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The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in Upton, New York is a national user research facility funded primarily by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science. NSLS-II is one of the world's most advanced synchrotron light sources, designed to produce x-rays 10,000 times brighter than BNL's original light source, the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). NSLS-II supports basic and applied research in energy security, advanced materials synthesis and manufacturing, environment, and human health.

NSLS-II is a state-of-the-art, medium-energy electron storage ring (3 billion electron-volts). The facility enables the study of material properties and functions with nanoscale resolution and exquisite sensitivity by providing world-leading capabilities for x-ray imaging and high-resolution energy analysis. The facility is open to researchers from academia and industry.

NSLS-II fuels major advances in new energy technologies such as nanocatalyst-based fuel cells, economical use of solar energy, high-temperature superconductors in a high capacity and high reliability electric grid, and advanced electrical storage systems for transportation and harnessing intermittent renewable energy sources.[4]
Exterior of National Synchrotron Light Source II facility, taken 22 July 2012 during Brookhaven National Laboratory "Summer Sundays" public tour.

Users and partners

In 2017, NSLS-II served over 1,000 researchers ("users") from academic, industrial, and government laboratories worldwide. Any qualified researcher can submit a peer-reviewed proposal to use NSLS-II.

NSLS-II partners with public and private institutions to fund the construction and operation of some of its beamlines. Its partnerships include BNL's Center for Functional Nanomaterials and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, among many others. NSLS-II is always open for new partnerships.

NSLS-II currently has 22 beamlines (experimental stations) open for user operations.[5] When the facility is complete, NSLS-II will have at least 58 beamlines in operation.

The beamlines at NSLS-II are grouped into six programs: hard x-ray spectroscopy, imaging & microscopy, structural biology, soft x-ray scattering & spectroscopy, complex scattering, and diffraction & in situ scattering. These programs group beamlines together that offer similar types of research techniques for studying the behavior and structure of matter.
Hard X-ray spectroscopy

6-BM: Materials Measurement (BMM)
7-ID-1: Spectroscopy Soft and Tender (SST-1) (under construction)
7-ID-2: Spectroscopy Soft and Tender (SST-2) (under construction)
7-BM: Quick X-ray Absorption and Scattering (QAS)
8-ID: Inner Shell Spectroscopy (ISS)
8-BM: Tender Energy X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (TES)

Imaging and microscopy

3-ID: Hard X-ray Nanoprobe (HXN)
4-BM: X-ray Fluorescence Microprobe (XFM)
5-ID: Submicron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy (SRX)
18-ID: Full-Field X-ray Imaging (FXI) (under construction)

Structural biology

16-ID: Life Science X-ray Scattering (LIX)
17-ID-1: Highly Automated Macromolecular Crystallography Beamline (AMX)
17-ID-2: Frontier Microfocusing Macromolecular Crystallography (FMX)
17-BM: X-ray Footprinting for Structural Studies of Biological Macromolecules (XFP)
19-ID: Biological Microdiffraction Facility (NYX)

Soft X-ray scattering and spectroscopy

2-ID: Soft Inelastic X-ray Scattering (SIX)
21-ID: Electron Spectro-Microscopy (ESM)
22-IR-1: Frontier Synchrotron Infrared Spectroscopy (FIS) (under construction)
22-IR-2: Magnetospectroscopy, Ellipsomentry and Time-Resolved Optical Spectroscopies (MET) (under construction)
23-ID-1: Coherent Soft X-ray Scattering (CSX-1)
23-ID-2: Soft X-ray Spectroscopy and Polarization (CSX-2)

Complex scattering

10-ID: Inelastic X-ray Scattering (IXS)
11-ID: Coherent Hard X-ray Scattering (CHX)
11-BM: Complex Materials Scattering (CMS)
12-ID: Soft Matter Interfaces (SMI)

Diffraction and in-situ scattering

4-ID: Integrated In-situ and Resonant Hard X-ray Studies (ISR)
27-ID: High Energy X-ray Diffraction (HEX) (under construction)
28-ID-1: Total Scattering Beamline (PDF) (under construction)
28-ID-2: X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XPD)

Storage ring parameters

NSLS-II is a medium energy (3.0 GeV) electron storage ring designed to deliver photons with high average spectral brightness exceeding 1021 ph/s in the 2 – 10 keV energy range and a flux density exceeding 1015 ph/s in all spectral ranges. This performance requires the storage ring to support a very high-current electron beam (up to 500 mA) with a very small horizontal (down to 0.5 nm-rad) and vertical (8 pm-rad) emittance. The electron beam is stable in its position (<10% of its size), angle (<10% of its divergence), dimensions (<10%), and intensity (±0.5% variation).
Storage ring lattice

The NSLS-II storage ring lattice consists of 30 double-bend achromat (DBA) cells that can accommodate at least 58 beamlines for user experiments, distributed by type of source as follows:

15 low-beta ID straights for undulators or superconducting wigglers
12 high-beta ID straights for either undulators or damping wigglers
31 BM ports providing broadband sources covering the IR, VUV, and soft x-ray ranges. Any of these ports can alternatively be replaced by a 3PW port covering the hard x-ray range.
4 BM ports on large gap (90 mm) dipoles for very far-IR

Radiation sources

Continuing the tradition established by the NSLS, NSLS-II radiation sources span a very wide spectral range, from the far infrared (down to 0.1 eV) to the very hard x-ray region (>300 keV). This is achieved by a combination of bending magnets, three-pole wigglers, and insertion device (ID) sources.[6]

Construction of NSLS-II began in 2009 and was completed on-time and under budget in 2014. NSLS-II saw first light in October 2014. The facility cost US$912,000,000 to build, and the project received the DOE's Secretary's Award of Excellence. Torcon Inc., headquartered in New Jersey, was the general contractor selected by the DOE for the project.[7]

"National Synchrotron Light Source II Celebrates Two Years of User Operations". hpcwire.com. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
"First Concrete Poured for NSLS-II Ring Building". bnl.gov. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
"NSLS-II Contract Will Mean Hundreds of Jobs for Long Island". bnl.gov. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
"BNL Photon Sciences | About NSLS-II". www.bnl.gov. Retrieved 2017-11-21.
"BNL | Photon Sciences | Beamline Directory". www.bnl.gov. Retrieved 2017-11-21.
"BNL | NSLS-II Accelerator Parameters". www.bnl.gov. Retrieved 2017-11-21.

"Brookhaven National Laboratories | Construction bim | Torcon". www.torcon.com.

External links

BNL: National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II)
BNL Photon Sciences: About NSLS-II
Brookhaven National Laboratory – a passion for discovery

Physics Encyclopedia



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