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Etesian (meltemi) occurs when high pressure forms over the Balkans and low pressure forms over Turkey

During the summer in the Aegean Sea, the prevailing winds of the main circulation are due chiefly to the deep continental depression centered over the north-west of India. These winds are known as meltemi by the Turks and etesians by the Greeks. They blow from a direction which may be anywhere between north-east and north-west according to the character of the country surrounding the region concerned; meltemi weather is ordinarily fine and clear, the northerly winds tempering the fierce summer heat of the region.

Historically, Phillip of Macedonia timed his military operations so that powerful southern fleets could not reach him - their ships could not sail north while the Etisian winds were blowing.

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