- Art Gallery -



Sweden, See : Flags, Maps

Sweden, by Victor Nilsson

The Swedish Revolution Under Gustavus Vasa, Paul Barron Watson

Peeps at many lands: Sweden, by William Liddle and Mrs. Liddle

Little Erik of Sweden, Madeline Brandeis

The Swedish Fairy Book

Scandinavians on the Pacific, Puget Sound, by Thomas Ostenson Stine


Selma Lagerlöf : From a Swedish Homestead , Jerusalem , The Girl From the Marsh Croft , Invisible Links, :


Artists from Sweden

Art Books, Sweden

Sweden (Europe)

Introduction ::Sweden


A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war for almost two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both World Wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment and in 2000-02 and 2009 by the global economic downturns, but fiscal discipline over the past several years has allowed the country to weather economic vagaries. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, but the public rejected the introduction of the euro in a 2003 referendum.

Geography ::Sweden

View Larger Map


Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia,
Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway

Geographic coordinates:
62 00 N, 15 00 E

Map references:



total: 450,295 sq km country comparison to the world: 55 land: 410,335 sq km

water: 39,960 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:

total: 2,233 km

border countries: Finland 614 km, Norway 1,619 km


3,218 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)

exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines

continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Stolkholm Sweden Multiview Postcard


temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north


mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.4 m

highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m

Natural resources:

iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower

Land use:

arable land: 5.93%

permanent crops: 0.01%

other: 94.06% (2005)

Irrigated land:

1,150 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

179 cu km (2005)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 2.68 cu km/yr (37%/54%/9%)

per capita: 296 cu m/yr (2002)

Natural hazards:

ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic

Environment - current issues:

acid rain damage to soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85,
Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas

People ::Sweden


9,074,055 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 89

Age structure:

0-14 years: 15.7% (male 733,597/female 692,194)

15-64 years: 65.5% (male 3,003,358/female 2,927,038)

65 years and over: 18.8% (male 753,293/female 950,171) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 41.7 years

male: 40.6 years

female: 42.9 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.16% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 184

Birth rate:

10.14 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 192

Death rate:

10.2 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 52

Net migration rate:

1.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 45


urban population: 85% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.061 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 2.74 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 220 male: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 80.97 years country comparison to the world: 14 male: 78.69 years

female: 83.4 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.67 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 172

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.1% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 126

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

6,200 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 120

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 100 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 148


noun: Swede(s)

adjective: Swedish

Ethnic groups:

indigenous population: Swedes with Finnish and Sami minorities; foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks


Lutheran 87%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist,
Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 13%


Swedish (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 16 years

male: 15 years

female: 16 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

6.7% of GDP (2007) country comparison to the world: 28

Government ::Sweden

Country name:

conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden

conventional short form: Sweden

local long form: Konungariket Sverige

local short form: Sverige

Government type:

constitutional monarchy


name: Stockholm

geographic coordinates: 59 20 N, 18 03 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:

21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarna,
Gavleborg, Gotland, Halland, Jamtland, Jonkoping, Kalmar, Kronoberg,
Norrbotten, Orebro, Ostergotland, Skane, Sodermanland, Stockholm,
Uppsala, Varmland, Vasterbotten, Vasternorrland, Vastmanland, Vastra


6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king)

National holiday:

Swedish Flag Day, 6 June (1916); National Day, 6 June (1983)


1 January 1975

Legal system:

civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)

head of government: Prime Minister Fredrik REINFELDT (since 5 October 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Jan BJORKLUND (since 5 October 2010)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister

Legislative branch:

unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 19 September 2010 (next to be held in September 2014)

election results: percent of vote by party - Social Democrats 30.7%,
Moderates 30.1%, Greens 7.3%, Liberal People's Party 7.1%, Center
Party 6.6%, Sweden Democrats 5.7%, Christian Democrats 5.6%, Left
Party 5.6%; seats by party - Social Democrats 112, Moderates 107,
Greens 25, Liberal People's Party 24, Center Party 23, Sweden
Democrats 20, Christian Democrats 19, Left Party 19

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen (judges are appointed by the prime minister and the cabinet)

Political parties and leaders:

Center Party [Maud OLOFSSON]; Christian Democratic Party [Goran HAGGLUND]; Environment Party the Greens [no formal leader but party spokespersons are Maria WETTERSTRAND and Peter ERIKSSON]; Left Party or V (formerly Communist) [Lars OHLY]; Liberal People's Party [Jan BJORKLUND]; Moderate Party [Fredrik REINFELDT]; Social Democratic Party [Mona SAHLIN]; Sweden Democrats [Jimmie AKESSON]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Children's Rights in Society; Swedish Confederation of Professional
Employees or TCO; Swedish Federation of Trade Unions or LO

other: media

International organization participation:

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council,
Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO,
(observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Jonas HAFSTROM

chancery: The House of Sweden, 2900 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600
FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Matthew W. BARZUN

embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 31, SE-11589 Stockholm

mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, US Department of State, 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC 20521-5750

telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00
FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64

Flag description:

blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors reflect those of the Swedish coat of arms - three gold crowns on a blue field

National anthem:

name: "Du Gamla, Du Fria" (Thou Ancient, Thou Free)

lyrics/music: Richard DYBECK/traditional

note: in use since 1844; the anthem, also known as "Sang till Norden" (Song of the North), is based on a Swedish folk tune; it has never been officially adopted by the government; "Kungssangen" (The King's Song) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies

Economy ::Sweden

Economy - overview:

Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole of the 20th century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force. In September 2003, Swedish voters turned down entry into the euro system concerned about the impact on the economy and sovereignty. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. Agriculture accounts for little more than 1% of GDP and of employment. Until 2008, Sweden was in the midst of a sustained economic upswing, boosted by increased domestic demand and strong exports. This and robust finances offered the center-right government considerable scope to implement its reform program aimed at increasing employment, reducing welfare dependence, and streamlining the state's role in the economy. Despite strong finances and underlying fundamentals, the Swedish economy slid into recession in the third quarter of 2008 and growth continued downward in 2009 as deteriorating global conditions reduced export demand and consumption. Strong exports of commodities and a return to profitability by Sweden's banking sector drove the strong rebound in 2010.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$354 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 33 $340.1 billion (2009 est.)

$358.4 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$444.6 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

4.1% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 77 -5.1% (2009 est.)

-0.6% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$39,000 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 23 $37,500 (2009 est.)

$39,600 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 1.7%

industry: 26.1%

services: 72.2% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

4.93 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 76

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 1.1%

industry: 28.2%

services: 70.7% (2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:

8.3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 96 8.3% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 3.6%

highest 10%: 22.2% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

23 (2005) country comparison to the world: 134 25 (1992)

Investment (gross fixed):

18.1% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 108

Public debt:

40.8% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 68 41.6% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

1.4% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 35 -0.3% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

2% (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 111 3.5% (31 December 2007)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

NA% (31 December 2009 est.)

NA% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$225 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 17 $205.2 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$293.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 28 $260.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$640.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 21 $583.8 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$432.3 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 22 $252.5 billion (31 December 2008)

$612.5 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk


iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate:

8% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 30

Electricity - production:

144 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 25

Electricity - consumption:

134.5 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 23

Electricity - exports:

14.71 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

12.75 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

4,833 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 94

Oil - consumption:

328,100 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 38

Oil - exports:

248,500 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 46

Oil - imports:

589,900 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 22

Oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 116

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 122

Natural gas - consumption:

1.229 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 87

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 116

Natural gas - imports:

1.229 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 53

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 128

Current account balance:

$21.68 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 16 $30.23 billion (2009 est.)


$162.6 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 27 $133.3 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals

Exports - partners:

Norway 10.61%, Germany 10.2%, UK 7.45%, Denmark 7.35%, Finland 6.44%, US 6.36%, France 5.05%, Netherlands 4.67% (2009)


$158.6 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 26 $120.5 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing

Imports - partners:

Germany 17.9%, Denmark 8.9%, Norway 8.7%, Netherlands 6.17%, UK 5.56%, Finland 5.14%, France 5.06%, China 4.79% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$NA (31 December 2010 est.)

$47.29 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$853.3 billion (30 June 2010) country comparison to the world: 16 $617.3 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$321.4 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 16 $304.5 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$383.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 13 $367.4 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

Swedish kronor (SEK) per US dollar - 7.5077 (2010), 7.6529 (2009), 6.4074 (2008), 6.7629 (2007), 7.3731 (2006)

Communications ::Sweden

Telephones - main lines in use:

5.146 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 31

Telephones - mobile cellular:

11.426 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 60

Telephone system:

general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries for fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet and broadband penetration

domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels

international: country code - 46; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway)

Broadcast media:

publicly-owned television broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial networks plus regional stations; multiple privately-owned television broadcasters operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 50 local TV stations; widespread access to pan-Nordic and international broadcasters through multi-channel cable and satellite TV systems; publicly-owned radio broadcaster operates 3 national stations and a network of 25 regional channels; nearly a hundred privately-owned local radio stations with some consolidating into near national networks; an estimated 900 community and neighborhood radio stations broadcast intermittently (2008)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

4.396 million (2010) country comparison to the world: 20

Internet users:

8.398 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 33

Transportation ::Sweden


249 (2010) country comparison to the world: 26

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 152

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 12

1,524 to 2,437 m: 76

914 to 1,523 m: 25

under 914 m: 36 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 97

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 92 (2010)


2 (2010)


gas 786 km (2009)


total: 11,633 km country comparison to the world: 20 standard gauge: 11,568 km 1.435-m gauge (7,531 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 65 km 1.000-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2008)


total: 572,900 km (includes 1,855 km of expressways) country comparison to the world: 12 note: (includes 98,400 km of state roads, 433,500 km of private roads, and 41,000 km of muncipal roads; 215,700 km of these are open to public traffic) (2009)


2,052 km (2010) country comparison to the world: 43

Merchant marine:

total: 163 country comparison to the world: 39 by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 20, carrier 1, chemical tanker 31, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 37, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 32, vehicle carrier 21

foreign-owned: 46 (Denmark 15, Estonia 3, Finland 16, Germany 3, Ireland 1, Italy 5, Norway 3)

registered in other countries: 194 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Bahamas 6, Barbados 6, Bermuda 17, Cook Islands 3, Cyprus 5, Denmark 16, Faroe Islands 5, France 6, Germany 1, Gibraltar 12, Isle of Man 1, Italy 1, Liberia 10, Malta 3, Netherlands 18, former Netherlands Antilles 1, Norway 33, Panama 1, Portugal 6, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Singapore 9, UK 25, US 5, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Brofjorden, Goteborg, Helsingborg, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo,
Stockholm, Trelleborg, Visby

Military ::Sweden

Military branches:

Swedish Armed Forces (Forsvarsmakten): Army (Armen), Royal Swedish
Navy (Marinen), Swedish Air Force (Svenska Flygvapnet) (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

18-47 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; service obligation: 7.5 months (Army), 7-15 months (Navy), 8-12 months (Air Force); the Swedish Parliament has abolished compulsory military service, with exclusively voluntary recruitment as of July 2010; conscription remains an option in emergencies; after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age 47 (2010)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 2,065,782

females age 16-49: 1,995,451 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 1,709,592

females age 16-49: 1,649,875 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 58,937

female: 56,225 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

1.5% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 98

Transnational Issues ::Sweden

Disputes - international:



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