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In theoretical physics, a no-go theorem is a theorem that states that a particular situation is not physically possible. Specifically, the term describes results in quantum mechanics like Bell's theorem and the Kochen–Specker theorem that constrain the permissible types of hidden variable theories which try to explain the apparent randomness of quantum mechanics as a deterministic model featuring hidden states.[1][2][failed verification – see discussion]


The Weinberg–Witten theorem states that massless particles (either composite or elementary) with spin j > ​1⁄2 cannot carry a Lorentz-covariant current, while massless particles with spin j > 1 cannot carry a Lorentz-covariant stress-energy. The theorem is usually interpreted to mean that the graviton (j = 2) cannot be a composite particle in a relativistic quantum field theory.

In quantum information theory, a no-communication theorem is a result that gives conditions under which instantaneous transfer of information between two observers is impossible.

Other examples:

Antidynamo theorems (e.g. Cowling's theorem)
Coleman–Mandula theorem
Earnshaw's theorem (it states that a collection of point charges cannot be maintained in a stable stationary equilibrium configuration solely by the electrostatic interaction of the charges)
Haag–Łopuszański–Sohnius theorem as a generalisation of the Coleman–Mandula theorem stating that "space-time and internal symmetries cannot be combined in any but a trivial way"
Haag's theorem
Nielsen–Ninomiya theorem
No-broadcast theorem
No-cloning theorem
No-deleting theorem
No-hiding theorem
No-teleportation theorem
No-programming theorem[3]

See also

Proof of impossibility


Bub, Jeffrey (1999). Interpreting the Quantum World (revised paperback ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-65386-2.
Holevo, Alexander (2011). Probabilistic and Statistical Aspects of Quantum Theory (2nd English ed.). Pisa: Edizioni della Normale. ISBN 978-8876423758.
Nielsen, M. A.; Chuang, Isaac L. (1997-07-14). "Programmable Quantum Gate Arrays". Physical Review Letters. 79 (2): 321–324. arXiv:quant-ph/9703032. Bibcode:1997PhRvL..79..321N. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.79.321.

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