Plasma current: 1.2 megaamperes
Plasma life span: 2 seconds maximum
Toroidal magnetic field: 1.43 teslas
Additional heating power: 4.5 megawatts

Main studies

Confinement studies
confinement as a function of the shape of the plasma (triangular, square or elongated)
Improvement of the confinement of the core
Studies on vertically elongated plasmas
Studies with ECRH and ECCD (electron cyclotron resonance heating and electron cyclotron current drive)[3]

By 2012 it had 16 poloidal plasma shaping coils and could achieve a variety of field configurations and plasma shapes.[4][5]
History

1976: First proposal for an elongated tokamak by the "New Swiss Association"
1985: Second proposal, with a more elongated tokamak
1986: Acceptance of the TCV proposal (Tokamak à Configuration Variable)
1992: First plasma discharge
1997: World record of plasma elongation (see plasma shaping)
by August 2015 it has had a 19-month shutdown/upgrade to install its first neutral beam injector.[6]
by 2016 it was upgraded/enhanced to run with a 'snowflake' divertor[7]

References

"Swiss Plasma Center (SPC) | ETH-Board". www.ethrat.ch. Retrieved 2020-12-08.
"Swiss Plasma Center: a new name for a strengthened role". ITER. Retrieved 2020-12-08.
TCV Auxiliary Heating.
TCV - Development of new plasma shapes. May 2012
[1] diagram shows 16 shaping coils and 7 other poloidal coils
Keeping fusion research on the boil: Three tokamaks and one stellarator. August 2015

Snowflake and the multiple divertor concepts. March 2016

External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tokamak à Configuration Variable.

TCV official site
TCV Technical data as of Oct 2012

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Fusion power, processes and devices
Core topics

Nuclear fusion
Timeline List of experiments Nuclear power Nuclear reactor Atomic nucleus Fusion energy gain factor Lawson criterion Magnetohydrodynamics Neutron Plasma

Processes,
methods
Confinement
type
Gravitational

Alpha process Triple-alpha process CNO cycle Fusor Helium flash Nova
remnants Proton-proton chain Carbon-burning Lithium burning Neon-burning Oxygen-burning Silicon-burning R-process S-process

Magnetic

Dense plasma focus Field-reversed configuration Levitated dipole Magnetic mirror
Bumpy torus Reversed field pinch Spheromak Stellarator Tokamak
Spherical Z-pinch

Inertial

Bubble (acoustic) Laser-driven Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion

Electrostatic

Fusor Polywell

Other forms

Colliding beam Magnetized target Migma Muon-catalyzed Pyroelectric

Devices, experiments
Magnetic confinement
Tokamak

International

ITER DEMO PROTO

Americas

Canada STOR-M United States Alcator C-Mod ARC
SPARC DIII-D Electric Tokamak LTX NSTX
PLT TFTR Pegasus Brazil ETE Mexico Novillo [es]

Asia,
Oceania

China CFETR EAST
HT-7 SUNIST India ADITYA SST-1 Japan JT-60 QUEST [ja] Pakistan GLAST South Korea KSTAR

Europe

European Union JET Czech Republic COMPASS GOLEM [cs] France TFR WEST Germany ASDEX Upgrade TEXTOR Italy FTU IGNITOR Portugal ISTTOK Russia T-15 Switzerland TCV United Kingdom MAST-U START STEP

Stellarator
Americas

United States CNT CTH HIDRA HSX Model C NCSX Costa Rica SCR-1

Asia,
Oceania

Australia H-1NF Japan Heliotron J LHD

Europe

Germany WEGA Wendelstein 7-AS Wendelstein 7-X Spain TJ-II Ukraine Uragan-2M
Uragan-3M [uk]

RFP

Italy RFX United States MST

Magnetized target

Canada SPECTOR United States LINUS FRX-L – FRCHX Fusion Engine

Other

Russia GDT United States Astron LDX Lockheed Martin CFR MFTF
TMX Perhapsatron PFRC Riggatron SSPX United Kingdom Sceptre Trisops ZETA

Inertial confinement
Laser
Americas

United States Argus Cyclops Janus LIFE Long path NIF Nike Nova OMEGA Shiva

Asia

Japan GEKKO XII

Europe

European Union HiPER Czech Republic Asterix IV (PALS) France LMJ LULI2000 Russia ISKRA United Kingdom Vulcan

Non-laser

United States PACER Z machine

Applications

Thermonuclear weapon
Pure fusion weapon

International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility

Physics Encyclopedia

World

Index

Hellenica World - Scientific Library

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/"
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