- Art Gallery -

Experiments directed toward developing fusion power are invariably done with dedicated machines which can be classified according to the principles they use to confine the plasma fuel and keep it hot.

The major division is between magnetic confinement and inertial confinement. In magnetic confinement, the tendency of the hot plasma to expand is counteracted by the Lorentz force between currents in the plasma and magnetic fields produced by external coils. The particle densities tend to be in the range of 1018 to 1022 m−3 and the linear dimensions in the range of 0.1 to 10 m. The particle and energy confinement times may range from under a millisecond to over a second, but the configuration itself is often maintained through input of particles, energy, and current for times that are hundreds or thousands of times longer. Some concepts are capable of maintaining a plasma indefinitely.

In contrast, with inertial confinement, there is nothing to counteract the expansion of the plasma. The confinement time is simply the time it takes the plasma pressure to overcome the inertia of the particles, hence the name. The densities tend to be in the range of 10^31 to 10^33 m−3 and the plasma radius in the range of 1 to 100 micrometers. These conditions are obtained by irradiating a millimeter-sized solid pellet with a nanosecond laser or ion pulse. The outer layer of the pellet is ablated, providing a reaction force that compresses the central 10% of the fuel by a factor of 10 or 20 to 10^3 or 10^4 times solid density. These microplasmas disperse in a time measured in nanoseconds. For a fusion power reactor, a repetition rate of several per second will be needed.

Magnetic confinement

Within the field of magnetic confinement experiments, there is a basic division between toroidal and open magnetic field topologies. Generally speaking, it is easier to contain a plasma in the direction perpendicular to the field than parallel to it. Parallel confinement can be solved either by bending the field lines back on themselves into circles or, more commonly, toroidal surfaces, or by constricting the bundle of field lines at both ends, which causes some of the particles to be reflected by the mirror effect. The toroidal geometries can be further subdivided according to whether the machine itself has a toroidal geometry, i.e., a solid core through the center of the plasma. The alternative is to dispense with a solid core and rely on currents in the plasma to produce the toroidal field.

Mirror machines have advantages in a simpler geometry and a better potential for direct conversion of particle energy to electricity. They generally require higher magnetic fields than toroidal machines, but the biggest problem has turned out to be confinement. For good confinement there must be more particles moving perpendicular to the field than there are moving parallel to the field. Such a non-Maxwellian velocity distribution is, however, very difficult to maintain and energetically costly.

The mirrors' advantage of simple machine geometry is maintained in machines which produce compact toroids, but there are potential disadvantages for stability in not having a central conductor and there is generally less possibility to control (and thereby optimize) the magnetic geometry. Compact toroid concepts are generally less well developed than those of toroidal machines. While this does not necessarily mean that they cannot work better than mainstream concepts, the uncertainty involved is much greater.

Somewhat in a class by itself is the Z-pinch, which has circular field lines. This was one of the first concepts tried, but it did not prove very successful. Furthermore, there was never a convincing concept for turning the pulsed machine requiring electrodes into a practical reactor.

The dense plasma focus is a controversial and "non-mainstream" device that relies on currents in the plasma to produce a toroid. It is a pulsed device that depends on a plasma that is not in equilibrium and has the potential for direct conversion of particle energy to electricity. Experiments are ongoing to test relatively new theories to determine if the device has a future.
Toroidal machine

Toroidal machines can be axially symmetric, like the tokamak and the reversed field pinch (RFP), or asymmetric, like the stellarator. The additional degree of freedom gained by giving up toroidal symmetry might ultimately be usable to produce better confinement, but the cost is complexity in the engineering, the theory, and the experimental diagnostics. Stellarators typically have a periodicity, e.g. a fivefold rotational symmetry. The RFP, despite some theoretical advantages such as a low magnetic field at the coils, has not proven very successful.

Tokamak

[1]

Device Name Status Construction Operation Location Organisation Major/Minor Radius B-field Plasma current Purpose Image
T-1 Shut down ? 1957-1959 Moscow Soviet Union Kurchatov Institute 0.625 m/0.13 m 1 T 0.04 MA First tokamak T-1
T-3 Shut down ? 1962-? Moscow Soviet Union Kurchatov Institute 1 m/0.12 m 2.5 T 0.06 MA
ST (Symmetric Tokamak) Shut down Model C 1970-1974 Princeton United States Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 1.09 m/0.13 m 5.0 T 0.13 MA First American tokamak, converted from Model C stellarator
ORMAK (Oak Ridge tokaMAK) Shut down 1971-1976 Oak Ridge United States Oak Ridge National Laboratory 0.8 m/0.23 m 2.5 T 0.34 MA First to achieve 20 MK plasma temperature ORMAK plasma vessel
ATC (Adiabatic Toroidal Compressor) Shut down 1971-1972 1972-1976 Princeton United States Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 0.88 m/0.11 m 2 T 0.05 MA Demonstrate compressional plasma heating Schematic of ATC
TFR (Tokamak de Fontenay-aux-Roses) Shut down 1973-1984 Fontenay-aux-Roses France CEA 1 m/0.2 m 6 T 0.49
T-10 (Tokamak-10) Operational 1975- Moscow Soviet Union Kurchatov Institute 1.50 m/0.37 m 4 T 0.8 MA Largest tokamak of its time Model of the T-10
PLT (Princeton Large Torus) Shut down 1975-1986 Princeton United States Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 1.32 m/0.4 m 4 T 0.7 MA First to achieve 1 MA plasma current Construction of the Princeton Large Torus
ISX-B Shut down ? 1978-? Oak Ridge United States Oak Ridge National Laboratory 0.93 m/0.27 m 1.8 T 0.2 MA Superconducting coils, attempt high-beta operation
ASDEX (Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment)[2] Recycled →HL-2A 1980-1990 Garching Germany Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik 1.65 m/0.4 m 2.8 T 0.5 MA Discovery of the H-mode in 1982
TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research)[3][4] Shut down 1976-1980 1981-2013 Jülich Germany Forschungszentrum Jülich 1.75 m/0.47 m 2.8 T 0.8 MA Study plasma-wall interactions
TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor)[5] Shut down 1980-1982 1982-1997 Princeton United States Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 2.4 m/0.8 m 6 T 3 MA Attempted scientific break-even, reached record fusion power of 10.7 MW and temperature of 510 MK TFTR plasma vessel
JET (Joint European Torus)[6] Operational 1978-1983 1983- Culham United Kingdom Culham Centre for Fusion Energy 2.96 m/0.96 m 4 T 7 MA Record for fusion output power 16.1 MW JET in 1991
Novillo[7][8] Shut down NOVA-II 1983-2004 Mexico City Mexico Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares 0.23 m/0.06 m 1 T 0.01 MA Study plasma-wall interactions
JT-60 (Japan Torus-60)[9] Recycled →JT-60SA 1985-2010 Naka Japan Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute 3.4 m/1.0 m 4 T 3 MA High-beta steady-state operation, highest fusion triple product
DIII-D[10] Operational 1986[11] 1986- San Diego United States General Atomics 1.67 m/0.67 m 2.2 T 3 MA Tokamak Optimization DIII-D vacuum vessel
STOR-M (Saskatchewan Torus-Modified)[12] Operational 1987- Saskatoon Canada Plasma Physics Laboratory (Saskatchewan) 0.46 m/0.125 m 1 T 0.06 MA Study plasma heating and anomalous transport
T-15 Recycled →T-15MD 1983-1988 1988-1995 Moscow Soviet Union Kurchatov Institute 2.43 m/0.7 m 3.6 T 1 MA First superconducting tokamak. T-15 coil system
Tore Supra[13] Recycled →WEST 1988-2011 Cadarache France Département de Recherches sur la Fusion Contrôlée 2.25 m/0.7 m 4.5 T 2 MA Large superconducting tokamak with active cooling
ADITYA (tokamak) Operational 1989- Gandhinagar India Institute for Plasma Research 0.75 m/0.25 m 1.2 T 0.25 MA
COMPASS (COMPact ASSembly)[14][15] Operational 1980- 1989- Prague Czech Republic Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR 0.56 m/0.23 m 2.1 T 0.32 MA COMPASS plasma chamber
FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) Operational 1990- Frascati Italy ENEA 0.935 m/0.35 m 8 T 1.6 MA
START (Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak)[16] Shut down 1990-1998 Culham United Kingdom Culham Centre for Fusion Energy 0.3 m/? 0.5 T 0.31 MA First full-sized Spherical Tokamak
ASDEX Upgrade (Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment) Operational 1991- Garching Germany Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik 1.65 m/0.5 m 2.6 T 1.4 MA ASDEX Upgrade plasma vessel segment
Alcator C-Mod (Alto Campo Toro)[17] Operational (Funded by Fusion Startups) 1986- 1991-2016 Cambridge United States Massachusetts Institute of Technology 0.68 m/0.22 m 8 T 2 MA record plasma pressure 2.05 bar Alcator C-Mod plasma vessel
ISTTOK (Instituto Superior Técnico TOKamak)[18] Operational 1992- Lisbon Portugal Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear 0.46 m/0.085 m 2.8 T 0.01 MA
TCV (Tokamak à Configuration Variable)[19] Operational 1992- Lausanne Switzerland École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne 0.88 m/0.25 m 1.43 T 1.2 MA Confinement studies TCV plasma vessel
HBT-EP (High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse) Operational 1993- New York City United States Columbia University Plasma Physics Laboratory 0.92 m/0.15 m 0.35 T 0.03 MA High-Beta Tokamak HBT-EP sketch
HT-7 (Hefei Tokamak-7) Shut down 1991-1994 1995-2013 Hefei China Hefei Institutes of Physical Science 1.22 m/0.27 m 2 T 0.2 MA China's first superconducting tokamak HT-7 scientists
Pegasus Toroidal Experiment[20] Operational ? 1996- Madison United States University of Wisconsin–Madison 0.45 m/0.4 m 0.18 T 0.3 MA Extremely low aspect ratio Pegasus Toroidal Experiment
NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment)[21] Operational 1999- Plainsboro Township United States Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 0.85 m/0.68 m 0.3 T 2 MA Study the spherical tokamak concept National Spherical Torus Experiment
ET (Electric Tokamak) Recycled →ETPD 1998 1999-2006 Los Angeles United States UCLA 5 m/1 m 0.25 T 0.045 MA Largest tokamak of its time The Electric Tokamak.jpg
CDX-U (Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade) Recycled →LTX 2000-2005 Princeton United States Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 0.3 m/? m 0.23 T 0.03 MA Study Lithium in plasma walls CDX-U setup
MAST (Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak)[22] Recycled →MAST-Upgrade 1997-1999 2000-2013 Culham United Kingdom Culham Centre for Fusion Energy 0.85 m/0.65 m 0.55 T 1.35 MA Investigate spherical tokamak for fusion Plasma in MAST
HL-2A Recycled →HL-2M 2000-2002 2002-2018 Chengdu China Southwestern Institute of Physics 1.65 m/0.4 m 2.7 T 0.43 MA H-mode physics, ELM mitigation [1]
SST-1 (Steady State Superconducting Tokamak)[23] Operational 2001- 2005- Gandhinagar India Institute for Plasma Research 1.1 m/0.2 m 3 T 0.22 MA Produce a 1000s elongated double null divertor plasma
EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak)[24] Operational 2000-2005 2006- Hefei China Hefei Institutes of Physical Science 1.85 m/0.43 m 3.5 T 0.5 MA H-Mode plasma for over 100 s at 50 MK EAST plasma vessel
J-TEXT (Joint TEXT) Operational TEXT (Texas EXperimental Tokamak) 2007- Wuhan China Huazhong University of Science and Technology 1.05 m/0.26 m 2.0 T 0.2 MA Develop plasma control [2]
KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research)[25] Operational 1998-2007 2008- Daejeon South Korea National Fusion Research Institute 1.8 m/0.5 m 3.5 T 2 MA Tokamak with fully superconducting magnets KSTAR
LTX (Lithium Tokamak Experiment) Operational 2005-2008 2008- Princeton United States Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 0.4 m/? m 0.4 T 0.4 MA Study Lithium in plasma walls Lithium Tokamak Experiment plasma vessel
QUEST (Q-shu University Experiment with Steady-State Spherical Tokamak)[26] Operational 2008- Kasuga Japan Kyushu University 0.68 m/0.4 m 0.25 T 0.02 MA Study steady state operation of a Spherical Tokamak QUEST
Kazakhstan Tokamak for Material testing (KTM) Operational 2000-2010 2010- Kurchatov Kazakhstan National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan 0.86 m/0.43 m 1 T 0.75 MA Testing of wall and divertor
ST25-HTS[27] Operational 2012-2015 2015- Culham United Kingdom Tokamak Energy Ltd 0.25 m/0.125 m 0.1 T 0.02 MA Steady state plasma ST25-HTS with plasma
WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) Operational 2013-2016 2016- Cadarache France Département de Recherches sur la Fusion Contrôlée 2.5 m/0.5 m 3.7 T 1 MA Superconducting tokamak with active cooling WEST design
ST40[28] Operational 2017-2018 2018- Didcot United Kingdom Tokamak Energy Ltd 0.4 m/0.3 m 3 T 2 MA First high field spherical tokamak ST40 engineering drawing
MAST-U (Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak Upgrade)[29] Operational 2013-2019 2020- Culham United Kingdom Culham Centre for Fusion Energy 0.85 m/0.65 m 0.92 T 2 MA Test new exhaust concepts for a spherical tokamak
HL-2M[30] Operational 2018-2019 2020- Leshan China Southwestern Institute of Physics 1.78 m/0.65 m 2.2 T 1.2 MA Elongated plasma with 200M °C HL-2M
JT-60SA (Japan Torus-60 super, advanced)[31] Under construction 2013-2020 2020? Naka Japan Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute 2.96 m/1.18 m 2.25 T 5.5 MA Optimise plasma configurations for ITER and DEMO with full non-inductive steady-state operation panorama of JT-60SA
ITER[32] Under construction 2013-2025? 2025? Cadarache France ITER Council 6.2 m/2.0 m 5.3 T 15 MA ? Demonstrate feasibility of fusion on a power-plant scale with 500 MW fusion power Small-scale model of ITER
DTT (Divertor Tokamak Test facility)[33][34] Planned 2022-2025? 2025? Frascati Italy ENEA 2.14 m/0.70 m 6 T ? 5.5 MA ? Superconducting tokamak to study power exhaust [3]
SPARC[35][36] Planned 2021-? 2025? United States Commonwealth Fusion Systems and MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center 1.85 m/0.57 m 12.2 T 8.7 MA Compact, high-field tokamak with ReBCO coils and 100 MW planned fusion power
IGNITOR[37] Planned[38] ? >2024 Troitzk Russia ENEA 1.32 m/0.47 m 13 T 11 MA ? Compact fustion reactor with self-sustained plasma and 100 MW of planned fusion power
CFETR (China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor)[39] Planned 2020? 2030? China Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences 5.7 m/1.6 m ? 5 T ? 10 MA ? Bridge gaps between ITER and DEMO, planned fusion power 1000 MW [4]
STEP (Spherical Tokamak for Energy Production) Planned 2032? 2040? Culham United Kingdom Culham Centre for Fusion Energy 3 m/2 m ? ? ? Spherical tokamak with hundreds of MW planned electrical output
K-DEMO (Korean fusion demonstration tokamak reactor)[40] Planned 2037? South Korea National Fusion Research Institute 6.8 m/2.1 m 7 T 12 MA ? Prototype for the development of commercial fusion reactors with around 2200 MW of fusion power Engineering drawing of planned KDEMO
DEMO (DEMOnstration Power Station) Planned 2031? 2044? ? 9 m/3 m ? 6 T ?

Stellarator

Device Name Status Construction Operation Type Location Organisation Major/Minor Radius B-field Purpose Image
Model A Shut down 1952-1953 1953-? Figure-8 Princeton United States Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 0.3 m/0.02 m 0.1 T First stellarator [5]
Model B Shut down 1953-1954 1954-1959 Figure-8 Princeton United States Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 0.3 m/0.02 m 5 T Development of plasma diagnostics
Model B-1 Shut down ?-1959 Figure-8 Princeton United States Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 0.25 m/0.02 m 5 T Yielded 1 MK plasma temperatures
Model B-2 Shut down 1957 Figure-8 Princeton United States Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 0.3 m/0.02 m 5 T Electron temperatures up to 10 MK [6]
Model B-3 Shut down 1957 1958- Figure-8 Princeton United States Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 0.4 m/0.02 m 4 T Last figure-8 device, confinement studies of ohmically heated plasma
Model B-64 Shut down 1955 1955 Square Princeton United States Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory ? m/0.05 m 1.8 T
Model B-65 Shut down 1957 1957 Racetrack Princeton United States Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory [7]
Model B-66 Shut down 1958 1958-? Racetrack Princeton United States Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
Wendelstein 1-A Shut down 1960 Racetrack Garching Germany Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik 0.35 m/0.02 m 2 T ℓ=3
Wendelstein 1-B Shut down 1960 Racetrack Garching Germany Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik 0.35 m/0.02 m 2 T ℓ=2
Model C Recycled →ST 1957-1962 1962-1969 Racetrack Princeton United States Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 1.9 m/0.07 m 3.5 T Found large plasma losses by Bohm diffusion
L-1 Shut down 1963 1963-1971 Lebedev Russia Lebedev Physical Institute 0.6 m/0.05 m 1 T
SIRIUS Shut down 1964-? Kharkov Russia
TOR-1 Shut down 1967 1967-1973 Lebedev Russia Lebedev Physical Institute 0.6 m/0.05 m 1 T
TOR-2 Shut down ? 1967-1973 Lebedev Russia Lebedev Physical Institute 0.63 m/0.036 m 2.5 T
Wendelstein 2-A Shut down 1965-1968 1968-1974 Heliotron Garching Germany Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik 0.5 m/0.05 m 0.6 T Good plasma confinement “Munich mystery” Wendelstein 2-A
Wendelstein 2-B Shut down ?-1970 1971-? Heliotron Garching Germany Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik 0.5 m/0.055 m 1.25 T Demonstrated similar performance than tokamaks Wendelstein 2-B
L-2 Shut down ? 1975-? Lebedev Russia Lebedev Physical Institute 1 m/0.11 m 2.0 T
WEGA Recycled →HIDRA 1972-1975 1975-2013 Classical stellarator Greifswald Germany Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik 0.72 m/0.15 m 1.4 T Test lower hybrid heating WEGA
Wendelstein 7-A Shut down ? 1975-1985 Classical stellarator Garching Germany Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik 2 m/0.1 m 3.5 T First "pure" stellarator without plasma current
Heliotron-E Shut down ? 1980-? Heliotron Japan 2.2 m/0.2 m 1.9 T
Heliotron-DR Shut down ? 1981-? Heliotron Japan 0.9 m/0.07 m 0.6 T
Uragan-3 (M [uk])[41] Operational ? 1982-?[42] Torsatron Kharkiv Ukraine National Science Center, Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology (NSC KIPT) 1.0 m/0.12 m 1.3 T ?
Auburn Torsatron (AT) Shut down ? 1984-1990 Torsatron Auburn United States Auburn University 0.58 m/0.14 m 0.2 T Auburn Torsatron
Wendelstein 7-AS Shut down 1982-1988 1988-2002 Modular, advanced stellarator Garching Germany Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik 2 m/0.13 m 2.6 T First H-mode in a stellarator in 1992 Wendelstein 7-AS
Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) Shut down 1984-1988[43] 1988-? Torsatron Oak Ridge United States Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2.1 m/0.27 m 2.0 T High-beta operation
Compact Helical System (CHS) Shut down ? 1989-? Heliotron Toki Japan National Institute for Fusion Science 1 m/0.2 m 1.5 T
Compact Auburn Torsatron (CAT) Shut down ?-1990 1990-2000 Torsatron Auburn United States Auburn University 0.53 m/0.11 m 0.1 T Study magnetic flux surfaces Compact Auburn Torsatron
H-1NF[44] Operational 1992- Heliac Canberra Australia Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University 1.0 m/0.19 m 0.5 T H-1NF plasma vessel
TJ-K[45] Operational TJ-IU 1994- Torsatron Kiel, Stuttgart Germany University of Stuttgart 0.60 m/0.10 m 0.5 T Teaching
TJ-II[46] Operational 1991- 1997- flexible Heliac Madrid Spain National Fusion Laboratory, Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas 1.5 m/0.28 m 1.2 T Study plasma in flexible configuration CAD drawing of TJ-II
LHD (Large Helical Device)[47] Operational 1990-1998 1998- Heliotron Toki Japan National Institute for Fusion Science 3.5 m/0.6 m 3 T Determine feasibility of a stellarator fusion reactor LHD cross section
HSX (Helically Symmetric Experiment) Operational 1999- Modular, quasi-helically symmetric Madison United States University of Wisconsin–Madison 1.2 m/0.15 m 1 T investigate plasma transport HSX with clearly visible non-planar coils
Heliotron J (Heliotron J)[48] Operational 2000- Heliotron Kyoto Japan Institute of Advanced Energy 1.2 m/0.1 m 1.5 T Study helical-axis heliotron configuration
Columbia Non-neutral Torus (CNT) Operational ? 2004- Circular interlocked coils New York City United States Columbia University 0.3 m/0.1 m 0.2 T Study of non-neutral plasmas
Uragan-2(M)[49] Operational 1988-2006 2006-[50] Heliotron, Torsatron Kharkiv Ukraine National Science Center, Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology (NSC KIPT) 1.7 m/0.24 m 2.4 T ?
Quasi-poloidal stellarator (QPS)[51][52] Cancelled 2001-2007 - Modular Oak Ridge United States Oak Ridge National Laboratory 0.9 m/0.33 m 1.0 T Stellarator research Engineering drawing of the QPS
NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) Cancelled 2004-2008 - Helias Princeton United States Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 1.4 m/0.32 m 1.7 T High-β stability CAD drawing of NCSX
Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) Operational ? 2007?- Torsatron Auburn United States Auburn University 0.75 m/0.2 m 0.7 T Hybrid stellarator/tokamak CTH
HIDRA (Hybrid Illinois Device for Research and Applications)[53] Operational 2013-2014 (WEGA) 2014- ? Urbana, IL United States University of Illinois 0.72 m/0.19 m 0.5 T Stellarator and Tokamak in one device HIDRA after its reasemmbly in Illinois
UST_2[54] Operational 2013 2014- modular three period quasi-isodynamic Madrid Spain Charles III University of Madrid 0.29 m/0.04 m 0.089 T 3D printed stellarator UST_2 design concept
Wendelstein 7-X[55] Operational 1996-2015 2015- Helias Greifswald Germany Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik 5.5 m/0.53 m 3 T Steady-state plasma in fully optimized stellarator Schematic diagram of Wendelstein 7-X
SCR-1 (Stellarator of Costa Rica) Operational 2011-2015 2016- Modular Cartago Costa Rica Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica 0.14 m/0.042 m 0.044 T SCR-1 vacuum vessel drawing

Magnetic mirror

Baseball I/Baseball II Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA.
TMX, TMX-U Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA.
MFTF Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA.
Gas Dynamic Trap at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Akademgorodok, Russia.

Toroidal Z-pinch

Perhapsatron (1953, USA)
ZETA (Zero Energy Thermonuclear Assembly) (1957, United Kingdom)

Reversed field pinch (RFP)

ETA-BETA II in Padua, Italy (1979-1989)
RFX (Reversed-Field eXperiment), Consorzio RFX, Padova, Italy[56]
MST (Madison Symmetric Torus), University of Wisconsin–Madison, United States[57]
T2R, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
TPE-RX, AIST, Tsukuba, Japan
KTX (Keda Torus eXperiment) in China (since 2015)[58]

Spheromak

Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment

Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC)

C-2 Tri Alpha Energy
C-2U Tri Alpha Energy
C-2W TAE Technologies
LSX University of Washington
IPA University of Washington
HF University of Washington
IPA- HF University of Washington

Open field lines
Plasma pinch

Trisops - 2 facing theta-pinch guns

Levitated Dipole

Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX), MIT/Columbia University, United States[59]

Inertial confinement
Main article: Inertial confinement fusion
Laser-driven
Current or under construction experimental facilities
Solid state lasers

National Ignition Facility (NIF) at LLNL in California, US[60]
Laser Mégajoule of the Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique in Bordeaux, France (under construction)[61]
OMEGA EL Laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, US
Gekko XII at the Institute for Laser Engineering in Osaka, Japan
ISKRA-4 and ISKRA-5 Lasers at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center VNIIEF[62]
Pharos laser, 2 beam 1 kJ/pulse (IR) Nd:Glass laser at the Naval Research Laboratories
Vulcan laser at the central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, 2.6 kJ/pulse (IR) Nd:glass laser
Trident laser, at LANL; 3 beams total; 2 x 400 J beams, 100 ps – 1 us; 1 beam ~100 J, 600 fs – 2 ns.

Gas lasers

NIKE laser at the Naval Research Laboratories, Krypton Fluoride gas laser
PALS, formerly the "Asterix IV", at the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic,[63] 1 kJ max. output iodine laser at 1.315 micrometre fundamental wavelength

Dismantled experimental facilities
Solid-state lasers

4 pi laser built during the mid 1960s at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Long path laser built at LLNL in 1972
The two beam Janus laser built at LLNL in 1975
The two beam Cyclops laser built at LLNL in 1975
The two beam Argus laser built at LLNL in 1976
The 20 beam Shiva laser built at LLNL in 1977
24 beam OMEGA laser completed in 1980 at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics
The 10 beam Nova laser (dismantled) at LLNL. (First shot taken, December 1984 – final shot taken and dismantled in 1999)

Gas lasers

"Single Beam System" or simply "67" after the building number it was housed in, a 1 kJ carbon dioxide laser at Los Alamos National Laboratory
Gemini laser, 2 beams, 2.5 kJ carbon dioxide laser at LANL
Helios laser, 8 beam, ~10 kJ carbon dioxide laser at LANL — Media at Wikimedia Commons
Antares laser at LANL. (40 kJ CO2 laser, largest ever built, production of hot electrons in target plasma due to long wavelength of laser resulted in poor laser/plasma energy coupling)
Aurora laser 96 beam 1.3 kJ total krypton fluoride (KrF) laser at LANL
Sprite laser few joules/pulse laser at the Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

Z-Pinch
Main article: Z-Pinch

Z Pulsed Power Facility
ZEBRA device at the University of Nevada's Nevada Terawatt Facility[64]
Saturn accelerator at Sandia National Laboratory[65]
MAGPIE at Imperial College London
COBRA at Cornell University
PULSOTRON[66]

Inertial electrostatic confinement
Main article: Inertial electrostatic confinement

Fusor
Polywell

Magnetized target fusion
Main article: Magnetized target fusion

FRX-L
FRCHX
General Fusion - under development
LINUS project

References

"International tokamak research".
ASDEX at the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics
"Forschungszentrum Jülich - Plasmaphysik (IEK-4)". fz-juelich.de (in German).
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"EFDA-JET, the world's largest nuclear fusion research experiment". 2006-04-30. Archived from the original on 2006-04-30.
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"All-the-Worlds-Tokamaks". tokamak.info.
Yoshikawa, M. (2006-10-02). "JT-60 Project". Fusion Technology 1978. 2: 1079. Bibcode:1979fute.conf.1079Y. Archived from the original on 2006-10-02.
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"MIT Plasma Science & Fusion Center: research>alcator>". 2015-07-09. Archived from the original on 2015-07-09.
"Centro de Fusão Nuclear". cfn.ist.utl.pt. Archived from the original on 2010-03-07. Retrieved 2012-02-13.
"EPFL". crppwww.epfl.ch.
"Pegasus Toroidal Experiment". pegasus.ep.wisc.edu.
"NSTX-U". nstx-u.pppl.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-04.
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vte

Fusion power, processes and devices
Core topics

Nuclear fusion
Timeline List of experiments Nuclear power Nuclear reactor Atomic nucleus Fusion energy gain factor Lawson criterion Magnetohydrodynamics Neutron Plasma

Processes,
methods
Confinement
type
Gravitational

Alpha process Triple-alpha process CNO cycle Fusor Helium flash Nova
remnants Proton-proton chain Carbon-burning Lithium burning Neon-burning Oxygen-burning Silicon-burning R-process S-process

Magnetic

Dense plasma focus Field-reversed configuration Levitated dipole Magnetic mirror
Bumpy torus Reversed field pinch Spheromak Stellarator Tokamak
Spherical Z-pinch

Inertial

Bubble (acoustic) Laser-driven Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion

Electrostatic

Fusor Polywell

Other forms

Colliding beam Magnetized target Migma Muon-catalyzed Pyroelectric

Devices,
experiments
Magnetic
confinement
Tokamak
International

ITER DEMO PROTO

Americas

Canada STOR-M United States Alcator C-Mod ARC
SPARC DIII-D Electric Tokamak LTX NSTX
PLT TFTR Pegasus Brazil ETE Mexico Novillo [es]

Asia,
Oceania

China CFETR EAST
HT-7 SUNIST India ADITYA SST-1 Japan JT-60 QUEST [ja] Pakistan GLAST South Korea KSTAR

Europe

European Union JET Czech Republic COMPASS GOLEM [cs] France TFR WEST Germany ASDEX Upgrade TEXTOR Italy FTU IGNITOR Portugal ISTTOK Russia T-15 Switzerland TCV United Kingdom MAST-U START STEP

Stellarator
Americas

United States CNT CTH HIDRA HSX Model C NCSX Costa Rica SCR-1

Asia,
Oceania

Australia H-1NF Japan Heliotron J LHD

Europe

Germany WEGA Wendelstein 7-AS Wendelstein 7-X Spain TJ-II Ukraine Uragan-2M
Uragan-3M [uk]

RFP

Italy RFX United States MST

Magnetized target

Canada SPECTOR United States LINUS FRX-L – FRCHX Fusion Engine

Other

Russia GDT United States Astron LDX Lockheed Martin CFR MFTF
TMX Perhapsatron PFRC Riggatron SSPX United Kingdom Sceptre Trisops ZETA

Inertial
confinement
Laser
Americas

United States Argus Cyclops Janus LIFE Long path NIF Nike Nova OMEGA Shiva

Asia

Japan GEKKO XII

Europe

European Union HiPER Czech Republic Asterix IV (PALS) France LMJ LULI2000 Russia ISKRA United Kingdom Vulcan

Non-laser

United States PACER Z machine

Applications

Thermonuclear weapon
Pure fusion weapon

International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility

Physics Encyclopedia

World

Index

Hellenica World - Scientific Library

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