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The Helically Symmetric Experiment (HSX, stylized as Helically Symmetric eXperiment), is an experimental plasma confinement device at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, with design principles that are intended to be incorporated into a fusion reactor. The HSX is a modular coil stellarator which is a toroid-shaped pressure vessel with external electromagnets which generate a magnetic field for the purpose of containing a plasma. It began operation in 1999.[1]

Background
Main article: Stellarator

A stellarator is a magnetic confinement fusion device which generates all required magnetic fields to confine high temperature plasma by external magnetic coils. In contrast, in tokamaks and reversed field pinches, the magnetic field is created by the interaction of external magnets and an electrical current flowing through the plasma. The lack of this large externally driven plasma current makes stellarators suitable for steady-state fusion power plants.

However, due to non-axisymmetric nature of the fields, conventional stellarators have a combination of toroidal and helical modulation of the magnetic field lines, which leads to high transport of plasma out of the confinement volume at fusion-relevant conditions. This large transport in conventional stellarators can limit their performance as fusion reactors.

This problem can be largely reduced by tailoring the magnetic field geometry. The dramatic improvements in computer modeling capability in the last two decades has helped to "optimize" the magnetic geometry to reduce this transport, resulting in a new class of stellarators called "quasi-symmetric stellarators". Computer-modeled odd-looking electromagnets will directly produce the needed magnetic field configuration. These devices combine the good confinement properties of tokamaks and the steady-state nature of conventional stellarators. The Helically Symmetric Experiment (HSX) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is such a quasi-helically symmetric stellarator (helical axis of symmetry).
Device

The magnetic field in HSX is generated by a set of 48 twisted coils arranged in four field periods. HSX typically operates at a magnetic field of 1 Tesla at the center of the plasma column. A set of auxiliary coils is used to deliberately break the symmetry to mimic conventional stellarator properties for comparison.

The HSX vacuum vessel is made of stainless steel, and is helically shaped to follow the magnetic geometry.

Plasma formation and heating is achieved using 28 GHz, 100 kW electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). A second 100 kW gyrotron has recently been installed on HSX to perform heat pulse modulation studies.[2]
Operations

Plasmas as high as 3 kiloelectronvolts in temperature and about 8×1012/cc in density are routinely formed for various experiments.
Subsystems, diagnostics

HSX has a large set of diagnostics to measure properties of plasma and magnetic fields. The following gives a list of major diagnostics and subsystems.

Thomson scattering
Diagnostic neutral beam
Electron cyclotron resonance heating system
Electron cyclotron emission radiometers
Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy
Interferometer
Motional Stark effect
Heavy ion beam probe (coming soon)
Laser blow-off
Hard and soft-X-ray detectors
Mirnov coils
Rogowski coils
Passive spectroscopy

Goals and major achievements

HSX has made and continues to make fundamental contributions to the physics of quasisymmetric stellarators that show significant improvement over the conventional stellarator concept. These include:

Measuring large ion flows in the direction of quasisymmetry
Reduced flow damping in the direction of quasisymmetry
Reduced passing particle deviation from a flux surface
Reduced direct loss orbits
Reduced neoclassical transport
Reduced equilibrium parallel currents because of the high effective transform

Ongoing experiments

A large number of experimental and computational research works are being done in HSX by students, staff and faculties. Some of them are in collaboration with other universities and national laboratories, both in the USA and abroad. Major research projects at present are listed below:

Effect of quasi-symmetry on plasma flows
Impurity transport
Radio frequency heating
Supersonic plasma fueling and the neutral population
Heat pulse propagation experiments to study thermal transport
Interaction of turbulence and flows in HSX and the effects of quasi-symmetry on the determination of the radial electric field
Equilibrium reconstruction of the plasma density, pressure and current profiles
Effects of viscosity and symmetry on the determination of the flows and the radial electric field
Divertor flows, particle edge fluxes
Effect of radial electric field on the bootstrap current
Effect of quasi-symmetry on fast ion confinement

References

Lobner, Pete. "Helically Symmetric Experiment | The Lyncean Group of San Diego". Retrieved 2020-06-20.

"HSX Device Parameters". HSX - Helically Symmetric eXperiment. Retrieved 2020-06-20.

Additional resources

Canik, J. M.; D. T. Anderson; F. S. B. Anderson; K. M. Likin; J. N. Talmadge & K. Zhai (23 February 2007). "Experimental Demonstration of Improved Neoclassical Transport with Quasihelical Symmetry". Physical Review Letters 98 (8): 085002. Bibcode:2007PhRvL..98h5002C. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.085002. PMID 17359105.

vte

Fusion power, processes and devices
Core topics

Nuclear fusion
Timeline List of experiments Nuclear power Nuclear reactor Atomic nucleus Fusion energy gain factor Lawson criterion Magnetohydrodynamics Neutron Plasma

Processes,
methods
Confinement
type
Gravitational

Alpha process Triple-alpha process CNO cycle Fusor Helium flash Nova
remnants Proton-proton chain Carbon-burning Lithium burning Neon-burning Oxygen-burning Silicon-burning R-process S-process

Magnetic

Dense plasma focus Field-reversed configuration Levitated dipole Magnetic mirror
Bumpy torus Reversed field pinch Spheromak Stellarator Tokamak
Spherical Z-pinch

Inertial

Bubble (acoustic) Laser-driven Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion

Electrostatic

Fusor Polywell

Other forms

Colliding beam Magnetized target Migma Muon-catalyzed Pyroelectric

Devices, experiments
Magnetic confinement
Tokamak

International

ITER DEMO PROTO

Americas

Canada STOR-M United States Alcator C-Mod ARC
SPARC DIII-D Electric Tokamak LTX NSTX
PLT TFTR Pegasus Brazil ETE Mexico Novillo [es]

Asia,
Oceania

China CFETR EAST
HT-7 SUNIST India ADITYA SST-1 Japan JT-60 QUEST [ja] Pakistan GLAST South Korea KSTAR

Europe

European Union JET Czech Republic COMPASS GOLEM [cs] France TFR WEST Germany ASDEX Upgrade TEXTOR Italy FTU IGNITOR Portugal ISTTOK Russia T-15 Switzerland TCV United Kingdom MAST-U START STEP

Stellarator
Americas

United States CNT CTH HIDRA HSX Model C NCSX Costa Rica SCR-1

Asia,
Oceania

Australia H-1NF Japan Heliotron J LHD

Europe

Germany WEGA Wendelstein 7-AS Wendelstein 7-X Spain TJ-II Ukraine Uragan-2M
Uragan-3M [uk]

RFP

Italy RFX United States MST

Magnetized target

Canada SPECTOR United States LINUS FRX-L – FRCHX Fusion Engine

Other

Russia GDT United States Astron LDX Lockheed Martin CFR MFTF
TMX Perhapsatron PFRC Riggatron SSPX United Kingdom Sceptre Trisops ZETA

Inertial confinement
Laser
Americas

United States Argus Cyclops Janus LIFE Long path NIF Nike Nova OMEGA Shiva

Asia

Japan GEKKO XII

Europe

European Union HiPER Czech Republic Asterix IV (PALS) France LMJ LULI2000 Russia ISKRA United Kingdom Vulcan

Non-laser

United States PACER Z machine

Applications

Thermonuclear weapon
Pure fusion weapon

International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility

Physics Encyclopedia

World

Index

Hellenica World - Scientific Library

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