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In Greek mythology, Targitaüs (Ancient Greek: Ταργιτάος) was the first king of the Scythians.[1] He was the son of Zeus and Borysthenis, daughter of Borysthenes, god of the Dneper River in Scythia (modern Ukraine).[2][3] He had three sons: Lipoxaïs, Arpoxaïs, and Colaxaïs, the youngest.[4]

Targitaus is recognised by some as the Togarmah of the biblical annals.[5][6]


Scholarship suggests that the names of Targitaus's sons, Lipoxaïs, Arpoxaïs, and Colaxaïs, each contain an Iranian word xšaya 'ruler, lord, king'. Their names would them mean, respectively, "The Mountain King", "The Deep King" and "The Sun King" (from unattested *Hvar-xšaya). These etymologies are presumed to indicate a tripartite division of the world in Scythian mythology.[7]

Herodotus, Histories 4.7.1
Braund, edited by David; Kryzhitskiy, S.D. (2007). Classical Olbia and the Scythian world : from the sixth century BC to the second century AD (1. publ. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 48. ISBN 9780197264041.
Herodotus, Histories 4.5.1
Herodotus, Histories 4.5.2


Zaikov, A. V. "Alcman and the Image of Scythian Steed". In: Pontus and the Outside World: Studies in Black Sea History, Historiography, and Archeology. Edited by C. J. Tuplin. Boston; Leiden: Brill. 2004. p. 79. ISSN 1389-8477


Herodotus, The Histories with an English translation by A. D. Godley. Cambridge. Harvard University Press. 1920. ISBN 0-674-99133-8. Online version at the Topos Text Project. Greek text available at Perseus Digital Library.

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