- Art Gallery -



Bermuda, See : Flags, Maps

Bermuda (North America)

Introduction ::Bermuda


Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists headed for Virginia. Tourism to the island to escape North American winters first developed in Victorian times. Tourism continues to be important to the island's economy, although international business has overtaken it in recent years. Bermuda has developed into a highly successful offshore financial center. Although a referendum on independence from the UK was soundly defeated in 1995, the present government has reopened debate on the issue.

Geography ::Bermuda

View Larger Map


North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of
South Carolina (US)

Geographic coordinates:
32 20 N, 64 45 W

Map references:

North America


total: 54 sq km country comparison to the world: 231 land: 54 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Bermuda - Aerial

Area - comparative:

about one-third the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:

0 km


103 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm


subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

bermuda beach


low hills separated by fertile depressions

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Town Hill 76 m

Natural resources:

limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use:

arable land: 20%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 80% (55% developed, 45% rural/open space) (2005)

Bermuda Images (5)

Bermuda Images (4)

Irrigated land:

Natural hazards:

hurricanes (June to November)

Environment - current issues:

sustainable development

Geography - note:

consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by the US Government from 1941 to 1995

People ::Bermuda


68,265 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 201

Age structure:

0-14 years: 18.3% (male 6,271/female 6,163)

15-64 years: 67.5% (male 22,555/female 23,215)

65 years and over: 14.2% (male 3,979/female 5,654) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 41.6 years

male: 40.2 years

female: 43.1 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.62% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 147

Birth rate:

11.47 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 171

Death rate:

7.43 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 120

Net migration rate:

2.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 40


urban population: 100% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 0.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.018 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 2.46 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 221 male: 2.57 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 80.6 years country comparison to the world: 19 male: 77.37 years

female: 83.88 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.98 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 130

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.3% (2005) country comparison to the world: 90

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

163 (2005) country comparison to the world: 161

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

392 (2005) country comparison to the world: 100


noun: Bermudian(s)

adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic groups:

black 54.8%, white 34.1%, mixed 6.4%, other races 4.3%, unspecified 0.4% (2000 census)


Anglican 23%, Roman Catholic 15%, African Methodist Episcopal 11%, other Protestant 18%, other 12%, unaffiliated 6%, unspecified 1%, none 14% (2000 census)


English (official), Portuguese


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: 98%

female: 99% (2005 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 13 years

male: 13 years

female: 14 years (2005)

Education expenditures:

1.2% of GDP (2006) country comparison to the world: 180

Government ::Bermuda

Country name:

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Bermuda

former: Somers Islands

Dependency status:

overseas territory of the UK

Government type:

parliamentary; self-governing territory


name: Hamilton

geographic coordinates: 32 17 N, 64 47 W

time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

Administrative divisions:

9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smith's, Southampton, Warwick


none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday:

Bermuda Day, 24 May


8 June 1968; amended 1989 and 2003

Legal system:

English law


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Sir Richard GOZNEY (since 12 December 2007)

head of government: Premier Paula COX (since 29 October 2010); Deputy Premier Derrick BURGESS

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed premier by the governor

Legislative branch:

bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (11 seats; members appointed by the governor, the premier, and the opposition) and the House of Assembly (36 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve up to five-year terms)

elections: last general election held on 18 December 2007 (next to be held not later than 2012)

election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 52.5%, UBP 47.3%; seats by party - PLP 22, UBP 14

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders:

Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Ewart BROWN]; United Bermuda Party or UBP [Kim SWAN]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Bermuda Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Bermuda Industrial Union or
BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Union or BPSU [Ed
BALL]; Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]

International organization participation:

Caricom (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ITUC, UPU, WCO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Consul General Grace W. SHELTON

consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire DVO3

mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate General Hamilton, US Department of State, 5300 Hamilton Place, Washington, DC 20520-5300

telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342
FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592, 296-9233

Flag description:

red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (a white shield with a red lion standing on a green grassy field holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag; it was the shipwreck of the vessel, filled with English colonists originally bound for Virginia, that led to settling of Bermuda

note: the flag is unusual in that it is only British overseas territory that uses a red ensign, all others use blue

National anthem:

name: "Hail to Bermuda"

lyrics/music: Bette JOHNS

note: serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)

Economy ::Bermuda

Economy - overview:

Bermuda enjoys the third highest per capita income in the world, more than 50% higher than that of the US; the average cost of a house by the mid-2000s exceeded $1,000,000. Its economy is primarily based on providing financial services for international business and luxury facilities for tourists. A number of reinsurance companies relocated to the island following the 11 September 2001 attacks and again after Hurricane Katrina in August 2005 contributing to the expansion of an already robust international business sector. Bermuda's tourism industry - which derives over 80% of its visitors from the US - continues to struggle but remains the island's number two industry. Most capital equipment and food must be imported. Bermuda's industrial sector is largely focused on construction and agriculture is limited, with only 20% of the land being arable.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$4.5 billion (2004 est.) country comparison to the world: 164

GDP (official exchange rate):

GDP - real growth rate:

4.6% (2004 est.) country comparison to the world: 67

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$69,900 (2004 est.) country comparison to the world: 4

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 1%

industry: 10%

services: 89% (2002 est.)

Labor force:

38,360 (2004) country comparison to the world: 200

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture and fishing: 3%

laborers: 17%

clerical: 19%

professional and technical: 21%

administrative and managerial: 15%

sales: 7%

services: 19% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate:

2.1% (2004 est.) country comparison to the world: 15

Population below poverty line:

19% (2000)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

2.8% (November 2005) country comparison to the world: 86

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$1.36 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 95 $1.912 billion (31 December 2008)

$2.731 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products, honey


international business, tourism, light manufacturing

Industrial production growth rate:

Electricity - production:

675.6 million kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 152

Electricity - consumption:

628.3 million kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 154

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

0 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 204

Oil - consumption:

5,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 166

Oil - exports:

0 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 208

Oil - imports:

4,500 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 160

Oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 101

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 97

Natural gas - consumption:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 205

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 54

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 81

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 105


$763 million (2006) country comparison to the world: 160

Exports - commodities:

reexports of pharmaceuticals

Exports - partners:

Spain 16.91%, India 10.15%, Brazil 9.55%, Germany 7.4% (2009)


$1.162 billion (2006) country comparison to the world: 168

Imports - commodities:

clothing, fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, chemicals, food and live animals

Imports - partners:

US 31.2%, South Korea 26.71%, Brazil 6.77%, Ireland 6.11%, Singapore 5.35% (2009)

Debt - external:

$160 million (FY99/00) country comparison to the world: 177

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

Exchange rates:

Bermudian dollars (BMD) per US dollar - 1.0000 (fixed rate pegged to the US dollar)

Communications ::Bermuda

Telephones - main lines in use:

57,700 (2009) country comparison to the world: 157

Telephones - mobile cellular:

85,000 (2009) country comparison to the world: 187

Telephone system:

general assessment: good

domestic: fully automatic digital telephone system; fiber optic trunk lines

international: country code - 1-441; landing points for the GlobeNet, Gemini Bermuda, and the Challenger Bermuda-1 (CB-1)submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 (2007)

Broadcast media:

3 television stations; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; roughly 10 radio stations operating (2007)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

19,855 (2010) country comparison to the world: 112

Internet users:

54,000 (2009) country comparison to the world: 172

Transportation ::Bermuda


1 (2010) country comparison to the world: 236

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2010)


total: 447 km country comparison to the world: 196 paved: 447 km

note: public roads - 225 km; private roads - 222 km (2007)

Merchant marine:

total: 139 country comparison to the world: 43 by type: bulk carrier 22, chemical tanker 3, container 15, liquefied gas 38, passenger 26, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 20, refrigerated cargo 9

foreign-owned: 114 (China 13, France 1, Germany 15, Greece 2, Hong Kong 5, Ireland 2, Israel 3, Japan 2, Monaco 2, Nigeria 11, Norway 5, Sweden 17, UK 11, US 25)

registered in other countries: 180 (Bahamas 12, Cyprus 1, Greece 3, Hong Kong 12, Isle of Man 7, Liberia 4, Malta 8, Marshall Islands 34, Norway 5, Panama 15, Philippines 43, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Singapore 21, UK 9, US 5) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Hamilton, Ireland Island, Saint George

Military ::Bermuda

Military branches:

Bermuda Regiment (2009)

Military service age and obligation:

18-30 years of age for voluntary or compulsory enlistment in the Bermuda Regiment; males must register at age 18; term of service is 38 months (2009)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 15,217 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 12,405

females age 16-49: 12,327 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 436

female: 397 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

0.11% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 172

Military - note:

defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues ::Bermuda

Disputes - international:




Hellenica World - Scientific Library