Greek War of Independence 1821 in Art 

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Sparta was an important Greek city-state in the Peloponnesus. It was unique among Greek city-states in that it maintained its Kingship past the Archaic age. It was even more unusual in that it had two kings simultaneously, coming from two separate lines. According to tradition, the two lines (the Agiads and Eurypontids) descended from the twins Eurysthenes (the Agiads) and Procles the descendants of Heracles who supposedly conquered Sparta two generations after the Trojan War. Although there are lists of the earlier purported Kings of Sparta, there is little evidence for the existence of any kings before the mid 6th Century BC or so

Death of a Spartan King according to Herodotus (Book 6 )

Such are the honours which the Spartan people have allowed their kings during their lifetime; after they are dead other honours await them. Horsemen carry the news of their death through all Laconia, while in the city the women go hither and thither drumming upon a kettle. At this signal, in every house two free persons, a man and a woman, must put on mourning, or else be subject to a heavy fine. The Lacedaemonians have likewise a custom at the demise of their kings which is common to them with the barbarians of Asia—indeed with the greater number of the barbarians everywhere—namely, that when one of their kings dies, not only the Spartans, but a certain number of the country people from every part of Laconia are forced, whether they will or no, to attend the funeral. So these persons and the helots, and likewise the Spartans themselves, flock together to the number of several thousands, men and women intermingled; and all of them smite their foreheads violently, and weep and wall without stint, saying always that their last king was the best. If a king dies in battle, then they make a statue of him, and placing it upon a couch right bravely decked, so carry it to the grave. After the burial, by the space of ten days there is no assembly, nor do they elect magistrates, but continue mourning the whole time.

The two kings were priests of Zeus Lacedaemon and Zeus Ouranios ("Zeus the Sky").

Agiad Kings

Eurysthenes ? - c.930 BC
AgisI c.930 - c.900 BC
Echestratus c.900 - c.870 BC
Leobates (Labotas) c.870 - c.840 BC
Dorissus c.840 - c.820 BC
Agesilaus I c.820 - c.790 BC
Archilaus c.790 - c.760 BC
Teleclus c.760 - c.740 BC
Alcmenes c.740 - c.700 BC
Polydorus c.700 - c.665 BC
Eurycrates c.665 - c.640 BC
Anaxander c.640 - c.615 BC
Eurycratides c.615 - c.590 BC
Leon c.590 - 560 BC
Anaxandridas II 560 - 520 BC
Cleomenes I 520 - 490 BC.
Leonidas I 490 - 480 BC.
Pleistarchus 480 - 459 BC - Cleombrotus son of Anaxandrides
Pleistoanax 459 - 409 BC
Pausanias 409 - 395 BC
Agesipolis I 395 - 380 BC.
Cleombrotus I 380 - 371 BC.
Agesipolis II 371 - 370 BC.
Cleomenes II 370 - 309 BC.
Areus I 309 - 265 BC
Acrotatus 265 - 262 BC.
Areus II 262 - 254 BC
Leonidas II 254 - 235 BC.
Cleombrotus II (242 -241)
Cleomenes III 235 - 219 BC.

Eurypontid Kings

Soos ? - c.890 BC
Eurypon c.890 - c.860 BC
Prytanis c.860 - c.830 BC
* Polydectes c.830 - c.800 BC
* Eunomus c.800 - c.780 BC
Charilaus c.780 - c.750 BC
Nicander c.750 - c.720 BC
Theopompus c.720 - c.675 BC
Anaxandridas I c.675 - c.645 BC
Zeuxidamas c.645 - c.625 BC
Anaxidamus c.625 - c.600 BC
Archidamus I c.600 - c.575 BC
Agasicles (575 - 550 BC)
Ariston 550 - 515 BC
Demaratus 515 - 491 BC.
Leotychides 491 - 469 BC.
Archidamus II 469 - 427 BC.
Agis II 427 - 400 BC.
Agesilaus II 400 - 360 BC.
Archidamus III 360 - 338 BC.
Agis III 338 - 331 BC.
Eudamidas I 331 - 305 BC.
Archidamus IV 305 - 275 BC.
Eudamidas II 275 - 244 BC.
Agis IV 244 - 241 BC.
Eudamidas III 241 - 228 BC.
Archidamus V 228 - 227 BC.
Eucleidas 227 - 221 BC (Eucleidas was actually an Agiad - his brother Cleomenes III deposed his Eurypontid colleague and installed his brother as co-ruler)

* Herodotus and Pausanias disagree on the reign order of Eunomus and Polydectes

After Sellasia

Following Cleomenes III's defeat at the Battle of Sellasia by Antigonus III Doson of Macedon and the Achaean League, the Spartan system began to break down. Sparta was a republic from 221 to 219 BC.

Agesipolis III (Agiad) 219 - 215 BC - the last Agiad King of Sparta.
Lycurgus (Eurypontid) 219 - 212 BC.
Machanidas (a tyrant) 210 - 207 BC
Pelops (Eurypontid) 212 - 200 BC - last King from either of the old dynasties
Nabis (an usurper) 200 - 192 BC

The Achaean League annexed Sparta in 192 BC.




Livius, Eurypontids and Agiads by Jona Lendering

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