- Art Gallery -




The North Frieze


Aphrodite with Eros (Chthonios on the ground?) with some other fallen Giant, a winged Giant; Dione (Aphrodite's mother) with Polydeuces. Chthonios was one of the 12 sons of Aigyptos and Kaliadne. Aphrodite hits the head of the giant with foot


Dione, Polydeuces, Lynkeus, Castor, Idas, Orion. Polydeuces was twin brother of Castor. He was a son of Zeus and Leda. He was born from an egg after Zeus visited Leda disguised as a swan.

The biting Giant maybe inspired by the biting Centaur, a pediment sculpture from the Zeus Temple of Olympia


Bootes, Aster and Nyx. Nyx with a vessel surrounded with snakes that she uses against a giant as a weapon? Vessels filled with snakes were used as weapons in naval battles like biological chemical weapons. Nyx was a goddess of night. She was a daughter of Chaos. She married Erebus. A new analysis of the work makes the identification of this figure with Nyx as is done usually less probable. Experts assume that she represents one of the Moirae (maybe Clotho) The Goddess of Necessity, Themis, brought forth three lovely daughters, known as The Fates. All living things must eventually submit to these divine daughters of Zeus and Themis. Their names are: Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos. Life is woven by Clotho, measured by Lachesis and finally, in a very literal sense, the thread of life is cut by Atropos..

A legend says that Bootes was the son of Zeus and Callisto. Hera changed Callisto into a bear who was almost killed by Boötes when he was out hunting. Luckily, she was rescued by Zeus and he took her into the sky where she is now Ursa Major, the Great Bear. Yet another myth says that he was the son of Demeter, the goddess of agriculture. Supposedly he was given a place in the sky for inventing the plow.



Erinyes ( ?) against a giant,

The Erinyes were 3 goddesses of vengeance: Tisiphone (avenger of murder), Megaera (the jealous) and Alecto (constant anger). They were also called the Daughters of the Night, but were actally the daughters of Uranus and Gaea. Another name for them is the Furies.


A Goddess (Keto with Pontos) with a lion and parts of the seahorses of Poseidon. Keto (or Ceto) mother of the Graiai, a daughter of Pontos (or Pontus) and Gaea was a sea-goddess whose name meant Sea-Monster. She personified the dangers and terrors of the sea.

A recent image from the newly reconstructed frieze (with some additions)

Zeus in Exile: Archaeological Restitution as Politics of Memory

East frieze Sculptures

South frieze Sculptures

North frieze Sculptures

West frieze Sculptures

Pergamon Zeus Altar, Gallery

From Pergamon to Sperlonga: Sculpture and Context (Hellenistic Culture and Society)- by Langford Conference of the Department of Classics 1997 Florida State (Corporate Author), Nancy Thomson De Grummond (Editor), Brunilde Sismondo Ridgway (Editor) University of California Press ( 2001) ISBN: 0520223276

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