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Pausanias of Orestis, member of Philip II of Macedon's somatophylakes (bodyguard). Assassinated Philip II in 336 BC, possibly at the instigation of Olympias and Alexander the Great. He was immediately captured and killed.

The most popular story giving reason to why Pausanias killed Philip comes from Cleitarchus and Diodorus Siculus, who had expanded upon its mention by Aristotle. Accordingly, the general Attalus blamed Pausanias for the death of his nephew (also named Pausanias), and therefore raped him. As a consolation, Philip promoted Pausanias to the somatophylakes, yet never punished Attalus, who remained in good graces.

Pausanias killed Philip at a public ceremony, and as he tried to flee, was run down and killed by Attalus, Leonnatus, and Perdiccas, who were also bodyguards.

Alexander had Pausanias's corpse crucified, but as soon as he had left Macedon, Olympias built a memorial to Pausanias. The murder was certainly premeditated, as horses were found near where Pausanias had fled to. At the murder trial, two other men - Heromenes and Arrhabaeus - were found guilty of conspiracy with Pausanias, and executed. Leonnatus, having thrown the spear which killed Pausanias, was demoted, possibly under suspicion of wanting to prevent Pausanias from being interrogated.


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