In mathematics, in the areas of topology and functional analysis, the Anderson–Kadec theorem states[1] that any two infinite-dimensional, separable Banach spaces, or, more generally, Fréchet spaces, are homeomorphic as topological spaces. The theorem was proved by Mikhail Kadets (1966) and Richard Davis Anderson.


Every infinite-dimensional, separable Fréchet space is homeomorphic to \( \mathbb {R} ^{\mathbb {N} } \), the Cartesian product of countably many copies of the real line \( \mathbb {R} \) .


Kadec norm: A norm \( \|\cdot \| \) on a normed linear space X is called a Kadec norm with respect to a total subset \({\displaystyle A\subset X^{*}} \) of the dual space \( X^{*} \) if for each sequence \( x_{n}\in X \) the following condition is satisfied:

If lim \( {\displaystyle \lim _{n\to \infty }x^{*}(x_{n})=x^{*}(x_{0})} \) for \( {\displaystyle x^{*}\in A} \) and \( {\displaystyle \lim _{n\to \infty }\|x_{n}\|=\|x_{0}\|} \) , then lim \( {\displaystyle \lim _{n\to \infty }\|x_{n}-x_{0}\|=0}. \)

Eidelheit theorem: A Fréchet space E is either isomorphic to a Banach space, or has a quotient space isomorphic to \( \mathbb {R} ^{\mathbb {N} }. \)

Kadec renorming theorem: Every separable Banach space X admits a Kadec norm with respect to a countable total subset \( {\displaystyle A\subset X^{*}} \) of \( X^{*} \). The new norm is equivalent to the original norm \( \|\cdot \| \) of X. The set A can be taken to be any weak-star dense countable subset of the unit ball of \( X^{*} \)

Sketch of the proof

In the argument below E denotes an infinite-dimensional separable Fréchet space and \( \simeq \) the relation of topological equivalence (existence of homeomorphism).

A starting point of the proof of the Anderson–Kadec theorem is Kadec's proof that any infinite-dimensional separable Banach space is homeomorphic to \( \mathbb {R} ^{\mathbb {N} }. \)

From Eidelheit theorem, it is enough to consider Fréchet space that are not isomorphic to a Banach space. In that case there they have a quotient that is isomorphic to \( \mathbb {R} ^{\mathbb {N} } \). A result of Bartle-Graves-Michael proves that then

\( {\displaystyle E\simeq Y\times \mathbb {R} ^{\mathbb {N} }} \)

for some Fréchet space Y.

On the other hand, is a closed subspace of a countable infinite product of separable Banach spaces \( {\displaystyle X=\prod _{n=1}^{\infty }X_{i}} \) of separable Banach spaces. The same result of Bartle-Graves-Michael applied to X gives a homeomorphism

\( {\displaystyle X\simeq E\times Z} \)

for some Fréchet space Z. From Kadec's result the countable product of infinite-dimensional separable Banach spaces X is homeomorphic to\( \mathbb {R} ^{\mathbb {N} }. \)

The proof of Anderson–Kadec theorem consists of the sequence of equivalences

\( {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}\mathbb {R} ^{\mathbb {N} }&\simeq (E\times Z)^{\mathbb {N} }\\&\simeq E^{\mathbb {N} }\times Z^{\mathbb {N} }\\&\simeq E\times E^{\mathbb {N} }\times Z^{\mathbb {N} }\\&\simeq E\times \mathbb {R} ^{\mathbb {N} }\\&\simeq Y\times \mathbb {R} ^{\mathbb {N} }\times \mathbb {R} ^{\mathbb {N} }\\&\simeq Y\times \mathbb {R} ^{\mathbb {N} }\\&\simeq E\end{aligned}}} \)


Bessaga, C.; Pełczyński, A. (1975). Selected Topics in Infinite-Dimensional Topology. Panstwowe wyd. naukowe. p. 189.


Bessaga, C.; Pełczyński, A. (1975), Selected Topics in Infinite-Dimensional Topology, Monografie Matematyczne, Warszawa: PWN.
Torunczyk, H. (1981), Characterizing Hilbert Space Topology, Fundamenta Mathematicae, pp. 247–262.


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