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San Marino, See : Flags, Maps

San Marino (Europe)

Introduction ::San Marino


The third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named Marinus in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of Italy; social and political trends in the republic also track closely with those of its larger neighbor.

Geography ::San Marino

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Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy

Geographic coordinates:
43 46 N, 12 25 E

Map references:



total: 61 sq km country comparison to the world: 228 land: 61 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:

about one third times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:

total: 39 km

border countries: Italy 39 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:

none (landlocked)


Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers


rugged mountains

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m

highest point: Monte Titano 755 m

Natural resources:

building stone

Land use:

arable land: 16.67%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 83.33% (2005)

Irrigated land:

Natural hazards:

Environment - current issues:

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution

Geography - note:

landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines

People ::San Marino


31,477 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 212

Age structure:

0-14 years: 16.9% (male 2,635/female 2,452)

15-64 years: 66.2% (male 9,538/female 10,429)

65 years and over: 16.9% (male 2,188/female 2,925) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 42.1 years

male: 41.3 years

female: 42.8 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.106% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 114

Birth rate:

9.18 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 209

Death rate:

7.75 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 114

Net migration rate:

9.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 8


urban population: 94% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 0.9% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.086 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.14 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 4.79 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 188 male: 4.97 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 82.95 years country comparison to the world: 3 male: 80.45 years

female: 85.68 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.46 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 191

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

HIV/AIDS - deaths:


noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)

adjective: Sammarinese

Ethnic groups:

Sammarinese, Italian


Roman Catholic




definition: age 10 and over can read and write

total population: 96%

male: 97%

female: 95%

Education expenditures:

Government ::San Marino

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of San Marino

conventional short form: San Marino

local long form: Repubblica di San Marino

local short form: San Marino

Government type:



name: San Marino

geographic coordinates: 43 56 N, 12 25 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:

9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle


3 September 301

National holiday:

Founding of the Republic, 3 September (AD 301)


8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution

Legal system:

based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: Co-chiefs of State Captain Regent Giovanni Francesco UGOLINI and Captain Regent Andrea ZAFFERANI (for the period 1 October 2010-1 April 2011)

head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Antonella MULARONI (since 3 December 2008)

cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Great and General Council for a six-month term; election last held in September 2009 (next to be held in March 2010); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term; election last held on 9 November 2008 (next to be held by 2013)

election results: Francesco MUSSONI and Stefano PALMIERI elected captains regent; percent of legislative vote - NA; Antonella MULARONI elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - NA

note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (co-chiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 10 other members, all are selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 10 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed some prime ministerial roles

Legislative branch:

unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 9 November 2008 (next to be held by June 2013)

election results: percent of vote by party - Pact for San Marino coalition 54.2%: PDCS 31.9%, AP 11.5%, Freedom List 6.3%, San Marino Union of Moderates 4.2%; Reforms and Freedom coalition 45.8%: Party of Socialists and Democrats 32%, United Left 8.6%, Democrats of the Center 4.9%; seats by party - Pact for San Marino coalition 35: PDCS 22, AP 7, the Freedom List 4, San Marino Union of Moderates 2; Reforms and Freedom coalition 25: Party of Socialists and Democrats 18, United Left 5, Democrats of the Center 2

Judicial branch:

Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII

Political parties and leaders:

Christian Democrats or PDCS [Pasquale VALENTINI]; Communist
Refoundation or RC [Ivan FOSHI]; Democrats of the Center or DdC
[Giovanni LONGERNINI]; Freedom List (including NPS and We
Sammarinesi) or NS [Gabriele GATTEI]; New Socialist Party or NPS
[Augusto CASALI]; Party of Socialists and Democrats or PDS [Paride
ANDREOLI]; Popular Alliance or AP [Carlo FRANCIOSI]; Union of
Moderates (including National Alliance or ANS [Glcuco SANSOVINI] and
San Marino Populars or pop [Romeo MORRI and Angela VENTURINI];
United Left of SU [Alessandro ROSSI]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

International organization participation:

IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), OPCW, OSCE,
Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Paolo RONDELLI

chancery: 888 27th Street NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20006

telephone: 202-337-2260

Diplomatic representation from the US:

the US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the ambassador to Italy is accredited to San Marino

Flag description:

two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the main colors derive from the shield of the coat of arms, which features three white towers on three peaks on a blue field; the towers represent three castles built on San Marino's highest feature Mount Titano: Guaita, Cesta, and Montale; the coat of arms is flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty); the white and blue colors are also said to stand for peace and liberty respectively

National anthem:

name: "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica" (National Anthem of the Republic)

lyrics/music: none/Federico CONSOLO

note: adopted 1894; the music for the lyric-less anthem is based on a 10th century chorale piece

Economy ::San Marino

Economy - overview:

San Marino's economy relies heavily on its tourism and banking industries, as well as on the manufacture and export of ceramics, clothing, fabrics, furniture, paints, spirits, tiles, and wine. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy, which supplies much of its food. San Marino boasts the world's longest life expectancy for men with 80 years. The economy benefits from foreign investment due to its relatively low corporate taxes and low taxes on interest earnings. San Marino has recently faced increased international pressure to improve cooperation with foreign tax authorities and transparency within its own banking sector, which generates about one-fifth of the country's tax revenues. Italy's implementation in October 2009 of a tax amnesty to repatriate untaxed funds held abroad has resulted in financial outflows from San Marino to Italy worth more than $4.5 billion. Such outflows, combined with a money-laundering scandal at San Marino's largest financial institution and the recent global economic downturn, have contributed to a deep recession and growing budget deficit. However, San Marino has no national debt, and an unemployment rate half the size of Italy's. The San Marino government has adopted measures to counter the downturn, including subsidized credit to businesses. San Marino also continues to work towards harmonizing its fiscal laws with EU members and international standards. In September 2009, the OECD removed San Marino from its list of tax havens that have yet to fully implement global tax standards.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$1.662 billion (2007) country comparison to the world: 191 $850 million (2004 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate):

$1.048 billion (2004)

GDP - real growth rate:

4.3% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 70

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$41,900 (2007) country comparison to the world: 16

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 0.1%

industry: 46.5%

services: 53.4% (2007)

Labor force:

22,660 (2008) country comparison to the world: 208

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 0.1%

industry: 37.7%

services: 62.2% (2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:

3.1% (2008) country comparison to the world: 24

Population below poverty line:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

-3.5% (2008) country comparison to the world: 1 -1.5% (2006)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

NA% (31 December 2009 est.)

NA% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$NA (31 December 2008)

$1.326 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of broad money:

$NA (31 December 2008)

$4.584 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of domestic credit:

$7.875 billion (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 103 $7.511 billion (31 December 2007)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

Agriculture - products:

wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides


tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine

Industrial production growth rate:

3.1% (2007) country comparison to the world: 101


$4.628 billion (2007) country comparison to the world: 110 $1.291 billion (2004)

Exports - commodities:

building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics


$3.744 billion (2007) country comparison to the world: 130 $2.035 billion (2004)

Imports - commodities:

wide variety of consumer manufactures, food

Debt - external:

Exchange rates:

euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7715 (2010), 0.7179 (2009), 0.6734 (2008), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006)

Communications ::San Marino

Telephones - main lines in use:

21,500 (2009) country comparison to the world: 191

Telephones - mobile cellular:

24,000 (2009) country comparison to the world: 207

Telephone system:

general assessment: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity 150 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network

Broadcast media:

state-owned public broadcaster operates 1 TV station and 2 radio stations; receives radio and TV broadcasts from Italy (2008)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

8,895 (2010) country comparison to the world: 130

Internet users:

17,000 (2009) country comparison to the world: 195

Transportation ::San Marino


total: 292 km country comparison to the world: 204 paved: 292 km (2006)

Military ::San Marino

Military branches:

no regular military forces; voluntary Military Force (Corpi Militari) performs ceremonial duties and limited police support functions (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

16-55 for voluntary service in Voluntary Military Force (2006)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 6,893 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 5,564

females age 16-49: 6,068 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 176

female: 164 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

Military - note:

defense is the responsibility of Italy

Transnational Issues ::San Marino

Disputes - international:



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