The Lwów school of mathematics (Polish: lwowska szkoła matematyczna) was a group of Polish mathematicians who worked in the interwar period in Lwów, Poland (since 1945 Lviv, Ukraine). The mathematicians often met at the famous Scottish Café to discuss mathematical problems, and published in the journal Studia Mathematica, founded in 1929. The school was renowned for its productivity and its extensive contributions to subjects such as point-set topology, set theory and functional analysis. The biographies and contributions of these mathematicians were documented in 1980 by their contemporary Kazimierz Kuratowski in his book A Half Century of Polish Mathematics: Remembrances and Reflections.


Notable members of the Lwów school of mathematics included:

Stefan Banach
Feliks Barański
Władysław Orlicz
Stanisław Saks
Hugo Steinhaus
Stanisław Mazur
Stanisław Ulam
Józef Schreier
Juliusz Schauder
Mark Kac
Antoni Łomnicki
Stefan Kaczmarz
Herman Auerbach
Włodzimierz Stożek
Stanisław Ruziewicz

The end of the school

Many of the mathematicians, especially those of Jewish background, fled this southeastern part of Poland in 1941 when it became clear that it would be invaded by Germany. Few of the mathematicians survived World War II, but after the war a group including some of the original community carried on their work in western Poland's Wrocław, the successor city to prewar Lwów; see Polish population transfers (1944–1946). A number of the prewar mathematicians, prominent among them Stanisław Ulam, became famous for work done in the West.
See also

Kraków School of Mathematics
Lwów–Warsaw school
Polish School of Mathematics
Scottish Café
Warsaw School of Mathematics


This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (November 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Ulam, Stanisław Marcin (1976). Adventures of a Mathematician, illustrated with photographs. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-684-15064-6.

Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics

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Graduate Studies in Mathematics

Mathematics Encyclopedia



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