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Zambia, See : Flags, Maps

Zambia (Africa)

Introduction ::Zambia

Background:

The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the [British] South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule, but the subsequent vote in 1996 saw blatant harassment of opposition parties. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. The new president launched an anticorruption investigation in 2002 to probe high-level corruption during the previous administration. In 2006-07, this task force successfully prosecuted four cases, including a landmark civil case in the UK in which former President CHILUBA and numerous others were found liable for USD 41 million. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his abrupt death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his Vice President Rupiah BANDA, who subsequently won a special presidential election in October 2008.

Geography ::Zambia


View Larger Map

Location:

Southern Africa, east of Angola

Geographic coordinates:
15 00 S, 30 00 E

Map references:

Africa

Area:

total: 752,618 sq km country comparison to the world: 39 land: 743,398 sq km

water: 9,220 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries:

total: 5,664 km

border countries: Angola 1,110 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,930 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zimbabwe 797 km

Coastline:

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:

none (landlocked)

Climate:

tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)

Terrain:

mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m

highest point: unnamed elevation in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m

Natural resources:

copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower

Land use:

arable land: 6.99%

permanent crops: 0.04%

other: 92.97% (2005)

Irrigated land:

1,560 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

105.2 cu km (2001)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 1.74 cu km/yr (17%/7%/76%)

per capita: 149 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:

periodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)

Environment - current issues:

air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe

People ::Zambia

Population:

13,460,305 country comparison to the world: 69 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2010 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 45.1% (male 2,685,142/female 2,659,771)

15-64 years: 52.6% (male 3,122,305/female 3,116,846)

65 years and over: 2.3% (male 114,477/female 164,199) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 16.5 years

male: 16.5 years

female: 16.6 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

3.118% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 11

Birth rate:

44.63 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 4

Death rate:

12.84 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 26

Net migration rate:

-0.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 146

Urbanization:

urban population: 35% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 68.4 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 20 male: 73.1 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 63.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 52.03 years country comparison to the world: 209 male: 50.81 years

female: 53.28 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

6.07 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 9

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

15.2% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 7

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

1.1 million (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 11

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

56,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 12

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: very high

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and plague are high risks in some locations

water contact disease: schistosomiasis

animal contact disease: rabies (2009)

Nationality:

noun: Zambian(s)

adjective: Zambian

Ethnic groups:

African 99.5% (includes Bemba, Tonga, Chewa, Lozi, Nsenga, Tumbuka, Ngoni, Lala, Kaonde, Lunda, and other African groups), other 0.5% (includes Europeans, Asians, and Americans) (2000 Census)

Religions:

Christian 50%-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24%-49%, indigenous beliefs 1%

Languages:

Bemba 30.1% (official), Nyanja 10.7% (official), Tonga 10.6% (official), Lozi 5.7% (official), Chewa 4.9%, Nsenga 3.4%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda 2.2% (official), Kaonde 2% (official), Lala 2%, Luvale 1.7% (official), English 1.7% (official), other 22.5% (2000 Census)

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write English

total population: 80.6%

male: 86.8%

female: 74.8% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 7 years

male: 8 years

female: 7 years (2000)

Education expenditures:

1.4% of GDP (2008) country comparison to the world: 178

Government ::Zambia

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Zambia

conventional short form: Zambia

former: Northern Rhodesia

Government type:

republic

Capital:

name: Lusaka

geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western

Independence:

24 October 1964 (from the UK)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 24 October (1964)

Constitution:

24 August 1991; amended in 1996 to establish presidential term limits

Legal system:

based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Rupiah BANDA (since 19 August 2008); Vice President George KUNDA (since 14 November 2008); note - President BANDA was acting president during the illness leading up to the death of President Levy MWANAWASA on 18 August 2008, he was then elected president on 30 October 2008 to serve out the remainder of MWANAWASA's term; the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Rupiah BANDA (since 19 August 2008); Vice President George KUNDA (since 14 November 2008)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 30 October 2008 (next to be held in 2011); vice president appointed by the president; note - due to the death of former President Levy MWANAWASA, early elections were held to identify a replacement to serve out the remainder of his term

election results: Rupiah BANDA elected president; percent of vote - Rupiah BANDA 40.1%, Michael SATA 38.1%, Hakainde HICHILEMA 19.7%, Godfrey MIYANDA 0.8%, other 1.3%

Legislative branch:

unicameral National Assembly (158 seats; 150 members are elected by popular vote, 8 members appointed by the president, to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 28 September 2006 (next to be held in October 2011)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MMD 72, PF 44, UDA 27, ULP 2, NDF 1, independents 2; seats not determined 2

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court (the final court of appeal; justices are appointed by the president); High Court (has unlimited jurisdiction to hear civil and criminal cases)

Political parties and leaders:

Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]; Heritage
Party or HP [Godfrey MIYANDA]; Movement for Multiparty Democracy or
MMD [vacant]; Party of Unity for Democracy and Development or PUDD
[Dan PULE]; Patriotic Front or PF [Michael SATA]; Reform Party
[Nevers MUMBA]; United Democratic Alliance or UDA (a coalition of
RP, ZADECO, PUDD, and ZRP); United Liberal Party or ULP [Sakwiba
SIKOTA]; United National Independence Party or UNIP [Tilyenji
KAUNDA]; United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde
HICHILEMA]; Zambia Democratic Congress or ZADECO [Langton SICHONE];
Zambian Republican Party or ZRP [Benjamin MWILA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA

International organization participation:

ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO
(correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA,
SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI,
UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Shelia Z. SIWELA

chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Michael KOPLOVSKY

embassy: corner of Independence and United Nations Avenues, Lusaka

mailing address: P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka

telephone: [260] (211) 250-955
FAX: [260] (211) 252-225

Flag description:

green field with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag; green stands for the country's natural resources and vegetation, red symbolizes the struggle for freedom, black the people of Zambia, and orange the country's mineral wealth; the eagle represents the people's ability to rise above the nation's problems

National anthem:

name: "Lumbanyeni Zambia" (Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free)

lyrics/music: multiple/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA

note: adopted 1964; the melody, from the popular song "God Bless Africa," is the same as that of Tanzania but with different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem

Economy ::Zambia

Economy - overview:

Zambia's economy has experienced strong growth in recent years, with real GDP growth in 2005-08 about 6% per year. Privatization of government-owned copper mines in the 1990s relieved the government from covering mammoth losses generated by the industry and greatly improved the chances for copper mining to return to profitability and spur economic growth. Copper output has increased steadily since 2004, due to higher copper prices and foreign investment. In 2005, Zambia qualified for debt relief under the Highly Indebted Poor Country Initiative, consisting of approximately USD 6 billion in debt relief. Poverty remains a significant problem in Zambia, despite a stronger economy. Declining world commodity prices and demand slowed GDP growth in 2008, but a sharp rebound in copper prices and a bumper maize crop helped Zambia recover. Lack of economic diversity subjects Zambia to fluctuations in copper prices and in the weather.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$20.03 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 125 $18.72 billion (2009 est.)

$17.61 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$15.69 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

7% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 21 6.3% (2009 est.)

5.7% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$1,500 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 203 $1,400 (2009 est.)

$1,400 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 19.7%

industry: 33.7%

services: 46.6% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

5.524 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 70

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 85%

industry: 6%

services: 9% (2004)

Unemployment rate:

50% (2000 est.) country comparison to the world: 192

Population below poverty line:

86% (1993)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 1.2%

highest 10%: 38.8% (2004)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

50.8 (2004) country comparison to the world: 20 52.6 (1998)

Investment (gross fixed):

20.5% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 82

Public debt:

24.1% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 100 25.9% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

8.5% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 192 13.4% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

8.39% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 23 14.49% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

22.06% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 24 19.06% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$1.234 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 132 $983.3 million (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$3.573 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 129 $2.744 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$2.992 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 118 $2.373 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$NA (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 91 $2.346 billion (31 December 2007)

$1.186 billion (31 December 2006)

Agriculture - products:

corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seed, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides

Industries:

copper mining and processing, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture

Industrial production growth rate:

12.1% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 7

Electricity - production:

9.752 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 93

Electricity - consumption:

8.838 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 91

Electricity - exports:

268 million kWh (2007)

Electricity - imports:

222 million kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

160 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 109

Oil - consumption:

16,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 133

Oil - exports:

275 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 129

Oil - imports:

14,730 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 124

Oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 105

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 110

Natural gas - consumption:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 170

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 97

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 112

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 118

Current account balance:

-$99 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 78 -$174 million (2009 est.)

Exports:

$6.463 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 101 $4.203 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

copper/cobalt 64%, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton

Exports - partners:

China 21.37%, Saudi Arabia 8.93%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 8.55%, South Korea 8.32%, Egypt 8.08%, South Africa 6.96%, India 5% (2009)

Imports:

$4.949 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 115 $3.735 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer; foodstuffs, clothing

Imports - partners:

South Africa 51.78%, UAE 7.7%, China 5.85%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 4.22% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$2.287 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 93 $1.892 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$3.495 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 121 $3.091 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$NA

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$NA

Exchange rates:

Zambian kwacha (ZMK) per US dollar - 4,823.6 (2010), 5,046.1 (2009), 3,512.9 (2008), 3,990.2 (2007), 3,601.5 (2006)

Communications ::Zambia

Telephones - main lines in use:

90,300 (2009) country comparison to the world: 145

Telephones - mobile cellular:

4.407 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 101

Telephone system:

general assessment: among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa

domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation and network coverage is improving; domestic satellite system being installed to improve telephone service in rural areas; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms

international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 3 owned by Zamtel

Broadcast media:

state-owned Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) operates 1 TV station and is the principal local-content provider; several private TV stations are available; multi-channel subscription TV services are obtainable; ZNBC operates 3 radio networks; about 2 dozen private radio stations also broadcasting; relays of at least 2 international broadcasters are accessible in Lusaka and Kitwe (2007)

Internet country code:

.zm

Internet hosts:

14,771 (2010) country comparison to the world: 118

Internet users:

816,200 (2009) country comparison to the world: 105

Transportation ::Zambia

Airports:

94 (2010) country comparison to the world: 64

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 8

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 86

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 63

under 914 m: 18 (2010)

Pipelines:

oil 771 km (2009)

Railways:

total: 2,157 km country comparison to the world: 71 narrow gauge: 2,157 km 1.067-m gauge

note: includes 891 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) (2008)

Roadways:

total: 91,440 km country comparison to the world: 55 paved: 20,117 km

unpaved: 71,323 km (2001)

Waterways:

2,250 km; (includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula rivers) (2010) country comparison to the world: 40

Ports and terminals:

Mpulungu

Military ::Zambia

Military branches:

Zambian National Defense Force (ZNDF): Zambian Army, Zambian Air
Force, National Service (2009)

Military service age and obligation:

18-27 years of age for male and female voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Zambian citizenship required; mandatory HIV testing upon enlistment; mandatory retirement for officers at age 65 (Army, Air Force) (2010)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 2,824,372

females age 16-49: 2,685,883 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 1,401,481

females age 16-49: 1,274,583 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 151,586

female: 150,839 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

1.8% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 83

Transnational Issues ::Zambia

Disputes - international:

in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 42,565 (Angola); 60,874 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 4,100 (Rwanda) (2007)

Illicit drugs:

transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers; major consumer of cannabis

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