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Qatar, See : Flags, Maps

Qatar (Middle East)

Introduction ::Qatar

Background:

Ruled by the Al Thani family since the mid-1800s, Qatar transformed itself from a poor British protectorate noted mainly for pearling into an independent state with significant oil and natural gas revenues. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Qatari economy was crippled by a continuous siphoning off of petroleum revenues by the Amir, who had ruled the country since 1972. His son, the current Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani, overthrew him in a bloodless coup in 1995. In 2001, Qatar resolved its longstanding border disputes with both Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. As of 2007, oil and natural gas revenues had enabled Qatar to attain the second-highest per capita income in the world.

Geography ::Qatar


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Location:

Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates:
25 30 N, 51 15 E

Map references:

Middle East

Area:

total: 11,586 sq km country comparison to the world: 165 land: 11,586 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries:

total: 60 km

border countries: Saudi Arabia 60 km

Coastline:

563 km

:: Qatar <3 ::

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: as determined by bilateral agreements or the median line

Climate:

arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain:

mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravel

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

highest point: Tuwayyir al Hamir 103 m

Qatar: grattacieli

Natural resources:

petroleum, natural gas, fish

Land use:

arable land: 1.64%

permanent crops: 0.27%

other: 98.09% (2005)

Irrigated land:

130 sq km (2002)

Total renewable water resources:

0.1 cu km (1997)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 0.29 cu km/yr (24%/3%/72%)

per capita: 358 cu m/yr (2000)

Qatar: grattacieli

Natural hazards:

haze, dust storms, sandstorms common

Environment - current issues:

limited natural fresh water resources are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits

People ::Qatar

Population:

840,926 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 159

Age structure:

0-14 years: 21.8% (male 93,805/female 88,040)

15-64 years: 76.8% (male 454,714/female 185,004)

65 years and over: 1.4% (male 6,792/female 4,930) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 30.8 years

male: 32.9 years

female: 25.4 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.869% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 130

Birth rate:

15.54 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 134

Death rate:

2.44 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 223

Net migration rate:

-4.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 197

Urbanization:

urban population: 96% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 2.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.056 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 2.44 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.36 male(s)/female

total population: 1.99 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 12.24 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 137 male: 13.02 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 11.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 75.51 years country comparison to the world: 83 male: 73.78 years

female: 77.33 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

2.44 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 94

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.1% (2001 est.) country comparison to the world: 161

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA

Nationality:

noun: Qatari(s)

adjective: Qatari

Ethnic groups:

Arab 40%, Indian 18%, Pakistani 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14%

Religions:

Muslim 77.5%, Christian 8.5%, other 14% (2004 census)

Languages:

Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 89%

male: 89.1%

female: 88.6% (2004 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 13 years

male: 12 years

female: 15 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

3.3% of GDP (2005) country comparison to the world: 140

Government ::Qatar

Country name:

conventional long form: State of Qatar

conventional short form: Qatar

local long form: Dawlat Qatar

local short form: Qatar

note: closest approximation of the native pronunciation falls between cutter and gutter, but not like guitar

Government type:

emirate

Capital:

name: Doha

geographic coordinates: 25 17 N, 51 32 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

7 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Khawr wa adh Dhakhirah, Al Wakrah, Ar Rayyan, Ash Shamal, Az Za'ayin, Umm Salal

Independence:

3 September 1971 (from the UK)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 3 September (1971); also observed is National Day, 18 December (anniversary of Al Thani family accession to the throne)

Constitution:

ratified by public referendum on 29 April 2003, endorsed by the Amir on 8 June 2004, effective on 9 June 2005

Legal system:

based on Islamic and civil law codes; discretionary system of law controlled by the Amir, although civil codes are being implemented; Islamic law dominates family and personal matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani (since 27 June 1995 when, as heir apparent, he ousted his father, Amir KHALIFA bin Hamad Al Thani, in a bloodless coup); Heir Apparent TAMIM bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, fourth son of the amir (selected Heir Apparent by the amir on 5 August 2003); note - Amir HAMAD also holds the positions of Minister of Defense and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces

head of government: Prime Minister HAMAD bin Jasim bin Jabir Al Thani (since 3 April 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Abdallah bin Hamad al-ATIYAH (since 3 April 2007)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the amir (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: the amir is hereditary

note: in April 2007, Qatar held nationwide elections for a 29-member Central Municipal Council (CMC), which has limited consultative powers aimed at improving the provision of municipal services; the first election for the CMC was held in March 1999

Legislative branch:

unicameral Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (35 seats; members appointed)

note: no legislative elections have been held since 1970 when there were partial elections to the body; Council members have had their terms extended every year since the new constitution came into force on 9 June 2005; the constitution provides for a new 45-member Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura; the public would elect 30 members and the Amir would appoint 15; elections to the Majlis al-Shura are tentatively scheduled for June 2010

Judicial branch:

Courts of First Instance, Appeal, and Cassation; an Administrative Court and a Constitutional Court were established in 2007; note - all judges are appointed by Amiri Decree based on the recommendation of the Supreme Judiciary Council for renewable three-year terms

Political parties and leaders:

none

Political pressure groups and leaders:

none

International organization participation:

ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CICA (observer), FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA,
NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Ali Fahad al-Shahwany al-HAJRI

chancery: 2555 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037

telephone: [1] (202) 274-1600 and 274-1603
FAX: [1] (202) 237-0061

consulate(s) general: Houston

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph E. LEBARON

embassy: Al-Luqta District, 22 February Road, Doha

mailing address: P. O. Box 2399, Doha

telephone: [974] 488 4161
FAX: [974] 488 4150

Flag description:

maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on the hoist side; maroon represents the blood shed in Qatari wars, white stands for peace; the nine-pointed serrated edge signifies Qatar as the ninth member of the "reconciled emirates" in the wake of the Qatari-British treaty of 1916

note: the other eight emirates are the seven that compose the UAE and Bahrain; according to some sources, the dominant color was formerly red, but this darkened to maroon upon exposure to the sun and the new shade was eventually adopted

National anthem:

name: "Al-Salam Al-Amiri" (The Peace for the Anthem)

lyrics/music: Sheikh MUBARAK bin Saif al-Thani/Abdul Aziz Nasser OBAIDAN

note: adopted 1996; the anthem was first performed that year at a meeting of the Gulf Cooperative Council hosted by Qatar

Economy ::Qatar

Economy - overview:

Despite the global financial crisis, Qatar has prospered in the last several years - in 2010 Qatar had the world's highest growth rate. Qatari authorities throughout the crisis sought to protect the local banking sector with direct investments into domestic banks. GDP rebounded in 2010 largely due to the increase in oil prices. Economic policy is focused on developing Qatar's nonassociated natural gas reserves and increasing private and foreign investment in non-energy sectors, but oil and gas still account for more than 50% of GDP, roughly 85% of export earnings, and 70% of government revenues. Oil and gas have made Qatar the second highest per-capita income country - following Liechtenstein - and likely the country with the lowest unemployment. Proved oil reserves of 15 billion barrels should enable continued output at current levels for 37 years. Qatar's proved reserves of natural gas exceed 25 trillion cubic meters, about 14% of the world total and third largest in the world. Qatar's successful 2022 world cup bid will likely accelerate large-scale infrastructure projects such as Qatar's metro system and the Qatar-Bahrain causeway.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$122.2 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 61 $102.3 billion (2009 est.)

$93.44 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$126.5 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

19.4% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 1 9.5% (2009 est.)

11.7% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$145,300 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 1 $122,800 (2009 est.)

$113,300 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 0.1%

industry: 78.8%

services: 21.1% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

1.254 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 137

Unemployment rate:

0.5% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 2 0.5% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Investment (gross fixed):

33% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 12

Public debt:

10.3% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 122 14% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

1.1% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 23 -4.9% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

5.5% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 80 5.5% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

7.04% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 131 6.84% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$15.98 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 66 $14.59 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$65.95 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 61 $59.09 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$70.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 57 $69.21 billion (31 December 2009)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$87.86 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 42 $76.31 billion (31 December 2008)

$95.49 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

fruits, vegetables; poultry, dairy products, beef; fish

Industries:

liquefied natural gas, crude oil production and refining, ammonia, fertilizers, petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement, commercial ship repair

Industrial production growth rate:

27.1% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 1

Electricity - production:

15.11 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 80

Electricity - consumption:

13.73 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 78

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

1.213 million bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 21

Oil - consumption:

142,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 69

Oil - exports:

753,000 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 22

Oil - imports:

0 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 208

Oil - proved reserves:

25.41 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 12

Natural gas - production:

76.98 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 11

Natural gas - consumption:

20.2 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 33

Natural gas - exports:

56.78 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 5

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 144

Natural gas - proved reserves:

25.47 trillion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 3

Current account balance:

$20.11 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 17 $809 million (2009 est.)

Exports:

$57.82 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 48 $33.28 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

liquefied natural gas (LNG), petroleum products, fertilizers, steel

Exports - partners:

Japan 34.68%, South Korea 22.44%, Singapore 10.03%, India 4.86% (2009)

Imports:

$23.38 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 66 $20.89 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery and transport equipment, food, chemicals

Imports - partners:

US 13.43%, Italy 8.34%, South Korea 8.33%, Japan 8.04%, Germany 7.31%, France 6.26%, UK 5.59%, China 5%, UAE 4.67%, Saudi Arabia 3.96% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$22.41 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 40 $18.81 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$71.38 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 44 $70.37 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$26.38 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 63 $20.75 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$19.49 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 42 $14.27 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

Qatari rials (QAR) per US dollar - 3.64 (2010), 3.64 (2009), 3.64 (2008), 3.64 (2007), 3.64 (2006)

Communications ::Qatar

Telephones - main lines in use:

285,300 (2009) country comparison to the world: 116

Telephones - mobile cellular:

2.472 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 122

Telephone system:

general assessment: modern system centered in Doha

domestic: combined fixed and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership exceeds 300 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 974; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and the US; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and the UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (2009)

Broadcast media:

television and radio broadcast media are state controlled; home of the satellite TV channel Al-Jazeera, which was originally owned and financed by the Qatari Government; Al-Jazeera claims editorial independence in broadcasting; transmissions of several international broadcasters are accessible on FM in Doha (2007)

Internet country code:

.qa

Internet hosts:

822 (2010) country comparison to the world: 170

Internet users:

563,800 (2009) country comparison to the world: 117

Transportation ::Qatar

Airports:

6 (2010) country comparison to the world: 173

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 4

over 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2010)

Heliports:

1 (2010)

Pipelines:

condensate 145 km; condensate/gas 132 km; gas 980 km; liquid petroleum gas 90 km; oil 382 km (2009)

Roadways:

total: 7,790 km (2006) country comparison to the world: 144

Merchant marine:

total: 29 country comparison to the world: 86 by type: bulk carrier 3, chemical tanker 2, container 14, liquefied gas 6, petroleum tanker 4

foreign-owned: 7 (Kuwait 7)

registered in other countries: 30 (Liberia 5, Marshall Islands 24, Panama 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Doha, Mesaieed (Umaieed), Ra's Laffan

Military ::Qatar

Military branches:

Qatari Amiri Land Force (QALF), Qatari Amiri Navy (QAN), Qatari
Amiri Air Force (QAAF) (2009)

Military service age and obligation:

18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2010)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 387,399

females age 16-49: 163,652 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 320,277

females age 16-49: 138,558 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 6,403

female: 5,144 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

10% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 2

Transnational Issues ::Qatar

Disputes - international:

none

Trafficking in persons:

current situation: Qatar is a destination country for men and women from South and Southeast Asia who migrate willingly, but are subsequently trafficked into involuntary servitude as domestic workers and laborers, and, to a lesser extent, commercial sexual exploitation; the most common offense was forcing workers to accept worse contract terms than those under which they were recruited; other conditions include bonded labor, withholding of pay, restrictions on movement, arbitrary detention, and physical, mental, and sexual abuse

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - the Government of Qatar does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in February 2009, Qatar enacted a new migrant worker sponsorship law that criminalizes some practices commonly used by trafficking offenders, and it announced plans to use that law effectively to prevent human trafficking; punishment for offenses related to trafficking in persons remains lower than that for crimes such as rape and kidnapping, and the Qatari government has yet to take significant action to investigate, prosecute, and punish trafficking offenses; the government continues to lack formal victim identification procedures and, as a result, victims of trafficking are likely punished for acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked (2009)

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