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Paul Cézanne

Paintings

Paul Cezanne Painting - Bend Of The Road At The Top Of The Chemin Des Lauves by Paul Cezanne

Bend Of The Road At The Top Of The Chemin Des Lauves

Paul Cezanne Painting - Still Life With Flowers And Fruit by Paul Cezanne

Still Life With Flowers And Fruit

Paul Cezanne Painting - The Bather by Paul Cezanne

The Bather

Paul Cezanne Painting - Still Life With Apples by Paul Cezanne

Still Life With Apples

Paul Cezanne Painting - The Bathers Large Plate by Paul Cezanne

The Bathers Large Plate

Paul Cezanne Painting - Montagne Sainte Victoire by Paul Cezanne

Montagne Sainte Victoire

Paul Cezanne Painting - Mont Sainte Victoire And Chateau Noir by Paul Cezanne

Mont Sainte Victoire And Chateau Noir

Paul Cezanne Painting - Turn In The Road by Paul Cezanne

Turn In The Road

Paul Cezanne Painting - The Village Of Gardanne. Le Village De Gardanne by Paul Cezanne

The Village Of Gardanne. Le Village De Gardanne

Paul Cezanne Painting - The Terrace At The Garden At Les Lauves by Paul Cezanne

The Terrace At The Garden At Les Lauves

Cezanne The Tree By The Bend Painting - The Tree By The Bend by Paul Cezanne

The Tree By The Bend

Paul Cezanne Painting - The Bridge Of Trois-sautets by Paul Cezanne

The Bridge Of Trois-sautets

Cezanne Still Life With Kettle Painting - Still Life With Kettle by Paul Cezanne

Still Life With Kettle

Paul Cezanne Painting - Still Life by Paul Cezanne

Still Life

Paul Cezanne Painting - Seven Bathers by Paul Cezanne

Seven Bathers

Paul Cezanne Painting - Pines And Rocks.fontainebleau by Paul Cezanne

Pines And Rocks.fontainebleau

Cezanne Montagne Saint-victoire Painting - Montagne Saint-victoire by Paul Cezanne

Montagne Saint-victoire

Paul Cezanne Painting - Mont Sainte-victoire by Paul Cezanne

Mont Sainte-victoire

Paul Cezanne Painting - Mont Sainte-victoire by Paul Cezanne

Mont Sainte-victoire

Paul Cezanne Painting - Turning Road At Montgeroult by Paul Cezanne

Turning Road At Montgeroult

Cezanne Fruit And A Jug On A Table Painting - Fruit And A Jug On A Table by Paul Cezanne

Fruit And A Jug On A Table

Paul Cezanne Painting - Milk Can And Apples by Paul Cezanne

Milk Can And Apples

Paul Cezanne Painting - Bottom Of The Ravine by Paul Cezanne

Bottom Of The Ravine

Paul Cezanne Painting - Bathers by Paul Cezanne

Bathers

Paul Cezanne Painting - The Eternal Feminine by Paul Cezanne

The Eternal Feminine

Cezanne Self-portrait With A Hat Painting - Self-portrait With A Hat by Paul Cezanne

Self-portrait With A Hat

Cezanne House In Provence Painting - House In Provence by Paul Cezanne

House In Provence

Paul Cezanne Painting - Still Life With Onions by Paul Cezanne

Still Life With Onions

Cezanne The Large Bathers Painting - The Large Bathers by Paul Cezanne

The Large Bathers

Cezanne Road Leading To The Lake Painting - Road Leading To The Lake by Paul Cezanne

Road Leading To The Lake

Paul Cezanne Painting - Maison Maria With A View Of Chateau Noir by Paul Cezanne

Maison Maria With A View Of Chateau Noir

Cezanne Fields At Bellevue Painting - Fields At Bellevue by Paul Cezanne

Fields At Bellevue

Paul Cezanne Painting - The Bay Of Marseilles Seen From L Estaque by Paul Cezanne

The Bay Of Marseilles Seen From L Estaque

Paul Cezanne Painting - Avenue At Chantilly by Paul Cezanne

Avenue At Chantilly

Paul Cezanne Painting - An Old Woman With A Rosary by Paul Cezanne

An Old Woman With A Rosary

 Painting - Quartier Four, Auvers-sur-oise by Paul Cezanne

Quartier Four, Auvers-sur-oise

 Painting - Millstone In The Park Of The Chateau Noir by Paul Cezanne

Millstone In The Park Of The Chateau Noir

 Painting - Still Life With A Curtain by Paul Cezanne

Still Life With A Curtain

 Painting - Leda And The Swan by Paul Cezanne

Leda And The Swan

 Painting - Sous-bois by Paul Cezanne

Sous-bois

Cezanne The Garden At Les Lauves Painting - The Garden At Les Lauves by Paul Cezanne

The Garden At Les Lauves

 Painting - Quarry At Bibemus by Paul Cezanne

Quarry At Bibemus

 Painting - View Of The Bay Of Marseille With The Village Of Saint-henri by Paul Cezanne

View Of The Bay Of Marseille With The Village Of Saint-henri

Paul Cezanne

Avenue at Chantilly

Paul Cezanne

On the banks of the Marne

Paul Cezanne

Bacchanal ( Love Fight )

Paul Cezanne

Bathers

Paul Cezanne

Bathers

Paul Cezanne

Bathers

Paul Cezanne

Bathers

Paul Cezanne

Bathers

Paul Cezanne

Bathers

Paul Cezanne

Bathers

Paul Cezanne

Bathers

Paul Cezanne

Bathers

Paul Cezanne

Bathers

Paul Cezanne

Bathers ( Four Bathers )

Paul Cezanne

Bather with outstretched arms

Paul Cezanne

Farmer in blue tunic

Paul Cezanne

Mountains in the French Provence

Paul Cezanne

Mountains in Provence

Paul Cezanne

View of Auvers

Paul Cezanne

View of Auvers-sur-Oise. The Fence

Paul Cezanne

Look at Gardanne

Paul Cezanne

View of L' Estaque ( area near Marseille)

Paul Cezanne

View of L' Estaque and the Chateaux d'If

Paul Cezanne

Bridge in the forest (" Le petit pont " )

Paul Cezanne

Château de Médan

Paul Cezanne

Château Noir

Paul Cezanne

The " Château Noir " behind trees

Paul Cezanne

The buffet

Paul Cezanne

The dessert

Paul Cezanne

The Eternal Feminine

Paul Cezanne

The House of the Hanged Man at Auvers

Paul Cezanne

The House of Pere Lacroix

Paul Cezanne

The house with cracked walls

Paul Cezanne

The House of Dr. Gachet

Paul Cezanne

The Sea at l' Estaque

Paul Cezanne

The valley of the Oise

Paul Cezanne

The African Scipio

Paul Cezanne

The Railway Cutting

Paul Cezanne

The murder

Paul Cezanne

The millstone

Paul Cezanne

The Dovecote in Bellevue

Paul Cezanne

The pond of the Jas de Bouffan in winter

Paul Cezanne

The Watchmaker

Paul Cezanne

The bay of Marseille seen from L' Estaque

Paul Cezanne

The Abduction

Paul Cezanne

The Large Pine

Paul Cezanne

The large bathers

Paul Cezanne

The large bathers

Paul Cezanne

The cabin Jourdan

Paul Cezanne

The Fruit picker

Paul Cezanne

The poplars

Paul Cezanne

The Black Marble Clock

Paul Cezanne

The Seine at Bercy

Paul Cezanne

The Road ( The Wall)

Paul Cezanne

The Temptation of St. Anthony

Paul Cezanne

Village behind the trees , Ile de France

Paul Cezanne

Three bathing women

Paul Cezanne

A painter at work

Paul Cezanne

Hermitage, Pontoise

Paul Cezanne

Carnival

Paul Cezanne

Rocks in the forest of Fontainebleau

Paul Cezanne

Rock forest of Fontainebleau

Paul Cezanne

River at the bridge of the three sources

Paul Cezanne

Woman with coffee pot

Paul Cezanne

Luncheon on the Grass

Paul Cezanne

Gardanne

Paul Cezanne

Large pine with red boxes

Paul Cezanne

Harlequin

Paul Cezanne

Harlequin

Paul Cezanne

House in Provence

Paul Cezanne

House in Provence

Paul Cezanne

House with red roof

Paul Cezanne

House and tree

Paul Cezanne

Houses in Provence (Houses at L' Estaque )

Paul Cezanne

Tall Trees at the Jas de Bouffan

Paul Cezanne

In the forest

Paul Cezanne

In the forest of Fontainebleau

Paul Cezanne

Jas de Bouffan

Paul Cezanne

Young Italian Girl

Paul Cezanne

Young girl with doll

Paul Cezanne

The Card Players

Paul Cezanne

Chestnut Trees at the Jas de Bouffan

Paul Cezanne

Jas de Bouffan

Paul Cezanne

Boy with a Red Waistcoat

Paul Cezanne

Boy with a Red Waistcoat

Paul Cezanne

Boy with a Red Waistcoat

Paul Cezanne

Boy with a Red Waistcoat

Paul Cezanne

L' Estaque, View through the pines

Paul Cezanne

L' Estaque with red roofs

Paul Cezanne

landscape

Paul Cezanne

landscape

Paul Cezanne

Landscape at the Jas de Bouffan

Paul Cezanne

Landscape in the Ile de France

Paul Cezanne

Landscape with fountains

Paul Cezanne

Landscape with Viaduct ( Mont Sainte- Victoire )

Paul Cezanne

Le Château Noir

Paul Cezanne

Girl at the Piano

Paul Cezanne

Girl with doll

Paul Cezanne

Maison Maria on the way to the Château Noir

Paul Cezanne

Man with the straw hat ( Portrait of Boyer )

Paul Cezanne

Man with the pipe

Paul Cezanne

Man with Pipe

Paul Cezanne

Banks of the Marne

Paul Cezanne

Medea (after Delacroix)

Paul Cezanne

Mont Sainte- Victoire

Paul Cezanne

Mont Sainte- Victoire

Paul Cezanne

Mont Sainte- Victoire

Paul Cezanne

Mont Sainte- Victoire

Paul Cezanne

Mont Sainte- Victoire

Paul Cezanne

Mont Sainte-Victoire

Paul Cezanne

Montagne Saint-Victoire

Paul Cezanne

Montagne Sainte-Victoire and Chateau Noir

Paul Cezanne

Montagne Sainte-Victoire

Paul Cezanne

Montaigne Sainte- Victoire

Paul Cezanne

Montaigne Sainte- Victoire

Paul Cezanne

Mill on the River

Paul Cezanne

Afternoon in Naples ( The rum punch )

Paul Cezanne

Orchard in Pontoise

Paul Cezanne

Olympia

Paul Cezanne

Paul Alexis reads before Zola

Paul Cezanne

Pines and Aqueduct ( The Viaduct )

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of Mme Cézanne

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of Mme Cézanne in the yellow armchair

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of Mme Cézanne in the greenhouse

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of Mme Cézanne in red armchair

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of Achille Emperaire

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of Ambroise Vollard

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of Antony Valabrègue

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of Louis -Auguste Cézanne

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of Louis Guillaume

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of Mme Cézanne

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of Uncle Dominique

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of Uncle Dominique as a monk

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of Vallier

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of Vallier ( The Sailor )

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of Victor Chocquet

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of a Lady in Blue

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of an old man

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of a man

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of Gustave Geffroy

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of Madame Cézanne

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of his son Paul Cézanne

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of Victor Chocquet sitting

Paul Cezanne

Castle of Marines

Paul Cezanne

Snow melt in L' Estaque

Paul Cezanne

Lake Annecy

Paul Cezanne

Lake Annecy

Paul Cezanne

Self-portrait

Paul Cezanne

Self-portrait

Paul Cezanne

Self-portrait

Paul Cezanne

Self-portrait

Paul Cezanne

Self-portrait

Paul Cezanne

Self-portrait

Paul Cezanne
Self-portrait

Paul Cezanne
Self Portrait with Beret

Paul Cezanne

Self-Portrait with Palette

Paul Cezanne

Self-portrait with a white turban

Paul Cezanne

Self- portrait in front of an olive wallpaper

Paul Cezanne

Self-portrait in front of pink background

Paul Cezanne

Sitting Farmer

Paul Cezanne

Quarry at Bibémus

Paul Cezanne

Quarry at Bibémus

Paul Cezanne

Still life

Paul Cezanne

Still life

Paul Cezanne

Still life

Paul Cezanne

Still Life , Flowers in a Vase

Paul Cezanne

Still life , Delft vase with flowers

Paul Cezanne

Still life , drapery , jug and fruit bowl

Paul Cezanne

Still life , three skulls

Paul Cezanne

Still life , geranium stick with fruits

Paul Cezanne

Still life , ginger jar

Paul Cezanne

Still life , jug and fruits

Paul Cezanne

Still life , pitcher and fruit on a table

Paul Cezanne

Still life with apples

Paul Cezanne

Still life with apples and biscuits

Paul Cezanne

Still life with apples and fruit bowl

Paul Cezanne

Still life with apples and biscuits

Paul Cezanne

Still life with apples and oranges

Paul Cezanne

Still life with apples and peaches

Paul Cezanne

Still life with aubergine

Paul Cezanne

Still Life with Blue Vase

Paul Cezanne

Still life with flowers and fruits

Paul Cezanne

Still life with bread and eggs

Paul Cezanne

Still life with bottle and apple basket

Paul Cezanne

Still life with bottle and apple basket

Paul Cezanne

Still life with bottle and onions

Paul Cezanne

Still Life with Fruit Basket

Paul Cezanne

Still Life with Pomegranate and Pears

Paul Cezanne
Still life with green container and tin kettles

Paul Cezanne

Still life with cherries and peaches

Paul Cezanne

Still Life with Fruit Bowl

Paul Cezanne

Still life with open drawer

Paul Cezanne

Still Life with Oranges

Paul Cezanne

Still Life with Putto

Paul Cezanne

Still life with seven apples

Paul Cezanne

Still Life with Statuette

Paul Cezanne

Still life with soup tureen

Paul Cezanne

Still life with sugar bowl

Paul Cezanne

Still life with onions

Paul Cezanne

Still life , peppermint bottle

Paul Cezanne

Still life , bottle of rum

Paul Cezanne

Still life , skull pyramid

Paul Cezanne

Still life , bowl of apples

Paul Cezanne

Still life , tulips and apples

Paul Cezanne

Still life , vase with flowers

Paul Cezanne

Still life vase with tulips

Paul Cezanne

Road at the Montagne Sainte- Victoire

Paul Cezanne

Road in Chantilly

Paul Cezanne

Street in front of the mountain Sainte Victoire

Paul Cezanne

Turn in the road

Paul Cezanne

Road curve in Montgeroult

Paul Cezanne

Dovecote at Montbriant

Paul Cezanne

Banks of the Oise

Paul Cezanne

Around Gardanne

Paul Cezanne

Judgment of Paris

Paul Cezanne

Temptation of St. Anthony

Paul Cezanne

Viaduct

Paul Cezanne

Preparation for burial ( Autopsy )

Paul Cezanne

Forest in the rock caves above the Château Noir

Paul Cezanne

Forest

Paul Cezanne

Two card players

Drawings

Paul Cezanne

Bather

Paul Cezanne

Tree Allee

Paul Cezanne

Look at the Arc Valley

Paul Cezanne

The Gardener Vallier

Paul Cezanne

Olympia

Paul Cezanne

Portrait of the art dealer Ambroise Vollard

Paul Cezanne

Provençal landscape

Paul Cezanne

Sketch by Pigalles "love and friendship"

Paul Cezanne

Study of a card player

Paul Cezanne

Study after Michelangelo's "slave " in the Louvre

Paul Cezanne

Study sheet


Illustrations

Paul Cezanne

The Bathers

Paul Cezanne

The Bathers, small version

Paul Cezanne

Head of a girl

Paul Cezanne

Landscape at Auvers

Paul Cezanne

Self- Portrait in Front of the Easel

Paul Cézanne (US /seɪˈzæn/ or UK /sɨˈzæn/; French: [pɔl sezan]; 1839–1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century. Cézanne's often repetitive, exploratory brushstrokes are highly characteristic and clearly recognizable. He used planes of colour and small brushstrokes that build up to form complex fields. The paintings convey Cézanne's intense study of his subjects.

Cézanne is said to have formed the bridge between late 19th-century Impressionism and the early 20th century's new line of artistic enquiry, Cubism. Both Matisse and Picasso are said to have remarked that Cézanne "is the father of us all."

Life and work
Early years and family

The Cézannes lived in the town of Cesana now in West Piedmont, and the surname is probably of Italian origin.[1] Paul Cézanne was born on 19 January 1839 in Aix-en-Provence, in Provence in the South of France.[2] On 22 February, Paul was baptized in the Église de la Madeleine, with his grandmother and uncle Louis as godparents.[2][3][4][5] His father, Louis-Auguste Cézanne (1798–1886),[6] was the co-founder of a banking firm that prospered throughout the artist's life, affording him financial security that was unavailable to most of his contemporaries and eventually resulting in a large inheritance.[7]


His mother, Anne Elisabeth Honorine Aubert (1814–1897),[8] was "vivacious and romantic, but quick to take offence".[9] It was from her that Cézanne got his conception and vision of life.[9] He also had two younger sisters, Marie and Rose, with whom he went to a primary school every day.[2][10]

At the age of ten Paul entered the Saint Joseph school in Aix.[11] In 1852 Cézanne entered the Collège Bourbon (now Collège Mignet), where he met and became friends with Émile Zola, who was in a less advanced class,[7][10] as well as Baptistin Baille—three friends who came to be known as "les trois inséparables" (the three inseparables).[12] He stayed there for six years, though in the last two years he was a day scholar.[13] In 1857 he began attending the Free Municipal School of Drawing in Aix, where he studied drawing under Joseph Gibert, a Spanish monk.[14] From 1858 to 1861, complying with his father's wishes, Cézanne attended the law school of the University of Aix, while also receiving drawing lessons.[15]

Going against the objections of his banker father, he committed himself to pursuing his artistic development and left Aix for Paris in 1861. He was strongly encouraged to make this decision by Zola, who was already living in the capital at the time. Eventually, his father reconciled with Cézanne and supported his choice of career. Cézanne later received an inheritance of 400,000 francs (£218,363.62) from his father, which rid him of all financial worries.[16]
Cézanne the artist
Les joueurs de cartes (The Card Players), 1892-95, oil on canvas, 60 x 73 cm, Courtauld Institute of Art, London

In Paris, Cézanne met the Impressionist Camille Pissarro. Initially the friendship formed in the mid-1860s between Pissarro and Cézanne was that of master and disciple, in which Pissarro exerted a formative influence on the younger artist. Over the course of the following decade their landscape painting excursions together, in Louveciennes and Pontoise, led to a collaborative working relationship between equals.

Cézanne's early work is often concerned with the figure in the landscape and includes many paintings of groups of large, heavy figures in the landscape, imaginatively painted. Later in his career, he became more interested in working from direct observation and gradually developed a light, airy painting style. Nevertheless, in Cézanne's mature work there is the development of a solidified, almost architectural style of painting. Throughout his life he struggled to develop an authentic observation of the seen world by the most accurate method of representing it in paint that he could find. To this end, he structurally ordered whatever he perceived into simple forms and colour planes. His statement "I want to make of impressionism something solid and lasting like the art in the museums",[17] and his contention that he was recreating Poussin "after nature" underscored his desire to unite observation of nature with the permanence of classical composition.
Les Grandes Baigneuses, 1898–1905: the triumph of Poussinesque stability and geometric balance
Optical phenomena

Cézanne was interested in the simplification of naturally occurring forms to their geometric essentials: he wanted to "treat nature by the cylinder, the sphere, the cone" (a tree trunk may be conceived of as a cylinder, an apple or orange a sphere, for example). Additionally, Cézanne's desire to capture the truth of perception led him to explore binocular vision graphically, rendering slightly different, yet simultaneous visual perceptions of the same phenomena to provide the viewer with an aesthetic experience of depth different from those of earlier ideals of perspective, in particular single-point perspective. Cézanne's innovations have prompted critics to suggest such varied explanations as sick retinas,[18]pure vision,[19] and the influence of the steam railway.[20]
Exhibitions and subjects

Cézanne's paintings were shown in the first exhibition of the Salon des Refusés in 1863, which displayed works not accepted by the jury of the official Paris Salon. The Salon rejected Cézanne's submissions every year from 1864 to 1869. He continued to submit works to the Salon until 1882. In that year, through the intervention of fellow artist Antoine Guillemet, he exhibited Portrait of Louis-Auguste Cézanne, Father of the Artist, reading 'l'Evénement', 1866 (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.), his first and last successful submission to the Salon.[21]
Still Life with a Curtain (1895) illustrates Cézanne's increasing trend towards terse compression of forms and dynamic tension between geometric figures.

Before 1895 Cézanne exhibited twice with the Impressionists (at the first Impressionist exhibition in 1874 and the third Impressionist exhibition in 1877). In later years a few individual paintings were shown at various venues, until 1895, when the Parisian dealer, Ambroise Vollard, gave the artist his first solo exhibition. Despite the increasing public recognition and financial success, Cézanne chose to work in increasing artistic isolation, usually painting in the south of France, in his beloved Provence, far from Paris.

He concentrated on a few subjects and was equally proficient in each of these genres: still lifes, portraits, landscapes and studies of bathers. For the last, Cézanne was compelled to design from his imagination, due to a lack of available nude models. Like the landscapes, his portraits were drawn from that which was familiar, so that not only his wife and son but local peasants, children and his art dealer served as subjects. His still lifes are at once decorative in design, painted with thick, flat surfaces, yet with a weight reminiscent of Gustave Courbet. The 'props' for his works are still to be found, as he left them, in his studio (atelier), in the suburbs of modern Aix.

Although religious images appeared less frequently in Cézanne's later work, he remained a devout Roman Catholic and said, "When I judge art, I take my painting and put it next to a God-made object like a tree or flower. If it clashes, it is not art."[22]
The Overture to Tannhäuser: The Artist's Mother and Sister, 1868, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg

Cézanne's paintings were not well received among the petty bourgeoisie of Aix. In 1903 Henri Rochefort visited the auction of paintings that had been in Zola's possession and published on 9 March 1903 in L'Intransigeant a highly critical article entitled "Love for the Ugly". Rochefort describes how spectators had supposedly experienced laughing fits, when seeing the paintings of "an ultra-impressionist named Cézanne". Erroneously believing that Cézanne's paintings in fact represented "the art dear to Zola" (Rochefort's Dreyfusard arch-enemy), he drew connections between "Dreyfusard snobs," so-called after the French officer who was accused but innocent of having sold defense plans to Germany, and Zola's supposedly cherished artist, Cézanne. The public in Aix was outraged, and for many days, copies of L'Intransigeant appeared on Cézanne's door-mat with messages asking him to leave the town "he was dishonouring".[23]
Death

One day, Cézanne was caught in a storm while working in the field.[24] Only after working for two hours under a downpour did he decide to go home; but on the way he collapsed. He was taken home by a passing driver.[24] His old housekeeper rubbed his arms and legs to restore the circulation; as a result, he regained consciousness.[24] On the following day, he intended to continue working, but later on he fainted; the model with whom he was working called for help; he was put to bed, and he never left it.[24] He died a few days later, on 22 October 1906[24] of pneumonia and was buried at the Saint-Pierre Cemetery in his hometown of Aix-en-Provence.[25]
Main periods of Cézanne's work

Various periods in the work and life of Cézanne have been defined.[26]
Dark period, Paris, 1861–1870

In 1863 Napoleon III created by decree the Salon des Refusés, at which paintings rejected for display at the Salon of the Académie des Beaux-Arts were to be displayed. The artists of the refused works included the young Impressionists, who were considered revolutionary. Cézanne was influenced by their style but his social relations with them were inept—he seemed rude, shy, angry, and given to depression. His works of this period[27] are characterized by dark colours and the heavy use of black. They differ sharply from his earlier watercolours and sketches at the École Spéciale de dessin at Aix-en-Provence in 1859, and their violence of expression is in contrast to his subsequent works.

In 1866–67, inspired by the example of Courbet, Cézanne painted a series of paintings with a palette knife. He later called these works, mostly portraits, une couillarde ("a coarse word for ostentatious virility").[28] Lawrence Gowing has written that Cézanne's palette knife phase "was not only the invention of modern expressionism, although it was incidentally that; the idea of art as emotional ejaculation made its first appearance at this moment".[28]

Among the couillarde paintings are a series of portraits of his uncle Dominique in which Cézanne achieved a style that "was as unified as Impressionism was fragmentary".[29] Later works of the dark period include several erotic or violent subjects, such as Women Dressing (c. 1867), The Rape (c. 1867), and The Murder (c. 1867-68), which depicts a man stabbing a woman who is held down by his female accomplice.
Impressionist period, Provence and Paris, 1870–1878

After the start of the Franco-Prussian War in July 1870, Cézanne and his mistress, Marie-Hortense Fiquet, left Paris for L'Estaque, near Marseilles, where he changed themes to predominantly landscapes. He was declared a draft dodger in January 1871, but the war ended the next month, in February, and the couple moved back to Paris, in the summer of 1871. After the birth of their son Paul in January 1872, in Paris, they moved to Auvers in Val-d'Oise near Paris. Cézanne's mother was kept a party to family events, but his father was not informed of Hortense for fear of risking his wrath. The artist received from his father a monthly allowance of 100 francs.[30]
Jas de Bouffan, 1885–1887

Camille Pissarro lived in Pontoise. There and in Auvers he and Cézanne painted landscapes together. For a long time afterwards, Cézanne described himself as Pissarro's pupil, referring to him as "God the Father", as well as saying: "We all stem from Pissarro."[31] Under Pissarro's influence Cézanne began to abandon dark colours and his canvases grew much brighter.[32]

Leaving Hortense in the Marseille region, Cézanne moved between Paris and Provence, exhibiting in the first (1874) and third Impressionist shows (1877). In 1875, he attracted the attention of the collector Victor Chocquet (de), whose commissions provided some financial relief. But Cézanne's exhibited paintings attracted hilarity, outrage, and sarcasm. Reviewer Louis Leroy said of Cézanne's portrait of Chocquet: "This peculiar looking head, the colour of an old boot might give [a pregnant woman] a shock and cause yellow fever in the fruit of her womb before its entry into the world."[33]

In March 1878, Cézanne's father found out about Hortense and threatened to cut Cézanne off financially, but, in September, he relented and decided to give him 400 francs for his family. Cézanne continued to migrate between the Paris region and Provence until Louis-Auguste had a studio built for him at his home, Jas de Bouffan, in the early 1880s. This was on the upper floor, and an enlarged window was provided, allowing in the northern light but interrupting the line of the eaves. This feature remains today. Cézanne stabilized his residence in L'Estaque. He painted with Renoir there in 1882 and visited Renoir and Monet in 1883.[34]
Mature period, Provence, 1878–1890
Mont Sainte-Victoire (c. 1887), in Courtauld Institute of Art
Paul Cézanne (French, 1839 - 1906 ), Harlequin, 1888-1890, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art

In the early 1880s the Cézanne family stabilized their residence in Provence where they remained, except for brief sojourns abroad, from then on. The move reflects a new independence from the Paris-centered impressionists and a marked preference for the south, Cézanne's native soil. Hortense's brother had a house within view of Montagne Sainte-Victoire at Estaque. A run of paintings of this mountain from 1880 to 1883 and others of Gardanne from 1885 to 1888 are sometimes known as "the Constructive Period".

The year 1886 was a turning point for the family. Cézanne married Hortense. In that year also, Cézanne's father died, leaving him the estate purchased in 1859; he was 47. By 1888 the family was in the former manor, Jas de Bouffan, a substantial house and grounds with outbuildings, which afforded a new-found comfort. This house, with much-reduced grounds, is now owned by the city and is open to the public on a restricted basis.

Also in that year Cézanne broke off his friendship with Émile Zola, after the latter used him, in large part, as the basis for the unsuccessful and ultimately tragic fictitious artist Claude Lantier, in the novel L'Œuvre. Cézanne considered this a breach of decorum and a friendship begun in childhood was irreparably damaged.
Final period, Provence, 1890–1906
Pyramid of Skulls, c. 1901, The dramatic resignation to death informs several still life paintings Cézanne made in his final period between 1898 and 1905 which take the skulls as their subject. Today the skulls themselves remain in Cézanne's studio in a suburb of Aix-en-Provence.

Cézanne's idyllic period at Jas de Bouffan was temporary. From 1890 until his death he was beset by troubling events and he withdrew further into his painting, spending long periods as a virtual recluse. His paintings became well-known and sought after and he was the object of respect from a new generation of painters.

The problems began with the onset of diabetes in 1890, destabilizing his personality to the point where relationships with others were again strained. He traveled in Switzerland, with Hortense and his son, perhaps hoping to restore their relationship. Cézanne, however, returned to Provence to live; Hortense and Paul junior, to Paris. Financial need prompted Hortense's return to Provence but in separate living quarters. Cézanne moved in with his mother and sister. In 1891 he turned to Catholicism.

Cézanne alternated between painting at Jas de Bouffan and in the Paris region, as before. In 1895 he made a germinal visit to Bibémus Quarries and climbed Montagne Sainte-Victoire. The labyrinthine landscape of the quarries must have struck a note, as he rented a cabin there in 1897 and painted extensively from it. The shapes are believed to have inspired the embryonic "Cubist" style. Also in that year, his mother died, an upsetting event but one which made reconciliation with his wife possible. He sold the empty nest at Jas de Bouffan and rented a place on Rue Boulegon, where he built a studio.

The relationship, however, continued to be stormy. He needed a place to be by himself. In 1901 he bought some land along the Chemin des Lauves, an isolated road on some high ground at Aix, and commissioned a studio to be built there (now open to the public). He moved there in 1903. Meanwhile, in 1902, he had drafted a will excluding his wife from his estate and leaving everything to his son. The relationship was apparently off again; she is said to have burned the mementos of his mother.
Madame Cézanne (Hortense Fiquet, 1850–1922) in a Red Dress (1888-90), oil on canvas, 116.5 x 89.5 cm, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

From 1903 to the end of his life he painted in his studio, working for a month in 1904 with Émile Bernard, who stayed as a house guest. After his death it became a monument, Atelier Paul Cézanne, or les Lauves.
Cézanne's Doubt: An Essay by Maurice Merleau-Ponty

Cézanne's stylistic approaches and beliefs regarding how to paint were analyzed and written about by the French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty who is primarily known for his association with phenomenology and existentialism.[35] In his 1945 essay entitled Cézanne's Doubt, Merleau-Ponty discusses how Cézanne gave up classic artistic elements such as pictorial arrangements, single view perspectives, and outlines that enclosed color in an attempt to get a "lived perspective" by capturing all the complexities that an eye observes. He wanted to see and sense the objects he was painting, rather than think about them. Ultimately, he wanted to get to the point where "sight" was also "touch". He would take hours sometimes to put down a single stroke because each stroke needed to contain "the air, the light, the object, the composition, the character, the outline, and the style". A still life might have taken Cézanne one hundred working sessions while a portrait took him around one hundred and fifty sessions. Cèzanne believed that while he was painting, he was capturing a moment in time, that once passed, could not come back. The atmosphere surrounding what he was painting was a part of the sensational reality he was painting. Cèzanne claimed: "Art is a personal apperception, which I embody in sensations and which I ask the understanding to organize into a painting."[36]
Legacy
View of the 1904 Salon d'Automne, photograph by Ambroise Vollard, Salle Cézanne (Victor Choquet, Baigneuses, etc.)

Cézanne's works were rejected numerous times by the official Salon in Paris and ridiculed by art critics when exhibited with the Impressionists’. Yet during his lifetime Cézanne was considered a master by younger artists who visited his studio in Aix.[37]

After Cézanne died in 1906, his paintings were exhibited in Paris in a large museum-like retrospective in September 1907. The 1907 Cézanne retrospective at the Salon d'Automne greatly affected the direction that the avant-garde in Paris took, lending credence to his position as one of the most influential artists of the 19th century and to the advent of Cubism.

Inspired by Cézanne, two of the younger artists wrote:

"Cézanne is one of the greatest of those who changed the course of art history . . . From him we have learned that to alter the coloring of an object is to alter its structure. His work proves without doubt that painting is not—or not any longer—the art of imitating an object by lines and colors, but of giving plastic [solid] form to our nature." (Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger in Du "Cubisme", 1912)[37]

Cézanne's explorations of geometric simplification and optical phenomena inspired Picasso, Braque, Metzinger, Gleizes, Gris and others to experiment with ever more complex multiple views of the same subject and eventually to the fracturing of form. Cézanne thus sparked one of the most revolutionary areas of artistic enquiry of the 20th century, one which was to affect profoundly the development of modern art. Picasso referred to Cézanne as "the father of us all" and claimed him as "my one and only master!" Other painters such as Edgar Degas, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Paul Gauguin, Kasimir Malevich, Georges Rouault, Paul Klee, and Henri Matisse acknowledged Cézanne’s genius.[37]

A prize in his memory, called the Cézanne medal, is granted by the city of Aix en Provence, in France for special achievement in the arts.

Cézanne's painting The Boy in the Red Vest was stolen from a Swiss museum in 2008. It was recovered in a Serbian police raid in 2012.[38]

The Bathers (Cézanne)

Notes

J. Lindsay Cézanne; his life and art, p.3
J. Lindsay Cézanne; his life and art, p.6
Dominique Auzias, Le Petit Futé, 2008 p. 142 [1]
Dominique Auzias, Jean-Paul Labourdette, Aix-en-Provence 2012, Le Petit Futé, 2012, p. 299 [2]
Olivier-René Veillon, Seul comme Cézanne, Maisonneuve et Larose, 1995, p. 24.
"Louis Auguste Cézanne". Guarda-Mor, Edição de Publicações Multimédia Lda. Archived from the original on 29 March 2007. Retrieved 27 February 2007.
"Paul Cézanne Biography (1839–1906)". Biography.com. Retrieved 17 February 2007.
"Louis Auguste Cézanne". Guarda-Mor, Edição de Publicações Multimédia Lda. Archived from the original on 29 March 2007. Retrieved 27 February 2007.
A. Vollard First Impressions, p.16
A. Vollard, First Impressions, p.14
P. Machotka Narration and Vision, p.9
"National Gallery of Art timeline, retrieved February 11, 2009". Nga.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
J. Lindsay Cézanne; his life and art, p.12
Gowing 1988, p. 215
P. Cézanne Paul Cézanne, letters, p.10
J. Lindsay Cézanne; his life and art, p.232
Paul Cézanne, Letters, edited by John Rewald, 1984.
Joris-Karl Huysmans, "Trois peintres: Cézanne, Tissot, Wagner," La Cravache, 4 August 1888.
Hans Sedlmayr, Art in Crisis: The Lost Center, London, 1957. (original German 1948)
"Cezanne and the Steam Railway (1)". Tomoki Akimaru (Art Historian).
Gowing 1988, p. 110
"Paul Cézanne quotes". ThinkExist.com Quotations. Retrieved 17 February 2007.
The Unknown Matisse: A Life of Henri Matisse. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
Vollard, p.113–114
"Paul Cézanne 1839–1906". MyStudios.com. Retrieved 18 February 2007.
The scheme presented here is essentially that of the Encyclopædia Britannica. Some alternative names are mentioned. On the whole the various classifications tend to converge.
It is sometimes called "the Romantic Period", but Cézanne was not primarily interested in Romanticism. The term here refers to personal disposition, rather than connection with a historical movement.
Gowing 1988, p. 10.
Gowing 1988, p. 104.
"Cézanne in Provence: A Provençal Chronology of Cézanne: 1870–1879", National Gallery of Art. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
Brion 1974, p. 26
Rosenblum 1989, p. 348
Brion 1974, p. 34
"Cézanne in Provence: A Provençal Chronology of Cézanne: 1880–1889", National Gallery of Art. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
"Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908—1961)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Iep.utm.edu.
Merleau-Ponty 1965
Philadelphia Museum of Art. "Philadelphia Museum of Art". philamuseum.org.
"Serb police find stolen Cezanne painting". CBS News. 12 April 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2012.

"Woman with a Coffeepot". www.musee-orsay.fr.

References

Brion, Marcel (1974). Cézanne. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-86004-1.
Chun, Young-Paik (2006). "Melancholia and Cézanne's Portraits: Faces beyond the mirror". In Griselda Pollock (ed.). Psychoanalysis and the Image. Routledge. ISBN 1-4051-3461-5.
Cézanne, Paul; John Rewald; Émile Zola; Marguerite Kay (1941). Paul Cézanne, letters. B. Cassirer. ISBN 0-87817-276-9. OCLC 1196743.
Danchev, Alex (2012). Cézanne: A Life. Profile Books (UK); Pantheon (US). ISBN 978-1846681653.
Gowing, Lawrence; Adriani, Götz; Krumrine, Mary Louise; Lewis, Mary Tompkins; Patin, Sylvie; Rewald, John (1988). Cézanne: The Early Years 1859–1872. Harry N. Abrams.
Lehrer, Jonah (2007). "Paul Cézanne, The Process of Sight". In Jonah Lehrer. Proust Was a Neuroscientist. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0-618-62010-9.
Klingsor, Tristan (1923). Cézanne. Paris: Rieder.
Lindsay, Jack (1969). Cézanne: His Life and Art. United States: New York Graphic Society. ISBN 0-8212-0340-1. OCLC 18027.
Machotka, Pavel (1996). Cézanne: Landscape into Art. United States: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-06701-1. OCLC 34558348.
Pissarro, Joachim (2005). Cézanne & Pissarro Pioneering Modern Painting: 1865–1885. The Museum of Modern Art. ISBN 0-87070-184-3.
Rosenblum, Robert (1989). Paintings in the Musée d'Orsay. New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang. ISBN 1-55670-099-7.
Vollard, Ambroise (1984). Cézanne. England: Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-24729-5. OCLC 10725645.

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