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An Icelandic Primer
With Grammar, Notes, and Glossary
By Henry Sweet, M.A.
Second Edition

The want of a short and easy introduction to the study of Icelandic has been felt for a long time--in fact, from the very beginning of that study in England. The Icelandic Reader, edited by Messrs. Vigfusson and Powell, in the Clarendon Press Series, is a most valuable book, which ought to be in the hands of every student; but it still leaves room for an elementary primer. As the engagements of the editors of the Reader would have made it impossible for them to undertake such a work for some years to come, they raised no objections to my proposal to undertake it myself. Meanwhile, I found the task was a more formidable one than I had anticipated, and accordingly, before definitely committing myself to it, I made one final attempt to induce Messrs. Vigfusson and Powell to take it off my hands; but they very kindly encouraged me to proceed with it; and as I myself thought that an Icelandic primer, on the lines of my Anglo-Saxon one, might perhaps be the means of inducing some students of Old English to take up Icelandic as well, I determined to go on.

In the spelling I have not thought it necessary to adhere strictly to that adopted in the Reader, for the editors have themselves deviated from it in their Corpus Poeticum Boreale, in the way of separating ǫ from ö, etc. My own principle has been to deviate as little as possible from the traditional spelling followed in normalized texts. There is, indeed, no practical gain for the beginner in writing tīme for tīmi, discarding ð, etc., although these changes certainly bring us nearer the oldest MSS., and cannot be dispensed with in scientific works. The essential thing for the beginner is to have regular forms presented to him, to the exclusion, as far as possible, of isolated archaisms, and to have the defective distinctions of the MSS. supplemented by diacritics. I have not hesitated to substitute (¯) for (´) as the mark of length; the latter ought in my opinion to be used exclusively--in Icelandic as well as in Old English and Old Irish--to represent the actual accents of the MSS.

In the grammar I have to acknowledge my great obligations to Noreen's Altisländische Grammatik, which is by far the best Icelandic grammar that has yet appeared--at least from that narrow point of view which ignores syntax, and concentrates itself on phonology and inflections.

The texts are intended to be as easy, interesting, and representative as possible. With such a language, and such a master of it as Snorri to choose from, this combination is not difficult to realise. The beginner is indeed to be envied who makes his first acquaintance with the splendid mythological tales of the North, told in an absolutely perfect style. As the death of Olaf Tryggvason is given in the Reader only from the longer recension of the Heimskringla, I have been able to give the shorter text, which is admirably suited for the purposes of this book. The story of Auðun is not only a beautiful one in itself, but, together with the preceding piece, gives a vivid idea of the Norse ideal of the kingly character, which was the foundation of their whole political system. As the Reader does not include poetry (except incidentally), I have added one of the finest of the Eddaic poems, which is at the same time freest from obscurity and corruption--the song of Thor's quest of his hammer.

In the glossary I have ventured to deviate from the very inconvenient Scandinavian arrangement, which puts þ, æ, œ, right at the end of the alphabet.

I have to acknowledge the great help I have had in preparing the texts and the glossary from Wimmer's Oldnordisk Læsebog, which I consider to be, on the whole, the best reading-book that exists in any language. So excellent is Wimmer's selection of texts, that it was impossible for me to do otherwise than follow him in nearly every case.

In conclusion, it is almost superfluous to say that this book makes no pretension to originality of any kind. If it contributes towards restoring to Englishmen that precious heritage--the old language and literature of Iceland--which our miserably narrow scheme of education has hitherto defrauded them of, it will have fulfilled its purpose.

February, 1886

I. Thor
II. Thor and Utgarðaloki
III. Balder
IV. Death of Balder
V. Hēðinn and Hǫgni
VI. Death of Olaf Tryggvason
VII. Auðun
VIII. Þrymskviða

Proper Names


1. This book deals with Old Icelandic in its classical period, between 1200 and 1350.

2. The Icelandic alphabet was founded on the Latin, with the addition of þ and ð, and of the modified letters ę, ǫ, ø, which last is in this book written ö, ǫ̈.

3. The vowel-letters had nearly the same values as in Old English. Long vowels were often marked by (´). In this book long vowels are regularly marked by (¯)1. The following are the elementary vowels and diphthongs, with examples, and key-words from English, French (F.), and German (G.):--

[Footnote 1: Note that the longs of ę, ö are written æ, œ, respectively.]
a as in mann (G.) halda (hold)
ā " father rāð (advice)
e " été (F.) gekk (went)
ē2 . . . lēt (let pret.)
ę " men męnn (men)

[Footnote 2: Where no keyword is given for a long vowel, its sound is that of the corresponding short vowel lengthened.]
æ as in there sær (sea)
i " fini (F.) mikill (great)
ī . . . lītill (little)
o " beau (F.) orð (word)
ō . . . tōk (look)
ǫ " not hǫnd (hand)
ö " peu (F.) kömr (comes)
œ . . . fœra (bring)
ǫ̈ " peur (F.) gǫ̈ra (make)
u " sou (F.) upp (up)
ū . . . hūs (house)
y " tu (F.) systir (sister)
ȳ . . . lȳsa (shine)
au " haus (G.) lauss (loose)
ei = ę + i bein (bone)
ey = ę + y leysa (loosen)

4. The unaccented i in systir, etc. (which is generally written e in the MSS.) probably had the sound of y in pity, which is really between i and e. The unacc. u in fōru (they went), etc. (which is generally written o in the MSS.) probably had the sound of oo in good.

Note that several of the vowels go in pairs of close and open, thus:
close: e ē o ō ö œ
open: ę æ ǫ - ǫ̈ -

5. Double consonants followed by a vowel must be pronounced really double, as in Italian. Thus the kk in drekka (to drink) must be pronounced like the kc in bookcase, while the k in dręki (dragon) is single, as in booking. When final (or followed by another cons.) double conss. are pronounced long, as in munn (mouth acc.), hamarr (hammer nom.), steinn (stone nom.), distinguished from mun (will vb.), and the accusatives hamar, stein.

6. k and g had a more front (palatal) sound before the front vowels e, ę, i, ö, ǫ̈, y, and their longs, as also before j, as in kęnna (known), keyra (drive), gǫ̈ra (make), liggja (lie).

7. kkj, ggj were probably pronounced simply as double front kk, gg, the j not being pronounced separately.

8. f had initially the sound of our f, medially and finally that of v, as in gefa (give), gaf (gave), except of course in such combinations as ft, where it had the sound of f.

9. g was a stopped (back or front--guttural or palatal) cons. initially and in the combination ng, the two g's in ganga (go) being pronounced as in go. It had the open sound of G. g in sagen medially before the back vowels a, o, ǫ, u, and all conss. except j, and finally:--saga (tale), dǫgum (with days); sagði (he said); lag (he lay). Before the front vowels and j it had the sound of G. g in liegen, or nearly that of j (our y), as in sęgir (says), sęgja (to say).

10. Before voiceless conss. (t, s) g seems to have been pronounced k, as in sagt (said), dags (day's).

11. The g was always sounded in the combination ng, as in single, not as in singer.

12. h was sounded before j in such words as hjarta (heart) much as in E. hue (= hjū). hl, hn, hr, hv probably represented voiceless l, n, r, w respectively, hv being identical with E. wh: hlaupa (leap), hnīga (bend), hringr (ring), hvat (what).

13. j is not distinguished from i in the MSS. It had the sound of E. y in young: jǫrð (earth), sętja (to set).

14. p in pt probably had the sound of f: lopt (air).

15. r was always a strong point trill, as in Scotch.

16. s was always sharp.

17. v (which was sometimes written u and w) had the sound of E. w: vel (well), hǫggva (hew).

18. z had the sound of ts: bęztr (best).

19. þ and ð were used promiscuously in the older MS., the very oldest using þ almost exclusively. In Modern Icelandic þ is written initially to express the sound of E. hard th, ð medially and finally to express that of soft th; as there can be no doubt that this usage corresponds with the old pronunciation, it is retained in this book: þing (parliament), faðir (father), við (against). In such combinations as pð the ð must of course be pronounced þ.

20. The stress (accent) is always on the first syllable.

21. The vowels are related to one another in different ways, the most important of which are mutation (umlaut), fracture (brechung), and gradation (ablaut).

22. The following changes are i-mutations (caused by an older i or j following, which has generally been dropped)3:

[Footnote 3: Many of the i's which appear in derivative and inflectional syllables are late weakenings of a and other vowels, as in bani (death) = Old English bana; these do not cause mutation.]

a (ǫ) ... ę :-- mann (man acc.), męnn (men); hǫnd (hand), hęndr (hands).

ā ... æ :-- māl (speech), mæla (speak).

e (ja, jǫ) ... i :-- verðr (worth), virða (estimate).

u (o) ... y :-- fullr (full), fylla (to fill); lopt (air), lypta (lift).

ū ... ȳ :-- brūn (eyebrow), pl. brȳnn.

o ... ö :-- koma (to come), kömr (comes).

ō ... œ :-- fōr (went), fœra (bring).

au ... ey :-- lauss (loose), leysa (loosen).

jū (jō) ... ȳ :-- sjūkr (sick), sȳki (sickness); ljōsta (strike), lȳstr (strikes).

23. The change of a into ę is sometimes the result of a following k, g, or ng, as in dęgi dat. sg. of dagr (day), tękinn (taken), gęnginn (gone), inf. taka, ganga. i appears instead of e, and u instead of o before a nasal followed by another cons.: cp. binda (to bind), bundinn (bound) with bresta (burst) ptc. prt. brostinn.

24. There is also a u-mutation, caused by a following u, which has often been dropped:

a ... ǫ :-- dagr (day) dat. pl. dǫgum; land (land) pl. lǫnd.

25. Unaccented ǫ becomes u, as in sumur pl. of sumar (summer), kǫlluðu (they called), infin. kalla.

26. The only vowel that is affected by fracture is e: when followed by original a it becomes ja, when followed by original u it becomes jǫ, as in jarðar gen. of jǫrð (earth)4. When followed by original i, the e is, of course, mutated to i, as in skildir plur. nom. of skjǫldr (shield), gen. skjaldar.

[Footnote 4: Cp. German erde.]

27. By gradation the vowels are related as follows:--

a ... ō :-- fara (go) pret. fōr, whence by mut. fœra (bring).

e (i, ja) ... a ... u (o) :-- bresta (burst), prt. brast, prt. pl. brustu, ptc. prt. brostinn; finna (find), fundinn (found ptc.), fundr (meeting).

e ... a ... ā ... o :-- stela (steal), prt. stal, prt. pl. stālu, ptc. prt. stolinn.

e ... a ... ā ... e :-- gefa (give), gaf (he gave), gāfu (they gave), gefinn (given), gjǫf (gift), u-fracture of gef-, gæfa (luck) mut. of gāf-.

ī ... ei ... i :-- skīna (shine), skein (he shone), skinu (they shone). sōl-skin (sunshine).

jū (jō) ... au ... u ... o :-- ljūga (tell a lie), prt. laug, prt. pl. lugu, ptc. prt. loginn. lygi (lie sbst.) mut. of lug-. skjōta (shoot), skjōtr (swift), skotinn (shot ptc.), skot (shot subst.).
Other changes

28. All final vowels are long in accented syllables: þā (then), nū (now).

29. Inflectional and derivative vowels are often dropt after long accented vowels: cp. ganga (to go) with fā (to get), the dat. plurals knjām (knees) with hūsum (houses).

30. Vowels are often lengthened before l + cons.: hālfr (half adj.), fōlk (people); cp. fōlginn (hidden) with brostinn (burst ptc.).

31. v is dropped before o and u: vaxa (to grow), prt. ōx, vinna (to win), unninn (won ptc.), svelta (to starve), soltinn (starved, hungry).

Final r is often assimilated to a preceding cons.

32. *-lr, *-nr, *-sr always become -ll, -nn, -ss after a long vowel or diphthong, as in stōll (chair nom.), acc. stōl, steinn (stone nom.), acc. stein, vīss (wise masc. nom. sg.), vīs fem. nom. sg., and in unacc. syllables, as in the masc. sg. nominatives mikill (great), fem. mikil, borinn (carried), fem. borin, ȳmiss (various) fem. ȳmis.

33. Words in which l, n, r, s are preceded by a cons. drop the r entirely, as in the masc. nominatives jarl (earl), hrafn (raven), vitr (wise), þurs (giant), lax (salmon).

34. If l and n are preceded by a short accented vowel, the r is generally kept, as in stelr (steals), vinr, (friend), sr becoming ss, as elsewhere.

35. r is kept after ll, and generally after nn, as in the masc. nom. allr (all), and in bręnnr (burns).

36. z often stands for ðs as well as ts, as in þēr þykkizk (ye seem) = *þykkið-sk, Vest-firzkr (belonging to the West Firths) = -*firðskr (fǫrðr, firth).

37. Inflectional t is generally doubled after a long accented vowel: fār (few) neut. fātt (cp. allr 'all,' neut. allt), sā (I saw), sātt 'thou sawest.'

38. Gender. There are three genders in Icelandic--masculine, feminine, and neuter. The gender is partly natural, partly grammatical, generally agreeing with the gender in Old English. Compound words follow the gender of their last element.

39. Strong and Weak. All weak nouns end in a vowel in the nom. sg. and in most of the other cases as well. Most strong nouns end in a cons. in the nom. sg.

40. Cases. There are four cases--nominative, accusative, dative, genitive. All nouns (except a few contractions) have the gen. pl. in -a (fiska, of fishes), and the dat. pl. in -um (fiskum). All strong masculines (fiskr) and some strong feminines (brūðr, bride) take r5 in the nom. sg. Most strong feminines show the bare root in the nom. sg. with u-mutation, if possible (āst, favour, fǫr, journey). The nom. pl. of all strong masc. and fem. nouns ends in r (fiskar, āstir). The acc. pl. of fem. nouns is the same as the nom. pl. (āstir). The acc. pl. of masc. strong nouns always ends in a vowel (fiska). The plur. nom. and acc. of neuters is the same as the sing. nom. and acc., except that in the plur. nom. and acc. they take u-mutation, if possible (hūs, houses, lǫnd, lands).

[Footnote 5: Subject, of course, to the assimilations described above.]

41. The declensions are most conveniently distinguished by the acc. plur.
Strong Masculines
(1) a-plurals
Singular Plural
Nom. fisk-r (fish) fisk-ar
Acc. fisk fisk-a
Dat. fisk-i fisk-um
Gen. fisk-s fisk-a

42. So also heimr (home, world); konungr (king); Þōrr (Thor), acc. Þōr, gen. Þōrs; steinn (stone), acc. stein, gen. steins, pl. nom. steinar; hrafn (raven), acc. hrafn, pl. nom. hrafnar; þurs (giant), acc. gen. þurs, pl. nom. þursar.

43. Dissyllables in -r, -l, -n generally throw out the preceding vowel before a vowel-inflection: hamarr (hammer), dat. hamri; jǫtunn (giant), pl. nom. jǫtnar. kętill (kettle) and lykill (key) show unmutated vowels in the contracted forms, as in the acc. plur. katla, lukla.

44. Some nouns of this decl. take -ar in the gen. sing., especially proper names, such as Hākon, gen. Hākonar.

45. Some nouns add v before vowels: sær (sea), gen. sævar.

46. The dat. sometimes drops the i: sæ (sea), Þōr. dagr (day) mutates its vowel in the dat. dęgi.

47. Nouns in -ir keep the i in the sing., and drop it in the plur.:
Singular Plural
Nom. hęlli-r (cave) hęll-ar
Acc. hęlli hęll-a
Dat. hęlli hęll-um
Gen. hęlli-s hęll-a

48. So also a number of proper names, such as Skrȳmir, Þōrir.
(2) i-plurals
Singular Plural
Nom. stað-r (place) stað-ir
Acc. stað stað-i
Dat. stað stǫð-um
Gen. stað-ar stað-a

49. So also gripr (precious thing), salr (hall).

50. gęstr (guest) takes -i in the dat. sg., and -s in the gen. sg.

51. Those ending in g or k (together with some others) insert j before a and u: bękkr (bench), bękk, bękk, bękkjar; bękkir, bękki, bękkjum, bękkja. So also męrgr (marrow), stręngr (string).
(3) u-plurals
Singular Plural
Nom. skjǫld-r (shield) skild-ir
Acc. skjǫld skjǫld-u
Dat. skild-i skjǫld-um
Gen. skjald-ar skjald-a

52. So also vǫndr (twig), vǫllr (plain), viðr (wood). āss (god) has plur. nom. æsir, acc. āsu. sonr (son) has dat. sg. syni, plur. nom. synir. It regularly drops its r of the nom. in such compounds as Tryggva-son (son of Tryggvi).
(4) r-plurals
Singular Plural
Nom. fōt-r (foot) fœt-r
Acc. fōt fœt-r
Dat. fœt-i fōt-um
Gen. fōt-ar fōt-a

53. So also fingr (finger), gen. fingrar, pl. fingr; vetr (winter), pl. vetr. maðr (man) is irregular: maðr, mann, manni, manns; męnn, męnn, mǫnnum, manna.
Singular Plural
Nom. faðir (father) fęðr
Acc. fǫður fęðr
Dat. fǫður fęðrum
Gen. fǫður fęðra

54. So also brōðir (brother), pl. brœðr.

55. Pres. participles used as nouns follow this decl. in the pl., following the weak class in the sg.:
Singular Plural
Nom. bōndi (yeoman) bœndr
Acc. bōnda bœndr
Dat. bōnda bōndum
Gen. bōnda bōnda

56. So also frœndi (kinsman), pl. frœndr.
Strong Neuters
Singular Plural
Nom. skip (ship) skip
Acc. skip skip
Dat. skip-i skip-um
Gen. skip-s skip-a

57. So also orð (word), land (land) pl. lǫnd, sumar (summer) pl. sumur (§ 25).

58. męn (necklace), kyn (race), grey (dog) insert j before a and u: greyjum. hǫgg (stroke) inserts v before a vowel: hǫggvi. knē (knee), knē, knē, knēs; knē, knē, kjām, knjā. So also trē (tree).

59. fē (money) is contracted: gen. fjār, dat. fē.
Singular Plural
Nom. kvæði (poem) kvæði
Acc. kvæði kvæði
Dat. kvæði kvæðum
Gen. kvæði-s kvæða

60. So also klæði (cloth). Those in k insert j before a and u: męrki (mark), męrkjum, męrkja. So also rīki (sovereignty).
Strong Feminines
(1) ar-plurals
Singular Plural
Nom. gjǫf (gift) gjaf-ar
Acc. gjǫf gjaf-ar
Dat. gjǫf gjǫf-um
Gen. gjaf-ar gjaf-a

61. So also mǫn (mane), gjǫrð (girdle), ār (oar).

62. ā (river) contracts: ā, ā, ā, ār; ār, ār, ām, ā.

63. Many take -u in the dat. sg.: kęrling (old woman), kęrling, kęrlingu, kęrlingar; kęrlingar, kęrlingar, kęrlingum, kęrlinga. So also laug (bath).

64. Those with a mutated root-vowel (or i) insert j in inflection: ey (island), ey, eyju, eyjar; eyjar, eyjar, eyjum, eyja. So also Frigg, Hęl. mær (maid), mey, meyju, meyjar; meyjar, meyjar, meyjum, meyja.

Singular Plural
Nom. heið-r (heath) heið-ar
Acc. heið-i heið-ar
Dat. heið-i heið-um
Gen. heið-ar heið-a
(2) ir-plurals
Singular Plural
Nom. tīð tīð-ir
Acc. tīð tīð-ir
Dat. tīð tīð-um
Gen. tīð-ar tīð-a

66. So also sorg (sorrow), skipun (arrangement), hǫfn (harbour) pl. hafnir, and the majority of strong feminines.

67. Many have -u in the dat. sg.: sōl (sun), sōl, sōlu, sōlar; sōlir, sōlir, sōlum, sōla. So also jǫrð (earth), stund (period of time).

68. One noun has r in the nom. sg., following heiðr in the sg.: brūðr (bride), brūði, brūði, brūðar; brūðir, brūðir, brūðum, brūða.
(3) r-plurals
Singular Plural
Nom. bōk (book) bœk-r
Acc. bōk bœk-r
Dat. bōk bōk-um
Gen. bōk-ar bōk-a

69. So also nātt (night) pl. nætr, bōt (compensation) pl. bœtr, tǫnn (tooth) gen. tannar pl. tęnnr.

70. hǫnd (hand) pl. hęndr has dat. sg. hęndi.

71. kȳr (cow) has acc. kū, pl. kȳr.

72. brūn (eyebrow) assimilates the r of the pl.: brȳnn.
Singular Plural
Nom. mōðir (mother) mœðr
Acc. mōður mœðr
Dat. mōður mœðrum
Gen. mōður mœðra

73. So also dōttir (daughter) pl. dœtr; systir (sister) pl. systr.
Weak Masculines
Singular Plural
Nom. bog-i (bow) bog-ar
Acc. bog-a bog-a
Dat. bog-a bog-um
Gen. bog-a bog-a

74. So also māni (moon), fēlagi (companion).

75. hǫfðingi (chief) and some others insert j in inflection: hǫfðingja, hǫfðingjar, hǫfðingjum.

76. lē (scythe) is contracted; its gen. sg. is ljā.

77. oxi (ox) has pl. öxn.

78. herra (lord) is indeclinable in the sg.
Weak Neuters
Singular Plural
Nom. hjart-a (heart) hjǫrt-u
Acc. hjart-a hjǫrt-u
Dat. hjart-a hjǫrt-um
Gen. hjart-a hjart-na

79. So also auga (eye).
Weak Feminines
Singular Plural
Nom. tung-a (tongue) tung-ur
Acc. tung-u tung-ur
Dat. tung-u tung-um
Gen. tung-u tung-na

80. So also stjarna (star) pl. stjǫrnur, kirkja (church), gen. plurals stjarna, kirkna.
Sg. Nom. ęlli (old age)
Acc. ęlli
Dat. ęlli
Gen. ęlli

81. So also glęði (joy) and many abstract nouns.

82. lygi (falsehood) has pl. lygar; so also gǫ̈rsimi (precious thing).

83. Adjectives have three genders, and the same cases as nouns, though with partly different endings, together with strong and weak forms.
Strong Adjectives
Masc. Neut. Fem.
Sg. Nom. ung-r (young) ung-t ung
Acc. ung-an ung-t ung-a
Dat. ung-um ung-u ung-ri
Gen. ung-s ung-s ung-rar
Pl. Nom. ung-ir ung ung-ar
Acc. ung-a ung ung-ar
Dat. ung-um ung-um ung-um
Gen. ung-ra ung-ra ung-ra

84. So also fagr (fair), fem. fǫgr, neut. fagrt.

85. Some insert j before a and u: nȳr (new), nȳjum, nȳjan.

86. Some insert v before a vowel: hār (high), hāvan, dökkr (dark), dökkvir, kykr (alive), kykvir.

87. The t of the neut. is doubled after a long vowel: nȳtt, hātt. Monosyllables in ð, dd, tt form their neut. in -tt: breiðr (broad), breitt; leiddr (led), leitt. gōðr (good) has neut. gott. sannr (true) has neut. satt. In unaccented syllables or if a cons. precedes, tt is shortened to t: kallaðr (called), kallat; blindr (blind), blint, harðr (hard), hart, fastr (firm), fast.

88. l and n assimilate a following r: gamall (old), fem. gǫmul, fem. acc. gamla, dat. gamalli. vǣnn (beautiful), gen. pl. vænna.
Masc. Neut. Fem.
Sg. Nom. mikill (great) mikit mikil
Acc. mikinn mikit mikla
Dat. miklum miklu mikilli
Gen. mikils mikils mikillar
Pl. Nom. miklir mikil miklar
Acc. mikla mikil miklar
Dat. miklum miklum miklum
Gen. mikilla mikilla mikilla

89. So also lītill (little).

90. Dissyllables in -inn have -it in the neut., and -inn in the masc. sg. acc.: tīginn (distinguished), tīgit, tīginn, pl. tīgnīr. So also kominn (come).

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Sg. Nom. annarr (other) annat ǫnnur
Acc. annan annat aðra
Dat. ǫðrum ǫðru annarri
Gen. annars annars annarrar
Pl. Nom. aðrir ǫnnur aðrar
Acc. aðra ǫnnur aðrar
Dat. ǫðrum ǫðrum ǫðrum
Gen. annarra annarra annarra
Weak Adjectives
Masc. Neut. Fem.
Sg. Nom. ung-i ung-a ung-a
Acc. ung-a ung-a ung-u
Dat. ung-a ung-a ung-u
Gen. ung-a ung-a ung-u
Pl. Nom. ung-u ung-u ung-u
Acc. ung-u ung-u ung-u
Dat. ung-u ung-u ung-u
Gen. ung-u ung-u ung-u

92. So also fagri, hāvi, mikli, etc.
Masc. Neut. Fem.
Sg. Nom. yngri (younger) yngra yngri
Acc. yngra yngra yngri
Dat. yngra yngra yngri
Gen. yngra yngra yngri
Pl. Nom. yngri yngri yngri
Acc. yngri yngri yngri
Dat. yngrum yngrum yngrum
Gen. yngri yngri yngri

93. So also all comparatives, such as meiri (greater), and pres. partic. when used as adjectives, such as gefandi (giving), dat. pl. gefǫndum.

94. (1) with -ari, -astr: rīkr (powerful), rīkari, rīkastr; gǫfugr (distinguished), gǫfgari, gǫfgastr.

95. (2) with -ri, -str and mutation: langr (long), lęngri, lęngstr; stōrr (big), stœrri, stœrstr; ungr (young), yngri, yngstr.

96. The following are irregular:
gamall (old) ęllri ęlztr
gōðr (good) bętri bęztr
illr (bad) vęrri vęrstr
lītill (little) minni minstr
margr (many) fleiri flestr
mikill (great) meiri mestr

Cardinal Ordinal
1. einn (one) fyrstr (first)
2. tveir annarr
3. þrīr þriði
4. fjōrir fjōrði
5. fimm fimmti
6. sex sētti
7. sjau sjaundi
8. ātta ātti
9. nīu nīundi
10. tīu tīundi
11. ellifu ellifti
12. tōlf tōlfti
13. þrettān þrettāndi
14. fjōrtān
15. fimmtān
16. sextān
17. sjautān
18. ātjān
19. nītjān
20. tuttugu
21. einn ok tuttugu, etc.
30. þrīr tigir, etc.
100. tīu tigir
110. ellifu tigir
120. hundrað
1200. þūsund

einn is declined like other adjectives:--

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Nom. einn eitt ein
Acc. einn eitt eina
Dat. einum einu einni
Gen. eins eins einnar

It also has a pl. einir, einar, ein; gen. einna, etc. in the sense of 'some.'

The next three show various irregularities.

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Nom. tveir tvau tvær
Acc. tvā tvau tvær
Dat. tveim tveim tveim
Gen. tvęggja tvęggja tvęggja

Similarly bāðir (both):

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Nom. bāðir bæði bāðar
Acc. bāða bæði bāðar
Dat. bāðum bāðum bāðum
Gen. bęggja bęggja bęggja

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Nom. þrīr þrjū þrjār
Acc. þrjā þrjū þrjār
Dat. þrim þrim þrim
Gen. þriggja þriggja þriggja

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Nom. fjōrir fjogur fjōrar
Acc. fjōra fjogur fjōrar
Dat. fjōrum fjōrum fjōrum
Gen. fjogurra fjogurra fjogurra

103. The others are indeclinable up to þrīr tigir, etc.; the tigir being declined regularly as a plural strong u-masculine tigir, tigu, tigum, tiga.

104. hundrað is a strong neut.: tvau hundruð (240), tveim hundruðum, etc. It governs the gen. (as also does þūsund): fimm hundruð gōlfa, 'five (six) hundred chambers.'

105. þūsund is a strong ir-feminine: tvær þūsundir (2400).

106. hundrað and þūsund are rarely = 100 and 1000.

107. Of the ordinals fyrstr and annarr (§ 91) are strong, the others weak adjectives. þriði inserts a j: þriðja, etc.

Sg. Nom. ek (I) þū (thou) --
Acc. mik þik sik (oneself)
Dat. mēr þēr sēr
Gen. mīn þīn sīn
Dual. Nom. vit it --
Acc. okkr ykkr sik
Dat. okkr ykkr sēr
Gen. okkar ykkar sīn
Pl. Nom. vēr (we) þēr (ye) --
Acc. oss yðr sik (oneselves)
Dat. oss yðr sēr
Gen. vār yðar sīn
Masc. Neut. Fem.
Sg. Nom. hann (he) þat (it) hon (she)
Acc. hann þat hana
Dat. honum þvī hęnni
Gen. hans þess hęnnar
Pl. Nom. þeir (they) þau þær
Acc. þā þau þær
Dat. þeim þeim þeim
Gen. þeira þeira þeira

109. ek was often suffixed to its verb, especially in poetry, being sometimes added twice over: mætta-k (I might), sā-k-a-k (I saw not; a='not'). So also þū: er-tu (art thou), skalt-u (shalt thou) = *skalt-tu.
Masc. Neut. Fem.
Sg. Nom. minn (my) mitt mīn
Acc. minn mitt mīna
Dat. mīnum mīnu minni
Gen. mīns mīns minnar
Pl. Nom. mīnir mīn mīnar
Acc. mīna mīn mīnar
Dat. mīnum mīnum mīnum
Gen. minna minna minna

110. So also þinn (thy), sinn (his, etc., reflexive).

111. vārr, vārt, vār (our) is regular: acc. masc. vārn, masc. plur. vārir, vāra, vārum, vārra, etc.
Masc. Neut. Fem.
Sg. Nom. yðarr (your) yðart yður
Acc. yðarn yðart yðra
Dat. yðrum yðru yðarri
Gen. yðars yðars yðarrar
Pl. Nom. yðrir yður yðrar
Acc. yðra yður yðrar
Dat. yðrum yðrum yðrum
Gen. yðarra yðarra yðarra

112. So also okkarr (our two) and ykkarr (your two).

113. hans (his), þess (its), hęnnar (her), and þeira (their) are indeclinable.

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Sg. Nom. sā (that) þat sū
Acc. þann þat þā
Dat. þeim þvī þeiri
Gen. þess þess þeirar
Pl. Nom. þeir þau þær
Acc. þā þau þær
Dat. þeim þeim þeim
Gen. þeira þeira þeira

115. hinn, hitt, hin (that) is inflected like minn (except that its vowel is short throughout): acc. masc. hinn, plur. masc. hinir, hina, hinum, hinna.

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Sg. Nom. þessi (this) þetta þessi
Acc. þenna þetta þessa
Dat. þessum þessu þessi
Gen. þessa þessa þessar
Pl. Nom. þessir þessi þessar
Acc. þessa þessi þessar
Dat. þessum þessum þessum
Gen. þessa þessa þessa

The prefixed definite article is declined thus:

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Sg. Nom. inn it in
Acc. inn it ina
Dat. inum inu inni
Gen. ins ins innar
Pl. Nom. inir in inar
Acc. ina in inar
Dat. inum inum inum
Gen. inna inna inna

118. When suffixed to its noun it undergoes various changes. In its monosyllabic forms it drops its vowel after a short (un-accented) vowel, as in auga-t (the eye), but keeps it after a long vowel, as in ā-in (the river), trē-it (the tree). The dissyllabic forms drop their initial vowel almost everywhere; not, however, after the -ar, -r, of the gen. sg., nor in męnninir (men, nom.), męnn-ina (men, acc.). The -m of the dat. pl. is dropped before the suffixed -num.
Masc. Neut. Fem.
Sg. Nom. fiskr-inn skip-it gjǫf-in
Acc. fisk-inn skip-it gjǫf-ina
Dat. fiski-num skipi-nu gjǫf-inni
Gen. fisks-ins skips-ins gjafar-innar
Pl. Nom. fiskar-nir skip-in gjafar-nar
Acc. fiska-na skip-in gjafar-nar
Dat. fisku-num skipu-num gjǫfu-num
Gen. fiska-nna skipa-nna gjafa-nna
Masc. Neut. Fem.
Sg. Nom. bogi-nn auga-t tunga-n
Acc. boga-nn auga-t tungu-na
Dat. boga-num auga-nu tungu-nni
Gen. boga-ns auga-ns tungu-nnar
Pl. Nom. bogar-nir augu-n tungur-nar
Acc. boga-na augu-n tungur-nar
Dat. bogu-num augu-num tungnu-num
Gen. boga-nna augna-nna tungna-nna

119. The ordinary relative pron. is the indeclinable er, often preceded by sā: sā er = he who, who, sū er who fem.

120. The neut. hvat has gen. hvess, dat. hvī, which last is chiefly used as an adverb = 'why.'

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Sg. Nom. hvārr (which of two) hvārt hvār
Acc. hvārn hvārt hvāra
Dat. hvārum hvāru hvārri
Gen. hvārs hvārs hvārrar
Pl. Nom. hvārir hvār hvārar
Acc. hvāra hvār hvārar
Dat. hvārum hvārum hvārum
Gen. hvārra hvārra hvārra

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Sg. Nom. hvęrr (which, who) hvęrt hvęr
Acc. hvęrn hvęrt hvęrja
Dat. hvęrjum hvęrju hvęrri
Gen. hvęrs hvęrs hvęrrar
Pl. Nom. hvęrir hvęr hvęrjar
Acc. hvęrja hvęr hvęrjar
Dat. hvęrjum hvęrjum hvęrjum
Gen. hvęrra hvęrra hvęrra

123. einn-hvęrr, eitthvęrt, einhvęr (some one) keeps an invariable ein- in the other cases, the second element being inflected as above.

124. sumr (some) is declined like an ordinary adjective.

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Sg. Nom. nakkvarr (some) nakkvat nǫkkur
Acc. nakkvarn nakkvat nakkvara
Dat. nǫkkurum nǫkkuru nakkvarri
Gen. nakkvars nakkvars nakkvarrar
Pl. Nom. nakkvarir nǫkkur nakkvarar
Acc. nakkvara nǫkkur nakkvarar
Dat. nǫkkurum nǫkkurum nǫkkurum
Gen. nakkvarra nakkvarra nakkvarra

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Sg. Nom. engi (none, no) ekki engi
Acc. engan ekki enga
Dat. engum engu engri
Gen. engis engis engrar
Pl. Nom. engir engi engar
Acc. enga engi engar
Dat. engum engum engum
Gen. engra engra engra

127. In hvār-tvęggja (each of the two, both) the first element is declined as above, the second is left unchanged.

128. There are two classes of verbs, strong and weak. Strong verbs are conjugated partly by means of gradation, weak verbs by adding ð (d, t).

129. The ð of the 2 pl. is dropt before þit (ye two) and þēr (ye): gefi þēr, gāfu þit.

130. There is a middle voice, which ends in -mk in the 1 pers. sg. and pl., the rest of the verb being formed by adding sk to the active endings, r being dropt, the resulting ts, ðs being written z (§ 36): kvezk (active kveðr 'says'), þu fekkzk (fekkt 'gottest').

131. The following is the conjugation of the strong verb gefa (give), which will show those endings which are common to all verbs:
Indicative Subjunctive
Present sg. 1. gef gef-a
2. gef-r gef-ir
3. gef-r gef-i
pl. 1. gef-um gef-im
2. gef-ið gef-ið
3. gef-a gef-i
Preterite sg. 1. gaf gæf-a
2. gaf-t gæf-ir
3. gaf gæf-i
pl. 1. gāf-um gæf-im
2. gāf-uð gæf-ið
3. gāf-u gæf-i

Imperative sg. 2 gef; pl. 1 gef-um, 2 gef-ið.
Participle pres. gef-andi; pret. gef-inn.
Infin. gefa.
Indicative Subjunctive
Present sg. 1. gef-umk gef-umk
2. gef-sk gef-isk
3. gef-sk gef-isk
pl. 1. gef-umk gef-imk
2. gef-izk gef-izk
3. gef-ask gef-isk
Preterite sg. 1. gāf-umk gæf-umk
2. gaf-zk gæf-isk
3. gaf-sk gæf-isk
pl. 1. gāf-umk gæf-imk
2. gāf-uzk gæf-izk
3. gāf-usk gæf-isk

Impers. sg. 2 gef-sk; pl. 1 gef-umk, 2 gef-izk.
Partic. pres. gef-andisk; pret. gef-izk neut.
Infin. gef-ask.
Strong Verbs

132. In the strong verbs the plur. of the pret. indic. generally has a different vowel from that of the sing. The 1 sg. pret. of the middle voice always has the vowel of the pl. pret.: gāfumk. The pret. subj. has the vowel of the pret. indic. plur. mutated: skaut (he shot), skutu (they shot), skyti (he might shoot). But there is no mutation in verbs of the first conj.: hljōpi, inf. hlaupa (leap).

133. The pres. indic. sing. mutates the root-vowel in all three persons: ek skȳt, þū skȳtr, hann skȳtr, infin. skjōta (shoot). e however is not mutated: ek gef, þū gefr. The inflectional r is liable to the same modifications as the r of nouns (§ 32): skīnn, vęx, infin. skīna (shine), vaxa (grow).

134. Verbs in ld change the d into t in the 1, 3 sg. pret. indic. and in the imper. sg.: helt (held), halt (hold!), infin. halda. nd becomes tt, and ng becomes kk under the same conditions: binda (bind), ganga (go), pret. batt, gekk, imper. bitt, gakk.

135. The t of the 2 sg. pret. indic. is doubled after a long accented vowel: þū sātt (thou sawest). If the 1 sg. pret. indic. ends in t or ð, the 2 sg. ends in zt: lēt (I let), þū lēzt, bauð (I offered) þū bauzt.

136. There are seven conjugations of strong verbs, distinguished mainly by the characteristic vowels of their preterites.

I. 'Fall'-conjugation
Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. Prt. Pl. Ptc. Prt.
falla (fall) fęllr fell fellu fallinn
lāta (let) lætr lēt lētu lātinn
rāða (advise) ræðr rēð rēðu rāðinn
heita (call) heitr hēt hētu heitinn
halda (hold) hęldr helt heldu haldinn
ganga (go) gęngr gekk gengu gęnginn
fā (get) fær fekk fengu fęnginn
auka (increase) eykr jōk jōku aukinn
būa (dwell) bȳr bjō bjoggu būinn
hǫggva (hew) hǫggr hjō hjoggu hǫggvinn
hlaupa (leap) hleypr hljōp hljōpu hlaupinn

138. The following have weak preterites in r:
Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. Prt. Pl. Ptc. Prt.
grōa (grow) grœr gröri gröru grōinn
rōa (row) rœr röri röru rōinn
snūa (twist) snȳr snöri snöru snūinn

139. heita in the passive sense of 'to be named, called' has a weak present: ek heiti, þū heitir.

II. 'Shake'-conjugation
Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. Prt. Pl. Ptc. Prt.
fara (go) fęrr fōr fōru farinn
grafa (dig) gręfr grōf grōfu grafinn
hlaða (load) hlęðr hlōð hlōðu hlaðinn
vaxa (grow) vęx ōx ōxu vaxinn
standa (stand) stęndr stōð stōðu staðinn
aka (drive) ękr ōk ōku ękinn
taka (take) tękr tōk tōku tękinn
draga (draw) dręgr drō drōgu dręginn
flā (flay) flær flō flōgu flęginn
slā (strike) slær slō slōgu slęginn

141. The following have weak presents:
Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. Prt. Pl. Ptc. Prt.
hęfja (lift) hęfr hōf hōfu hafinn
deyja (die) deyr dō dō dāinn
hlæja (laugh) hlær hlō hlōgu hlęginn

III. 'Bind'-conjugation
Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. Prt. Pl. Ptc. Prt.
bresta (burst) brestr brast brustu brostinn
hverfa (turn) hverfr hvarf hurfu horfinn
svelga (swallow) svelgr svalg sulgu sōlginn
verða (become) verðr varð urðu orðinn
skjālfa (shake) skelfr skalf skulfu skolfinn
drekka (drink) drekkr drakk drukku drukkinn
finna (find) finnr fann fundu fundinn
vinna (win) vinnr vann unnu unninn
binda (bind) bindr batt bundu bundinn
springa (spring) springr sprakk sprungu sprunginn
stinga (pierce) stingr stakk stungu stunginn
bregða (pull) bregðr brā brugðu brugðinn
sökkva (sink) sökkr sǫkk sukku sokkinn
stökkva (spring) stökkr stǫkk stukku stokkinn

143. The following have weak presents (which makes however no difference in their conjugation):
Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. Prt. Pl. Ptc. Prt.
bręnna (burn) bręnnr brann brunnu brunninn
ręnna (run) ręnnr rann runnu runninn

IV. 'Bear'-conjugation
Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. Prt. Pl. Ptc. Prt.
bera (carry) berr bar bāru borinn
nema (take) nemr nam nāmu numinn
fela (hide) felr fal fālu fōlginn
koma (come) kömr kom kvāmu kominn
sofa (sleep) söfr svaf svāfu sofinn

V. 'Give'-conjugation
Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. Prt. Pl. Ptc. Prt.
drepa (kill) drepr drap drāpu drepinn
gefa (give) gefr gaf gāfu gefinn
kveða (say) kveðr kvað kvāðu kveðinn
meta (estimate) metr mat mātu metinn
reka (drive) rekr rak rāku rekinn
eta (eat) etr āt ātu etinn
sjā (see) sēr6 sā sā7 sēnn

[Footnote 6: sē, sēr, sēr; sjām, sēð, sjā. Subj. sē, sēr, sē; sēm, sēð, sē.]

[Footnote 7: sām, sāið, sā.]

146. The following have weak presents:--
Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. Prt. Pl. Ptc. Prt.
biðja (ash) biðr bað bāðu beðinn
sitja (sit) sitr sat sātu setinn
liggja (lie) liggr lā lāgum leginn
þiggja (receive) þiggr þā þāgu þeginn

VI. 'Shine'-conjugation
Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. Prt. Pl. Ptc. Prt.
bīta (bite) bītr beit bitu bitinn
drīfa (drive) drīfr dreif drifu drifinn
grīpa (grasp) grīpr greip gripu gripinn
līða (go) līðr leið liðu liðinn
līta (look) lītr leit litu litinn
rīða (ride) rīðr reið riðu riðinn
sīga (sink) sīgr seig sigu siginn
slīta (tear) slītr sleit slitu slitinn
stīga (advance) stīgr steig stigu stiginn
bīða (wait) bīðr beið biðu beiðnn

148. The following has a weak present:
Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. Prt. Pl. Ptc. Prt.
vīkja (move) vīkr veik viku vikinn

VII. 'Choose'-conjugation
Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. Prt. Pl. Ptc. Prt.
bjōða (offer) bȳðr bauð buðu boðinn
brjōta (break) brȳtr braut brutu brotinn
fljōta (float) flȳtr flaut flutu flotinn
hljōta (receive) hlȳtr hlaut hlutu hlotinn
kjōsa (choose) kȳss kaus kusum kosinn
njōta (enjoy) nȳtr naut nutu notinn
skjōta (shoot) skȳtr skaut skutu skotinn
drjūpa (drop) drȳpr draup drupu dropinn
ljūga (tell lies) lȳgr laug lugu loginn
lūka (close) lȳkr lauk luku lokinn
lūta (bend) lȳtr laut lutu lotinn
fljūga (fly) flȳgr flō flugu floginn
Weak Verbs

150. There are three conjugations of weak verbs. All those of the first conjugation have mutated vowels in the pres., and form their pret. with ð (d, t): heyra (hear), heyrða. Those of the second form their pret. in the same way, but have unmutated vowels in the pres.: hafa (have) hafða. Those of the third form their pret. in -aða: kalla (call), kallaða.
I. 'Hear'-conjugation

Indicative Subjunctive
Present sg. 1. heyr-i heyr-a
2. heyr-ir heyr-ir
3. heyr-ir heyr-i
pl. 1. heyr-um heyr-im
2. heyr-ið heyr-ið
3. heyr-a heyr-i
Preterite sg. 1. heyr-ða heyr-ða
2. heyr-ðir heyr-ðir
3. heyr-ði heyr-ði
pl. 1. heyr-ðum heyr-ðim
2. heyr-ðuð heyr-ðið
3. heyr-ðu heyr-ði

Imper. sg. 1. heyr; pl. 1. heyr-um, 2. heyr-ið.
Partic. pres. heyr-andi; pret. heyr-ðr.
Infin. heyr-a.
Indicative Subjunctive
Present sg. 1. heyr-umk heyr-umk
2. heyr-isk heyr-isk
3. heyr-isk heyr-isk
pl. 1. heyr-umk heyr-imk
2. heyr-izk heyr-izk
3. heyr-ask heyr-isk
Preterite sg. 1. heyr-ðumk heyr-ðumk
2. heyr-ðisk heyr-ðisk
3. heyr-ðisk heyr-ðisk
pl. 1. heyr-ðumk heyr-ðimk
2. heyr-ðuzk heyr-ðizk
3. heyr-ðusk heyr-ðisk

Imper. sg. 2. heyr-sk; pl. 1. heyr-umk, 2. heyr-izk.
Partic. pres. heyr-andisk; pret. heyr-zk neut.
Infin. heyr-ask.
A. Without vowel-change

152. The inflectional ð becomes d after long syllables ending in l or n: sigla (sail), siglda; nęfna (name), nęfnda, nęfndr.

153. -ðð becomes dd: leiða (lead), leidda.

154. ð after s and t becomes t: reisa (raise), reista; mœta (meet), mœtta. Also in a few verbs in l, n: mæla (speak), mælta; spęnna (buckle), spęnta.

155. After nd and pt it is dropped: sęnda (send), sęnda, sęndr; lypta (lift), lypta.

156. It is preserved in such verbs as the following: dœma (judge), dœmða; fœra (lead), fœrða; hęrða (harden), hęrða; hleypa (gallop), hleypða.
B. With vowel-change

157. All these verbs have j preceded by a short syllable (tęlja), or a long vowel without any cons. after it (dȳja), or gg (lęggja); the j being kept before a and u, as in the pres. ind. of spyrja (ask): spyr, spyrr, spyrr; spyrjum, spyrið, spyrja, pres. subj. 1 sg. ek spyrja; they unmutate their vowel in the pret. and ptc. pret. (spurða, spurðr), the mutation being restored in the pret. subj. spyrða, spyrðir, etc. The ptc. pret. often has an i before the ð.
bęrja (strike) barða barðr
lęggja (lay) lagða lag(i)ðr
tęlja (tell) talða tal(i)ðr
vękja (wake) vakða vakðr
flytja (remove) flutta fluttr
dȳja (shake) dūða dūðr

158. The following keep the mutated vowel throughout:
sęlja (sell) sęlda sęldr
sętja (set) sętta sęttr

159. The following are irregular:
sœkja (seek) sōtta sōttr
þykkja (seem) þōtta þōttr

Subj. pret. sœtta, þœtta.

160. The following has an adj. for its partic. pret.:
gǫ̈ra (make) gǫ̈rða gǫ̈rr.
II. 'Have'-conjugation

161. The few verbs of this class are conjugated like those of conj. I, except that some of them have imperatives in -i: vaki, þęfi; uni. lifa, sęgja have imper. lif, sęg. They mutate the vowel of the pret. subj. (ynða). Their partic. pret. generally occurs only in the neut.; sometimes the a is dropped.
lifa (live) lifi lifða lifat
una (be contented) uni unða unat
skorta (be wanting) skorti skorta skort
þola (endure) þoli þolða þolat
þora (dare) þori þorða þorat
nā (attain) nāi nāða nāðr, nāit

162. The following show mutation:
sęgja (say) sęgi sagða sagðr
þęgja (be silent) þęgi þagða þagat
hafa (have) hęfi hafða hafðr
kaupa (buy) kaupi keypta keyptr

163. The present indic. of the first three is as follows:
Sing. 1. hęfi sęgi þęgi
2, 3. hęfir sęgir þęgir
Plur. 1. hǫfum sęgjum þęgjum
2. hafið sęgið þęgið
3. hafa sęgja þęgja

164. The rest of hafa is regular. Pres. subj. hafa, hafir, hafi; hafim, hafið, hafi. Pret. indic. hafða, hafðir, hafði; hǫfdum, hǫfðuð, hǫfðu. Pret. subj. hęfða, hęfðir, hęfði; hęfðim, hęfðið, hęfði. Imper. haf, hǫfum, hafið. Ptc. hafandi, hafðr.
III. 'Call'-conjugation
Indicative Subjunctive
Present sg. 1. kall-a kall-a
2. kall-ar kall-ir
3. kall-ar kall-i
pl. 1. kǫll-um kall-im
2. kall-ið kall-ið
3. kall-a kall-i
Preterite sg. 1. kall-aða kall-aða
2. kall-aðir kall-aðir
3. kall-aði kall-aði
pl. 1. kǫll-uðum kall-aðim
2. kǫll-uðuð kall-aðið
3. kǫll-uðu kall-aði

Imper. sing. 2. kall-a; plur. 1. kǫll-um, 2. kall-ið.
Partic. pres. kall-andi; pret. kallaðr (neut. kallat).
Infin. kalla.
Indicative Subjunctive
Present sg. 1. kǫll-umk kǫll-umk
2. kall-ask kall-isk
3. kall-ask kall-isk
pl. 1. kǫll-umk kall-imk
2. kall-izk kall-izk
3. kall-ask kall-isk
Preterite sg. 1. kǫll-uðumk kǫll-uðumk
2. kall-aðisk kall-aðisk
3. kall-aðisk kall-aðisk
pl. 1. kǫll-uðumk kall-aðimk
2. kǫll-uðuzk kall-aðizk
3. kǫll-uðusk kall-aðisk

Imper. sing. 2. kall-ask; pl. 1. kǫll-umk, 2. kall-izk.
Partic. pres. kall-andisk; pret. kall-azk neut.
Infin. kall-ask.

165. So also byrja (begin), hęrja (make war), vakna (awake).
Strong-Weak Verbs

166. These have old strong preterites for their presents, from which new weak preterites are formed.
Infin. Pres. Sg. Pres. Pl. Prt. Ptc.
eiga (possess) ā eigu ātta āttr
kunna (can) kann kunnu kunna kunnat n.
mega (can) mā megu mātta mātt n.
muna (remember) man munu munða munat n.
munu (will) mun munu munða ----
skulu (shall) skal skulu skylda skyldr
þurfa (need) þarf þurfu þurfta þurft n.
unna (love) ann unnu unna unnt n.
vita (know) veit vitu vissa vitaðr

167. Of these verbs munu and skulu have preterite infinitives: mundu, skyldu.
Anomalous Verbs

168. Vilja (will):
Sing. Plur.
1. vil viljum
2. vill vilið
3. vill vilja

Subj. pres. vili. Pret. ind. vilda. Ptc. prt. viljat.

169. Vera (be):
Indicative Subjunctive
Present sg. 1. em sē
2. ert sēr
3. er sē
pl. 1. erum sēm
2. eruð sēð
3. eru sē
Preterite sg. 1. var væra
2. vart værir
3. var væri
pl. 1. vārum værim
2. vāruð værið
3. vāru væri

Imper. sg. ver; pl. verið. Ptc. prt. verit n.

170. Composition with the genitive is very frequent in Icelandic. Thus by the side of skip-stjōrn (ship-steering) we find skips-brot (ship's breaking, shipwreck), skipa-hęrr (army of ships, fleet). Genitival composition often expresses possession, as in konungs-skip (king's ship).

171. Prefixes are much less used in Icelandic than in Old English.

al- 'quite,' 'very': al-būinn 'quite ready,' al-snotr 'very clever.'

all- 'all,' 'very': all-valdr 'all-ruler, monarch,' all-harðr 'very hard,' all-stōrum 'very greatly.'

and- 'against': and-lit 'countenance' (lita, look), and-svar 'answer.'

fjǫl- 'many': fjǫl-męnni 'multitude' (maðr, man).

mis- 'mis-': mis-līka 'displease.'

ū- 'un-': ū-friðr 'war' (friðr, peace), ū-happ 'misfortune' (happ luck).
(a) Nouns

172. -ingr, -ingi, -ing: vīkingr 'pirate,' hǫfðingi 'chief,' kęrling 'old woman.'

173. -ð, fem. with mutation: fęgrð 'beauty' (fagr, fair), fęrð 'journey' (fara, go), lęngð 'length' (langr, long).

-ing, fem.: svipting 'pulling,' vīking 'piracy,' virðing 'honour.'

-leikr, masc.: kœr-leikr 'affection' (hœrr, dear), skjōt-leikr 'speed' (skjōtr, swift).

-an, -un, fem.: skipan 'arrangement,' skęmtun 'amusement.'
(b) Adjectives

174. -ugr: rāðugr 'sagacious,' þrūðugr 'strong.'

-ōttr: kollōttr 'bald,' ǫndōttr 'fierce.'

-lauss '-less': fē-lauss 'moneyless,' ōtta-lauss 'without fear.'

-ligr '-ly': undr-ligr 'wonderful,' sann-ligr 'probable' (sannr, true).

-samr: līkn-samr 'gracious,' skyn-samr 'intelligent.'

-verðr '-ward': ofan-verðr 'upper.'
(c) Verbs

175. -na: brotna 'be broken' (brotinn, broken), hvītna 'become white,' vakna 'awake.' Used to form intransitive and inchoative verbs of the third conj.
(d) Adverbs

176. -liga '-ly': undar-liga 'wonderfully,' stęrk-liga 'strongly' (stęrkr, strong).

-um, dat. pl.: stōrum 'greatly' (stōrr, great).

177. Icelandic syntax greatly resembles Old English, but has several peculiarities of its own.

178. Concord is carried out very strictly in Icelandic: allir męnn vāru būnir 'all the men were ready,' allir vāru drepnir 'all were killed.'

179. A plural adj. or pronoun referring to two nouns of different (natural or grammatical) gender is always put in the neuter: þā gekk hann upp, ok með honum Loki (masc.), ok Þjālfi (masc.), ok Rǫskva (fem.). þā er þau (neut.) hǫfðu lītla hrið gęngit... 'he landed, and with him L., and Þ., and R. When they had walked for some time...'

180. The extensive use of the instrumental dative is very characteristic of Icelandic: whenever the direct object of a verb can be considered as the instrument of the action expressed by the verb, it is put in the dative, as in kasta spjōti 'throw a spear' (lit. 'throw with a spear'), hann helt hamarskaptinu 'he grasped the handle of the hammer,' heita þvī 'promise that,' jāta þvī 'agree to that.'

181. The weak form of adjectives is used as in O.E. after the definite article, þessi and other demonstratives. annarr (other) is always strong.

182., An adj. is often set in apposition to a following noun to denote part of it: eiga hālft dȳrit 'to have half of the animal,' ǫnnur þau 'the rest of them,' of miðja nātt 'in the middle of the night.'

183. sā is often put pleonastically before the definite article inn, both before and after the subst.: sā inn ungi maðr 'that young man,' hafit þat it djūpa 'the deep sea.'

184. The definite article is generally not expressed at all, or else einn, einnhvęrr is used.

185. A noun (often a proper name) is often put in apposition to a dual pron. of the first and second persons, or a plur. of the third person: þit fēlagar, 'thou and thy companions,' með þeim Āka 'with him and Āki.' Similarly stęndr Þōrr upp ok þeir fēlagar 'Thor and his companions get up.'

186. The plurals vēr, þēr are sometimes used instead of the singulars ek, þū, especially when a king is speaking or being spoken to.

187. sik and sēr are used in a strictly reflexive sense, referring back to the subject of the sentence, like se in Latin: Þorr bauð honum til matar með sēr 'Thor asked him to supper with him.'

188. The tenses for which there is no inflection in the active, and all those of the passive, are formed by the auxiliaries skal (shall), hafa (have), vera (be) with the infin. and ptc. pret., much as in modern English.

189. The historical present is much used, often alternating abruptly with the preterite.

190. The middle voice is used: (1) in a purely reflexive sense: spara 'spare,' sparask 'spare oneself, reserve one's strength.' (2) intransitively: būa 'prepare,' būask 'become ready, be ready'; sętja 'set,' sętjask 'sit down'; sȳna 'show,' sȳnask 'appear, seem.' (3) reciprocally: bęrja 'strike,' bęrjask 'fight'; hitta, 'find,' hittask 'meet.' In other cases it specializes the meaning of the verb, often emphasizing the idea of energy or effort: koma 'come,' komask 'make one's way.'

191. The impersonal form of expression is widely used in Icelandic: rak ā storm (acc.) fyrir þeim 'a storm was driven in their face.'

192. The indef. 'one' is expressed in the same way by the third pers. sg., and this form of expression is often used when the subject is perfectly definite: ok freista skal þessar īþrōttar 'and this feat shall be tried (by you).'

193. The abrupt change from the indirect to the direct narration is very common: Haraldi konungi var sagt at þar var komit bjarndȳri, 'ok ā Īslęnzkr maðr,' 'King Harold was told that a bear had arrived, and that an Icelander owned it.' The direct narration is also used after at (that): hann svarar at 'ek skal rīða til Hęljar' 'he answers that he will ride to Hel.'


I. Thor
Þōrr er āsanna framastr, sā er kallaðr er Āsa-þōrr eða
Ǫku-þōrr; hann er stęrkastr allra guðanna ok manna.
Hann ā þar rīki er Þrūð-vangar heita, en hǫll hans heitir
Bilskīrnir; ī þeim sal eru fimm hundruð gōlfa ok fjōrir tigir;
þat er hūs mest, svā at męnn hafa gǫ̈rt.

Þōrr ā hafra tvā, er svā heita, Tann-gnjōstr ok Tann-
grisnir, ok reið þā er hann ękr, en hafrarnir draga reiðina;
þvī er hann kallaðr Ǫkuþōrr. Hann ā ok þrjā kost-gripi.
Einn þeira er hamarrinn Mjǫllnir, er hrīm-þursar ok berg-
risar kęnna, þā er hann kömr ā lopt, ok er þat eigi undarligt:
hann hęfir lamit margan haus ā fęðrum eða frændum þeira.
Annan grip ā hann bęztan, męgin-gjarðar; ok er hann
spęnnir þeim um sik, þā vęx honum ās-męgin hālfu. En
þriðja hlut ā hann þann er mikill gripr er ī, þat eru jārn-
glōfar; þeira mā hann eigi missa við hamarskaptit. En
engi er svā frōðr at tęlja kunni ǫll stōr-virki hans.

II. Thor and Ūgarðaloki
Þat er upp-haf þessa māls at Ǫkuþōrr fōr með hafra sīna
ok reið, ok með honum sā āss er Loki er kallaðr; koma
þeir at kveldi til eins bōnda ok fā þar nātt-stað. En um
kveldit tōk Þōrr hafra sīna, ok skar bāða; ęptir þat vāru
þeir flęgnir ok bornir til kętils; en er soðit var, þā sęttisk
Þōrr til nātt-verðar ok þeir lags-męnn. Þōrr bauð til matar
með sēr bōndanum, ok konu hans, ok bǫrnum þeira; sonr
bōnda hēt Þjālfi, en Rǫskva dōttir. Þā lagði Þōrr hafr-
stǫkurnar utar frā eldinum, ok mælti at bōndi ok heima-męnn
hans skyldu kasta ā hafrstǫkurnar beinunum. Þjālfi, sonr
bōnda, helt ā lær-lęgg hafrsins, ok sprętti ā knīfi sīnum, ok
braut til męrgjar. Þōrr dvalðisk þar of nāttina; en ī ōttu
fyrir dag stōð hann upp, ok klæddi sik, tōk hamarinn
Mjǫllni ok brā upp, ok vīgði hafrstǫkurnar; stōðu þā upp
hafrarnir, ok var þā annarr haltr ęptra fœti. Þat fann Þōrr,
ok talði at bōndinn eða hans hjōn mundi eigi skynsamliga
hafa farit með beinum hafrsins: kęnnir hann at brotinn var
lærlęggrinn. Eigi þarf langt frā þvī at sęgja: vita męgu þat
allir hvęrsu hræddr bōndinn mundi vera, er hann sā at Þōrr
lēt sīga brȳnnar ofan fyrir augun; en þat er sā augnanna,
þā hugðisk hann falla mundu fyrir sjōninni einni samt; hann
hęrði hęndrnar at hamar-skaptinu svā at hvītnuðu knūarnir.
En bōndinn gǫ̈rði sem vān var, ok ǫll hjōnin: kǫlluðu āka-
fliga, bāðu sēr friðar, buðu at fyrir kvæmi alt þat er þau
āttu. En er hann sā hræzlu þeira, þā gekk af honum
mōðrinn, ok sefaðisk hann; ok tōk af þeim ī sætt bǫrn
þeira, Þjālfa ok Rǫsku, ok gǫ̈rðusk þau þā skyldir þjōnustu-
męnn Þōrs, ok fylgja þau honum jafnan sīðan.

Lēt hann þar ęptir hafra, ok byrjaði fęrðina austr ī
Jǫtun-heima, ok alt til hafsins; ok þā fōr hann ūt yfir
hafit þat it djūpa; en er hann kom til lands, þā gekk hann
upp, ok með honum Loki, ok Þjālfi, ok Rǫskva. Þā er þau
hǫfðu lītla hrīð gęngit, varð fyrir þeim mǫrk stōr; gengu
þau þann dag allan til myrkrs. Þjālfi var allra manna
fōt-hvatastr; hann bar kȳl Þōrs, en til vista var eigi gott.
Þā er myrkt var orðit, leituðu þeir sēr til nāttstaðar, ok
fundu fyrir sēr skāla nakkvarn mjǫk mikinn, vāru dyrr ā
ęnda, ok jafn-breiðar skālanum; þar leituðu þeir sēr nātt-
bōls. En of miðja nātt varð land-skjālfti mikill, gekk jǫrðin
undir þeim skykkjum, ok skalf hūsit. Þā stōð Þōrr upp, ok
hēt ā lagsmęnn sīna; ok leituðusk fyrir, ok fundu af-hūs til
hœgri handar i miðjum skālanum, ok gengu þannig; sęttisk
Þōrr ī dyrrin, en ǫnnur þau vāru innar frā honum, ok vāru
þau hrædd, en Þōrr helt hamarskaptinu, ok hugði at vęrja
sik; þā heyrðu þau ym mikinn ok gnȳ. En er kom at
dagan, þā gekk Þōrr ūt, ok sēr hvar lā maðr skamt frā
honum ī skōginum, ok var sā eigi lītill; hann svaf, ok hraut
stęrkliga. Þā þōttisk Þōrr skiIja hvat lātum verit hafði of
nāttina; hann spęnnir sik męgingjǫrðum, ok ōx honum
āsmęgin; en ī þvī vaknar maðr sā, ok stōð skjōtt upp; en
þā er sagt at Þōr varð bilt einu sinni at slā hann með ham-
rinum; ok spurði hann at nafni, en sā nęfndisk Skrȳmir:
'en eigi þarf ek,' sagði hann, 'at spyrja þik at nafni: kęnni
ek at þū ert Āsaþōrr; en hvārt hęfir þū dręgit ā braut hanzka
minn?' Seildisk þā Skrȳmir til, ok tōk upp hanzka sinn;
sēr Þōrr þā at þat hafði hann haft of nāttina fyrir skāla, en
afhūsit þat var þumlungrinn hanzkans. Skrȳmir spurði ef
Þōrr vildi hafa fǫru-neyti hans, en Þōrr jātti þvī. Þā tōk
Skrȳmir ok leysti nestbagga sinn, ok bjōsk til at eta dǫgurð,
en Þōrr ī ǫðrum stað ok hans fēlagar. Skrȳmir bauð þā at
þeir lęgði mǫtu-neyti sitt, en Þōrr jātti þvī; þā batt Skrȳmir
nest þeira alt ī einn bagga, ok lagði ā bak sēr; hann gekk
fyrir of daginn, ok steig hęldr stōrum, en sīðan at kveldi
leitaði Skrȳmir þeim nāttstaðar undir eik nakkvarri mikilli.
Þā mælti Skrȳmir til Þōrs at hann vill lęggjask niðr at
sofna; 'en þēr takið nest-baggann, ok būið til nātt-verðar
yðr.' Þvī næst sofnar Skrȳmir, ok hraut fast; en Þōrr tōk
nest-baggann ok skal leysa; en svā er at sęgja, sem ū-trūligt
mun þykkja, at engi knūt fekk hann leyst, ok engi ālar-
ęndann hreyft, svā at þā væri lausari en āðr. Ok er hann
sēr at þetta verk mā eigi nȳtask, þā varð hann reiðr, greip
þā hamarinn Mjǫllni tveim hǫndum, ok steig fram ǫðrum
fœti at þar er Skrȳmir lā, ok lȳstr ī hǫfuð honum; en
Skrȳmir vaknar, ok spyrr hvārt laufs-blað nakkvat felli ī
hǫfuð honum, eða hvārt þeir hęfði þā matazk, ok sē būnir
til rękkna. Þōrr sęgir at þeir munu þā sofa ganga. Ganga
þau þā undir aðra eik. Er þat þēr satt at sęgja, at ekki var
þā ōttalaust at sofa. En at miðri nātt þā heyrir Þōrr at
Skrȳmir hrȳtr, ok söfr fast, svā at dunar ī skōginum. Þā
stęndr hann upp, ok gęngr til hans, reiðir hamarinn tītt ok
hart, ok lȳstr ofan ī miðjan hvirfil honum; hann kęnnir at
hamars-muðrinn sökkr djūpt ī hǫfuðit. En ī þvī bili vaknar
Skrȳmir, ok mælti: 'hvat er nū? fell akarn nakkvat ī hǫfuð
mēr? eða hvat er tītt um þik, Þōrr?' En Þōrr gekk aptr
skyndiliga, ok svarar at hann var þā nȳvaknaðr, sagði at þā
var mið nātt, ok enn væri māl at sofa. Þā hugsaði Þōrr þat,
ef hann kvæmi svā ī fœri at slā hann it þriðja hǫgg, at aldri
skyldi hann sjā sik sīðan; liggr nū ok gætir ef Skrȳmir
sofnaði fast. En lītlu fyrir dagan þā heyrir hann at Skrȳmir
mun sofnat hafa; stęndr þā upp, ok hleypr at honum, reiðir
þā hamarinn af ǫllu afli ok lȳstr ā þunn-vangann þann er
upp vissi; sökkr þā hamarrinn upp at skaptinu. En Skrȳ-
mir sęttisk upp, ok strauk of vangann, ok mælti: 'hvārt
munu fuglar nakkvarir sitja ī trēnu yfir mēr? mik grunaði,
er ek vaknaða, at tros nakkvat af kvistunum felli ī hǫfuð
mēr; hvārt vakir þū, Þōrr? Māl mun vera upp at standa
ok klæðask, en ekki eigu þēr nū langa leið fram til borgar-
innar er kǫlluð er Ūt-garðr. Heyrt hęfi ek at þēr hafið
kvisat ī milli yðvar at ek væra ekki lītill maðr vęxti, en sjā
skulu þēr þar stœrri męnn, er þēr komið ī Ūtgarð. Nū mun
ek rāða yðr heil-ræði: lāti þēr eigi stōrliga yfir yðr, ekki
munu hirðmęnn Ūtgarða-loka vel þola þvīlīkum kǫgur-
sveinum kǫpur-yrði; en at ǫðrum kosti hverfið aptr, ok
þann ætla ek yðr bętra af at taka. En ef þēr vilið fram
fara, þā stęfni þēr ī austr, en ek ā nū norðr leið til fjalla
þessa er nū munu þēr sjā mega.' Tękr Skrȳmir nest-bag-
garm, ok kastar ā bak sēr, ok snȳr þvęrs ā braut ī skōginn
frā þeim, ok er þess eigi getit at æsirnir bæði þā heila

Þōrr fōr fram ā leið ok þeir fēlagar, ok gekk fram til miðs
dags; þā sā þeir borg standa ā vǫllum nǫkkurum, ok sęttu
hnakkann ā bak sēr aptr, āðr þeir fengu sēt yfir upp; ganga
til borgarinnar, ok var grind fyri borg-hliðinu, ok lokin aptr.
Þōrr gekk ā grindina, ok fekk eigi upp lokit; en er þeir
þreyttu at komask ī borgina, þā smugu þeir milli spalanna
ok kōmu svā inn; sā þā hǫll mikla, ok gengu þannig; var
hurðin opin; þā gengu þeir inn, ok sā þar marga męnn
ā tvā bękki, ok flesta œrit stōra. Þvī næst koma þeir fyrir
konunginn, Ūtgarðaloka, ok kvǫddu hann, en hann leit seint
til þeira, ok glotti um tǫnn, ok mælti: 'seint er um langan
veg at spyrja tīðinda, eða er annan veg en ek hygg, at þessi
svein-stauli sē Ǫkuþōrr? en meiri muntu vera en mēr līzk
þū; eða hvat īþrōtta er þat er þēr fēlagar þykkizk vera við
būnir? Engi skal hēr vera með oss sā er eigi kunni nakkvars
konar list eða kunnandi um fram flesta męnn.' Þā sęgir sā
er sīðast gekk, er Loki heitir: 'kann ek þā īþrōtt, er ek em
al-būinn at reyna, at engi er hēr sā inni er skjōtara skal eta
mat sinn en ek.' Þā svarar Ūtgarðaloki: 'īþrōtt er þat, ef
þū ęfnir, ok freista skal þā þessar īþrōttar;' kallaði utar ā
bękkinn at sā er Logi heitir skal ganga ā gōlf fram, ok freista
sīn ī mōti Loka. Þā var tękit trog eitt, ok borit inn ā hallar-
gōlfit, ok fylt af slātri; sęttisk Loki at ǫðrum ęnda, en Logi
at ǫðrum, ok āt hvārr-tvęggja sem tīðast, ok mœttusk ī miðju
troginu; hafði þā Loki etit slātr alt af beinum, en Logi hafði
ok etit slātr alt ok beinin með, ok svā trogit; ok sȳndisk nū
ǫllum sem Loki hęfði lātit leikinn. Þā spyrr Ūtgarðaloki
hvat sā inn ungi maðr kunni leika. En Þjālfi sęgir at hann
mun freista at ręnna skeið nǫkkur við einn-hvęrn þann er
Ūtgarðaloki fær til. Hann sęgir, Ūtgarða]oki, at þetta er
gōð īþrōtt, ok kallar þess meiri vān at hann sē vel at sēr
būinn of skjōtleikinn, ef hann skal þessa īþrōtt inna; en þō
lætr hann skjōtt þessa skulu freista. Stęndr þā upp Ūtgarða-
loki, ok gęngr ūt, ok var þar gott skeið at ręnna ęptir slēttum
vęlli. Þā kallar Ūtgarðaloki til sīn sveinstaula nakkvarn, er
nęfndr er Hugi, ok bað hann ręnna ī kǫpp við Þjālfa. Þā
taka þeir it fyrsta skeið, ok er Hugi þvī framar at hann
snȳsk aptr ī mōti honum at skeiðs ęnda. Þā mælti Ūtgarða-
loki: 'þurfa muntu, Þjālfi, at lęggja þik meir fram, ef þū
skalt vinna leikinn; en þō er þat satt, at ekki hafa hēr komit
þeir męnn er mēr þykkja fōthvatari en svā.' Þā taka þeir
aptr annat skeið, ok þā er Hugi er kominn til skeiðs ęnda,
ok hann snȳsk aptr, þā var langt kōlf-skot til Þjālfa. Þā
mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'vel þykkir mēr Þjālfi ręnna; en eigi
trūi ek honum nū at hann vinni leikinn, en nū mun reyna,
er þeir ręnna it þriðja skeiðit.' Þā taka þeir ęnn skeið; en
er Hugi er kominn til skeiðs ęnda ok snȳsk aptr, ok er
Þjālfi eigi þā kominn ā mitt skeiðit; þā sęgja allir at reynt
er um þenna leik. Þā spyrr Ūtgarðaloki Þōr, hvat þeira
īþrōtta mun vera er hann muni vilja birta fyrir þeim, svā
miklar sǫgur sem męnn hafa gǫ̈rt um stōrvirki hans. Þā
mælti Þōrr at hęlzt vill hann þat taka til, at þreyta drykkju
við einnhvęrn mann. Ūtgarðaloki sęgir at þat mā vel vera;
ok gęngr inn ī hǫllina, ok kallar skutil-svein sinn, biðr at
hann taki vītis-horn þat, er hirðmęnn eru vanir at drekka af.
Þvī næst kömr fram skutilsveinn með horninu, ok fær Þōr ī
hǫnd. Þā mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'af horni þessu þykkir þā
vel drukkit, ef ī einum drykk gęngr af, en sumir męnn
drekka af ī tveim drykkjum, en engi er svā lītill drykkju-
maðr, at eigi gangi af ī þrimr.' Þōrr lītr ā hornit, ok sȳnisk
ekki mikit, ok er þō hęldr langt, en hann er mjǫk þyrstr;
tękr at drekka, ok svelgr allstōrum, ok hyggr at eigi skal
þurfa at lūta optar at sinni ī hornit. En er hann þraut
örindit, ok hann laut ōr horninu, ok sēr hvat leið drykkinum,
ok līzk honum svā, sem all-lītill munr mun vera at nū sē
lægra ī horninu en āðr. Þā mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'vel er
drukkit, ok eigi til mikit; eigi munda-k trūa, ef mēr væri
sagt frā, at Āsaþōrr mundi eigi meira drykk drekka; en
þō veit ek at þū munt vilja drekka af ī ǫðrum drykk.'
Þōrr svarar engu, sętr hornit ā munn sēr, ok hyggr nū at
hann skal drekka meira drykk, ok þreytir ā drykkjuna, sem
honum vannsk til örindi, ok sēr ęnn at stikillinn hornsins
vill ekki upp svā mjǫk sem honum līkar; ok er hann tōk
hornit af munni sēr ok sēr, līzk honum nū svā, sem minna
hafi þorrit en ī inu fyrra sinni; er nū gott beranda borð
ā horninu. Þā mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'hvat er nū, Þōrr?
muntu nū eigi sparask til eins drykkjar meira en þēr mun
hagr ā vera? Svā līzk mēr, ef þū skalt nū drekka af horninu
inn þriðja drykkinn, sem þessi mun mestr ætlaðr; en ekki
muntu mega hēr með oss heita svā mikill maðr sem æsir
kalla þik, ef þū gǫ̈rir eigi meira af þēr um aðra leika en mēr
līzk sem um þenna mun vera.' Þā varð Þōrr reiðr, sętr
hornit ā munn sēr, ok drekkr sem ākafligast mā hann, ok
þreytir sem lęngst ā drykkinn; en er hann sā ī hornit, þā
hafði nū hęlzt nakkvat munr ā fęngizk, ok þā bȳðr hann upp
hornit, ok vill eigi drekka meira. Þā mælti Ūtgarðaloki:
'auð-sēt er nū at māttr þinn er ekki svā mikill sem vēr
hugðum; en vill-tu freista um fleiri leika? Sjā mā nū, at
ekki nȳtir þū hēr af.' Þōrr svarar: 'freista mā ek ęnn of
nakkvara leika, en undarliga mundi mēr þykkja, þā er ek var
heima með āsum, ef þvīlīkir drykkir væri svā lītlir kallaðir. En
hvat leik vili þēr nū bjōða mēr?' Þā mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'þat
gǫ̈ra hēr ungir sveinar er lītit mark mun at þykkja, at hęfja
upp af jǫrðu kǫtt minn; en eigi munda-k kunna at mæla
þvīlīkt við Āsaþōr, ef ek hęfða eigi sēt fyrr at þū ert miklu
minni fyrir þēr en ek hugða.' Þvī næst hljōp fram kǫttr
einn grār ā hallargōlfit, ok hęldr mikill; en Þōrr gekk til, ok
tōk hęndi sinni niðr undir miðjan kviðinn, ok lypti upp, en
kǫttrinn beygði kęnginn, svā sem Þōrr rētti upp hǫndina; en
er Þōrr seildisk svā langt upp sem hann mātti lęngst, þā lētti
kǫttrinn einum fœti, ok fær Þōrr eigi framit þenna leik. Þā
mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'svā fōr þessi leikr sem mik varði;
kǫttrinn er hęldr mikill, en Þōrr er lāgr ok lītill hjā stōr-
męnni þvī sem hēr er með oss.' Þā mælti Þōrr: 'svā lītinn
sem pēr kallið mik, þā gangi nū til einnhvęrr, ok fāisk við
mik; nū em ek reiðr.' Þā svarar Ūtgarðaloki, ok litask um
ā bękkina, ok mælti: 'eigi sē ek þann mann hēr inni, er
eigi mun lītil-ræði ī þykkja at fāsk við þik;' ok ęnn mælti
hann: 'sjām fyrst, kalli mēr hingat kęrlinguna, fōstru mīna
Ęlli, ok fāisk Þōrr við hana, ef hann vill; fęlt hęfir hon þā
męnn er mēr hafa litizk eigi ū-stęrkligri en Þōrr er.' Þvī
næst gekk ī hǫllina kęrling ein gǫmul. Þā mælti Ūtgar-
ðaloki, at hon skal taka fang við Āsaþōr. Ekki er langt um.
at gǫ̈ra: svā fōr fang þat at þvī harðara er Þōrr knūðisk at
fanginu, þvī fastara stōð hon; þā tōk kęrling at leita til
þragða, ok varð Þōrr þā lauss ā fōtum, ok vāru þær svip-
tingar all-harðar, ok eigi lęngi āðr en Þōrr fell ā knē ǫðrum
fœti. Þā gekk til Ūtgarðaloki, bað þau hætta fanginu, ok
sagði svā, at Þōrr mundi eigi þurfa at bjōða fleirum mǫnnum
fang ī hans hǫll; var þā ok liðit ā nātt, vīsaði Ūtgarðaloki
Þōr ok þeim fēlǫgum til sætis, ok dvęljask þar nātt-langt ī
gōðum fagnaði.

En at morgni, þegar dagaði, stęndr Þōrr upp ok þeir
fēlagar, klæða sik, ok eru būnir braut at ganga. Þā kom
þar Ūtgarðaloki, ok lēt sętja þeim borð; skorti þā eigi
gōðan fagnað, mat ok drykk. En er þeir hafa matazk, þā
snūask þeir til fęrðar. Ūtgarðaloki fylgir þeim ūt, gęngr
með þeim braut ōr borginni; en at skilnaði þā mælti Ūtgar-
ðaloki til Þōrs, ok spyrr hvęrnig honum þykkir fęrð sīn
orðin, eða hvārt hann hęfir hitt rīkara mann nakkvarn en
sik. Þōrr svarar at eigi mun hann þat sęgja, at eigi hafi
hann mikla ū-sœmð farit ī þeira við-skiptum; 'en þō veit
ek at þēr munuð kalla mik lītinn mann fyrir mēr, ok uni ek
þvī illa.' Þā mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'nū skal sęgja þēr it sanna,
er þū ert ūt kominn ōr borginni--ok ef ek lifi ok mega-k
rāða, þā skaltu aldri optar ī hana koma; ok þat veit trūa
mīn, at aldri hęfðir þū ī hana komit, ef ek hęfða vitat āðr at
þū hęfðir svā mikinn krapt með þēr, ok þū hafðir svā nær
haft oss mikilli ū-fœru. En sjōn-hvęrfingar hęfi ek gǫ̈rt þēr,
svā at fyrsta sinn, er ek fann þik ā skōginum, kom ek til
fundar við yðr; ok þā er þū skyldir leysa nestbaggann, þā
hafða-k bundit með gres-jārni, en þū fannt eigi hvar upp
skyldi lūka. En þvī næst laust þū mik með hamrinum þrjū
hǫgg, ok var it fyrsta minst, ok var þō svā mikit, at mēr
mundi ęndask til bana, ef ā hęfði komit; en þar er þū sātt
hjā hǫll minni set-berg, ok þar sātt-u ofan ī þrjā dala fer-
skeytta ok einn djūpastan, þat vāru hamarspor þin; setber-
ginu brā ek fyrir hǫggin en eigi sātt þū þat. Svā var ok of
leikana, er þēr þreyttuð við hirðmęnn mīna. Þā var þat it
fyrsta, er Loki gǫ̈rði; hann var mjǫk soltinn, ok āt tītt; en
sā er Logi hēt, þat var villi-eldr, ok bręndi hann eigi seinna
slātrit en trogit. En er Þjālfi þreytti rāsina við þann er
Hugi hēt, þat var hugi minn, ok var Þjālfa eigi vænt at
þreyta skjōt-fœri við hann. En er þū drakkt af horninu, ok
þōtti þēr seint līða,--en þat veit trūa mīn, at þā varð þat
undr, er ek munda eigi trūa at vera mætti; annarr ęndir
hornsins var ūt ī hafi, en þat sāttu eigi; en nū, er þū kömr
til sævarins, þā mun-tu sjā mega, hvęrn þurð þū hęfir drukkit
ā sænum.' Þat eru nū fjǫrur kallaðar. Ok ęnn mælti hann:
'eigi þōtti mēr hitt minna vera vert, er þū lyptir upp kęt-
tinum, ok þēr satt at sęgja, þā hræddusk allir þeir er sā,
er þū lyptir af jǫrðu einum fœtinum; en sā kǫttr var eigi
sem þēr sȳndisk; þat var Miðgarðs-ormr, er liggr um lǫnd
ǫll, ok vannsk honum varliga lęngðin til, at jǫrðina tœki
sporðr ok hǫfuð; ok svā langt seildisk þū upp at skamt var
þā til himins. En hitt var ok mikit undr um fangit, er þū
fekkzk við Ęlli; fyrir þvī at engi hęfir sā orðit, ok engi
mun verða, ef svā gamall er at ęlli bīðr, at eigi komi ęllin
ǫllum til falls. Ok er nū þat sātt at sęgja, at vēr munum
skiljask, ok mun þā bętr hvārratvęggju handar at þēr komið
eigi optar mik at hitta; ek mun ęnn annat sinn vęrja borg
mīna með þvīlīkum vēlum eða ǫðrum, svā at ekki vald munu
þēr ā mēr fā.' En er Þōrr heyrði þessa tǫlu, greip hann til
hamarsins, ok bregðr ā lopt; en er hann skal fram reiða, þā
sēr hann þar hvęrgi Ūtgarðaloka, ok þā snȳsk hann aptr til
borgarinnar, ok ætlask þā fyrir at brjōta borgina; þā sēr
hann þar vǫllu vīða ok fagra, en enga borg. Snȳsk hann
þā aptr, ok fęrr leið sina, til þess er hann kom aptr ī Þrūð-

III. Balder
Annarr sonr Ōðins er Baldr, ok er frā honum gott at
sęgja: hann er bęztr, ok hann lofa allir. Hann er svā fagr
ā-litum ok bjartr svā at lȳsir af honum; ok eitt gras er svā
hvītt at jafnat er til Baldrs brār, þat er allra grasa hvītast;
ok þar ęptir māttu marka hans fęgrð, bæði ā hār ok ā līki;
hann er vitrastr āsanna, ok fęgrstr taliðr ok līknsamastr. En
sū nāttūra fylgir honum at engi mā haldask dōmr hans.
Hann bȳr þar sem heitir Breiða-blik, þat er ā himni; ī þeim
stað mā ekki vera ū-hreint, svā sem hēr sęgir:

Breiðablik heita, þar er Baldr hęfir
sēr of gǫ̈rva sali;
ī þvī landi er ek liggja veit
fæsta feikn-stafi.

IV. The Death of Balder
Þat er upphaf þessar sǫgu, at Baldr inn gōða dreymði
drauma stōra ok hættliga um līf sitt. En er hann sagði
āsunum draumana, þā bāru þeir saman rāð sīn, ok var þat
gǫ̈rt at beiða griða Baldri fyrir alls konar hāska; ok Frigg
tōk svardaga til þess, at eira skyldu Baldri eldr ok vatn, jārn
ok alls konar mālmr, steinar, jǫrðin, viðirnir, sōttirnar, dȳrin,
fuglarnir, eitr, ormar. En er þetta var gǫ̈rt ok vitat, þā var
þat skęmtun Baldrs ok āsanna at hann skyldi standa upp ā
þingum, en allir aðrir skyldu sumir skjōta ā hann, sumir
hǫggva til, sumir bęrja grjōti. En hvat sem at var gǫ̈rt,
sakaði hann ekki, ok þōtti þetta ǫllum mikill frami. En er
þetta sā Loki Laufeyjar-son, þā līkaði honum illa er Baldr
sakaði ekki. Hann gekk til Fęn-salar til Friggjar, ok brā
sēr ī konu līki; þā spyrr Frigg ef sū kona vissi hvat æsir
hǫfðusk at ā þinginu. Hon sagði at allir skutu at Baldri,
ok þat, at hann sakaði ekki. Þā mælti Frigg: 'eigi munu
vāpn eða viðir granda Baldri; eiða hęfi ek þęgit af ǫllum
þeim.' Þā spyrr konan: 'hafa allir hlutir eiða unnit at eira
Baldri?' Þā svarar Frigg: 'vęx viðar-teinungr einn fyrir
vestan Val-hǫll; sā er Mistilteinn kallaðr; sā þōtti mēr ungr
at kręfja eiðsins.' Þvī næst hvarf konan ā braut; en Loki
tōk Mistiltein ok sleit upp, ok gekk til þings. En Hǫðr stōð
utarliga ī mannhringinum, þvī at hann var blindr. Þā mælti
Loki við hann: 'hvī skȳtr þū ekki at Baldri?' Hann svarar:
'þvī at ek sē eigi, hvar Baldr er, ok þat annat, at ek em
vapnlauss.' Þā mælti Loki: 'gǫ̈r-ðu þō ī līking annarra,
manna, ok veit Baldri sœmð sem aðrir męnn; ek mun vīsa
þēr til, hvar hann stęndr; skjōt at honum vęndi þessum.'
Hǫðr tōk Mistiltein, ok skaut at Baldri at tilvīsun Loka;
flaug skotit ī gęgnum hann, ok fell hann dauðr til jarðar; ok
hęfir þat mest ū-happ verit unnit með goðum ok mǫnnum.
Þā er Baldr var fallinn, þā fellusk ǫllum āsum orð-tǫk, ok
svā hęndr at taka til hans; ok sā hvęrr til annars, ok vāru
allir með einum hug til þess er unnit hafði verkit; en engi
mātti hęfna: þar var svā mikill griða-staðr. En þā er
æsirnir freistuðu at mæla, þā var hitt þō fyrr, at grātrinn
kom upp, svā at engi mātti ǫðrum sęgja með orðunum frā
sīnum harmi. En Ōðinn bar þeim mun vęrst þenna skaða,
sem hann kunni mesta skyn, hvęrsu mikil af-taka ok missa
āsunum var ī frā-falli Baldrs. En er goðin vitkuðusk, þā
mælti Frigg ok spurði, hvęrr sā væri með āsum, er eignask
vildi allar āstir hennar ok hylli, ok vili hann rīða ā hęl-veg
ok freista ef hann fāi fundit Baldr, ok bjōða Hęlju ūt-lausn,
ef hon vill lāta fara Baldr heim ī Ās-garð. En sā er nęfndr
Hęrmōðr inn hvati, sonr Ōðins, er til þeirar farar varð. Þā
var tękinn Sleipnir, hestr Ōðins, ok leiddr fram, ok steig
Hęrmōðr ā þann hest, ok hleypði braut.

En æsirnir tōku līk Baldrs ok fluttu til sævar. Hring-
horni hēt skip Baldrs, hann var allra skipa mestr; hann
vildu goðin fram sętja, ok gǫ̈ra þar ā bāl-fǫr Baldrs; en
skipit gekk hvęrgi fram. Þā var sęnt ī Jǫtunheima ęptir
gȳgi þeiri er Hyrrokin hēt; en er hon kom, ok reið vargi,
ok hafði hǫgg-orm at taumum, þā hljōp hon af hestinum,
en Ōðinn kallaði til ber-sęrki fjōra at gæta hestsins, ok fengu
þeir eigi haldit, nema þeir fęldi hann. Þā gekk Hyrrokin ā
fram-stafn nǫkkvans, ok hratt fram ī fyrsta við-bragði, svā
at eldr hraut ōr hlunnunum, ok lǫnd ǫll skulfu. Þā varð
Þōrr reiðr, ok greip hamarinn, ok mundi þā brjōta hǫfuð
hęnnar, āðr en goðin ǫll bāðu hęnni friðar. Þā var borit
ūt ā skipit līk Baldrs; ok er þat sā kona hans, Nanna, Neps
dōttir, þā sprakk hon af harmi, ok dō; var hon borin ā
bālit, ok slęgit ī eldi. Þā stōð Þōrr at, ok vīgði bālit með
Mjǫllni; en fyrir fōtum hans rann dvergr nakkvarr, sā er
Litr nęfndr; en Þōrr spyrndi fœti sīnum ā hann, ok hratt
honum ī eldinn, ok brann hann. En at þessi bręnnu sōtti
margs konar þjōð: fyrst at sęgja frā Ōðni, at með honum
fōr Frigg ok valkyrjur ok hrafnar hans; en Freyr ōk ī kęrru
með gęlti þeim er Gullin-bursti heitir eða Slīðrug-tanni; en
Heimdallr reið hesti þeim er Gull-toppr heitir; en Freyja
kǫttum sīnum. Þar kömr ok mikit fōlk hrīmþursa, ok berg-
risar. Ōðinn lagði ā bālit gullhring þann er Draupnir
heitir; honum fylgði sīðan sū nāttūra, at hina nīundu hvęrja
nātt drupu af honum ātta gullhringar jafn-hǫfgir. Hestr
Baldrs var leiddr ā bālit með ǫllu reiði.

En þat er at sęgja frā Hęrmōði, at hann reið nīu nætr
dökkva dala ok djūpa, svā at hann sā ekki, fyrr en hann
kom til ārinnar Gjallar, ok reið ā Gjallar-brūna; hon er
þǫkð lȳsi-gulli. Mōðguðr er nęfnd mær sū er gætir brūar-
innar; hon spurði hann at nafni eða ætt, ok sagði at hinn
fyrra dag riðu um brūna fimm fylki dauðra manna; 'en eigi
dynr brūin minnr undir einum þēr, ok eigi hęfir þū lit dauðra
manna; hvī rīðr þū hēr ā hęlveg?' Hann svarar at 'ek
skal rīða til hęljar at leita Baldrs, eða hvārt hęfir þū nakkvat
sēt Baldr ā hęlvegi?' En hon sagði at Baldr hafði þar
riðit um Gjallarbrū; 'en niðr ok norðr liggr hęlvegr.' Þā
reið Hęrmōðr þar til er hann kom at hęl-grindum; þā steig
hann af hestinum, ok gyrði hann fast, steig upp, ok keyrði
hann sporum, en hestrinn hljōp svā hart, ok yfir grindina, at
hann kom hvęrgi nær. Þā reið Hęrmōðr heim til hallar-
innar, ok steig af hesti, gekk inn ī hǫllina, sā þar sitja ī
ǫndvegi Baldr, brōður sinn; ok dvalðisk Hęrmōðr þar um
nāttina. En at morgni þā beiddisk Hęrmōðr af Hęlju at
Baldr skyldi rīða heim með honum, ok sagði hvęrsu mikill
grātr var með āsum. En Hęl sagði at þat skyldi svā reyna,
hvārt Baldr var svā āst-sæll sem sagt er; 'ok ef allir hlutir ī
heiminum, kykvir ok dauðir, grāta hann, þā skal hann fara
til āsa aptr, en haldask með Hęlju, ef nakkvarr mællr við,
eða vill eigi grāta.' Þā stōð Hęrmōðr upp, en Baldr leiðir
hann ūt ōr hǫllinni, ok tōk hringinn Draupni, ok sęndi Ōðni
til minja, en Nanna sęndi Frigg ripti ok ęnn fleiri gjafar,
Fullu fingr-gull. Þā reið Hęrmōðr aptr leið sīna, ok kom ī
Āsgarð, ok sagði ǫll tīðindi þau er hann hafði sēt ok heyrt.

Þvī næst sęndu æsir um allan heim örind-reka, at biðja
at Baldr væri grātinn ōr hęlju; en allir gǫ̈rðu þat, męnninir,
ok kykvendin, ok jǫrðin, ok steinarnir, ok trē, ok allr mālmr;
svā sem þū munt sēt hafa, at þessir hlutir grāta, þā er þeir
koma ōr frosti ok ī hita. Þā er sęndi-męnn fōru heim, ok
hǫfðu vel rekit sīn örindi, finna þeir ī hęlli nǫkkurum hvar
gȳgr sat; hon nęfndisk Þǫkk. Þeir biðja hana grāta Baldr
ōr hęlju. Hon svarar:

'Þǫkk mun grāta þurrum tārum
Baldrs bālfarar;
kyks nē dauðs naut-k-a-k karls sonar;
haldi Hęl þvī es hęfir!'

En þess geta męnn, at þar hafi verit Loki Laufeyjar-son,
er flest hęfir ilt gǫ̈rt með āsum.

V. Hēðinn and Hǫgni
Konungr sā er Hǫgni er nęfndr ātti dōttur, er Hildr hēt.
Hana tōk at hęr-fangi konungr sā er Hēðinn hēt, Hjarranda-
son. Þā var Hǫgni konungr farinn ī konunga-stęfnu; en er
hann spurði at hęrjat var ī rīki hans, ok dōttir hans var ī
braut tękin, þā fōr hann með sīnu liði at leita Hēðins, ok
spurði til hans at Hēðinn hafði siglt norðr með landi. Þā
er Hǫgni konungr kom ī Noreg, spurði hann at Hēðinn
hafði siglt vestr um haf. Þā siglir Hǫgni ęptir honum allt
til Orkn-eyja; ok er hann kom þar sem heitir Hā-ey, þā
var þar fyrir Hēðinn með lið sitt. Þā fōr Hildr ā fund fǫður
sīns, ok bauð honum męn at sætt af hęndi Hēðins, en ī ǫðru
orði sagði hon at Hēðinn væri būinn at bęrjask, ok ætti
Hǫgni af honum engrar vægðar vān. Hǫgni svārar stirt
dōttur sinni; en er hon hitti Hēðin, sagði hon honum, at
Hǫgni vildi enga sætt, ok bað hann būask til orrostu, ok
svā gǫ̈ra þeir hvārir-tvęggju, ganga upp ā eyna, ok fylkja
liðinu. Þā kallar Hēðinn ā Hǫgna, māg sinn, ok bauð
honum sætt ok mikit gull at bōtum. Þā svarar Hǫgni:
'of sīð bauzt-u þetta, ef þū vill sættask, þvī at nū hęfi ek
dręgit Dāins-leif, er dvergarnir gǫ̈rðu, er manns bani skal
verða, hvęrt sinn er bęrt er, ok aldri bilar ī hǫggvi, ok ekki
sār grœr, ef þar skeinisk af.' Þā svarar Hēðinn: 'sverði
hœlir þū þar, en eigi sigri; þat kalla ek gott hvęrt er drōttin-
holt er.' Þā hōfu þeir orrostu þā er Hjaðninga-vīg er kallat,
ok bǫrðusk þann dag allan, ok at kveldi fōru konungar til
skipa. En Hildr gekk of nāttina til valsins, ok vakði upp
með fjǫlkyngi alla þā er dauðir vāru; ok annan dag gengu
konungarnir ā vīg-vǫllinn ok bǫrðusk, ok svā allir þeir er
fellu hinn fyrra daginn. Fōr svā sū orrosta hvęrn dag ęptir
annan, at allir þeir er fellu, ok ǫll vāpn þau er lāgu ā vīgvęlli,
ok svā hlīfar, urðu at grjōti. En er dagaði, stōðu upp allir
dauðir męnn, ok bǫrðusk, ok ǫll vāpn vāru þā nȳ. Svā er
sagt ī kvæðum, at Hjaðningar skulu svā bīða ragna-rökrs.

VI. The Death of Olaf Tryggvason
Sveinn konungr tjūgu-skęgg ātti Sigrīði hina stōr-rāðu.
Sigrīðr var hinn mesti ū-vinr Ōlāfs konungs Tryggva-sonar;
ok fann þat til saka at Ōlāfr konungr hafði slitit einka-mālum
við hana, ok lostit hana ī and-lit. Hon ęggjaði mjǫk Svein
konung til at halda orrostu við Ōlāf konung Tryggvason, ok
kom hon svā sīnum for-tǫlum at Sveinn konungr var full-
kominn at gǫ̈ra þetta rāð. Ok snimma um vārit sęndi
Sveinn konungr męnn austr til Svī-þjōðar ā fund Ōlāfs
konungs Svīa-konungs, māgs sīns, ok Eirīks jarls; ok lēt sęgja
þeim at Ōlāfr, Noregs konungr, hafði leiðangr ūti, ok ætlaði
at fara um sumarit til Vind-lands. Fylgði þat orð-sęnding
Dana-konungs, at þeir Svīakonungr ok Eirīkr jarl skyldi
hęr ūti hafa, ok fara til mōts við Svein konung, skyldu
þeir þā allir samt lęggja til orrostu við Ōlāf konung Tryggva-
son. En Ōlāfr Svīakonungr ok Eirīkr jarl vāru þessar
fęrðar al-būnir, ok drōgu þā saman skipa-hęr mikinn af Svīa-
vęldi, fǫru þvī liði suðr til Dan-markar ok kvāmu þar svā,
at Ōlāfr konungr Tryggvason hafði āðr austr siglt. Þeir
Svīakonungr ok Eirīkr jarl heldu til fundar við Danakonung,
ok hǫfðu þā allir saman ū-grynni hęrs.

Sveinn konungr, þā er hann hafði sęnt ęptir hęrinum,
þā sęndi hann Sigvalda jarl til Vindlands at njōsna um fęrð
Ōlāfs konungs Tryggvasonar, ok gildra svā til, at fundr
þeira Sveins konungs mætti verða. Fęrr þā Sigvaldi jarl
leið sīna, ok kom fram ā Vindlandi, fōr til Jōmsborgar, ok
sīðan ā fund Ōlāfs konungs Tryggvasonar. Vāru þar mikil
vināttu-māl þeira ā meðal, kom jarl sēr ī hinn mesta kærleik
við Ōlāf konung. Āstrīðr kona jarls, dōttir Burizleifs konungs,
var vinr mikill Ōlāfs konungs, ok var þat mjǫk af hinum
fyrrum tęngðum, er Ōlafr konungr hafði ātt Geiru, systur
hęnnar. Sigvaldi jarl var maðr vitr ok rāðugr; en er hann
kom sēr ī rāða-gęrð við Ōlāf konung, þā dvalði hann mjǫk
fęrðina hans austan at sigla, ok fann til þess mjǫk ȳmsa hluti.
En lið Ōlāfs konungs lēt geysi illa, ok vāru męnn mjǫk
heim-fūsir, er þeir lāgu albūnir, en veðr byr-væn. Sigvaldi
jarl fekk njōsn leyniliga af Danmǫrk, at þā var austan kominn
hęrr Svīakonungs, ok Eirīkr jarl hafði þā ok būinn sinn hęr,
ok þeir hǫfðingjarnir mundu þā koma austr undir Vindland,
ok þeir hǫfðu ā kveðit, at þeir mundu bīða Ōlāfs konungs
við ey þā er Svǫlðr heitir, svā þat, at jarl skyldi svā til stilla
at þeir mætti þar finna Ōlāf konung.

Þā kom pati nakkvarr til Vindlands, at Sveinn Dana-
konungr hęfði hęr ūti, ok gǫ̈rðisk brātt sā kurr, at Sveinn
Danakonungr mundi vilja finna Ōlāf konung. En Sigvaldi
jarl sęgir konungi: 'ekki er þat rāð Sveins konungs at
lęggja til bardaga við þik með Dana-hęr einn saman, svā
mikinn hęr sem þēr hafið. En ef yðr er nakkvarr grunr ā
þvī, at ū-friðr muni fyrir, þā skal ek fylgja yðr með mīnu
liði, ok þōtti þat styrkr vera fyrr, hvar sem Jōms-vīkingar
fylgðu hǫfðingjum; mun ek fā þēr ellifu skip vel skipuð.'
Konungr jātti þessu. Var þā lītit veðr ok hag-stœtt; lēt
konungr þā leysa flotann, ok blāsa til brott-lǫgu. Drōgu
męnn þā segl sīn, ok gengu meira smā-skipin ǫll, ok sigldu
þau undan ā haf ūt. En jarl sigldi nær konungs-skipinu,
ok kallaði til þeira, bað konung sigla ęptir sēr: 'mēr er
kunnast,' sęgir hann, 'hvar djūpast er um eyja-sundin, en
þēr munuð þess þurfa með þau in stōru skipin.' Sigldi
þā jarl fyrir með sīnum skipum. Hann hafði ellifu skip,
en konungr sigldi ęptir honum með sinum stōr-skipum,
hafði hann þar ok ellifu skip, en allr annarr hęrrinn sigldi
ūt ā hafit. En er Sigvaldi jarl sigldi utan at Svǫlðr, þā
röri ā mōti þeim skūta ein. Þeir sęgja jarli at hęrr Dana-
konungs lā þar ī hǫfninni fyrir þeim. Þā lēt jarl hlaða
seglunum, ok rōa þeir inn undir eyna.

Sveinn Danakonungr ok Ōlāfr Svīakonungr ok Eirīkr
jarl vāru þar þā með allan hęr sinn; þā var fagrt veðr
ok bjart sōl-skin. Gengu þeir nū upp ā hōlminn allir
hǫfðingjar með miklar sveitir manna, ok sā er skipin sigldu
ūt ā hafit mjǫk mǫrg saman. Ok nū sjā þeir hvar siglir
eitt mikit skip ok glæsiligt; þā mæltu bāðir konungarnir:
'þetta er mikit skip ok ākafliga fagrt, þetta mun vera Ormrinn
langi.' Eirīkr jarl svarar ok sęgir: 'ekki er þetta Ormr hinn
langi.' Ok svā var sem hann sagði; þetta skip ātti Eindriði
af Gimsum. Lītlu sīðar sā þeir hvar annat skip sigldi miklu
meira en hit fyrra. Þā mælti Sveinn konungr: 'hræddr er
Ōlāfr Tryggvason nū, eigi þorir hann at sigla með hǫfuðin
ā skipi sīnu.' Þā sęgir Eirīkr jarl: 'ekki er þetta konungs
skip, kęnni ek þetta skip ok seglit, þvī at stafat er seglit, þat
ā Erlingr Skjālgsson; lātum sigla þā, bętra er oss skarð ok
missa ī flota Ōlāfs konungs en þetta skip þar svā būit.' En
stundu sīðar sā þeir ok kęndu skip Sigvalda jarls, ok viku
þan þannig at hōlmanum. Þā sā þeir hvar sigldu þrjū skip,
ok var eitt mikit skip. Mælti þā Sveinn konungr, biðr þā
ganga til skipa sinna, sęgir at þar fęrr Ormrinn langi. Eirīkr
jarl mælti: 'mǫrg hafa þeir ǫnnur stōr skip ok glæsilig en
Orm hinn langa, bīðum ęnn.' Þā mæltu mjǫk margir męnn:
'eigi vill Eirīkr jarl nū bęrjask, ok hęfna fǫður sīns; þetta
er skǫmm mikil, svā at spyrjask mun um ǫll lǫnd, ef vēr
liggjum hēr með jafn-miklu liði, en Ōlāfr konungr sigli ā
hafit ūt hēr hjā oss sjālfum.' En er þeir hǫfðu þetta talat
um hrīð, þā sā þeir hvar sigldu fjogur skip, ok eitt af
þeim var dręki all-mikill ok mjǫk gull-būinn. Þā stōð upp
Sveinn konungr, ok mælti: 'hātt mun Ormrinn bera mik ī
kveld, honum skal ek stȳra.' Þā mæltu margir, at Ormrinn
var furðu mikit skip ok frītt, ok rausn mikil at lāta gǫ̈ra
slīkt skip. Þā mælti Eirīkr jarl, svā at nakkvarir męnn
heyrðu: 'þōtt Ōlāfr konungr hęfði ekki meira skip en þetta,
þā mundi Sveinn konungr þat aldri fā af honum með einn
saman Danahęr.' Dreif þā fōlkit til skipanna, ok rāku af
tjǫldin, ok ætluðu at būask skjōtliga. En er hǫfðingjar rœddu
þetta milli sīn, sem nū er sagt, þā sā þeir, hvar sigldu þrjū
skip all-mikil, ok fjōrða sīðast, ok var þat Ormrinn langi.
En þau hin stōru skip, er āðr hǫfðu siglt, ok þeir hugðu
at Ormrinn væri, þat var hit fyrra Traninn, en hit sīðara
Ormrinn skammi. En þā er þeir sā Orminn langa, kęndu
allir, ok mælti þā engi ī mōt, at þar mundi sigla Ōlāfr
Tryggvason; gengu þā til skipanna, ok skipuðu til at-
lǫgunnar. Vāru þat einkamāl þeira hǫfðingja, Sveins konungs,
Ōlāfs konungs, Eirīks jarls, at sinn þriðjung Noregs skyldi
eignask hvęrr þeira, ef þeir fęldi Ōlāf konung Tryggvason;
en sā þeira hǫfðingja er fyrst gengi ā Orminn, skyldi eignask
alt þat hlut-skipti er þar fengisk, ok hvęrr þeira þau skip
er sjālfr hryði. Eirīkr jarl hafði barða einn geysi mikinn,
er hann var vanr at hafa ī viking; þar var skęgg ā ofan-
verðu barðinu hvārutvęggja, en niðr frā jārn-spǫng þykk ok
svā breið sem barðit, ok tōk alt ī sæ ofan.

Þā er þeir Sigvaldi jarl röru inn undir hōlminn, þā sā
þat þeir Þorkęll dyðrill af Trananum ok aðrir skip-stjōrn-
ar-męnn, þeir er með honum fōru, at jarl snöri skipum
undir hōlmann; þā hlōðu þeir ok seglum, ok röru ęptir
honum, ok kǫlluðu til þeira, spurðu, hvī þeir fōru svā. Jarl
sęgir, at hann vill bīða Ōlāfs konungs: 'ok er meiri vān at
ūfriðr sē fyrir oss.' Lētu þeir þā fljōta skipin, þar til er
Þorkęll nęfja kom með Orminn skamma, ok þau þrjū skip
er honum fylgðu. Ok vāru þeim sǫgð hin sǫmu tīðindi;
hlōðu þeir þā ok sīnum seglum, ok lētu fljōta, ok biðu
Ōlāfs konungs. En þā er konungrinn sigldi innan at hōl-
manum, þā röri allr hęrrinn ūt ā sundit fyrir þā. En er
þeir sā þat, þa bāðu þeir konunginn sigla leið sīna, en
lęggja eigi til orrostu við svā mikinn hęr. Konungr svarar
hātt, ok stōð upp ī lyptingunni: 'lāti ofan seglit, ekki skulu
mīnir męnn hyggja ā flōtta, ek hęfi aldri flȳit ī orrostu, rāði
Guð fyrir līfi mīnu, en aldri mun ek ā flōtta lęggja.' Var svā
gǫ̈rt sem konungr mælti.

Ōlāfr konungr lēt blāsa til sam-lǫgu ǫllum skipum sīnum.
Var konungs skip ī miðju liði, en þar ā annat borð Ormrinn
skammi, en ā annat borð Traninn. En þā er þeir tōku
at tęngja stafna ā Orminum langa ok Orminum skamma,
ok er konungr sā þat, kallaði hann hātt, bað þā lęggja
fram bętr hit mikla skipit, ok lāta þat eigi aptast vera allra
skipa ī hęrinum. Þā svarar Ūlfr hinn rauði: 'ef Orminn
skal þvī lęngra fram lęggja, sem hann er lęngri en ǫnnur
skip, þā mun ā-vint verða um sǫxin ī dag.' Konungr sęgir:
'eigi vissa ek at ek ætta stafnbūann bæði rauðan ok ragan.'
Ūlfr mælti: 'vęr þū eigi meir baki lyptingina en ek mun
stafninn.' Konungr helt ā boga, ok lagði ǫr ā stręng, ok
snöri at Ūlfi. Ūlfr mælti: 'skjōt annan veg, konungr ī þannig
sem meiri er þǫrfin; þēr vinn ek þat er ek vinn.'

Ōlāfr konungr stōð ī lyptingu ā Orminum, bar hann hātt
mjǫk; hann hafði gyltan skjǫld ok gull-roðinn hjālm; var
hann auð-kęndr frā ǫðrum mǫnnum: hann hafði rauðan
kyrtil stuttan utan yfir brynju. En er Ōlāfr konungr sā at
riðluðusk flotarnir, ok upp vāru sętt męrki fyrir hǫfðingjum,
þā spyrr hann: 'hvęrr er hǫfðingi fyrir liði þvī er gęgnt
oss er?' Honum var sagt at þar var Sveinn konungr
tjūguskęgg með Danahęr. Konungr svarar: 'ekki hræðumk
vēr bleyður þær, engi er hugr ī Dǫnum. En hvęrr hǫfðingi
fylgir þeim męrkjum er þar eru ūt īfrā ā hœgra veg?' Honum
var sagt at þar var Ōlāfr konungr með Svīa-hęr. Ōlāfr
konungr sęgir: 'bętra væri Svīum heima at sleikja um blōt-
bolla sīna en ganga ā Orminn undir vāpn yður. En hvęrir
eigu þau hin stōru skip, er þar liggja ūt ā bak-borða Dǫnum?'
'Þar er,' sęgja þeir 'Eirīkr jarl Hākonar-son.' Þā svaraði
Ōlāfr konungr: 'hann mun þykkjask eiga við oss skapligan
fund, ok oss er vān snarpligrar orrostu af þvī liði; þeir eru
Norð-męnn, sem vēr erum.'

Sīðan greiða konungar at-rōðr. Lagði Sveinn konungr
sitt skip mōti Orminum langa, en Ōlāfr konungr Sœnski
lagði ūt frā, ok stakk stǫfnum at yzta skipi Ōlāfs konungs
Tryggvasonar, en ǫðrum megin Eirīkr jarl. Tōksk þar þā
hǫrð orrosta. Sigvaldi jarl lēt skotta við sīn skip, ok lagði
ekki til orrostu.

Þessi orrosta var hin snarpasta ok all-mann-skœð. Fram-
byggjar ā Orminum langa ok Orminum skamma ok Trananum
fœrðu akkeri ok stafn-ljā ī skip Sveins konungs, en āttu
vāpnin at bera niðr undir fœtr sēr; hruðu þeir ǫll þau skip
er þeir fengu haldit. En konungrinn Sveinn ok þat lið er
undan komsk flȳði ā ǫnnur skip, ok þar næst lǫgðu þeir
frā ōr skot-māli. Ok fōr þessi hęrr svā sem gat Ōlāfr
konungr Tryggvason. Þā lagði þar at ī staðinn Ōlāfr
Svīakonungr; ok þegar er þeir koma nær stōrskipum, þā
fōr þeim sem hinum, at þeir lētu lið mikit ok sum skip sīn,
ok lǫgðu frā við svā būit. En Eirīkr jarl sī-byrði Barðanum
við hit yzta skip Ōlāfs konungs, ok hrauð hann þat, ok hjō
þegar þat ōr tęngslum, en lagði þā at þvī, er þar var næst,
ok barðisk til þess er þat var hroðit. Tōk þā liðit at hlaupa
af hinum smærum skipunum, ok upp ā stōrskipin. En Eirīkr
jarl hjō hvęrt ōr tęngslunum, svā sem hroðit var. En Danir
ok Svīar lǫgðu þā ī skotmāl ok ǫllum megin at skipum Ōlāfs
konungs, en Eirīkr jarl lā āvalt sībyrt við skipin, ok ātti
hǫgg-orrostu. En svā sem męnn fellu ā skipum hans, þā
gengu aðrir upp ī staðinn, Svīar ok Danir. Þā var orrosta
hin snarpasta, ok fell þā mjǫk liðit, ok kom svā at lykðum,
at ǫll vāru hroðin skip Ōlāfs konungs Tryggvasonar nema
Ormrinn langi; var þar þā alt lið ā komit, þat er vīgt var
hans manna. Þā lagði Eirīkr jarl Barðanum at Orminum
langa sībyrt, ok var þar hǫggorrosta.

Eirlīkr jarl var ī fyrir-rūmi ā skipi sīnu, ok var þar fylkt
með skjald-borg. Var þā bæði hǫggorrosta, ok spjōtum lagit,
ok kastat ǫllu þvī er til vāpna var, en sumir skutu boga-skoti
eða hand-skoti. Var þa svā mikill vāpnaburðr ā Orminn, at
varla mātti hlīfum við koma, er svā þykt flugu spjōt ok ǫrvar;
þvī at ǫllum megin lǫgðu hęrskip at Orminum. En męnn
Ōlāfs konungs vāru þā svā ōðir, at þeir hljōpu upp ā borðin,
til þess at nā með sverðs-hǫggum at drepa fōlkit. En margir
lǫgðu eigi svā undir Orminn, at þeir vildi ī hǫggorrostu vera.
En Ōlāfs męnn gengu flestir ūt af borðunum, ok gāðu eigi
annars en þeir bęrðisk ā slēttum vęlli, ok sukku niðr með
vāpnum sīnum.

Einarr þambar-skęlfir var ā Orminum aptr ī krappa-rūmi;
hann skaut af boga, ok var allra manna harð-skeytastr.
Einarr skaut at Eirīki jarli, ok laust ī stȳris-hnakkann fyrir
ofan hǫfuð jarli, ok gekk alt upp ā reyr-bǫndin. Jarl leit til,
ok spurði ef þeir vissi, hvęrr skaut. En jafn-skjōtt kom
ǫnnur ǫr svā nær jarli, at flaug milli sīðunna ok handarinnar,
ok svā aptr ī hǫfða-fjǫlina, at langt stōð ūt broddrinn. Þā
mælti jarl við mann þann er sumir nęfna Finn, en sumir
sęgja at hann væri Finskr, sā var hinn mesti bog-maðr:
'skjōt-tu mann þann hinn mikla ī krapparūminu!' Finnr
skaut, ok kom ǫrin ā boga Einars miðjan, ī þvī bili er Einarr
drō it þriðja sinn bogann. Brast þā boginn ī tvā hluti. Þā
mælti Ōlāfr konungr: 'hvat brast þar svā hātt?' Einarr
svarar: 'Noregr ōr hęndi þēr, konungr!' 'Eigi mun svā
mikill brestr at orðinn,' sęgir konungr, 'tak boga minn, ok
skjōt af,' ok kastaði boganum til hans. Einarr tōk bogann,
ok drō þegar fyrir odd ǫrvarinnar, ok mælti: 'ofveikr,
ofveikr allvalds boginn!' ok kastaði aptr boganum; tōk þā
skjǫld sinn ok sverð, ok barðisk.

Ōlāfr konungr Tryggvason stōð ī lypting ā Orminum, ok
skaut optast um daginn, stundum bogaskoti, en stundum
gaflǫkum, ok jafnan tveim sęnn. Hann sā fram ā skipit, ok
sā sīna męnn reiða sverðin ok hǫggva tītt, ok sā at illa bitu;
mælti þā hātt: 'hvārt reiði þēr svā slæliga sverðin, er ek sē
at ekki bīta yðr?' Maðr svarar: 'sverð vār eru slæ ok
brotin mjǫk.' Þā gekk konungr ofan ī fyrirrūmit ok lauk
upp hāsætis-kistuna, tōk þar ōr mǫrg sverð hvǫss, ok fekk
mǫnnum. En er hann tōk niðr hinni hœgri hęndi, þā sā
męnn at blōð rann ofan undan bryn-stūkunni; en engi vissi
hvar hann var sārr.

Mest var vǫrnin ā Orminum ok mannskœðust af fyrirrūms-
mǫnnum ok stafnbūum; þar var hvārttvęggja, valit mest
mann-fōlkit ok hæst borðin. En lið fell fyrst um mitt skipit.
Ok þā er fātt stōð manna upp um siglu-skeið, þā rēð Eirīkr
jarl til upp-gǫngunnar, ok kom upp ā Orminn við fimtānda
mann. Þā kom ī mōt honum Hyrningr, māgr Ōlāfs konungs,
með sveit manna, ok varð þar inn harðasti bardagi, ok lauk
svā, at jarl hrǫkk ofan aptr ā Barðann; en þeir męnn er
honum hǫfðu fylgt fellu sumir, en sumir vāru særðir. Þar
varð ęnn in snarpasta orrosta, ok fellu þā margir męnn ā
Orminum. En er þyntisk skipan ā Orminum til varnarinnar,
þā rēð Eirīkr jarl annat sinn til uppgǫngu ā Orminn. Varð
þā ęnn hǫrð við-taka. En er þetta sā stafnbūar ā Orminum,
þā gengu þeir aptr ā skipit, ok snūask til varnar mōti jarli, ok
veita harða viðtǫku. En fyrir þvī at þā var svā mjǫk fallit
lið ā Orminum, at vīða vāru auð borðin, tōku þā jarls męnn
vīða upp at ganga. En alt þat lið er þā stōð upp til varnar
ā Orminum sōtti aptr ā skipit, þar sem konungr var.

Kolbjǫrn stallari gekk upp ī lypting til konungs; þeir
hǫfðu mjǫk līkan klæða-būnað ok vāpna, Kolbjǫrn var ok
allra manna mestr ok frīðastr. Varð nū ęnn ī fyrirrūminu
in snarpasta orrosta. En fyrir þā sǫk at þā var svā mikit
fōlk komit upp ā Orminn af liði jarls sem vera mātti ā skipinu,
en skip hans lǫgðu at ǫllum megin utan at Orminum, en
lītit fjǫl-męnni til varnar mōti svā miklum hęr, nū þōtt þeir
męnn væri bæði stęrkir ok frœknir, þā fellu nū flestir ā lītilli
stundu. En Ōlāfr konungr sjālfr ok þeir Kolbjǫrn bāðir
hljōpu þā fyrir borð, ok ā sitt borð hvārr. En jarls męnn
hǫfðu lagt utan at smā-skūtur, ok drāpu þā er ā kaf hljōpu.
Ok þā er konungr sjālfr hafði ā kaf hlaupit, vildu þeir taka
hann hǫndum, ok fœra Eirīki jarli. En Ōlāfr konungr brā
yfir sik skildinum, ok steypðisk ī kaf; en Kolbjǫrn stallari
skaut undir sik skildinum, ok hlīfði sēr svā við vāpnum er
lagt var af skipum þeim er undir lāgu, ok fell hann svā
ā sæinn at skjǫldrinn varð undir honum, ok komsk hann þvī
eigi ī kaf svā skjōtt, ok varð hann hand-tękinn ok dręginn
upp ī skūtuna, ok hugðu þeir at þar væri konungrinn. Var
hann þā leiddr fyrir jarl. En er þess varð jarl varr at þar
var Kolbjǫrn, en eigi Ōlāfr konungr, þā vāru Kolbirni grið
gefin. En ī þessi svipan hljōpu allir fyrir borð af Orminum,
þeir er þā vāru ā līfi, Ōlāfs konungs męnn; ok sęgir Hall-
freðr vandræða-skāld, at Þorkęll nęfja, konungs brōðir, hljōp
sīðast allra manna fyrir borð.

Svā var fyrr ritat, at Sigvaldi jarl kom til fǫruneytis við
Ōlāf konung ī Vindlandi, ok hafði tīu skip, en þat hit ellifta,
er ā vāru męnn Āstrīðar konungs-dōttur, konu jarls. En
þā er Ōlāfr konungr hafði fyrir borð hlaupit, þā œpði
hęrrinn allr sigr-ōp, ok þā lustu þeir ārum ī sæ Sigvaldi
jarl ok hans męnn, ok röru til bardaga. En sū Vinda-
snękkjan, er Āstrīðar męnn vāru ā, röri brott ok aptr undir
Vindland; ok var þat margra manna māl þegar, at Ōlāfr
konungr mundi hafa steypt af sēr brynjunni ī kafi, ok kafat
svā ūt undan langskipunum, lagizk sīðan til Vindasnękkj-
unnar, ok hęfði męnn Āstrīðar flutt hann til lands. Ok
eru þar margar frā-sagnir um fęrðir Ōlāfs konungs gǫ̈rvar
sīðan af sumum mǫnnum. En hvęrn veg sem þat hęfir
verit, þā kom Ōlāfr konungr Tryggvason aldri sīðan til rīkis
ī Noregi.

VII. Auðun
Maðr hēt Auðun, Vest-firzkr at kyni ok fē-lītill; hann fōr
utan vestr þar ī fjǫrðum með um-rāði Þorsteins bōnda gōðs,
ok Þōris stȳri-manns, er þar hafði þegit vist of vetrinn með
Þorsteini. Auðun var ok þar, ok starfaði fyrir honum Þōri,
ok þā þessi laun af honum--utan-fęrðina ok hans um-sjā.
Hann Auðun lagði mestan hluta fjār þess er var fyrir mōður
sīna, āðr hann stigi ā skip, ok var kveðit ā þriggja vetra
bjǫrg. Ok nū fara þeir utan heðan, ok fęrsk þeim vel, ok
var Auðun of vetrinn ęptir með Þōri stȳrimanni; hann ātti
bū ā Mœri. Ok um sumarit ęptir fara þeir ūt til Grœn-lands,
ok eru þar of vetrinn. Þess er við getit at Auðun kaupir
þar bjarn-dȳri eitt, gǫ̈rsimi mikla, ok gaf þar fyrir alla
eigu sīna. Ok nū of sumarit ęptir þā fara þeir aptr til
Noregs, ok verða vel reið-fara; hęfir Auðun dȳr sitt með
sēr, ok ætlar nū at fara suðr til Danmęrkr ā fund Sveins
konungs, ok gefa honum dȳrit. Ok er hann kom suðr ī
landit, þar sem konungr var fyrir, þā gęngr hann upp af
skipi, ok leiðir ęptir sēr dȳrit, ok leigir sēr hęr-bęrgi. Haraldi
konungi var sagt brātt at þar var komit bjarndȳri, gǫ̈rsimi
mikil, 'ok ā Īs-lęnzkr maðr.' Konungr sęndir þegar męnn
ęptir honum, ok er Auðun kom fyrir konung, kvęðr hann
konung vel; konungr tōk vel kvęðju hans, ok spurði sīðan:
'āttu gǫ̈rsimi mikla ī bjarndȳri?' Hann svarar, ok kvezk
eiga dȳrit eitthvęrt. Konungr mælti: 'villtu sęlja oss dȳrit
við slīku verði sem þū keyptir?' Hann svarar: 'eigi vil ek
þat, herra!' 'Villtu þā,' sęgir konungr, 'at ek gefa þēr tvau
verð slīk, ok mun þat rēttara, ef þū hęfir þar við gefit alla
þīna eigu.' 'Eigi vil ek þat, herra!' sęgir hann. Konungr
mælti: 'villtu gefa mēr þā?' Hann svarar: 'eigi, herra!'
Konungr mælti: 'hvat villtu þā af gǫ̈ra?' Hann svarar:
'fara,' sęgir hann, 'til Danmęrkr, ok gefa Sveini konungi.'
Haraldr konungr sęgir: 'hvārt er, at þū ert maðr svā ūvitr
at þū hęfir eigi heyrt ūfrið þann er ī milli er landa þessa,
eða ætlar þū giptu þīna svā mikla, at þū munir þar komask
með gǫ̈rsimar, er aðrir fā eigi komizk klakk-laust, þō at
nauð-syn eigi til?' Auðun svarar: 'herra! þat er ā yðru
valdi, en engu jātum vēr ǫðru en þessu er vēr hǫfum āðr
ætlat.' Þā mælti konungr: 'hvī mun eigi þat til, at þū farir
leið þīna, sem þū vill, ok kom þā til mīn, er þū fęrr aptr,
ok sęg mēr, hvęrsu Sveinn konungr launar þēr dȳrit, ok
kann þat vera, at þū sēr gæfu-maðr.' 'Þvī heit ek þēr,'
sagði Auðun.

Hann fęrr nū sīðan suðr með landi, ok ī Vīk austr, ok þā
til Danmęrkr; ok er þā uppi hvęrr pęnningr fjārins, ok verðr
hann þā biðja matar bæði fyrir sik ok fyrir dȳrit. Hann
kömr ā fund ār-manns Sveins konungs, þess er Āki hēt,
ok bað hann vista nakkvarra bæði fyrir sik ok fyrir dȳrit:
'ek ætla,' sęgir hann, 'at gefa Sveini konungi dȳrit.' Āki
lēzk sęlja mundu honum vistir, ef hann vildi. Auðun kvezk
ekki til hafa fyrir at gefa; 'en ek vilda þō,' sęgir hann, 'at
þetta kvæmisk til leiðar at ek mætta dȳrit fœra konungi.'
'Ek mun fā þēr vistir, sem it þurfið til konungs fundar;
en þar ī mōti vil ek eiga hālft dȳrit, ok māttu ā þat līta,
at dȳrit mun deyja fyrir þēr, þars it þurfuð vistir miklar, en
fē sē farit, ok er būit við at þū hafir þā ekki dȳrsins.' Ok
er hann lītr ā þetta, sȳnisk honum nakkvat ęptir sem
ārmaðrinn mælti fyrir honum, ok sættask þeir ā þetta, at
hann sęlr Āka hālft dȳrit, ok skal konungr sīðan meta alt
saman. Skulu þeir fara bāðir nū ā fund konungs; ok svā
gǫ̈ra þeir: fara nū bāðir ā fund konungs, ok stōðu fyrir
borðinu. Konungr īhugāði, hvęrr þessi maðr myndi vera,
er hann kęndi eigi, ok mælti sīðan til Auðunar: 'hvęrr
er-tu?' sęgir hann. Hann svarar: 'ek em Īslęnzkr maðr,
herra,' sęgir hann, 'ok kominn nū utan af Grœnlandi, ok nū
af Noregi, ok ætlaða-k at fœra yðr bjarndȳri þetta; keypta-k
þat með allri eigu minni, ok nū er þō ā orðit mikit fyrir
mēr; ek ā nū hālft eitt dȳrit,' ok sęgir konungi sīðan, hvęrsu
farit hafði með þeim Āka ārmanni hans. Konungr mælti:
'er þat satt, Āki, er hann sęgir?' 'Satt er þat,' sęgir hann.
Konungr mælti: 'ok þōtti þēr þat til liggja, þar sem ek
sętta-k þik mikinn mann, at hępta þat eða tālma er maðr
gǫ̈rðisk til at fœra mēr gǫ̈rsimi, ok gaf fyrir alla eign, ok
sā þat Haraldr konungr at rāði at lāta hann fara ī friði, ok er
hann vārr ūvinr? Hygg þū at þā, hvē sannligt þat var þinnar
handar, ok þat væri makligt, at þū værir drepinn; en ek
mun nū eigi þat gǫ̈ra, en braut skaltu fara þegar ōr landinu,
ok koma aldri aptr sīðan mēr ī aug-sȳn! En þēr, Auðun!
kann ek slīka þǫkk, sem þū gefir mēr alt dȳrit, ok ver hēr
með mēr.' Þat þękkisk hann, ok er með Sveini konungi
um hrīð.

Ok er liðu nakkvarir stundir, þā mælti Auðun við konung:
'braut fȳsir mik nū, herra!' Konungr svarar hęldr seint:
'hvat villtu þā,' sęgir hann, 'ef þū vill eigi með oss vera?'
Hann sęgir: 'suðr vil ek ganga.' 'Ef þū vildir eigi svā gott
rāð taka,' sęgir konungr, 'þā myndi mēr fyrir þykkja ī, er þū
fȳsisk ī braut'; ok nū gaf konungr honum silfr mjǫk mikit,
ok fōr hann suðr sīðan með Rūm-fęrlum, ok skipaði konungr
til um fęrð hans, bað hann koma til sīn, er kvæmi aptr.
Nū fōr hann fęrðar sinnar, unz hann kömr suðr ī Rōma-borg.
Ok er hann hęfir þar dvalizk, sem hann tīðir, þā fęrr hann
aptr; tękr þā sōtt mikla, gǫ̈rir hann þā ākafliga magran;
gęngr þā upp alt fēit þat, er konungr hafði gefit honum
til fęrðarinnar; tękr sīðan upp staf-karls stīg, ok biðr sēr
matar. Hann er þā kollōttr ok hęldr ū-sælligr; hann kömr
aptr ī Danmörk at pāskum, þangat sem konungr er þā
staddr; en ei þorði hann at lāta sjā sik; ok var ī kirkju-
skoti, ok ætlaði þā til fundar við konung, er hann gengi
til kirkju um kveldit; ok nū er hann sā konunginn ok
hirðina fagrliga būna, þā þorði hann eigi at lāta sjā sik.
Ok er konungr gekk til drykkju ī hǫllina, þā mataðisk Auðun
ūti, sem siðr er til Rūmfęrla, meðan þeir hafa eigi kastat staf
ok skreppu. Ok nū of aptaninn, er konungr gekk til kveld-
sǫngs, ætlaði Auðun at hitta hann, ok svā mikit sem honum
þōtti fyrr fyrir, jōk nū miklu ā, er þeir vāru druknir
hirðmęnninir; ok er þeir gengu inn aptr, þā þękði konungr
mann, ok þōttisk finna at eigi hafði frama til at ganga fram
at hitta hann. Ok nū er hirðin gekk inn, þā veik konungr
ūt, ok mælti: 'gangi sā nū fram, er mik vill finna; mik
grunar at sā muni vera maðrinn.' Þā gekk Auðun fram,
ok fell til fōta konungi, ok varla kęndi konungr hann; ok
þegar er konungr veit, hvęrr hann er, tōk konungr ī hǫnd
honum Auðuni, ok bað hann vel kominn, 'ok hęfir þū mikit
skipazk,' segir hann, 'sīðan vit sāmk'; leiðir hann ęptir sēr
inn, ok er hirðin sā hann, hlōgu þeir at honum; en konungr
sagði: 'eigi þurfu þēr at honum at hlæja, þvī at bętr hęfir
hann sēt fyr sinni sāl hęldr en ēr.' Þā lēt konungr gǫ̈ra
honum laug, ok gaf honum sīðan hlæði, ok er hann nū með
honum. Þat er nū sagt einhvęrju sinni of vārit at konungr
bȳðr Auðuni at vera með sēr ā-lęngðar, ok kvezk myndu
gǫ̈ra hann skutil-svein sinn, ok lęggja til hans gōða virðing.
Auðun sęgir: 'Guð þakki yðr, herra! sōma þann allan er
þēr vilið til mīn lęggja; en hitt er mēr ī skapi at fara ūt
til Īslands.' Konungr sęgir: 'þetta sȳnisk mēr undarliga
kosit.' Auðun mælti: 'eigi mā ek þat vita, herra!' sęgir
hann, 'at ek hafa hēr mikinn sōma með yðr, en mōðir mīn
troði stafkarls stīg ūt ā Īslandi; þvī at nū er lokit bjǫrg þeiri
er ek lagða til, āðr ek fœra af Īslandi.' Konungr svarar:
'vel er mælt,' sęgir hann, 'ok mannliga, ok muntu verða
giptu-maðr; þessi einn var svā hlutrinn, at mēr myndi eigi
mis-līka at þū fœrir ī braut heðan; ok ver nū með mēr þar til
er skip būask.' Hann gǫ̈rir svā.

Einn dag, er ā leið vārit, gekk Sveinn konungr ofan ā
bryggjur, ok vāru męnn þā at, at būa skip til ȳmissa landa,
ī austr-veg eða Sax-land, til Svīþjōðar eða Noregs. Þā koma
þeir Auðun at einu skipi fǫgru, ok vāru męnn at, at būa
skipit. Þā spurði konungr: 'hvęrsu līzk þēr, Auðun! ā
þetta skip?' Hann svarar: 'vel, herra!' Konungr mælti:
'þetta skip vil ek þēr gefa, ok launa bjarndȳrit.' Hann
þakkaði gjǫfina ęptir sinni kunnustu; ok er leið stund, ok
skipit var albūit, þā mælti Sveinn konungr við Auðun: 'þō
villtu nū ā braut, þā mun ek nū ekki lętja þik, en þat hęfi ek
spurt, at ilt er til hafna fyrir landi yðru, ok eru vīða öræfi ok
hætt skipum; nū brȳtr þū, ok tȳnir skipinu ok fēnu; lītt sēr
þat þā ā, at þū hafir fundit Svein konung, ok gefit honum
gǫ̈rsimi.' Sīðan sęldi konungr honum leðr-hosu fulla af
silfri, 'ok ertu þā ęnn eigi fē-lauss með ǫllu, þōtt þū brjōtir
skipit, ef þū fær haldit þessu. Verða mā svā ęnn,' sęgir
konungr, 'at þū tȳnir þessu fē; lītt nȳtr þū þā þess, er þū
fannt Svein konung, ok gaft honum gǫ̈rsimi.' Sīðan drō
konungr hring af hęndi sēr, ok gaf Auðuni, ok mælti: 'þō
at svā illa verði, at þū brjōtir skipit ok tȳnir fēnu, eigi
ertu fēlauss, ef þū kömsk ā land, þvī at margir męnn hafa
gull ā sēr ī skips-brotum, ok sēr þā at þū hęfir fundit Svein
konung, ef þū hęldr hringinum; en þat vil ek rāða þēr,'
sęgir hann, 'at þū gefir eigi hringinn, nema þū þykkisk eiga
svā mikit gott at launa nǫkkurum gǫfgum manni, þā gef
þeim hringinn, þvī at tignum mǫnnum sōmir at þiggja, ok
far nū heill!'

Sīðan lætr hann ī haf, ok kömr ī Noreg, ok lætr flytja
upp varnað sinn, ok þurfti nū meira við þat en fyrr, er
hann var ī Noregi. Hann fęrr nū sīðan ā fund Haralds
konungs, ok vill ęfna þat er hann hēt honum, āðr hann
fōr til Danmęrkr, ok kvęðr konung vel. Haraldr konungr
tōk vel kvęðju hans, ok 'sęzk niðr,' sęgir hann, 'ok drekk
hēr með oss'; ok svā gǫ̈rir hann. Þā spurði Haraldr kon-
ungr: 'hvęrju launaði Sveinn konungr þēr dȳrit?' Auðun
svarar: 'þvī, herra! at hann þā at mēr.' Konungr sagði:
'launat mynda ek þēr þvī hafa; hvęrju launaði hann ęnn?'
Auðun svarar: 'gaf hann mēr silfr til suðr-gǫngu.' Þā sęgir
Haraldr konungr: 'mǫrgum mǫnnum gefr Sveinn konungr
silfr til suðrgǫngu eða annarra hluta, þōtt ekki fœri honum
gǫ̈rsimar; hvat er ęnn fleira?' 'Hann bauð mēr,' sęgir
Auðun, 'at görask skutilsveinn hans, ok mikinn sōma til
mīn at lęggja.' 'Vel var þat mælt,' sęgir konungr, 'ok
launa, myndi hann ęnn fleira.' Auðun sagði: 'gaf hann mēr
knǫrr með farmi þeim er hingat er bęzt varit ī Noreg.' Þat
var stōr-mannligt,' sęgir konungr, 'en launat mynda ek þēr
þvī hafa. Launaði hann þvī fleira?' Auðun svaraði: 'gaf
hann mēr leðrhosu fulla af silfri, ok kvað mik þā eigi fēlausan,
ef ek helda þvī, þō at skip mitt bryti við Īsland.' Konungr
sagði: 'þat var ā-gætliga gǫ̈rt, ok þat mynda ek ekki gǫ̈rt
hafa; lauss mynda ek þykkjask, ef ek gæfa þer skipit; hvārt
launaði hann fleira?' 'Svā var vīst, herra!' sęgir Auðun,
'at hann launaði: hann gaf mēr hring þenna er ek hęfi
ā hęndi, ok kvað svā mega at berask, at ek tȳnda fēnu
ǫllu, ok sagði mik þā eigi fēlausan, ef ek ætta hringinn,
ok bað mik eigi lōga, nema ek ætta nǫkkurum tignum manni
svā gott at launa, at ek vilda gefa; en nū hęfi ek þann
fundit, þvī at þū āttir kost at taka hvārttvęggja frā mēr,
dȳrit ok svā līf mitt, en þū lēzt mik fara þangat ī friði,
sem aðrir nāðu eigi.' Konungr tōk við gjǫfinni með blīðu,
ok gaf Auðuni ī mōti gōðar gjafir, āðr en þeir skilðisk.
Auðun varði fēnu til Īslands-fęrðar ok fōr ūt þegar um
sumarit til Īslands, ok þōtti vera inn mesti gæfumaðr.

VIII. Þrymskviða
1. Vreiðr var þā Ving-þōrr, er hann vaknaði,
ok sīns hamars of saknaði:
skęgg nam at hrista, skǫr nam at dȳja,
rēð Jarðar burr um at þreifask.
2. Ok hann þat orða alls fyrst of kvað:
'heyr-ðu nū, Loki! hvat ek nū mæli,
er engi veit jarðar hvęrgi
nē upp-himins: āss er stolinn hamri!'
3. Gengu þeir fagra Freyju tūna,
ok hann þat orða alls fyrst of kvað:
'muntu mēr, Freyja! fjaðr-hams ljā,
ef ek minn hamar mætta-k hitta?'

Freyja kvað:
4. Þō munda-k gefa þēr, þōtt ōr gulli væri,
ok-þō sęlja at væri ōr silfri.'
5. Flō þā Loki, fjaðrhamr dunði,
unz fyr utan kom āsa garða,
ok fyr innan kom jǫtna heima.
6. Þrymr sat ā haugi, þursa drōttinn,
greyjum sīnum gull-bǫnd snöri
ok mǫrum sīnum mǫn jafnaði.

Þrymr kvað:
7. 'Hvat er með āsum? hvat er með ālfum?
hvī er-tu einn kominn ī Jǫtunheima?'

Loki kvað:
'Ilt er með āsum, ilt er með ālfum;
hęfir þū Hlō-riða hamar of fōlginn?'

Þrymr kvað:
8. 'Ek hęfi Hlōriða hamar of fōlginn
ātta rǫstum fyr jǫrð neðan;
hann engi maðr aptr of heimtir,
nema fœri mēr Freyju at kvān.'
9. Flō þā Loki, fjaðrhamr dunði,
unz fyr utan kom jǫtna heima
ok fyr innan kom āsa garða;
mœtti hann Þōr miðra garða,
ok hann þat orða alls fyrst of kvað:
10. 'Hęfir þū örindi sem ęrfiði?
sęg-ðu ā lopti lǫng tīðindi:
opt sitjanda sǫgur of fallask,
ok liggjandi lygi of bęllir.'

Loki kvað:
11. 'Hęfi-k ęrfiði ok örindi:
Þrymr hęfir þinn hamar, þursa drōttinn;
hann engi maðr aptr of heimtir,
nema honum fœri Freyju at kvān.'
12. Ganga þeir fagra Freyju at hitta,
ok hann þat orða alls fyrst of kvað:
'bitt-u þik, Freyja, brūðar līni!
vit skulum aka tvau ī Jǫtunheima.'
13. Vreið varð þā Freyja ok fnāsaði,
allr āsa salr undir bifðisk,
stǫkk þat it mikla męn Brīsinga:
'mik veizt-u verða ver-gjarnasta,
ef ek ęk með þēr ī Jǫtunheima.'
14. Sęnn vāru æsir allir ā þingi
ok āsynjur allar ā māli,
ok of þat rēðu rīkir tīvar,
hvē þeir Hlōriða hamar of sœtti.
15. Þā kvað þat Heimdallr, hvītastr āsa
(vissi hann vel fram, sem vanir aðrir):
'bindum vēr Þōr þā brūðar līni,
hafi hann it mikla męn Brīsinga!
16. Lātum und honum hrynja lukla
ok kvenn-vāðir of knē falla,
en ā brjōsti breiða steina,
ok hagliga of hǫfuð typpum!'
17. Þā kvað þat Þōrr, þrūðugr āss:
'mik munu æsir argan kalla,
ef ek bindask læt brūðar līni.'
18. Þā kvað þat Loki, Laufeyjar sonr:
'þęgi þū [nū], Þōrr! þeira orða;
þegar munu jǫtnar Āsgarð būa,
nema þū þinn hamar þēr of heimtir.'
19. Bundu þeir Þōr þā brūðar līni
ok inu mikla męni Brīsinga.
20. Lētu und honum hrynja lukla
ok kvenn-vāðir of knē falla,
en ā brjōsti breiða steina,
ok hagliga of hǫfuð typðu.
21. Þā kvað þat Loki, Laufeyjar sonr:
'mun ek ok með þēr ambātt vera,
vit skulum aka tvær ī Jǫtunheima.'
22. Sęnn vāru hafrar heim of reknir,
skyndir at skǫklum, skyldu vel ręnna:
bjǫrg brotnuðu, brann jǫrð loga,
ōk Ōðins sonr ī Jǫtunheima.
23. Þā kvað þat Þrymr, þursa drōttinn:
'standið upp, jǫtnar! ok strāið bękki!
nū fœra mēr Freyju at kvān,
Njarðar dōttur, ōr Nōa-tūnum.
24. Ganga hēr at garði gull-hyrndar kȳr,
öxn al-svartir jǫtni at gamni;
fjǫlð ā ek meiðma, fjǫlð ā ek męnja,
einnar mēr Freyju āvant þykkir.'
25. Var þar at kveldi of komit snimma,
ok fyr jǫtna ǫl fram borit;
einn āt oxa, ātta laxa,
krāsir allar, þær er konur skyldu,
drakk Sifjar verr sāld þrjū mjaðar.
26. Þā kvað þat Þrymr, þursa drōttinn:
'hvar sāttu brūðir bīta hvassara?
sāk-a-k brūðir bīta breiðara,
nē inn meira mjǫð mey of drekka.'
27. Sat in al-snotra ambātt fyrir,
er orð of fann við jǫtuns māli:
'āt vætr Freyja ātta nāttum,
svā var hon ōð-fūs ī Jǫtunheima.'
28. Laut und līnu, lysti at kyssa,
en hann utan stǫkk ęnd-langan sal:
'hvī eru ǫndōtt augu Freyju?
þykkir mēr ōr augum eldr of bręnna.'
29. Sat in alsnotra ambātt fyrir,
er orð of fann við jǫtuns māli:
'svaf vætr Freyja ātta nāttum,
svā var hon ōðfūs ī Jǫtunheima.'
30. Inn kom in arma jǫtna systir,
hin er brūð-fjār of biðja þorði:
'lāttu þēr af hǫndum hringa rauða,
ef þū ǫðlask vill āstir mīnar,
āstir mīnar, alla hylli!'
31. Þā kvað þat Þrymr, þursa drōttinn:
'berið inn hamar brūði at vīgja,
lęggið Mjǫllni ī meyjar knē,
vīgið okkr saman Vārar hęndi!'
32. Hlō Hlōriða hugr ī brjōsti,
er harð-hugaðr hamar of þękði;
Þrym drap hann fyrstan, þursa drōttin,
ok ætt jǫtuns alla lamði.
33. Drap hann ina ǫldnu jǫtna systur,
hin er brūðfjār of beðit hafði;
hon skell of hlaut fyr skillinga,
en hǫgg hamars fyr hringa fjǫlð.
Svā kom Ōðins sonr ęndr at hamri.


The references marked Gr. are to the paragraphs of the Grammar.
I. Thor

Line 3. Hann ā þar rīki er Þrūð-vangar heita, 'he reigns (there) where it is called Þ.,' i.e. in the place which is called Þ. The plur. heita agrees with þrūðvangar, as in l. 14 below: þat eru jārnglōfar 'that is (his) iron gloves.'

l. 5. þat er hūs mest, svā at męnn hafa gǫ̈rt, 'that is the largest house, so that men have made (it),' i.e. the largest house that has been built. Note the plur. hūs of a single house; each chamber was originally regarded as a house, being often a detached building.

l. 13. spęnnir þeim, Gr. § 154; cp. 2. 49.
II. Thor and Ūtgarðaloki

l. 1. fōr með hafra sīna...ok með honum sā, āss er... We see here that með generally takes an acc. to denote passive, and a dat. to denote voluntary accompaniment.

l. 5. soðit refers to some such subst. as slātr (meat) understood.

l. 11. sprętti ā... ā is here an adv.

l. 12. til męrgjar. til here implies intention--to get at the marrow.

l. 20. þat er sā augnanna, 'the little he saw of the eyes.'-- Thor frowned till his eyebrows nearly covered his eyes, and the man felt as if he were going to fall down dead at the mere sight of them.

l. 21. The second hann refers, of course, to Thor.

l. 34. til myrkrs, till it was dark.

l. 36. þeir, the masc. instead of the neut. pl., as in l. 32 foll., showing that leituðu is meant to refer only to the men of the party, and not to include Rǫskva. (Gr. § 179.)

l. 46. sēr hvar lā maðr, 'saw where a man lay,' i.e. saw a man lying.

l. 51. einu sinni, for once in his life.

l. 52. nęfndisk Skrȳmir, said his name was Skr.

l. 66. būið til (prp.) nātt-verðar yðr, prepare supper for yourselves.

l. 77. Er þat þēr satt at sęgja. satt is in apposition to þat--'that is to be told you as the truth, (namely) that...'

l. 88. sjā sik, see himself alive.

l. 104. þann = þann veg, that way, course.

l. 108. at æsirnir bæði þā heila hittask. The full sense is, 'that Thor and Loki expressed a wish that they and Skrȳmir might meet again safe and sound.'

ll. 111, 112. sęttu hnakkann ā bak sēr aptr, threw back the backs of their heads till they touched their backs, i.e. threw back their heads.

l. 118. œrit stōra, 'rather big,' i.e. very big.

l. 120. glotti um tǫnn, 'grinned round a tooth,' i.e. showed his teeth in a malicious grin. Two MSS. read við instead of um.

l. 121. er annan veg en ek hygg, at...? is it otherwise than as I think, namely that...? i.e. am I not right in thinking that...?

l. 127. engi er hēr sā inni er... = engi er hēr-inni sā-er...

l. 129. freista skal, Gr. § 192.

l. 140. kallar þess meiri vān at hann sē... 'says that there is more probability of that, namely that he is...than of the contrary,' i.e. says that he will have to be...

l. 150. fōthvatari en svā, 'more swift-footed than so--under these circumstances,' i.e. than you.

l. 156. ok er Þjālfl eigi þā kominn... = þā er Þjālfi eigi kominn...

l. 172. at sinni, this time.

l. 172. hann, acc.

l. 173. laut ōr horninu, bent back from the horn.

l. 188. mestr refers to drykkr understood.

l. 218. kalli, Gr. § 192.

l. 241. þō refers to uni.
III. Balder

l. 7. engi agrees with dōmr.
IV. The Death of Balder

l. 11. hann, acc.

l. 20. ungr, too young.

l. 31. ū-happ is in apposition to þat; cp. 3. 7.

ll. 33, 34. vāru með einum hug til... had the same feelings towards.

l. 36. var...fyrr, was beforehand, prevented.

l. 42. vili, subj. 'whether he will';--change of construction.

l. 55. nema, 'unless,' here = 'until.'

l. 89. heim. This use of heim in the sense of 'someone else's home.' is frequent. Cp. our 'drive a nail home.'

l. 94. svā refers to ok ef allir hlutir..., the ok being pleonastic.

l. 108. hvar, cp. 2. 46.

l. 113. karl, 'old man,' here = Odin.
V. Hēðinn and Hǫgni

l. 6. Hēðinn = hann; this use of a proper name instead of a pronoun is frequent.

l. 9. þar. Cp. 1. 3.
VI. The Death of Olaf Tryggvason

l. 17. svā at, so that, i.e. just when.

l. 30. er, namely that.

l. 33. austan at sigla, is in a kind of apposition to fęrðina.

l. 40. svā, also.

l. 48. muni fyrir, awaits you, is impending.

l. 53. meira, adv., better, faster.

l. 149. bar hann hātt, impers. w. acc.; he was in a conspicuous place.

l. 244. við fimtānda mann, one of fifteen, with fourteen men.

l. 259. vāpna is governed by the second half of the genitival compound klæða-būnað, which is here considered as two independent words.
VII. Auðun

l. 17. var fyrir, was to be found.

l. 26. tvau verð slīk, double the price you gave.

l. 55. fē is probably dat. here, but may be nom.

l. 56. ęptir sem..., according as, in accordance with what.

l. 64. nū...nū, lately...just now.

l. 116. hęldr is here used pleonastically in a kind of apposition to the preceding bętr.

l. 125. en, and = while.

l. 129. þessi einn var svā hlutrinn, at..., this single thing is the case, namely that... i.e. the only thing is that...
VIII. Þrymskviða

l. 7. jarðar is governed by hvęrgi.

l. 9. tūna. Poetical construction of gen. to denote goal of motion.

l. 15. þō goes with the following at = ok sęlja, þōat (þōtt) væri ōr silfri.

l. 32. fœri may be either sg. or pl. 3 pers.


æ follows að, ð follows d, ę follows e, œ follows oð, ǫ follows o, ö follows ǫ, þ follows t.

The declensions of nouns are only occasionally given.

(-rs) etc. means that the r of the nom. is kept in inflection.
-a adv. not.
ā sf. river.
ā see eiga.
ā prp. w. acc. and dat. on, in.
āðr adv., cj. before.
aðrir see annar.
æsir see āss.
ætla wv. 3, consider, deem: 'ætlask fyrir,' intend.
ætt sf. 2, race, descent, family.
ætta see eiga.
af prp. w. dat. from; of; with; adv. 'drekka af,' drink off.
af-hūs sn. out-house, side room.
afl sn. strength, might.
af-taka wf. damage, injury.
āgætliga adv. splendidly.
aka sv. 2, drive (a chariot, etc.).
ākafliga adv. vehemently, hard--'kalla a.' call loudly.
akarn sn. acorn.
akkeri sn. anchor.
ālar-ęndir sm. thong-end, end of a strap.
al-būinn adj. w. gen. quite ready.
aldinn adj. old.
aldri adv. never.
ā-lęngðar adv. for some time.
ālfr sm. elf.
ā-lit snpl. appearance, countenance [līta].
all-harðr adj. very hard, very violent.
all-lītill adj. very little.
all-mann-skœðr adj. (very injurious to men), very murderous (of a battle) [skaði, 'injury'].
all-mikill adj. very great.
allr adj. all, whole; 'með ǫllu,' entirely; 'alls fyrst,' first of all.
all-stōrum adv. very greatly.
all-valdr sm. monarch, king.
al-snotr adj. very clever.
al-svartr adj. very black, coal-black.
alt adv. quite.
ambātt sf. 2, female slave, maid.
and-lit sn. face [līta].
annarr prn. second; following, next; other; one of the two--'annar...annarr,' one...the other.
aptann sm. evening.
aptastr adj. most behind.
aptr adv. back, backwards, behind.
ār sf. oar.
ār sn. year.
ār see ā.
argr adj. cowardly, base.
ār-maðr sm. steward.
armr adj. wretched.
ās-męgin sn. divine strength.
āss sm. 3, (Scandinavian) god.
āst sf. 2, affection, love, often in pl.
āst-sæll adj. beloved, popular. [sæll, 'happy'].
āsynja wf. (Scandinavian) goddess [āss].
āt see eta.
at prp. w. dat. at, by; to, towards, up to; for; in accordance with, after.
at adv. to.
-at adv. not.
at-laga wf. attack [lęggja].
at-rōðr (-rar) sm. 2, rowing against, attack.
ātta num. eight.
ātta see eiga.
auð-kęndr adj. easy to be recognized, easily distinguishable.
auðr adj. desert, deserted, without men.
auð-sēnn adj. evident.
auga wn. eye.
aug-sȳn sf. sight.
auka sv. 1, increase; impers., w. dat. of what is added 'jōk nū miklu ā,' much was added to it (his hesitation increased).
austan adv. from the east.
aust-maðr sm. Easterner, Norwegian.
austr sn. the east--'ī au.,' eastwards.
austr adv. eastwards.
austr-vegr sm. the East, especially Russia.
āvalt adv. continually, all the time.
ā-vanr adj. wanting; impers. neut. in 'einnar mēr Freyju āvant þykkir,' Freyja alone I seem to want.
ā-vinnr adj. toilsome, only in the impers. neut. 'mun ā-vint verða um sǫxin,' it will be a hard fight at the prow.
bað see biðja.
bāðir prn. both, neut. as adv. in 'bæði...ok,' both...and.
bāðu see biðja.
bǣða see biðja.
bǣði see bāðir.
baggi wm. bag; bundle.
bak sn. back, 'vęrja eitt baki,' defend a thing with the back, i.e. turns one's back to it = be a coward.
bak-borði wm. larboard.
bāl sn. flame; funeral pile.
bāl-fǫr sf. funeral.
bani wm. death.
bar see bera.
bardagi wm. battle.
barð sn. edge, rim; projection in the prow of a ship formed by the continuation of the keel.
barða see bęrja.
barði wm. war-ship with a sharp prow, ram.
barn sn. child.
batt see binda.
bauð see bjōða.
beiða wv. 1, w. gen. of thing and dat. of pers. benefited, ask, demand.
bein sn. bone.
bękkr sm. 2, bench.
bęlla wv. 1, occupy oneself with, deal in, generally in a bad sense.
bera sv. 4, carry, take; bear, endure. berask at, happen. b. fram, bring forward, out. b. vāpn niðr, shoot down. b. rāð sīn saman, hold council, deliberate.
berg-risi wm. hill-giant.
bęrja wv. 1b, strike--'b. grjōti,' stone. bęrjask, fight.
bęrr adj. bare, unsheathed (of a sword).
ber-sęrkr sm. 2, wild fighter, champion. [Literally 'bear-shirt,' i.e. one clothed in a bear's skin.]
bętr see vel.
bętri see gōðr.
bęzt see vel.
bęztr see gōðr.
beygja wv. 1, bend, arch.
bīða sv. 6, w. gen. wait for; w. acc. abide, undergo.
biðja sv. 5, ask, beg, pray, w. gen. of thing, acc. of the pers. asked, and dat. of the person benefited; express a wish, bid--'bað hann vel kominn' (vera understood), bad him welcome; call on, challenge, command, tell.
bifask wv. 1, tremble, shake.
bil sn. moment of time.
bila wv. 2, fail.
bilt neut. adj. only in the impers. 'einum verðr bilt,' one hesitates, is taken aback, is afraid.
binda sv. 3, bind, tie up; dress.
birta wv. 1, show [bjartr].
bīta sv. 6, bite; cut.
bittu see binda.
bitu see bīta.
bjarn-dȳri sn. bear.
bjartr adj. bright, clear.
bjō see būa.
bjōða sv. 7, w. acc. and dat. offer, propose--'b. einum fang,' challenge to wrestling; invite. b. upp, give up.
bjǫrg sf. help; means of subsistence, store of food.
blāsa sv. 1, blow; blow trumpet as signal.
bleyða wf. coward.
blīða wf. gentleness, friendliness.
blindr adj. blind.
blōð sn. blood.
blōt-bolli wm. sacrificial bowl.
bœtr see bōt.
boga-skot sn. bowshot.
bogi wm. bow.
bog-maðr sm. bowman, archer.
bōndi sm. 4, yeoman, householder, (free) man [būa].
borð sn. side of a ship, board; rim, the margin between the rim of a vessel and the liquid in it--'nū er gott beranda b. ā horninu,' now there is a good margin for carrying the horn, i.e. its contents are so diminished that it can be lifted without spilling.
borg sf. fortress, castle.
borg-hlið sn. castle gate.
bōt sf. 3, mending, improvement; plur. bœtr, compensation.
bǫrn see barn.
brā sf. eyelid.
brā see bregða.
bragð sn. trick, stratagem [bregða].
brann see bręnna.
brast see bresta.
brātt adv. quickly.
braut sf. way--ā braut, adv. away.
braut see brjōta.
braut, brott adv. away.
bregða sv. 3, w. dat. jerk, pull, push; b. upp, lift, raise (to strike). change, transform.
breiðr adj. broad.
bręnna wf. burning; incremation.
bręnna sv. 3, burn intr.
bręnna wv. 1, burn trans.
bresta sv. 3, break, crack, burst.
brestr sm. crack; loss.
brjōst sn. breast.
brjōta sv. 7, break--'b. (skip)' suffer shipwreck, also impers. 'skip (acc.) brȳtr,' the ship is wrecked.
broddr sm. point.
brōðir sm. 4, brother.
brotinn see brjōta.
brotna wv. 3, break intr.
brott see braut.
brott-laga sf. retreat.
brū sf. bridge.
brūð-fē sn. bridal gift.
brūðr sf. 2, bride.
brūn sf. 3, eyebrow.
bryggja wf. pier.
brynja wf. corslet.
brȳnn see brūn.
bryn-stūka wf. corslet-sleeve.
bryti see brjōta.
brȳtr see brjōta.
bū sn. dwelling, home.
būa sv. 1, dwell; inhabit, possess, prepare. būask, get ready, prepare intr. 'er būit við at...' it is likely to be that..., there is danger of...
buðu see bjōða.
būinn adj. ready; in a certain condition--'(við) svā būit' adv. under such circumstances; capable, fit for--'vel at sēr būinn,' very capable, very good (at).
bundu see binda.
burr sm. son.
bȳðr see bjōða.
bȳr see būa.
byrja wv. 3, begin.
byr-vænn adj. promising a fair wind.
daga wv. 3, dawn.
dagan sf. dawn.
dagr sm. day.
dalr sm. valley.
dauðr adj. dead.
dęgi see dagr.
deyja sv. 2, die.
djūpr adj. deep.
dō see deyja.
dōmr sm. decision.
dōttir sf. 3, daughter.
dǫgurðr sm. breakfast [-urð = -verðr, cp. nāttverðr].
dōkkr (-vir) adj. dark.
draga sv. 2, draw, drag. d. saman, collect.
drakk see drekka.
drap see drepa.
draumr sm. dream.
dręginn see draga.
dreif see drīfa.
dręki wm. dragon; dragon-ship, ship with a dragon's head as a beak.
drekka sv. 3, drink.
drepa sv. 5, strike; kill.
dreyma wv. 1, impers. w. acc. of pers. and acc. of the thing dream [draumr].
drīfa sv. 6, drive; hasten.
drjūpa sv. 7, drop.
drō see draga.
drōgu see draga.
drōttinn sm. lord.
drōttin-hollr adj. faithful to its master.
drukkinn adj. (ptc.) drunk.
drupu see drjūpa.
drykkja wf. drinking [drekka].
drykkju-maðr sm. drinker.
drykkr sm. 2, draught.
duna wv. 3, resound.
dunði see dynja.
dvalða see dvęlja.
dvęlja wv. 1b, delay. dvęljask, dwell, stop.
dvergr sm. dwarf.
dyðrill sm. (?).
dȳja wv. 1b, shake.
dynja wv. 1b, resound.
dȳr sn. animal, beast.
dyrr sfnpl. door.
eða cj. or.
ef cj. if.
ęfna wv. 1, perform, carry out.
ęggja wv. 3, incite.
eiðr sm. oath.
eiga wf. property.
eiga swv. possess, have: have as wife, be married to; have in the sense of must.
eigi adv. not; no.
eign sf. property.
eignask wv. 3, appropriate, gain.
eik sf. 3, oak.
einka-māl snpl. personal agreement, special treaty.
einn num., prn. one; the same; a certain, a; alone, only--'einn saman,' alone, mere.
einn-hvęrr prn. a certain, some, a.
eira wv. 1, w. dat. spare.
eitr sn. poison.
ek prn. I.
ęk see aka.
ekki prn. neut. nothing; adv. not.
eldr sm. fire.
ęlli wf. old age.
ellifti adj. eleventh.
ellifu num. eleven.
em see vera.
en cj. but; and.
en adv. than, after compar.
ęndask wv. 1, end, suffice for.
ęndi, ęndir sm. end.
ęnd-langr adj. the whole length--'ęndlangan sal,' the whole length of the hall.
ęndr adv. again.
engi prn. none, no.
ęnn adv. yet, still; besides; after all.
ęptir prp. w. acc. after (of time). w. dat. along, over; in quest of, after; according to, by. adv. afterwards; behind [aptr].
ęptri adj. compar. hind.
er prn. rel. who, which, rel. adv. where; when; because, that.
er see vera.
er see þū.
ęrfiði sn. work; trouble.
ert see vera.
eru see vera.
eta sv. 5, eat.
ey sf. island.
fā sv. 1, grasp; receive, get; give; be able. fāsk, wrestle. fāsk ā, be obtained, be.
faðir sm. 4, father.
fær see fā.
fæstr see fār.
fagnaðr sm. 2, joy; entertainment, hospitality.
fagr adj. beautiful, fair, fine.
fagrliga adv. finely.
fall sn. fall.
falla sv. 1, fall. fallask, be forgotten, fail.
fang sn. embrace, grasp; wrestling.
fann see finna.
fār adj. few--neut. fātt w. gen.: 'fātt manna,' few men.
fara go, travel--w. gen. in such constr. as 'f. fęrðar sinnar,' go his way; fare (well, ill); happen, turn out; experience; 'f. með einu,' deal with, treat; destroy, use up w. dat. farask impers. in 'fęrsk þeim vel,' they have a good passage.
farmr sm. lading, cargo.
fastr adj. firm, fast, strong.
fē sn. property, money.
fęðrum see faðir.
fekk see fā.
fęgrð sf. beauty [fagr].
fęgrstr see fagr.
feikn-stafir smpl. 2, wickedness.
fela sv. 3, hide.
fēlagi wm. companion.
fē-lauss adj. penniless.
fē-lītill adj. with little money, poor.
fell see falla.
fęlla wv. 1, fell, throw down; kill [falla].
fengu, fęnginn see fā.
fęr see fara.
fęrð sf. 2, journey [fara].
fer-skeyttr adj. four-cornered.
fimm num. five.
fimtāndi adj. fifteenth.
finna sv. 3, find; meet, go to see; notice, see.
fjaðr-hamr sm. feathered (winged) coat.
fjall sn. mountain.
fjār see fē.
fjara sf. ebb-tide; beach.
fjogur see fjōrir.
fjōrði adj. fourth.
fjōrir num. four.
fjǫlð wf. quantity.
fjǫl-kyngi sn. magic.
fjǫl-męnni sn. multitude; troop [maðr].
fjǫrðr sm. 3, firth.
fjǫrur see fjara.
flā sv. 2, flay, skin.
flaug see fljūga.
flęginn see flā.
flestr see margr.
fljōta sv. 7, float, drift.
fljūga sv. 7, fly.
flō see fljūga.
floti wm. fleet [fljōtal.
flōtti wm. flight [flȳja].
flugu see fljūga.
fluttu see flytja.
flȳja wv. 1, flee.
flytja wv. 1b. remove, bring.
fnāsa wv. 3, snort.
fœra wv. 1, bring, take; fasten [fara].
fœrir see fara.
fœti see fōt.
fōlginn see fela.
fōlk sn. multitude, troop; people.
fōr see fara.
for-tǫlur wpl. representations, arguments [tala].
fōstra wf. nurse.
fōt-hvatr adj. swift-footed.
fōtr sm. foot; leg.
fǫður see faðir.
fǫr sf. journey [fara].
fǫru-neyti sn. company [njōta].
frā prp. from, away from; about, concerning. 'ī frā' adv. away.
frændi sm. 4, relation.
frā-fall sn. death.
fram adv. forward, forth. compar. framar, ahead.
framastr adj. superl. chief, most distinguished.
frami wm. advantage, courage.
framiðr see fręmja.
fram-stafn sm. prow.
frā-sǫgn sf. narrative, relation.
freista wv. 3, w. gen. try, test.
fręmja wv. 1b, perform [fram].
friðr sm. 2, peace.
frīðr adj. beautiful, fine.
frōðr adj. learned, wise.
frœkn adj. bold, daring.
frost sn. frost.
fugl sm. bird.
full-kominn adj. (ptc.) complete; ready (for).
fullr adj. full.
fundr sm. 2, meeting [finna].
fundu see finna.
furðu adv. awfully, very.
fūss adj. eager.
fylgja wv. 1, w. dat. follow; accompany.
fylki sn. troop [fōlk].
fylkja wv. 1, w. dat. draw up (troops) [fōlk].
fylla wv. 1, fill [fullr].
fyr, fyrir prp. w. acc. and dat. before; beyond, over--'f. borð,' overboard; instead of--'koma f.' adv. be given as compensation; for; because of. 'f. þvī at,' because. 'lītill. f. sēr,' insignificant.
fyrir-rūm sn. fore-hold, chief-cabin.
fyrirrūms-maðr sm. man in the fore-hold.
fyrr adv. compar. before, formerly. superl. fyrst, first.
fyrri adj. compar. former. superl. fyrstr, first.
fȳsa wv. 1, hasten trans.--impers. 'braut fȳsir mik,' I feel a desire to go away [fūss].
gā wv. 1, w. gen. heed, care for.
gæfa wf. luck [gefa].
gæta wv. 1, watch, take care of [geta].
gaf see gefa.
gæfu-maðr sm. lucky man.
gaflak sn. javelin.
gamall adj. old.
gaman sn. amusement, joy.
ganga sv. 1, go, with gen. of goal in poetry; attack--'g. ā skip,' board a ship. g. af, be finished. g. til, come up. g. upp, land; board a ship; be used up, expended (of money).
garðr sm. enclosure, court; dwelling.
gat see geta.
gefa sv. 5, give.
gęgnum, ī gęgnum prp. w. gen. through.
gekk see ganga.
gęlti see gǫltr.
gęnginn, gęngr, gengu see ganga.
geta sv. 5, w. gen. mention, speak of; guess, suppose.
geysi adv. excessively.
gipta wf. luck [gefa].
giptu-maðr sm. lucky man.
gjafar see gjǫf.
gjǫf sf. gift.
glotta wv. 2, smile maliciously, grin.
glæsiligr adj. magnificent.
gnȳr sm. din, noise.
gōðr adj. good--'gott er til eins,' it is easy to get at, obtain.
gōlf sn. floor; apartment, room.
gott see gōðr.
gǫfugr adj. distinguished [gefa].
gǫltr sm. 3, boar.
gǫmul see gamall.
gǫ̈ra wv. 1c, do, make. gǫ̈rask, set about doing; be made into, become. gǫ̈ra at, accomplish, carry out.
gǫ̈rsimi wf. article of value, treasure.
granda wv. 3, w. dat. injure.
grār adj. gray.
gras sn. grass; plant, flower.
grāta sv. 1, weep, mourn for.
grātr sm. weeping.
greiða wv. 1, put in order, arrange.
greip see grīpa.
gres-jārn sn. iron wire (?).
grey sn. dog.
grið snpl. peace, security.
griða-staðr sm. sanctuary.
grind sf. 3, lattice door, wicket.
grīpa sv. 6, seize.
gripr sm. 2, article of value, treasure.
grjōt sn. stone (collectively).
grōa sv. 1, grow; heal.
grœr see grōa.
gruna wv. 3, impers.--'mik grunar,' I suspect, think.
grunr sm. 2, suspicion.
gull sn. gold.
gull-band sn. gold band.
gull-būinn adj. adorned with gold.
gull-hringr sm. gold ring.
gull-hyrndr adj. (ptc.) with gilt horns.
gull-roðinn adj. (ptc.) gilt.
gȳgr sf. giantess.
gyltr adj. (ptc.) gilt.
gyrða wv. 1, gird.
hæstr see hār.
hætta wv. 1, w. dat. desist from, stop.
hættligr adj. dangerous, threatening.
hættr adj. dangerous.
haf sn. sea.
hafa wv. 1, have; 'h. einn nær einu,' bring near to, expose to; use, utilize. at hafask, undertake. til hafa, have at hand.
hafna see hǫfn.
hafr sm. goat.
hafr-staka wf. goatskin.
hagliga adv. neatly.
hagr sm. condition; advantage--'þēr mun h. ā vera,' will avail thee, be profitable to you.
hag-stœðr adj. favourable.
halda sv. 1, w. dat. hold (also with prp. ā); keep. w. acc. observe, keep (laws, etc.). intr. take a certain direction, go.
hālfr adj. half.
hālfu adv. by half, half as much again.
hallar see hǫll.
hallar-gōlf sn. hall floor.
haltr adj. lame.
hamarr sm. hammer.
hamars-muðr sm. thin end of hammer.
hamar-skapt sn. handle of a hammer.
hamar-spor sn. mark made by a hammer.
hana see hann.
handar see hǫnd.
hand-skot sn. throwing with the hand.
hand-tękinn ptc. pret. taken by hand, taken alive.
hann prn. he.
hār sn. hair.
hār adj. high.
harð-hugaðr adj. stern of mood.
harðr adj. hard; strong.
harð-skeytr adj. strong-shooting [skjōta].
harmr sm. grief.
hāski wm. danger.
hā-sæti sn. high seat, dais [sitja].
hāsætis-kista sf. chest under the dais.
hātt adv. high; loudly.
haugr sm. mound.
hauss sm. skull.
heðan adv. hence.
hęfi see hafa.
hęfja sv. 2, raise, lift; begin.
hęfna wv. 1, w. gen. revenge, avenge.
heill adj. sound, safe, prosperous.
heil-rǣði sn. sound advice, good advice [rāð].
heim adv. to one's home, home (domum).
heima adv. at home (domi).
heima-maðr sm. man of the household.
heim-fūss adj. longing to go home, homesick.
heimr sm. home, dwelling; world.
heimta wv. 1, fetch, obtain, get back.
heita sv. 1, call; w. dat. of pers. and dat. of thing promise; intr. (pres. heiti) be named, called.
hęldr see halda.
hęldr adv. compar. more willingly, rather, sooner, more; rather, very.
hęl-grindr sf. the doors of hell.
hęllir sm. cave.
helt see halda.
hęl-vegr sm. road to hell.
hęlzt adv. superl. most willingly, soonest, especially, most [hęldr].
hęndi, hęndr see hǫnd.
hęnnar, hęnni see hann.
hępta wv. 1, bind; hinder, stop.
hēr adv. here--'h. af,' etc. here-of.
hęr-bergi sn. quarters, lodgings.
hęrða wv. harden, clench.
hęr-fang sn. booty.
hęrja wv. 3, make war, ravage [hęrr].
hęrr sm. army, fleet.
herra sm. lord.
hęr-skip sn. war-ship.
hestr sm. horse.
hēt see heita.
heyra wv. 1, hear.
himinn sm. heaven.
hingat adv. hither.
hinn prn. that.
hirð sf. court.
hirð-maðr sm. courtier.
hiti wm. heat.
hitta wv. come upon, find, meet; trans. go to. hittask, meet, intr.
hjā prp. w. dat. by, at; in comparison with.
hjālmr sm. helmet.
hjōn snpl. household.
hlaða sv. 2, load, heap up; 'h. seglum,' take in sails.
hlæja sv. 2, laugh.
hlaupa sv. 1, jump, leap; run.
hlaut see hljōta.
hleyp see hlaupa.
hleypa wv. 1, make to run (i.e. the horse), gallop.
hlīf sf. shield.
hlīfa wv. 1, w. dat. shelter, cover, protect.
hljōp see hlaupa.
hljōta sv. 7, get, receive.
hlōðu see hlaða.
hlōgu see hlæja.
hlunnr sm. roller (for launching ships).
hluti wm. portion [hljōta].
hlutr sm. 2, share; portion, part, piece; thing [hljōta].
hlut-skipti sn. booty.
hnakki wm. back of head.
hōf see hęfja.
hollr adj. gracious, faithful.
hōlmr sm. small island.
hon see hann.
honum see hann.
horn sn. horn.
hœgri adj. compar. right (hand).
hœla wv. 1, w. dat. praise, boast of.
hǫfðingi wm. chief [hǫfuð].
hǫfða-fjǫl sf. head-board (especially of a bedstead).
hǫfðu see hafa.
hǫfn sf. harbour.
hǫfuð sn. head.
hǫgg sn. stroke.
hǫgg-ormr sm. viper.
hǫgg-orrosta wf. 'cutting-fight,' hand-to-hand fight.
hǫggva sv. 1, hew, cut, strike.
hǫll sf. hall.
hǫnd sf. 3, hand; side--'hvārra-tvęggju handar,' on both sides, for both parties.
hræddr adj. frightened, afraid [ptc. of hræðask].
hræðask wv. 1, be frightened, fear.
hræzla wf. fear [hræðask].
hrafn sm. raven.
hratt see hrinda.
hrauð see hrjōða.
hraut see hrjōta.
hreyfa wv. 1, move.
hrīð sf. period of time.
hrīm-þurs sm. frost giant.
hrinda sv. 3, push, launch (ship).
hrista wv. 1, shake.
hrjōða sv. 7, strip, clear, disable.
hrjōta sv. 7, start, burst out.
hrǫkk see hrökkva.
hrökkva sv. 3, start back.
hryði see hrjōta.
hrynja wv. 1b. fall down.
hrȳtr see hrjōta.
hugða see hyggja.
hugi wm. thought.
hugr sm. mind, heart; courage, spirit.
hugsa wv. 3, consider, think.
hundrað sn. hundred.
hurð sf. 2, door.
hūs sn. room; house.
hvar adv. where; that.
hvārr prn. which of two; each of the two, both.
hvārr-tvęggja prn. each of the two, both.
hvārt adv. whether, both in direct and indirect questions.
hvārt-tvęggja adv. 'hv...ok,' both...and.
hvass adj. sharp.
hvat prn. neut. what.
hvart adj. brisk, bold.
hvē adv. how.
hverfa sv. 3, turn, go.
hvęr-gi adv. nowhere--'hv. jarðar,' nowhere on earth; in no respect, by no means.
hvęrnig adv. how [= hvęrn veg.].
hvęrr prn. who.
hvęrsu adv. how.
hvī adv. why.
hvirfill sm. crown of head.
hvītna wv. 2, whiten.
hvītr adj. white.
hyggja wv. 1b. think, mean, determine [hugr].
hylli wf. favour [hollr].
ī prp. in.
ī-huga wv. 3, try to remember, consider [hugr].
illa adv. ill, badly.
illr adj. ill, bad.
inn art. the.
inn adv. in compar. innar, further in.
inna wv. 1, accomplish.
innan adv. within, inside. fyrir innan prp. w. gen. within, in.
inni adv. in.
it see þū.
it see inn.
ī-þrōtt sf. feat.
jafn-breiðr adj. equally broad.
jafn-hǫfugr adj. equally heavy [hęfja].
jafn-mikill adj. equally great.
jafn-skjōtt adv. equally quick.
jafna wv. 3, smooth; compare w. dat. of thing compared.
jafnan adv. always.
jarl sm. earl.
jārn sn. iron.
jārn-glōfi sm. iron gauntlet.
jārn-spǫng sf. iron plate.
jāta wv. 1, w. dat. agree to.
jōk see auka.
jǫrð sf. earth.
jǫtun-heimar smpl. home, world of the giants.
jǫtunn, sm. giant.
kær-leikr sm. love, affection [kærr, 'dear'].
kaf sn. diving; deep water, water under the surface.
kafa wv. 3, dive.
kalla wv. 3, cry out, call; assert, maintain; name, call.
kann see kunna.
kapp sn. competition.
karl sm. man; old man.
kasta wv. 3, cast, throw.
kaupa wv. 2, buy.
kęngr sm. bend.
kęnna wv. 1, know; perceive.
kęrling sf. old woman [karl].
kęrra wf. chariot.
kętill sm. kettle.
keypta see kaupa.
keyra wv. 1, drive.
kirkja wf. church.
kirkju-skot sn. wing of a church.
kjōsa sv. 7, choose.
klakk-laust adv. uninjured.
klæða wv. 1, clothe.
klæða-būnaðr sm. apparel.
klæði snpl. clothes.
knē sn. knee.
knīfr sm. knife.
knǫrr sm. merchant-ship.
knūði see knȳja.
knūi wm. knuckle.
knūtr sm. knot.
knȳja wv. 1b, press with knuckles or knees; exert oneself [knūi].
kōlf-skot sn. (distance of a) bolt-shot.
kollōttr adj. bald.
koma sv. 4. come; happen, turn out; w. dat. bring into a certain condition. k. fyrir, be paid in atonement. komask, make one's way (by dint of exertion).
kona wf. woman; wife.
konr sm. kind--'alls konar,' all kinds; 'nakkvars konar,' of some kind.
konunga-stęfna wf. congress of kings.
konungr sm. king.
konungs-dōttir sf. king's daughter.
konungs-skip sn. king's ship.
kosinn see kjōsa.
kost-gripr sm. precious thing, treasure.
kostr sm. 2, choice--'at ǫðru kosti,' otherwise; power [kjōsa].
kǫgur-sveinn sm. little boy, urchin.
kǫpp see kapp.
kǫpur-yrði sn. boasting [orð].
kǫttr sm. 3, cat.
köm see koma.
krappa-rūm sn. back cabin.
krappr adj. narrow.
kraptr sm. strength.
krās sf. 2, delicacy.
kręfja wv. 1b, w. acc. of pers. and gen. of thing, demand.
kunna swv. know; feel; venture; like to.
kunnandi wf. knowledge, accomplishments.
kunnusta wf. knowledge, power.
kunnr adj. known.
kurr sm. murmur, rumour.
kvæði sn. poem.
kvæma see koma.
kvān sf. wife.
kveða sv. 5, say. kv. ā settle, agree on.
kvęðja wf. salutation [kveða].
kvęðja wv. 1b, greet.
kveld sn. evening--'ī kv.,' this evening.
kveld-sǫngr sm. vespers.
kvenn-vāðir sfpl. woman's clothes.
kviðr sm. 3, stomach, belly.
kvisa wv. 3, whisper.
kvistr sm. 3, branch, twig.
kvǫddu see kvęðja.
kykr (-vir) adj. living.
kykvendi sn. living creature, animal.
kȳll sm. bag.
kyn sn. race, lineage.
kȳr sf. 3, cow.
kyssa wv. 1, kiss.
lā see liggja.
lægri see lāgr.
lær-lęggr sm. thigh-bone.
læt see lāta.
lagða see lęggja.
lāgr adj. low; short of stature [liggja].
lags-maðr sm. companion.
lagu see liggja.
lamða, lamit see lęmja.
land sn. land, country.
land-skjālfti wm. earthquake.
langr adj. long, far.
lāt snpl. noise.
lāta sv. 1, let go; leave; lose; allow; cause, let; behave, act; say.
lauf sn. foliage.
laufs-blað sn. (blade of foliage), leaf.
laug sf. bath.
laun snpl. reward.
launa wv. 3, reward, requite w. dat. of the thing given and of the pers., and acc. of the thing requited.
lauss adj. loose; shaky, unsteady; free from obligation.
laust see ljōsta.
laut see lūta.
lax sm. salmon.
leðr-hosa wf. leather bag.
lęggja wv. 1b, lay, put; 'l. eitt fyrir einn,' give, settle on; 'l. sik fram,' exert oneself; intr. w. skip understood sail, row--l. at, land; attack; l. frā, retreat, draw off; pierce, make a thrust. lęggjask, set out, proceed; swim [liggja].
leið sf. way--'koma einu til leiðar,' carry out [līða].
leið see līða.
leiða wv. 1, lead, conduct [līða].
leiðangr (-rs) sm. levy [leið].
leiga wv. 1, borrow.
leikr sm. game; athletic sports, contest.
leita wv. 3, w. gen. and dat. seek; take to, have recourse to. leitask, feel one's way [līta].
lęmja wv. 1b, break.
lęngð sf. length [langr].
lęngi adv. long (of time) [langr].
lęngstr see langr.
lēt see lāta.
lętja wv. 1b, w. acc. of pers. and gen. of thing, hinder, dissuade.
lētta wv. 1, w. dat. lift.
leyniliga adv. secretly.
leysa wv. 1, loosen, untie, open [lauss].
lið sn. troop.
līða sv. 6, go; pass (of time); impers. līðr, w. dat. fare, get on. impers. 'līðr ā (nāttina),' (the night) is drawing to a close.
līf sn. life--'ā līfi,' alive.
lifa wv. 2, live.
liggja sv. 5, lie. l. til, be fitting.
līk sn. body; corpse.
līka wv. 3, w. dat. please.
līki sn. form [līk].
līking sf. likeness, similarity [līkr].
līknsamr adj. gracious.
līkr adj. like.
līn sn. linen; linen headdress.
list sf. art.
līta sv. 6, look at; regard, consider--'l. til eins.' turn to, acknowledge greeting. lītask impers. w. dat. seem.
litask wv. 3, look round one [līta].
lītill adj. little, small--'lītit veðr,' not very windy weather. lītlu adv. by a little, a little.
lītil-ræði sm. degradation [rāð].
litr sm. 3, colour, complexion; appearance [līta].
līzk see līta.
ljā wv. 1, w. gen. and dat. lend.
ljōsta sv. 7, strike, w. dat. of instr. and acc. of the thing struck--'l. ārum ī sæ,' dip the oars into the sea, begin to row.
lofa wv. 3, praise.
lōga wv. 3, w. dat. part with.
logi wm. flame.
lokinn see lūka.
lopt sn. air--'ā l.,' up.
lūka sv. 7, lock, close; impers. 'lȳkr einu,' it is finished, exhausted. 'l. upp,' unlock, open.
lukla see lykill.
lustu see ljōsta.
lūta sv. 7, bend, bow.
lygi wf. lie, falsehood.
lykð sf. ending--'at lykðum,' finally.
lykill sm. key [lūka].
lypta wv. 1, w. dat. lift [lopt].
lypting sf. raised place (castle) on the poop of a warship [lypta].
lȳsa wv. 1, shine.
lȳsi-gull sn. bright gold.
lȳst see ljōsta.
lysta wv. 1, impers. w. acc. desire.
mā see mega.
maðr sm. 4, man.
mæla (mælta) wv. 1, speak--'m. við einu,' refuse; suggest.
mær sf. virgin, maid.
mætta see mega.
magr (-ran) adj. thin.
māgr sm. kinsman, relation, connection.
makligr adj. fitting.
māl sn. narrative; in plur. poem; proper time, time.
mālmr sm. metal.
mann see maðr.
mann-fōlk sn. troops, crew.
mann-hringr sm. ring of men.
mannliga adv. manlily.
margr adj. many, much.
mark sn. mark; importance.
marka wv. 3, infer.
marr sm. horse.
mart see margr.
matask wv. 3, eat a meal.
matr sm. 2, food.
mātta see mega.
māttr sm. 2, might, strength.
með prp. w. acc. and dat. with.
meðal s. middle--ā m. w. gen. between.
meðan adv. whilst.
mega swv. can, may.
megin --'ǫðrum m.,' on the other side; 'ǫllum m.,' on all sides [corruption of vegum].
męgin-gjarðar sfpl. girdle of strength [mega].
meiðmar sfpl. treasures.
meiri see mikill.
męn sn. necklace, piece of jewelry.
męnn see maðr.
mēr see ek.
męrgr sm. 2, marrow.
męrki sn. mark; banner [mark].
mest see mikill.
meta sv. 5, measure; estimate.
mey see mær.
mið-garðr sm. (middle enclosure), world.
miðgarðs-ormr sm. world-serpent.
miðr adj. middle.
mik see ek.
mikill adj. big, tall, great. mikit adv. much, very.
miklu adv. (instr.) much.
milli, ā milli prp. between, among.
minjar sfpl. remembrance, memorial.
minn see ek.
minni see lītill.
minnr adv. less.
mis-līka wv. 3, w. dat. displease, not please.
missa wf. loss, want.
missa wv. 1, w. gen. lose; do without.
mistil-teinn sm. mistletoe [teinn, 'twig'].
mitt see ek.
mjǫðr sm. 3, mead.
mjǫk adv. very.
mōðir sf. 3, mother.
mōðr sm. anger.
mœtask wv. 1, meet intr. [mōt].
mǫn sf. mane.
morginn sm. morning.
mǫrk sf. 3, forest.
mǫrum see marr.
mōt sn. meeting. ī mōti prp. w. dat. against.
mǫtu-neyti sn. community of food--'lęggja m. sitt,' make their provision into a common store [matr; njōta].
mundu see munu.
munnr sm. mouth.
munr sm. difference--'þeim mun,' to that extent.
munu swv. will, may (of futurity and probability).
myndi see munu.
myrkr sn. darkness.
myrkr adj. dark.
nā wv. 1, reach, obtain; succeed in.
nǣr adv. w. dat. near; nearly. superl. næst--'þvī n.,' thereupon.
nǣtr see nātt.
nafn sn. name.
nakkvarr prn. some, a certain. nakkvat adv. somewhat; perhaps.
nātt sf. 3, night.
nātt-bōl sn. night-quarters.
nātt-langt adv. the whole night long.
nātt-staðr sm. night-quarters.
nāttūra wf. nature, peculiarity.
nātt-verðr sm. 2, supper.
nauð-syn sf. necessity.
naut see njōta.
neðan adv. below. fyrir n. prp. w. dat. below.
nęfja adj. long-nosed (?).
nęfna wv. 1, name, call. nęfnask, name oneself, give one's name as [nafn].
nema sv. 4, take; begin.
nema adv. except, unless.
nest sn. provisions.
nest-baggi sm. provision-bag.
niðr adv. down, downwards.
nīundi adj. ninth.
njōsn sf. spying; news.
njōsna wv. 3, spy; get intelligence.
njōta sv. 7, enjoy, profit.
norðr adv. northwards.
nǫkkvi wm. vessel, small ship.
nū adv. now; therefore, so.
nȳ-vaknaðr adj. (ptc.) newly awoke.
nȳr adj. new.
nȳta wv. 1, profit [njōta].
oddr sm. point.
ōð-fūss adj. madly eager.
ōðr adj. mad, furious.
œ̄pa wv. 1, shout [ōp, 'shout'].
œrit adv. enough; very.
of prp. w. dat. over; during; with respect to, about. adv. too (of excess).
of adv., often used in poetry as a mere expletive.
of-veikr adj. too weak.
ofan adv. above; down.
ofan-verðr adj. upper, on the top.
ōk see aka.
ok conj. and; also--'ok...ok,' both...and; but.
okkr see þū.
opt adv. often. compar. optar, oftener, again.
ōr prp. w. dat. out of.
orð sn. word--'ī ǫðru orði,' otherwise.
orðinn see verða.
orð-sęnding sf. verbal message.
orð-tak sn. expression, word.
ormr sm. serpent, dragon; ship with a dragon's head.
orrosta wf. battle.
oss see ek.
ōtta wf. the end of night, just before dawn.
ōttalaust adj. without fear.
ōx see vaxa.
oxi wm. ox.
ǫðlask wv. 3, obtain.
ǫðru see annarr.
ǫl sn. ale.
ǫldnu see aldinn.
ǫndōttr adj. fierce.
ǫnd-vegi sn. high seat, dais.
ǫnnur see annar.
ǫr sf. arrow.
ör-æfi sn. harbourless coast.
örendi sn. errand.
örendi sn. holding the breath, breath.
örind-reki sm. messenger [reka].
öxn see oxi.
pati sm. rumour.
pęnningr sm. penny.
rāð sn. advice; what is advisable--'sjā eitt at rāði,' consider advisable; plan, policy, resolution.
rāða sv. 1, advise, w. acc. of thing and dat. of pers.; consider, deliberate; undertake, begin w. prp. til or infin.; dispose of, have control over w. prp. fyrir.
rāða-gǫ̈rð sf. deliberation, decision.
rāðugr adj. sagacious.
ragna-rökr sn. twilight of the gods, end of the world. [ragna gen. of ręgin neut. plur. 'gods.']
ragr adj. cowardly.
rāku see reka.
rann see ręnna.
rās sf. race.
rauðr adj. red.
rausn sf. magnificence, anything magnificent.
rēð see rāða.
reið sf. chariot.
reið see rīða.
reiða wv. 1, swing, wield, brandish.
reið-fara adj. --'vera vel r.,' have a good passage.
reiði sn. trappings, harness.
reiðr adj. angry.
reka sv. 7, drive; carry out; perform. 'r. af tjǫld,' take down awning.
rękkja wf. bed.
ręnna sv. 3, run.
rētta wv. 1, direct; reach, stretch. r. upp, pull up.
rēttr adj. right, correct; equitable, fair.
reyna wv. 1, try, test.
reyr-bǫnd supl. the wire with which the arrow-head was bound to the shaft.
rīða sv. 6, w. dat. ride.
riðu see rīða.
riðlask wv. 3, set oneself in motion.
rīki sn. power; sovereignty, reign.
rīkr adj. powerful, distinguished.
ripti sn. linen cloth.
rita wv. 3, write.
rōa sv. 1, row.
rœða wv. 1, talk about, discuss.
röra see rōa.
rǫst sf. league.
sā prn. that; he; such, such a one.
sā see sjā.
sær sm. sea.
særa wv. 1, wound [sār].
sæti sn. seat [sitja].
sætt sf. 2, reconciliation, peace.
sættask wv. 1, be reconciled, agree.
saga wf. narrative, history, story.
sagða see sęgja.
saka wv. impers. w. acc.--'hann (acc.) sakaði ekki,' he was not injured.
sakna wv. 3, w. gen. miss.
sāl sf. 2, soul.
sāld sn. gallon.
salr sm. 2, hall.
saman adv. together.
sami weak adj. same.
sam-laga wf. laying ships together for battle.
samt adv. together.
sannligr adj. probable; suitable, right.
sannr adj. true.
sār sn. wound.
sārr adj. wounded.
sat see sitja.
satt see sannr.
sē see vera.
sē see sjā.
sefask wv. 3, be pacified.
sęgja wv. 1b, say, relate [saga].
segl sn. sail.
seilask wv. 1, stretch intr.
seinn adj. late, slow, tedious. seint adv. slowly.
sęlja wv. 1, give; sell.
sem adv. as; w. subj. as if; to strengthen the superl.--'sem mest,' the most possible, as much as possible.
sęnda wv. 1, send.
sęndi-maðr sm. messenger.
sęnn adv. at the same time, at once; immediately, forthwith.
sēnn see sjā.
sēr see sik.
sēr see sjā.
sēt see sjā.
set-berg sn. seat-shaped rock, crag [sitja].
sętja wv. 1, set, place. s. fram, launch (a ship). sętjask, sit down. sętjask upp, sit up [sitja].
sī-byrða wv. 1, w. dat. lay a ship alongside another. neut. ptc. sībyrt, close up to [borð].
sīð adv. late. comp. sīðar, later, afterwards. superl. sīðast, latest, last.
sīða wf. side.
sīðan adv. afterwards, then; since.
sīðari adj. comp. later, second (in order).
siðr sm. 3, custom.
sīga sv. 6, sink.
sigla wf. mast [segl].
sigla wv. 1, sail.
siglu-skeið sn. middle of a ship.
sigr (-rs) sm. victory.
sigr-ōp shout of victory.
sik prn. oneself.
silfr sn. silver.
sīn see sik.
sinn sn. time (of repetition)--'einu sinni,' once, for once. 'eigi optar at sinni,' not oftener than that time, i.e. only once.
sinn see sik.
sitja sv. 5, sit. s. fyrir, sit in readiness.
sjā = þessi.
sjā sv. 5, see; 's. fyrir einu,' look after, take care of. impers. 'lītt sēr þat ā, at'...it will hardly be seen that... sjāsk, see one another, meet.
sjālfr prn. self.
sjōða sv. 7, boil; cook.
sjōn sf. sight.
sjōn-hvęrfing sf. ocular delusion.
skal see skulu.
skalf see skjālfa.
skāli wm. hall.
skammr adj. short.
skap sn. state, condition; state of mind, mood, humour.
skapligr adj. suitable, fit.
skapt sn. shaft, handle.
skar see skera.
skarð sn. notch, gap; defect.
skaut see skjōta.
skęgg sn. beard; beak (of a ship).
skeið sn. race-course, running-ground; race--'taka sk.,' start in a race.
skeina wv. 1, graze.
skellr sm. knock.
skęmtun sf. amusement, entertainment [skammr, literally 'shortening (of time)'].
skera sv. cut, cut up; kill (animal).
skiljask wv. 1, separate, part intr.
skillingr sm. shilling, coin.
skilnaðr sm. separation, parting.
skip sn. ship.
skipa wv. 3, order, arrange, prepare, fit out. 'sk. til um eitt,' make arrangements for. skipask, take one's place; change, alter intr.
skipa-hęrr sm. fleet.
skipan sf. arranging; ship's crew.
skips-brot sn. shipwreck.
skip-stjōrnar-maðr sm. (steerer), commander of a ship, captain.
skjald-borg sf. wall of shields, testudo.
skjālfa sv. 3, shake intr.
skjōta sv. 7, w. dat. shoot, throw, push.
skjōt-fœri sn. swiftness.
skjōt-leikr sm. swiftness.
skjōt-liga adv. swiftly, quick.
skjōtr adj. swift, quick. skjōtt adv. quickly.
skjǫldr sm. 3, shield.
skōgr sm. forest, wood.
skorta wv. 1, impers. w. acc. of pers. and of thing, want, fail.
skot sn. shot; missile [skjōta].
skot-māl sn. shot-measure, range.
skotta wv. 3, dangle--sk. við drift (of ships).
skǫkull sm. shaft (of a cart).
skǫmm sf. disgrace, shame.
skǫr sf. hair of the head.
skreppa wf. bag, wallet.
skulfu see skjālfa.
skulu swv. shall.
skuta wf. small ship, cutter.
skutill sm. trencher, small table.
skutil-sveinn sm. page, chamberlain.
skutu see skjōta.
skykkr sm. shake--'ganga skykkjum,' shake.
skylda see skulu.
skyldr adj. obliged, obligatory, bound [skulu].
skyn sn. understanding, insight--'kunna, sk.' understand.
skynda wv. 1, hasten, bring in haste.
skyndiliga adv. hastily, quickly.
skynsamliga adv. intelligently, carefully.
skȳt see skjōta.
slā sv. 2, strike. 'slā eldi ī,' light a fire.
slæliga adv. sluggishly, weakly.
slær adj. blunt.
slær see slā.
slātr sn. meat.
sleikja wv. lick.
sleit see slīta.
slēttr adj. level, smooth; comfortable, easy.
slīkr adj. such.
slīta sv. 6, tear--sl. upp, pull up; w. dat. break (agreement).
smæri see smār.
smār adj. small, insignificant.
smā-skip snpl. small ships.
smā-skūta wf. small cutter.
smjūga sv. 7, squeeze through, slip.
smugu see smjūga.
snarpligr adj. vigorous.
snarpr adj. sharp; vigorous.
snimma adv. early.
snöra see snūa.
snūa sv. 1, w. dat. turn or (trans.) direct; twist, plait. snūask, turn (intr.).
soðinn see sjōða.
sœkja wv. 1c, seek; go--'s. aptr,' retreat.
sœmð sf. honour [sōma].
sœtti see sœkja.
sofa sv. 4, sleep.
sofna wv. 3, go to sleep.
sǫgur see saga.
sǫk sf. cause--'fyrir þā s. at'..., because.
sökkva sv. 3, sink.
sōl sf. sun.
sōl-skin sn. sunshine.
soltinn adj. hungry [ptc. of 'svelta,' starve].
sōma wv. 2, w. dat., be suitable, befitting.
sōmi wm. honour.
sonr sm. son.
sōtt sf. illness.
sōtta see sœkja.
sǫx snpl. raised prow of a war-ship.
spala see spǫlr.
sparask wv. 2, spare oneself, reserve one's energy.
spęnna (spęnta) wv. 1, w. dat. of thing, gird, buckle on.
spjōt sn. spear.
sporðr sm. tail.
spori sm. spur.
spǫlr sm. rail.
sprakk see springa.
sprętta wv. 1, split.
springa sv. 3, burst.
spurða see spyrja.
spyrja wv. 1b, ask; hear of, learn--'sp. til eins,' have news of, hear of his arrival. spyrjask, be known.
spyrna wv. 1, kick.
staddr adj. placed, staying [ptc. of 'stęðja,' place].
staðr sm. place--'ī staðinn,' instead.
stafaðr adj. (ptc.) striped.
staf-karl sm. (staff-man), beggar.
stafn sm. prow.
stafn-būi wm. prow-man.
stafn-lē wm. grappling-hook.
stafr sm. 2 (gen. sg. stafs), staff, stick.
stakk see stinga.
stallari sm. marshall.
standa sv. 2, stand. st. upp, stand up, rise.
starfa wv. 3, work.
stęfna wv. 1, steer; take a course, go.
steig see stīga.
steinn sm. stone; jewel.
stela sv. 4, w. dat. of thing and acc. of pers. steal, rob.
stęndr see standa.
stęrkliga adv. vigorously.
stęrkr adj. strong.
steypa wv. 1, w. dat. of thing, throw; pull off. steypask, throw oneself.
stīga sv. 6, advance, walk, go. st. upp, mount (horse).
stīgr sm. path, way.
stikill sm. point.
stilla (stilta) wv. 1, arrange. st. til, arrange, dispose.
stinga sv. 3, pierce; 'st. stǫfnum at skipi,' run the prow against a ship's side.
stirt adv. harshly [neut. of 'stirðr,' stiff].
stōð see standa.
stœrri see stōr.
stōkkva sv. 3, spring, rebound, start back.
stolinn see stela.
stōrliga adv. bigly, arrogantly.
stōr-mannligr adj. magnificent, aristocratic.
stōr-męnni sn. great men (collective), aristocracy.
stōrr adj. big, great. stōrum adv. greatly.
stōr-rāðr adj. (great of plans), ambitious.
stōr-skip sn. big ship.
stōr-virki sn. great deed.
strā wv. 1, strew, cover with straw.
strauk see strjūka.
stręngr sm. 2, string.
strjūka sv. 7, stroke.
stund sf. period of time, time.
stutt adv. shortly, abruptly [neut. of 'stuttr' short].
stȳra wv. 1, w. dat. steer.
stȳri sn. rudder.
stȳris-hnakki wm. top piece of rudder.
styrkr sm. strength; help.
sū see sā.
suðr adv. southward.
suðr-ganga wf. journey south (to Rome).
sukku see sökkva.
sumar sn. summer.
sumr prn. some.
sund sn. sound, channel.
svā adv. so, as; as soon as. 'ok svā,' also.
svaf see sofa.
svara wv. 3, w. dat. of thing, answer.
svardagi sm. oath.
sveinn sm. boy.
sveinn-stauli wm. small boy.
sveit sf. troop.
svelga sv. 3, swallow, gulp.
sverð sn. sword.
sverðs-hǫgg sn. swordstroke.
svipan sf. jerk; moment.
svipting sf. pull, struggle.
sȳnask wv. 1, seem [sjōn].
syni see sonr.
systir sf. 3, sister.
taka wv. 2, w. acc. take, seize, take possession of; w. inf. begin; w. dat. receive (well, ill, etc.). takask, take place, begin. t. at, choose. t. til, engage in, try. t. upp, take to, choose.
tala wf. talk, speech.
tala wv. 3, speak, talk about, discuss.
taliðr see tęlja.
tālma wv. 3, hinder.
tār sn. tear.
taumar smpl. reins.
tękinn see taka.
tęlja wv. 1b, count, recount; account, consider; relate, say [tala].
tęngðir sfpl. relationship, connection by marriage.
tęngja wv. 1, bind, fasten together.
tęngsl snpl. cable.
tīða wv. 1, impers. w. acc. desire.
tīðindi snpl. tidings, news.
tīðr adj. usual, happening--'hvat er tītt um þik?' what is the matter with you? tītt adv. often, quickly--'sem tīðast,' as quickly as possible.
tiginn adj. of high rank.
tigr sm. --'fjōrir tigir,' forty.
til prp. w. gen. to; till; for (of use)--'alt er t. vāpna var,' everything that could be used as a missile; for (of object, intention)--'brjōta lęgg til męrgjar,' break a leg to get at the marrow; with respect to--'til vista var eigi gott,' they were not well off for provisions.
til adv. too (of excess).
til-vīsan sf. direction, guidance.
tītt see tīðr.
tīvi wm. god.
tjald sn. tent.
tjūgu-skęgg sn. forked beard.
tœka see taka.
tōk see taka.
tǫnn sf. 3, tooth.
trani wm. crane.
trē sn. tree.
troða sv. tread.
trog sn. trough.
tros sn. droppings, rubbish.
trūa wf. faith--'þat veit tr. mīn at...,' by my faith.
trūa wv. 2, w. dat. of pers. believe, trust, rely on.
tūn sn. enclosure, dwelling.
tveir num. two.
tȳna wv. 1, w. dat. lose.
typpa wv. tie in a top-knot.
þā see sā.
þā see þiggja.
þā adv. then.
þær see sā.
þakðr see þękja.
þakka wv. 3, w. acc. of thing and dat. of pers. thank; requite, reward.
þambar-skęlfir sm. bowstring-shaker (?).
þann see sā.
þannig adv. thither; so [= þann veg].
þar adv. there; then; 'þ. af,' etc., thereof. 'þar sem,' since, because. 'þar til,' until.
þarf see þurfa.
þat see sā.
þau see sā.
þegar adv. at once. 'þ. er,' as soon as.
þęginn see þiggja.
þęgja wv. 1b, be silent.
þeim see sā.
þeir, þeirra see sā.
þękja wv. 1b, roof.
þękkja wv. 1, notice. þękkjask, take pleasure in; accept.
þēr see þū.
þess see sā.
þess adv. w. comp. the, so much the.
þessi prn. this.
þiggja sv. 5, receive.
þik see þū.
þing sn. meeting, parliament.
þinn see þū.
þit see þū.
þjōð sf. nation, race.
þō adv. though, yet.
þǫkð see þękja.
þǫkk sf. thanks, gratitude [þakka].
þola wv. 2, endure, put up with.
þora wv. 2, dare.
þǫrf sf. need.
þorrinn see þverra.
þōtt adv. though [= þō at].
þōtta see þykkja.
þraut see þrjōta.
þreifask wv. 3, grope, feel.
þreyta wv. 1, make exertions, try.
þriði adj. third.
þriðjungr sm. third.
þrīr num. three.
þrjōta sv. 7, impers. w. acc. of pers. come to an end, fail.
þrūðugr adj. mighty.
þū prn. thou.
þumlungr sm. thumb of glove.
þunn-vangi wm. temple (of head).
þurðr sm. diminution.
þurfa swv. often impers. require, need.
þurr adj. dry.
þurs sm. giant.
þverra sv. 3, diminish.
þvers adv. across.
þvī see sā.
þvī adv. therefore; w. compar. the, so much the more.
þvīlikr adj. such.
þykkja wv. 1c, seen, be considered. 'þykkir einum fyrir,' there seems to be something in the way, one hesitates. 'myndi mēr fyrir þ. ī,' I should be displeased. þykkjask, think.
þykkr adj. thick, close.
þynna wv. 1, make thin. þynnask get thin.
þyrstr adj. (ptc.) thirsty.
ū-fœra wf. impassable place; fix, difficulty.
ū-friðr sm. hostility, war.
ū-grynni sn. countless number [grunnr, 'bottom'].
ū-happ sn. misfortune.
ū-hreinn adj. impure.
um prp. w. acc. around, about, over; of time in, at; of superiority beyond; concerning, about.
um-rāð sn. advice, help.
um-sjā sf. care.
una wv. 1, w. dat. be contented--'u. illa,' be discontented.
undan prp. w. dat., adv. away (from).
undarliga adv. strangely.
undarligr adj. strange.
undir prp. w. acc. and dat. under.
undr sn. wonder.
ungr adj. young.
unninn see vinna.
unz adv. until.
upp adv. up.
upp-ganga wf. boarding (ship).
upp-haf sn. beginning [hęfja].
upp-himinn sm. high heaven.
uppi adv. up; at an end.
urðu see verða.
ūt adv. out. comp. utar, outer, outwards, farther away.
utan adv. outside; outwards.
utan-fęrð sf. journey abroad.
utar see ūt.
ūti adv. outside, out on the sea.
ūt-lausn sf. ransom.
ū-vinr sm. enemy.
vægð sf. forbearance.
vænn adj. likely, to be expected.
væri see vera.
vætr neut. nothing.
vaka wv. 3, be awake, wake up.
vakna wv. 3, awake.
vald sn. power, control.
val-kyrja sf. chooser of the slain, war-goddess [kjōsa].
valr sm. corpses on the battle-field.
vān, sf. hope, expectation, probability.
vandræða-skāld sn. the 'awkward' poet, the poet who is difficult to deal with.
vandræði snpl. difficulty.
vangi wm. cheek.
vanr adj. accustomed.
vāpn sn. weapon.
vāpna-burð sm. bearing weapons, shower of missiles.
vāpn-lauss adj. without weapons.
var see vera.
vār sn. spring.
vār see ek.
vara wv. 2, impers. w. acc. of pers.--'mik varði,' I expected.
varð see verða.
varði see vęrja.
vargr sm. wolf.
variðr see vęrja.
varla adv. scarcely.
varnaðr sm. goods, merchandise.
vāru see vera.
vatn sn. water.
vaxa sv. 2, grow; increase.
veðr sn. weather.
vegr sm. road; way, manner; direction, side; in composition, region, tract, land.
veik see vikja.
veit see vita.
veita wv. 1, give, grant; make (resistance, etc.).
vękja wv. 1b, wake [vaka].
vēl sf. artifice, cunning.
vęlja wv. 1b, choose.
vęndi see vǫndr.
vēr see ek.
vera sv. exist; remain, stay, happen; be. 'hvat lātum hafði verit,' what had caused the noise. v. at, be occupied with.
verð sn. worth, value; price.
verða sv. 3, happen; happen to come. 'v. fyrir einum,' come in one's way, appear before one; become; come into being, be; 'v. til eins,' be ready for, undertake; w. infin. be obliged, must. 'nū er ā orðit mikit fyrir mēr,' now I have come into a great perplexity, difficulty. v. at, happen.
verðr adj. worth; important.
ver-gjarn adj. desirous of a husband, loose.
verit see vera.
vert see verðr.
vęrja wv. 1b, defend--'v. baki,' defend with the back, turn one's back on.
vęrja wv. 1b, dress; lay out money, invest.
verk sn. work, job.
verr sm. man; husband.
vęrr adv. comp. worse. superl. vęrst, worst.
verǫld sf. world.
vestan adv. from the west. 'v. fyrir' w. gen. or acc., west of.
vestr adv. westwards.
vetr sm. winter; year.
vęx see vaxa.
vęxti see vǫxtr.
við prp. w. acc. by, near; towards (of place and time); with (of various relations). w. dat. towards, at (laugh at, etc.); in exchange for, for.
vīða adv. widely, far and wide, on many sides.
viðar-teinungr sm. tree-shoot, plant.
við-bragð sn. push.
viðr sm. 3, tree.
vīðr adj. wide, broad.
við-skipti snpl. dealings.
við-taka wf. reception; resistance.
vīgja wv. 1, consecrate, hallow.
vīgr adj. warlike, able-bodied.
vīking sf. piracy, piratical expedition.
vīkingr sm. pirate.
vīkja sv. 6, turn, move, go.
vilja swv. will.
villi-eldr sm. wildfire, conflagration.
vinātta wf. friendship.
vināttu-māl snpl. assurances of friendship.
vinna sv. 3, do, perform; win, conquer. vinnask til, suffice.
vinr sm. 2, friend.
virðing sf. honour [verðr].
vīsa wv. 2, w. dat. show, guide.
vīss adj. wise; certain.
vissa see vita.
vist sf. 2, board and lodging; provisions.
vit see ek.
vita swv. know; be turned in a certain direction. v. fram, see into futurity.
vīti sn. punishment, penalty.
vītis-horn sn. penalty-horn (whose contents were drunk as a punishment).
vitkask wv. 3, come to one's senses.
vitr (-ran) adj. wise.
vǫllr sm. 3, plain, field.
vǫndr sm. 3, twig, rod.
vǫrn sf. defence, resistance.
vǫxtr sm. 3, growth, stature.
vreiðr = reiðr.
yðr see þū.
yfir prp. w. acc. and dat. over [ofan].
ȳmiss adj. various, different.
ymr sm. rumbling noise.
ytri adj. comp. outer. superl. yztr, outside(st) [ūt].

Proper Names
Āki sm.
Āsa-þōrr sm. (divine) Thor.
Āstrīðr sf.
Auðun sm.
Baldr (-rs) sm.
Barði wm. 'the Ram' (name of a ship).
Bil-skīrnir sm.
Brīsinga-męn sn. Freyja's necklace.
Burizleifr sm.
Dāins-leif sf. relic of Dāinn ['leif,' leaving, heritage].
Dana-konungr sm. king of the Danes.
Danir smpl. the Danes.
Dan-mǫrk sf. 3, Denmark.
Draupnir sm.
Einarr sm.
Eindriði wm.
Eirīkr sm.
Erlingr sm.
Fęn-salr sm. 2.
Finnr sm.
Finskr adj. Finnish.
Freyja wf.
Freyr sm.
Frigg sf. wife of Odin.
Fulla wf. Frigg's handmaid.
Geira wf.
Gimsar fpl.
Gjallar-brū sf. the bridge over the river Gjǫll.
Gjǫll sf. 'the Resounder,' the river of Hell.
Grœn-land sn. Greenland.
Gullin-bursti wm. 'Golden-bristle.'
Gull-toppr sm. 'Gold-top.'
Hā-ey sf. 'High-island.'
Hākon sm.
Hall-freðr sm.
Haraldr sm.
Hēðinn sm.
Heim-dallr sm.
Hęl sf. the goddess of the infernal regions.
Hęr-mōðr sm.
Hildr sf. ['hildr,' war].
Hjaðninga-vīg sn. battle of the Hjaðnings.
Hjarrandi wm.
Hlōriði wm. the Thunderer, Thor.
Hǫgni wm.
Hring-horni wm. 'Ring-prowed.'
Hyrningr sm.
Hyrrokin sf.
Hǫðr sm.
Īs-land sn. Iceland.
Īsland-fęrð sf. journey to Iceland.
Īslęnzkr adj. Icelandic.
Jōms-borg sf.
Jōms-vīkingar smpl. the pirates of Jōmsborg.
Kol-bjǫrn sm.
Laufey sf.
Litr sm.
Loki wm.
Mōð-guðr sf.
Mœri wf.
Nanna wf.
Nepr sm.
Njarðar see Njǫrðr.
Njǫrðr sm.
Nōa-tūn snpl.
Noregr sm. Norway [= norð-vegr].
Ǫku-þōrr sm. Thor (the driver) [aka].
Ōlāfr sm.
Ōðinn sm. Odin.
Orkn-eyjar sfpl. Orkneys.
Rōma-borg sf. Rome.
Rūm-fęrli wm. pilgrim to Rome [fara].
Rǫskva wf.
Sax-land sn. Saxony, Germany.
Sif sf.
Sigrīðr sf.
Sig-valdi wm.
Skjālgr sm.
Skrȳmir sm.
Sleipnir sm.
Slīðrug-tanni wm. [tǫnn].
Sœnskr adj. Swedish.
Sveinn sm.
Svīa-konungr sm. king of Sweden.
Svīar smpl. Swedes.
Svīa-vęldi sn. Sweden [vald].
Svī-þjōð sf. Sweden.
Svǫlðr (-rar) sf. island of Svolder, near Rügen.
Tann-gnjōstr sm. [tǫnn].
Tann-grisnir sm. [tǫnn].
Tryggvi wm. 'Trusty.'
Þjālfi wm.
Þōrir sm.
Þor-kęll sm.
Þōrr sm. Thor.
Þor-steinn sm.
Þrūð-vangar smpl. 'plains of strength.'
Þrymyr sm.
Þǫkk sf.
Ūlfr sm.
Ūtgarða-loki wm.
Ūt-garðr sm. Ūt-garðar pl. 'outer enclosure,' world of the giants.
Vanir smpl. race of Gods.
Vār sf. goddess of betrothal and marriage.
Vest-firzkr adj. of the west firths (in Iceland).
Vīk sf. 'the Bay,' the Skagerak and the Christiania fjord.
Vinda-snękkja wf. Wendish ship.
Vind-land sn. Wendland.
Vindr smpl. the Wends.
Ving-þōrr sm. name of Thor.







Hellenica World - Scientific Library