- Art Gallery -

This is a table of orthonormalized spherical harmonics that employ the Condon-Shortley phase up to degree \( \ell \) = 10. Some of these formulas give the "Cartesian" version. This assumes x, y, z, and r are related to \( \theta \) and \( \varphi \, \) through the usual spherical-to-Cartesian coordinate transformation:

\( {\displaystyle {\begin{cases}x&=r\sin \theta \cos \varphi \\y&=r\sin \theta \sin \varphi \\z&=r\cos \theta \end{cases}}} \)

Spherical harmonics
\( \ell \) = 0

\( Y_{0}^{0}(\theta ,\varphi )={1 \over 2}{\sqrt {1 \over \pi }} \)

\( \ell \) = 1

\( {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}Y_{1}^{-1}(\theta ,\varphi )&=&&{1 \over 2}{\sqrt {3 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-i\varphi }\cdot \sin \theta &&=&&{1 \over 2}{\sqrt {3 \over 2\pi }}\cdot {(x-iy) \over r}\\Y_{1}^{0}(\theta ,\varphi )&=&&{1 \over 2}{\sqrt {3 \over \pi }}\cdot \cos \theta &&=&&{1 \over 2}{\sqrt {3 \over \pi }}\cdot {z \over r}\\Y_{1}^{1}(\theta ,\varphi )&=&-&{1 \over 2}{\sqrt {3 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{i\varphi }\cdot \sin \theta &&=&-&{1 \over 2}{\sqrt {3 \over 2\pi }}\cdot {(x+iy) \over r}\end{aligned}}} \)

\( \ell \) = 2

\({\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}Y_{2}^{-2}(\theta ,\varphi )&=&&{1 \over 4}{\sqrt {15 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-2i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{2}\theta \quad &&=&&{1 \over 4}{\sqrt {15 \over 2\pi }}\cdot {(x-iy)^{2} \over r^{2}}&\\Y_{2}^{-1}(\theta ,\varphi )&=&&{1 \over 2}{\sqrt {15 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-i\varphi }\cdot \sin \theta \cdot \cos \theta \quad &&=&&{1 \over 2}{\sqrt {15 \over 2\pi }}\cdot {(x-iy)z \over r^{2}}&\\Y_{2}^{0}(\theta ,\varphi )&=&&{1 \over 4}{\sqrt {5 \over \pi }}\cdot (3\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\quad &&=&&{1 \over 4}{\sqrt {5 \over \pi }}\cdot {(2z^{2}-x^{2}-y^{2}) \over r^{2}}&\\Y_{2}^{1}(\theta ,\varphi )&=&-&{1 \over 2}{\sqrt {15 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{i\varphi }\cdot \sin \theta \cdot \cos \theta \quad &&=&-&{1 \over 2}{\sqrt {15 \over 2\pi }}\cdot {(x+iy)z \over r^{2}}&\\Y_{2}^{2}(\theta ,\varphi )&=&&{1 \over 4}{\sqrt {15 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{2i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{2}\theta \quad &&=&&{1 \over 4}{\sqrt {15 \over 2\pi }}\cdot {(x+iy)^{2} \over r^{2}}&\end{aligned}}} \)

\( \ell \) = 3

\( {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}Y_{3}^{-3}(\theta ,\varphi )&=&&{1 \over 8}{\sqrt {35 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-3i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{3}\theta \quad &&=&&{1 \over 8}{\sqrt {35 \over \pi }}\cdot {(x-iy)^{3} \over r^{3}}&\\Y_{3}^{-2}(\theta ,\varphi )&=&&{1 \over 4}{\sqrt {105 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-2i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{2}\theta \cdot \cos \theta \quad &&=&&{1 \over 4}{\sqrt {105 \over 2\pi }}\cdot {(x-iy)^{2}z \over r^{3}}&\\Y_{3}^{-1}(\theta ,\varphi )&=&&{1 \over 8}{\sqrt {21 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-i\varphi }\cdot \sin \theta \cdot (5\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\quad &&=&&{1 \over 8}{\sqrt {21 \over \pi }}\cdot {(x-iy)(5z^{2}-r^{2}) \over r^{3}}&\\Y_{3}^{0}(\theta ,\varphi )&=&&{1 \over 4}{\sqrt {7 \over \pi }}\cdot (5\cos ^{3}\theta -3\cos \theta )\quad &&=&&{1 \over 4}{\sqrt {7 \over \pi }}\cdot {z(5z^{2}-3r^{2}) \over r^{3}}&\\Y_{3}^{1}(\theta ,\varphi )&=&-&{1 \over 8}{\sqrt {21 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{i\varphi }\cdot \sin \theta \cdot (5\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\quad &&=&&{-1 \over 8}{\sqrt {21 \over \pi }}\cdot {(x+iy)(5z^{2}-r^{2}) \over r^{3}}&\\Y_{3}^{2}(\theta ,\varphi )&=&&{1 \over 4}{\sqrt {105 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{2i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{2}\theta \cdot \cos \theta \quad &&=&&{1 \over 4}{\sqrt {105 \over 2\pi }}\cdot {(x+iy)^{2}z \over r^{3}}&\\Y_{3}^{3}(\theta ,\varphi )&=&-&{1 \over 8}{\sqrt {35 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{3i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{3}\theta \quad &&=&&{-1 \over 8}{\sqrt {35 \over \pi }}\cdot {(x+iy)^{3} \over r^{3}}&\end{aligned}}} \)

\( \ell \) = 4

\( {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}Y_{4}^{-4}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 16}{\sqrt {35 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-4i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{4}\theta ={\frac {3}{16}}{\sqrt {\frac {35}{2\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {(x-iy)^{4}}{r^{4}}}\\Y_{4}^{-3}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 8}{\sqrt {35 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-3i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{3}\theta \cdot \cos \theta ={\frac {3}{8}}{\sqrt {\frac {35}{\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {(x-iy)^{3}z}{r^{4}}}\\Y_{4}^{-2}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 8}{\sqrt {5 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-2i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{2}\theta \cdot (7\cos ^{2}\theta -1)={\frac {3}{8}}{\sqrt {\frac {5}{2\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {(x-iy)^{2}\cdot (7z^{2}-r^{2})}{r^{4}}}\\Y_{4}^{-1}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 8}{\sqrt {5 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-i\varphi }\cdot \sin \theta \cdot (7\cos ^{3}\theta -3\cos \theta )={\frac {3}{8}}{\sqrt {\frac {5}{\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {(x-iy)\cdot z\cdot (7z^{2}-3r^{2})}{r^{4}}}\\Y_{4}^{0}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 16}{\sqrt {1 \over \pi }}\cdot (35\cos ^{4}\theta -30\cos ^{2}\theta +3)={\frac {3}{16}}{\sqrt {\frac {1}{\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {(35z^{4}-30z^{2}r^{2}+3r^{4})}{r^{4}}}\\Y_{4}^{1}(\theta ,\varphi )&={-3 \over 8}{\sqrt {5 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{i\varphi }\cdot \sin \theta \cdot (7\cos ^{3}\theta -3\cos \theta )={\frac {-3}{8}}{\sqrt {\frac {5}{\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {(x+iy)\cdot z\cdot (7z^{2}-3r^{2})}{r^{4}}}\\Y_{4}^{2}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 8}{\sqrt {5 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{2i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{2}\theta \cdot (7\cos ^{2}\theta -1)={\frac {3}{8}}{\sqrt {\frac {5}{2\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {(x+iy)^{2}\cdot (7z^{2}-r^{2})}{r^{4}}}\\Y_{4}^{3}(\theta ,\varphi )&={-3 \over 8}{\sqrt {35 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{3i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{3}\theta \cdot \cos \theta ={\frac {-3}{8}}{\sqrt {\frac {35}{\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {(x+iy)^{3}z}{r^{4}}}\\Y_{4}^{4}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 16}{\sqrt {35 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{4i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{4}\theta ={\frac {3}{16}}{\sqrt {\frac {35}{2\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {(x+iy)^{4}}{r^{4}}}\end{aligned}}} \)

\( \ell \) = 5[1]

\( {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}Y_{5}^{-5}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 32}{\sqrt {77 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-5i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{5}\theta \\Y_{5}^{-4}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 16}{\sqrt {385 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-4i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{4}\theta \cdot \cos \theta \\Y_{5}^{-3}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 32}{\sqrt {385 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-3i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{3}\theta \cdot (9\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\\Y_{5}^{-2}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 8}{\sqrt {1155 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-2i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{2}\theta \cdot (3\cos ^{3}\theta -\cos \theta )\\Y_{5}^{-1}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 16}{\sqrt {165 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-i\varphi }\cdot \sin \theta \cdot (21\cos ^{4}\theta -14\cos ^{2}\theta +1)\\Y_{5}^{0}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 16}{\sqrt {11 \over \pi }}\cdot (63\cos ^{5}\theta -70\cos ^{3}\theta +15\cos \theta )\\Y_{5}^{1}(\theta ,\varphi )&={-1 \over 16}{\sqrt {165 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{i\varphi }\cdot \sin \theta \cdot (21\cos ^{4}\theta -14\cos ^{2}\theta +1)\\Y_{5}^{2}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 8}{\sqrt {1155 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{2i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{2}\theta \cdot (3\cos ^{3}\theta -\cos \theta )\\Y_{5}^{3}(\theta ,\varphi )&={-1 \over 32}{\sqrt {385 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{3i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{3}\theta \cdot (9\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\\Y_{5}^{4}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 16}{\sqrt {385 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{4i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{4}\theta \cdot \cos \theta \\Y_{5}^{5}(\theta ,\varphi )&={-3 \over 32}{\sqrt {77 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{5i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{5}\theta \end{aligned}}} \)

\( \ell \)= 6

\( {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}Y_{6}^{-6}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 64}{\sqrt {3003 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-6i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{6}\theta \\Y_{6}^{-5}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 32}{\sqrt {1001 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-5i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{5}\theta \cdot \cos \theta \\Y_{6}^{-4}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 32}{\sqrt {91 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-4i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{4}\theta \cdot (11\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\\Y_{6}^{-3}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 32}{\sqrt {1365 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-3i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{3}\theta \cdot (11\cos ^{3}\theta -3\cos \theta )\\Y_{6}^{-2}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 64}{\sqrt {1365 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-2i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{2}\theta \cdot (33\cos ^{4}\theta -18\cos ^{2}\theta +1)\\Y_{6}^{-1}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 16}{\sqrt {273 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-i\varphi }\cdot \sin \theta \cdot (33\cos ^{5}\theta -30\cos ^{3}\theta +5\cos \theta )\\Y_{6}^{0}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 32}{\sqrt {13 \over \pi }}\cdot (231\cos ^{6}\theta -315\cos ^{4}\theta +105\cos ^{2}\theta -5)\\Y_{6}^{1}(\theta ,\varphi )&=-{1 \over 16}{\sqrt {273 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{i\varphi }\cdot \sin \theta \cdot (33\cos ^{5}\theta -30\cos ^{3}\theta +5\cos \theta )\\Y_{6}^{2}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 64}{\sqrt {1365 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{2i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{2}\theta \cdot (33\cos ^{4}\theta -18\cos ^{2}\theta +1)\\Y_{6}^{3}(\theta ,\varphi )&=-{1 \over 32}{\sqrt {1365 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{3i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{3}\theta \cdot (11\cos ^{3}\theta -3\cos \theta )\\Y_{6}^{4}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 32}{\sqrt {91 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{4i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{4}\theta \cdot (11\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\\Y_{6}^{5}(\theta ,\varphi )&=-{3 \over 32}{\sqrt {1001 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{5i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{5}\theta \cdot \cos \theta \\Y_{6}^{6}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 64}{\sqrt {3003 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{6i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{6}\theta \end{aligned}}} \)

\( \ell \) = 7

\( {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}Y_{7}^{-7}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 64}{\sqrt {715 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-7i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{7}\theta \\Y_{7}^{-6}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 64}{\sqrt {5005 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-6i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{6}\theta \cdot \cos \theta \\Y_{7}^{-5}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 64}{\sqrt {385 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-5i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{5}\theta \cdot (13\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\\Y_{7}^{-4}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 32}{\sqrt {385 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-4i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{4}\theta \cdot (13\cos ^{3}\theta -3\cos \theta )\\Y_{7}^{-3}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 64}{\sqrt {35 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-3i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{3}\theta \cdot (143\cos ^{4}\theta -66\cos ^{2}\theta +3)\\Y_{7}^{-2}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 64}{\sqrt {35 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-2i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{2}\theta \cdot (143\cos ^{5}\theta -110\cos ^{3}\theta +15\cos \theta )\\Y_{7}^{-1}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 64}{\sqrt {105 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-i\varphi }\cdot \sin \theta \cdot (429\cos ^{6}\theta -495\cos ^{4}\theta +135\cos ^{2}\theta -5)\\Y_{7}^{0}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 32}{\sqrt {15 \over \pi }}\cdot (429\cos ^{7}\theta -693\cos ^{5}\theta +315\cos ^{3}\theta -35\cos \theta )\\Y_{7}^{1}(\theta ,\varphi )&=-{1 \over 64}{\sqrt {105 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{i\varphi }\cdot \sin \theta \cdot (429\cos ^{6}\theta -495\cos ^{4}\theta +135\cos ^{2}\theta -5)\\Y_{7}^{2}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 64}{\sqrt {35 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{2i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{2}\theta \cdot (143\cos ^{5}\theta -110\cos ^{3}\theta +15\cos \theta )\\Y_{7}^{3}(\theta ,\varphi )&=-{3 \over 64}{\sqrt {35 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{3i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{3}\theta \cdot (143\cos ^{4}\theta -66\cos ^{2}\theta +3)\\Y_{7}^{4}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 32}{\sqrt {385 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{4i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{4}\theta \cdot (13\cos ^{3}\theta -3\cos \theta )\\Y_{7}^{5}(\theta ,\varphi )&=-{3 \over 64}{\sqrt {385 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{5i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{5}\theta \cdot (13\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\\Y_{7}^{6}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 64}{\sqrt {5005 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{6i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{6}\theta \cdot \cos \theta \\Y_{7}^{7}(\theta ,\varphi )&=-{3 \over 64}{\sqrt {715 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{7i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{7}\theta \end{aligned}}} \)

\( \ell \) = 8

\( {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}Y_{8}^{-8}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 256}{\sqrt {12155 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-8i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{8}\theta \\Y_{8}^{-7}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 64}{\sqrt {12155 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-7i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{7}\theta \cdot \cos \theta \\Y_{8}^{-6}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 128}{\sqrt {7293 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-6i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{6}\theta \cdot (15\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\\Y_{8}^{-5}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 64}{\sqrt {17017 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-5i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{5}\theta \cdot (5\cos ^{3}\theta -\cos \theta )\\Y_{8}^{-4}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 128}{\sqrt {1309 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-4i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{4}\theta \cdot (65\cos ^{4}\theta -26\cos ^{2}\theta +1)\\Y_{8}^{-3}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 64}{\sqrt {19635 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-3i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{3}\theta \cdot (39\cos ^{5}\theta -26\cos ^{3}\theta +3\cos \theta )\\Y_{8}^{-2}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 128}{\sqrt {595 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-2i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{2}\theta \cdot (143\cos ^{6}\theta -143\cos ^{4}\theta +33\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\\Y_{8}^{-1}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 64}{\sqrt {17 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-i\varphi }\cdot \sin \theta \cdot (715\cos ^{7}\theta -1001\cos ^{5}\theta +385\cos ^{3}\theta -35\cos \theta )\\Y_{8}^{0}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 256}{\sqrt {17 \over \pi }}\cdot (6435\cos ^{8}\theta -12012\cos ^{6}\theta +6930\cos ^{4}\theta -1260\cos ^{2}\theta +35)\\Y_{8}^{1}(\theta ,\varphi )&={-3 \over 64}{\sqrt {17 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{i\varphi }\cdot \sin \theta \cdot (715\cos ^{7}\theta -1001\cos ^{5}\theta +385\cos ^{3}\theta -35\cos \theta )\\Y_{8}^{2}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 128}{\sqrt {595 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{2i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{2}\theta \cdot (143\cos ^{6}\theta -143\cos ^{4}\theta +33\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\\Y_{8}^{3}(\theta ,\varphi )&={-1 \over 64}{\sqrt {19635 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{3i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{3}\theta \cdot (39\cos ^{5}\theta -26\cos ^{3}\theta +3\cos \theta )\\Y_{8}^{4}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 128}{\sqrt {1309 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{4i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{4}\theta \cdot (65\cos ^{4}\theta -26\cos ^{2}\theta +1)\\Y_{8}^{5}(\theta ,\varphi )&={-3 \over 64}{\sqrt {17017 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{5i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{5}\theta \cdot (5\cos ^{3}\theta -\cos \theta )\\Y_{8}^{6}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 128}{\sqrt {7293 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{6i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{6}\theta \cdot (15\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\\Y_{8}^{7}(\theta ,\varphi )&={-3 \over 64}{\sqrt {12155 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{7i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{7}\theta \cdot \cos \theta \\Y_{8}^{8}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 256}{\sqrt {12155 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{8i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{8}\theta \end{aligned}}} \)

\( \ell \) = 9

\( {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}Y_{9}^{-9}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 512}{\sqrt {230945 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-9i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{9}\theta \\Y_{9}^{-8}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 256}{\sqrt {230945 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-8i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{8}\theta \cdot \cos \theta \\Y_{9}^{-7}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 512}{\sqrt {13585 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-7i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{7}\theta \cdot (17\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\\Y_{9}^{-6}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 128}{\sqrt {40755 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-6i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{6}\theta \cdot (17\cos ^{3}\theta -3\cos \theta )\\Y_{9}^{-5}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 256}{\sqrt {2717 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-5i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{5}\theta \cdot (85\cos ^{4}\theta -30\cos ^{2}\theta +1)\\Y_{9}^{-4}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 128}{\sqrt {95095 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-4i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{4}\theta \cdot (17\cos ^{5}\theta -10\cos ^{3}\theta +\cos \theta )\\Y_{9}^{-3}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 256}{\sqrt {21945 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-3i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{3}\theta \cdot (221\cos ^{6}\theta -195\cos ^{4}\theta +39\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\\Y_{9}^{-2}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 128}{\sqrt {1045 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-2i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{2}\theta \cdot (221\cos ^{7}\theta -273\cos ^{5}\theta +91\cos ^{3}\theta -7\cos \theta )\\Y_{9}^{-1}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 256}{\sqrt {95 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-i\varphi }\cdot \sin \theta \cdot (2431\cos ^{8}\theta -4004\cos ^{6}\theta +2002\cos ^{4}\theta -308\cos ^{2}\theta +7)\\Y_{9}^{0}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 256}{\sqrt {19 \over \pi }}\cdot (12155\cos ^{9}\theta -25740\cos ^{7}\theta +18018\cos ^{5}\theta -4620\cos ^{3}\theta +315\cos \theta )\\Y_{9}^{1}(\theta ,\varphi )&={-3 \over 256}{\sqrt {95 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{i\varphi }\cdot \sin \theta \cdot (2431\cos ^{8}\theta -4004\cos ^{6}\theta +2002\cos ^{4}\theta -308\cos ^{2}\theta +7)\\Y_{9}^{2}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 128}{\sqrt {1045 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{2i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{2}\theta \cdot (221\cos ^{7}\theta -273\cos ^{5}\theta +91\cos ^{3}\theta -7\cos \theta )\\Y_{9}^{3}(\theta ,\varphi )&={-1 \over 256}{\sqrt {21945 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{3i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{3}\theta \cdot (221\cos ^{6}\theta -195\cos ^{4}\theta +39\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\\Y_{9}^{4}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 128}{\sqrt {95095 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{4i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{4}\theta \cdot (17\cos ^{5}\theta -10\cos ^{3}\theta +\cos \theta )\\Y_{9}^{5}(\theta ,\varphi )&={-3 \over 256}{\sqrt {2717 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{5i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{5}\theta \cdot (85\cos ^{4}\theta -30\cos ^{2}\theta +1)\\Y_{9}^{6}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 128}{\sqrt {40755 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{6i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{6}\theta \cdot (17\cos ^{3}\theta -3\cos \theta )\\Y_{9}^{7}(\theta ,\varphi )&={-3 \over 512}{\sqrt {13585 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{7i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{7}\theta \cdot (17\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\\Y_{9}^{8}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 256}{\sqrt {230945 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{8i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{8}\theta \cdot \cos \theta \\Y_{9}^{9}(\theta ,\varphi )&={-1 \over 512}{\sqrt {230945 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{9i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{9}\theta \end{aligned}}} \)

\( \ell \) = 10

\( {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}Y_{10}^{-10}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 1024}{\sqrt {969969 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-10i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{10}\theta \\Y_{10}^{-9}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 512}{\sqrt {4849845 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-9i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{9}\theta \cdot \cos \theta \\Y_{10}^{-8}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 512}{\sqrt {255255 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-8i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{8}\theta \cdot (19\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\\Y_{10}^{-7}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 512}{\sqrt {85085 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-7i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{7}\theta \cdot (19\cos ^{3}\theta -3\cos \theta )\\Y_{10}^{-6}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 1024}{\sqrt {5005 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-6i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{6}\theta \cdot (323\cos ^{4}\theta -102\cos ^{2}\theta +3)\\Y_{10}^{-5}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 256}{\sqrt {1001 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-5i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{5}\theta \cdot (323\cos ^{5}\theta -170\cos ^{3}\theta +15\cos \theta )\\Y_{10}^{-4}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 256}{\sqrt {5005 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-4i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{4}\theta \cdot (323\cos ^{6}\theta -255\cos ^{4}\theta +45\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\\Y_{10}^{-3}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 256}{\sqrt {5005 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{-3i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{3}\theta \cdot (323\cos ^{7}\theta -357\cos ^{5}\theta +105\cos ^{3}\theta -7\cos \theta )\\Y_{10}^{-2}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 512}{\sqrt {385 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-2i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{2}\theta \cdot (4199\cos ^{8}\theta -6188\cos ^{6}\theta +2730\cos ^{4}\theta -364\cos ^{2}\theta +7)\\Y_{10}^{-1}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 256}{\sqrt {1155 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{-i\varphi }\cdot \sin \theta \cdot (4199\cos ^{9}\theta -7956\cos ^{7}\theta +4914\cos ^{5}\theta -1092\cos ^{3}\theta +63\cos \theta )\\Y_{10}^{0}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 512}{\sqrt {21 \over \pi }}\cdot (46189\cos ^{10}\theta -109395\cos ^{8}\theta +90090\cos ^{6}\theta -30030\cos ^{4}\theta +3465\cos ^{2}\theta -63)\\Y_{10}^{1}(\theta ,\varphi )&={-1 \over 256}{\sqrt {1155 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{i\varphi }\cdot \sin \theta \cdot (4199\cos ^{9}\theta -7956\cos ^{7}\theta +4914\cos ^{5}\theta -1092\cos ^{3}\theta +63\cos \theta )\\Y_{10}^{2}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 512}{\sqrt {385 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{2i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{2}\theta \cdot (4199\cos ^{8}\theta -6188\cos ^{6}\theta +2730\cos ^{4}\theta -364\cos ^{2}\theta +7)\\Y_{10}^{3}(\theta ,\varphi )&={-3 \over 256}{\sqrt {5005 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{3i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{3}\theta \cdot (323\cos ^{7}\theta -357\cos ^{5}\theta +105\cos ^{3}\theta -7\cos \theta )\\Y_{10}^{4}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 256}{\sqrt {5005 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{4i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{4}\theta \cdot (323\cos ^{6}\theta -255\cos ^{4}\theta +45\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\\Y_{10}^{5}(\theta ,\varphi )&={-3 \over 256}{\sqrt {1001 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{5i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{5}\theta \cdot (323\cos ^{5}\theta -170\cos ^{3}\theta +15\cos \theta )\\Y_{10}^{6}(\theta ,\varphi )&={3 \over 1024}{\sqrt {5005 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{6i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{6}\theta \cdot (323\cos ^{4}\theta -102\cos ^{2}\theta +3)\\Y_{10}^{7}(\theta ,\varphi )&={-3 \over 512}{\sqrt {85085 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{7i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{7}\theta \cdot (19\cos ^{3}\theta -3\cos \theta )\\Y_{10}^{8}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 512}{\sqrt {255255 \over 2\pi }}\cdot e^{8i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{8}\theta \cdot (19\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\\Y_{10}^{9}(\theta ,\varphi )&={-1 \over 512}{\sqrt {4849845 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{9i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{9}\theta \cdot \cos \theta \\Y_{10}^{10}(\theta ,\varphi )&={1 \over 1024}{\sqrt {969969 \over \pi }}\cdot e^{10i\varphi }\cdot \sin ^{10}\theta \end{aligned}}} \)

Real spherical harmonics

For each real spherical harmonic, the corresponding atomic orbital symbol (s, p, d, f, g) is reported as well.
\( \ell \) = 0

\( {\begin{aligned}Y_{00}&=s=Y_{0}^{0}={\frac {1}{2}}{\sqrt {\frac {1}{\pi }}}\end{aligned}} \)

\( \ell \) = 1

\( {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}Y_{1,-1}&=p_{y}=i{\sqrt {\frac {1}{2}}}\left(Y_{1}^{-1}+Y_{1}^{1}\right)={\sqrt {\frac {3}{4\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {y}{r}}\\Y_{1,0}&=p_{z}=Y_{1}^{0}={\sqrt {\frac {3}{4\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {z}{r}}\\Y_{1,1}&=p_{x}={\sqrt {\frac {1}{2}}}\left(Y_{1}^{-1}-Y_{1}^{1}\right)={\sqrt {\frac {3}{4\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {x}{r}}\end{aligned}}} \)

\( \ell \) = 2[

\( {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}Y_{2,-2}&=d_{xy}=i{\sqrt {\frac {1}{2}}}\left(Y_{2}^{-2}-Y_{2}^{2}\right)={\frac {1}{2}}{\sqrt {\frac {15}{\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {xy}{r^{2}}}\\Y_{2,-1}&=d_{yz}=i{\sqrt {\frac {1}{2}}}\left(Y_{2}^{-1}+Y_{2}^{1}\right)={\frac {1}{2}}{\sqrt {\frac {15}{\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {yz}{r^{2}}}\\Y_{2,0}&=d_{z^{2}}=Y_{2}^{0}={\frac {1}{4}}{\sqrt {\frac {5}{\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {-x^{2}-y^{2}+2z^{2}}{r^{2}}}\\Y_{2,1}&=d_{xz}={\sqrt {\frac {1}{2}}}\left(Y_{2}^{-1}-Y_{2}^{1}\right)={\frac {1}{2}}{\sqrt {\frac {15}{\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {zx}{r^{2}}}\\Y_{2,2}&=d_{x^{2}-y^{2}}={\sqrt {\frac {1}{2}}}\left(Y_{2}^{-2}+Y_{2}^{2}\right)={\frac {1}{4}}{\sqrt {\frac {15}{\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {x^{2}-y^{2}}{r^{2}}}\end{aligned}}} \)

\( \ell \) = 3

\( {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}Y_{3,-3}&=f_{y(3x^{2}-y^{2})}=i{\sqrt {\frac {1}{2}}}\left(Y_{3}^{-3}+Y_{3}^{3}\right)={\frac {1}{4}}{\sqrt {\frac {35}{2\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {\left(3x^{2}-y^{2}\right)y}{r^{3}}}\\Y_{3,-2}&=f_{xyz}=i{\sqrt {\frac {1}{2}}}\left(Y_{3}^{-2}-Y_{3}^{2}\right)={\frac {1}{2}}{\sqrt {\frac {105}{\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {xyz}{r^{3}}}\\Y_{3,-1}&=f_{yz^{2}}=i{\sqrt {\frac {1}{2}}}\left(Y_{3}^{-1}+Y_{3}^{1}\right)={\frac {1}{4}}{\sqrt {\frac {21}{2\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {y(4z^{2}-x^{2}-y^{2})}{r^{3}}}\\Y_{3,0}&=f_{z^{3}}=Y_{3}^{0}={\frac {1}{4}}{\sqrt {\frac {7}{\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {z(2z^{2}-3x^{2}-3y^{2})}{r^{3}}}\\Y_{3,1}&=f_{xz^{2}}={\sqrt {\frac {1}{2}}}\left(Y_{3}^{-1}-Y_{3}^{1}\right)={\frac {1}{4}}{\sqrt {\frac {21}{2\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {x(4z^{2}-x^{2}-y^{2})}{r^{3}}}\\Y_{3,2}&=f_{z(x^{2}-y^{2})}={\sqrt {\frac {1}{2}}}\left(Y_{3}^{-2}+Y_{3}^{2}\right)={\frac {1}{4}}{\sqrt {\frac {105}{\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {\left(x^{2}-y^{2}\right)z}{r^{3}}}\\Y_{3,3}&=f_{x(x^{2}-3y^{2})}={\sqrt {\frac {1}{2}}}\left(Y_{3}^{-3}-Y_{3}^{3}\right)={\frac {1}{4}}{\sqrt {\frac {35}{2\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {\left(x^{2}-3y^{2}\right)x}{r^{3}}}\end{aligned}}} \)

\( \ell \) = 4

\( {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}Y_{4,-4}&=g_{xy(x^{2}-y^{2})}=i{\sqrt {\frac {1}{2}}}\left(Y_{4}^{-4}-Y_{4}^{4}\right)={\frac {3}{4}}{\sqrt {\frac {35}{\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {xy\left(x^{2}-y^{2}\right)}{r^{4}}}\\Y_{4,-3}&=g_{zy^{3}}=i{\sqrt {\frac {1}{2}}}\left(Y_{4}^{-3}+Y_{4}^{3}\right)={\frac {3}{4}}{\sqrt {\frac {35}{2\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {(3x^{2}-y^{2})yz}{r^{4}}}\\Y_{4,-2}&=g_{z^{2}xy}=i{\sqrt {\frac {1}{2}}}\left(Y_{4}^{-2}-Y_{4}^{2}\right)={\frac {3}{4}}{\sqrt {\frac {5}{\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {xy\cdot (7z^{2}-r^{2})}{r^{4}}}\\Y_{4,-1}&=g_{z^{3}y}=i{\sqrt {\frac {1}{2}}}\left(Y_{4}^{-1}+Y_{4}^{1}\right)={\frac {3}{4}}{\sqrt {\frac {5}{2\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {yz\cdot (7z^{2}-3r^{2})}{r^{4}}}\\Y_{4,0}&=g_{z^{4}}=Y_{4}^{0}={\frac {3}{16}}{\sqrt {\frac {1}{\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {(35z^{4}-30z^{2}r^{2}+3r^{4})}{r^{4}}}\\Y_{4,1}&=g_{z^{3}x}={\sqrt {\frac {1}{2}}}\left(Y_{4}^{-1}-Y_{4}^{1}\right)={\frac {3}{4}}{\sqrt {\frac {5}{2\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {xz\cdot (7z^{2}-3r^{2})}{r^{4}}}\\Y_{4,2}&=g_{z^{2}(x^{2}-y^{2})}={\sqrt {\frac {1}{2}}}\left(Y_{4}^{-2}+Y_{4}^{2}\right)={\frac {3}{8}}{\sqrt {\frac {5}{\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {(x^{2}-y^{2})\cdot (7z^{2}-r^{2})}{r^{4}}}\\Y_{4,3}&=g_{zx^{3}}={\sqrt {\frac {1}{2}}}\left(Y_{4}^{-3}-Y_{4}^{3}\right)={\frac {3}{4}}{\sqrt {\frac {35}{2\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {(x^{2}-3y^{2})xz}{r^{4}}}\\Y_{4,4}&=g_{x^{4}+y^{4}}={\sqrt {\frac {1}{2}}}\left(Y_{4}^{-4}+Y_{4}^{4}\right)={\frac {3}{16}}{\sqrt {\frac {35}{\pi }}}\cdot {\frac {x^{2}\left(x^{2}-3y^{2}\right)-y^{2}\left(3x^{2}-y^{2}\right)}{r^{4}}}\end{aligned}}} \)

See also

Spherical harmonics

External links

Spherical Harmonic at MathWorld

References

Cited references

D. A. Varshalovich; A. N. Moskalev; V. K. Khersonskii (1988). Quantum theory of angular momentum : irreducible tensors, spherical harmonics, vector coupling coefficients, 3nj symbols (1. repr. ed.). Singapore: World Scientific Pub. pp. 155–156. ISBN 9971-50-107-4.
C.D.H. Chisholm (1976). Group theoretical techniques in quantum chemistry. New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-172950-8.

Blanco, Miguel A.; Flórez, M.; Bermejo, M. (1 December 1997). "Evaluation of the rotation matrices in the basis of real spherical harmonics". Journal of Molecular Structure: THEOCHEM. 419 (1–3): 19–27. doi:10.1016/S0166-1280(97)00185-1.

General references

See section 3 in Mathar, R. J. (2009). "Zernike basis to cartesian transformations". Serbian Astronomical Journal. 179 (179): 107–120. arXiv:0809.2368. Bibcode:2009SerAJ.179..107M. doi:10.2298/SAJ0979107M. (see section 3.3)
For complex spherical harmonics, see also SphericalHarmonicY[l,m,theta,phi] at Wolfram Alpha, especially for specific values of l and m.

Mathematics Encyclopedia

Hellenica World - Scientific Library

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