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O Ραφαήλ ή Ραφαέλο Σάντσιο (ιταλ. Raffaello Sanzio* 28 Μαρτίου/6 Απριλίου 1483 - 6 Απριλίου 1520) ήταν Ιταλός ζωγράφος και αρχιτέκτονας της ύστερης Αναγέννησης. Υπήρξε ένας από τους επιφανέστερους καλλιτέχνες της εποχής του, του οποίου η φήμη και η αξία υπήρξαν ανάλογες με εκείνες του Μιχαήλ Άγγελου και του Λεονάρντο ντα Βίντσι. Γεννήθηκε στο Ουρμπίνο και μαθήτευσε αρχικά στο πλευρό του πατέρα του, Τζιοβάνι Σάντι, και αργότερα εκπαιδεύτηκε στο εργαστήριο του Περουτζίνο. Παράλληλα, ήρθε νωρίς σε επαφή με κύκλους μορφωμένων ουμανιστών.

Raphael

Paintings

Baglioni-Altar

Baglioni-Altar, Detail

Baglioni-Altar, Detail

Baglioni-Altar, Detail

Bridgewater Madonna

Colonna-Altar

The Knight's Dream


The Small Cowper Madonna

The beautiful gardener , Scene : Mary with Christ Child and John the Baptist

Three Graces


Villa Farnesina ceiling fresco


Villa Farnesina : Triumph of Galatea


Villa Farnesina : Triumph of Galatea , detail


Villa Farnesina : Triumph of Galatea , detail

Holy Family with a Lamb

Holy Family below the Oak


Holy Family under a palm tree , Tondo


St. George Slaying the Dragon


St. George Struggling with the Dragon


St. Catherine of Alexandria


St. Sebastian


Christ Carrying the Cross

Madonna Alba

Madonna Conestabile

Madonna del Granduca

Madonna della Seggiola

Madonna della Tenda

Madonna of the Colonna house

Madonna Esterházy

Madonna of the Meadow


Madonna of the Goldfinch


Madonna Tempi , Scene : Mary with Christ Child


Madonna Terra Nuova


Madonna with the crown

Portrait of Johanna of Aragon

Portrait of Maddalena Doni , born Strozzi

Portrait of Agnolo Doni

Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione

Portrait of Fedra Inghirami

Pope Leo X with two cardinals


Pope Leo X with two cardinals , detail


Pope Leo X with two cardinals , detail


Portrait of a Lady ( The Mute)


Portrait of a Woman (La Velata )


Portrait of a young woman


Portrait of a Young Woman with the Unicorn


Portrait of a young man


Portrait of a Cardinal


Portrait of Pope Julius II


Sacra Familia Canigiani


Sistine Madonna


Stanza della Segnatura , ceiling fresco , detail


Stanza della Segnatura , ceiling fresco , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : Disputa


Stanza della Segnatura : Disputa , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : Disputa , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : Disputa , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : Disputa , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : Disputa , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : Disputa , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : Disputa , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : The School of Athens


Stanza della Segnatura : The School of Athens , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : The School of Athens , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : The School of Athens , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : The School of Athens , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : The School of Athens , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : The School of Athens , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : The School of Athens , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : The School of Athens , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : The School of Athens , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : The School of Athens , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : The School of Athens , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : The School of Athens , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : The School of Athens , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : The Parnassus


Stanza della Segnatura : The Parnassus , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : The Parnassus , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : The Parnassus , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : The Parnassus , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : The Parnassus , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : Allegory of Virtue


Stanza della Segnatura : Allegory of Virtue , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : Allegory of Virtue , detail


Stanza della Segnatura : Allegory of Virtue , detail


Stanza of Heliodorus : Expulsion of Heliodorus


Stanza of Heliodorus : Expulsion of Heliodorus , detail


Stanza of Heliodorus : Mass of Bolsena , Detail


Stanza of Heliodorus : Mass of Bolsena , Detail


Stanza of Heliodorus : Mass of Bolsena , Detail


Stanza of Heliodorus : Mass of Bolsena , Detail


Stanza of Heliodorus : Mass of Bolsena , Detail


Stanza of Heliodorus : Release of Peter , detail


Stanza of Heliodorus : Release of Peter , detail


Stanza of Heliodorus : Release of Peter , detail

Transfiguration of Christ

Transfiguration of Christ , detail


Marriage of Mary

Vision of St. Ezekiel, Prophet

Allegory

Cardinal Tommaso Inghirami

Marriage Of The Virgin

Portrait of a Young Woman

Portrait of Bindo Altoviti

Portrait of Maddalena Doni

Saint Michael and the Dragon

Self-Portrait

St Paul Preaching in Athens

The Death of Ananias

The Granduca Madonna

The Holy Family with Saints Elizabeth and John

The Parnassus

The Vision of Ezekiel

Drawings

The Last Supper


The Last Supper in a hall


The Last Supper study


Nude


Nude


Nude


Nudes Study


Nudes Study


Nudes Study fighting youths


Allegory of Grammatica


Adoration of the Child on the saddle


Adoration of the Child with Pope Julius II


Ancient studies


Architectural details from the Pantheon in Rome, beams tore


Architectural details from the Pantheon in Rome, cross-section through wall profiling


Architectural sketches to St. Peter's in Rome


View of the Forum Romanum


Bridgewater Madonna


Bust of a Saint


Cherubskopf ( child's head )


Christ in Glory


The Holy Family


The reading Madonna


Poetry


Three fighters


Three naked youths


Design for the gardens of the Villa Madama


Design for the Libreria Piccolomini


Design for the Libreria Piccolomini


Design for the Libreria Piccolomini


Design for the loggias in the Vatican, "David and Goliath "


Design for the loggias in the Vatican, "Moses receiving the Tablets of the Law "


Design for the loggias in the Vatican, " Expulsion from Paradise "



Design for the Norton Simon Madonna


Design for the Norton Simon Madonna


Standard-bearer


Figure of a standing woman


Fleeing youths


Crucified


Winning , naked man


Garment study and Angels


Plan of the Chigi Chapel in Santa Maria del Popolo in Rome


Outline of Chigi.Kapelle in Santa Maria del Popolo in Rome


Hand Study with book


Hanging act


Hanging male nude


Hercules fighting the Hydra


Hercules and the Nemean Lion


Hercules and the Centaur


Hercules rips the lion


Assumption of Mary


St. Apollonia


St. Blaise


Holy Family


Holy Family in the stable


St. Jerome in the Desert


St. Margaret


St. Mary Magdalene


St. Sebastian


St. Sebastian in half figure


Wedding of Alexander and Roxane


Wedding of Alexander and Roxane


Interior of the Pantheon in Rome


Young saint, praying


Young warrior with shield and spear


Youths on a slope


Battle of Hercules with the Centaurs


Fighting


fight scene


fight scene


fight scene


fight scene


Cardboard fragment for " St. Family with a Pearl Earring , " Madonna head


Child with bird


Kneeling Saints


Kneeling Madonna


Kneeling Madonna


Kneeling youth


Kneeling youth


Head of a Woman


Head of a Mater Dolorosa


Head of an old man


Head of an upward -looking man


Head of St. Jerome


Head of a Young Man ( Self-Portrait)


Head of a laughing child


Head of a Man


Head of a Man


Head of a man with beret


head Study


head Study


Descent from the Cross


Landscape with Ruins


Leda and the Swan


reading Madonna


Reading Madonna with Child


Lictor , Roma and torch wearer


Girl in profile


Madonna


Madonna Esterházy


Madonna lactans


Madonna lactans


Madonna of the Pomegranate


Madonna


Madonna with Child


Madonna with Child and Angels


Madonna embracing the Child


Madonna and St. Elizabeth


Madonna adored by angels


Madonna adored by angels


Madonna in front of landscape


Madonnas study


Madonna studies


Madonna studies


Madonna studies


Man in a fight scene


male Nude


male Nude


Male Nude with book


Annunciation


Coronation of the Virgin with Sts . Peter and Paul and Sts . Jerome and Francis


Musicians


Nude young man with folded hands


horse study


physiognomic studies


Pietà


Portrait of a Cardinal


Portrait of a boy


Portrait of a girl


Portrait of a girl


Portrait (Self Portrait ? )


Profile Head of a Doge


putti head


Abduction of Helen


Rider study


Michelangelo's "David"


Sacra conversatione


Rocking Putto


Our Lady of Sorrows and St. Peter


Walking woman


self-portrait


Seated Madonna


Seated Saint


Sitting young man


Sitting child


Sitting skeleton


Playing cupids


Playing cupids


Standing Male Nude


Standing Male Nude


Standing philosopher


Standing philosopher and Apollo


Bickering Putti


Study for "God appears Moses "


Study for "God appears Moses "


Study for "God appears to Moses "


Study for " St. Catherine of Alexandria "


Study for " St. Catherine of Alexandria "



Study for altar paintings


Study for altar paintings


Study for altar paintings


Study for altar paintings


Study for "Madonna with the canopy "


Study for "Madonna with the canopy "


Study for "Madonna with the canopy "


Study for "Madonna with the canopy "


Study for "Madonna with the canopy "


Study for "Madonna with the canopy "


Theology


Study for the Sala di Constantino


Study for the Sala di Constantino


Study for the Sala di Constantino


Study for the Sala di Constantino


Study for the Sala di Constantino


Study for the Sala di Constantino


Study for the Sala di Constantino


Study for the Sala di Constantino


Study for the Sala di Constantino


Study for the Sala di Constantino


Study for the Sala di Constantino


Study for the Stanza d' Eliodoro


Study for the Stanza d' Eliodoro


Study for the grisaille in the Stanza della Segnatura


Study for the grisaille in the Stanza della Segnatura


Study for the grisaille in the Stanza della Segnatura


Study on " Lady and the Unicorn "


Study on " The beautiful gardener "


Study on " The beautiful gardener "


Study on " Galathea "


Study on " Holy Family Canigniani "


Study on " Holy Family Canigniani "


Study on " Holy Family Canigniani "


Study on " Holy Family Canigniani "


Study on " Holy Family with the palm "


Study on " Holy George with a spear "


Study on " Holy George with a spear "


Study on " Holy George with sword and dragon "


Study on " Holy Michael "


Study on " Holy Trinity with Saints "


Study on "Madonna of the Goldfinch "


Study on "Madonna of the Goldfinch "


Study on the " Borgo fire "


Study on » Baglioni Altar "


Massacre of the Innocents


Massacre of the Innocents


Massacre of the Innocents


Massacre of the Innocents


Study on the " Borgo fire "


Study on the " Borgo fire "


Study on the " Borgo fire "


Study on the " Borgo fire "


Study on the " Colonna Altarpiece "


Study on " Parnassus "


Study on " Parnassus "


Study on " Parnassus "


Study on " Parnassus "


Study on " Parnassus "


Study on " Parnassus "


Study on " Parnassus "


Study on " Parnassus "


Study on " Parnassus "


Study on " Parnassus "


Study on " Parnassus "


Study on " Parnassus "


Study on " Parnassus "


Study on "The Judgment of Solomon "


Study on "The Judgment of Solomon "


Study on Jesus and Saint John the Baptist


Peter's call


Peter's call


Peter's call


Peter's call


Peter's call


Blinding of Elymas


Sacrifice of Lystra


Sacrifice of Lystra


Sermon of Paul in Athens


Stoning of St. Stephen


Study on the "Resurrection of Christ"


Study on the "Resurrection of Christ"


Study on the "Resurrection of Christ"


Study on the "Resurrection of Christ"


Study on the "Resurrection of Christ"


Study on the "Resurrection of Christ"


Study on the "Resurrection of Christ"


Study on the "liberation of St Peter"


Study on the "encounter with Pope Leo I. Attila "


Study on the "encounter with Pope Leo I. Attila ," Horsehead


Study on » Disputa "


Study on » Disputa "


Study on » Disputa "


Study on » Disputa "


Study on » Disputa "


Studies on » Disputa "


Study on » Disputa ," nudes


Study on » Disputa ," nudes


Study on » Disputa ," nudes


Study on » Disputa ," nudes


Study on » Disputa "


Studies on » Disputa "


Study on » Disputa " drapery


Studies on » Disputa "


Studies on » Disputa "


Studies on » Disputa "


Study on » Disputa "


Study on » Disputa "


Study on » Disputa "


Study on » Disputa "


Studies on » Disputa "


Studies on » Disputa "


Study on » Disputa " back nude


Study on » Disputa "


Studies on » Disputa "


Studies on » Disputa "


Studies on » Disputa "


Study on the " Entombment of Christ"


Study on the " Entombment of Christ"


Study on the " Entombment of Christ"


Study on the " Entombment of Christ"


Study on the " Entombment of Christ"


Study on the " Entombment of Christ"


Study on the " Entombment of Christ"


Study on the " Entombment of Christ"


Study on the " Entombment of Christ"


Study on the " Entombment of Christ"


Study on the " Entombment of Christ"


Study on the " Entombment of Christ"


Study on the " Entombment of Christ"


Study on the " Entombment of Christ"


Study on the " Entombment of Christ"


Study on the " Holy Cecilia "


Study on the " Holy Family Franz I. "


Study on the " Holy Family Franz I. "


Study on the " Holy Family Franz I. "


Study on the " Holy Family with the Pomegranate "


Study on » Jurisprudenzia "


Study on » Jurisprudenzia "


Study on » Jurisprudenzia "


Study on the " Cross of Christ"


Study on the " Cross of Christ"


Study on the " Cross of Christ"


Study on the " Coronation of Charlemagne "


Study on the " Coronation of Charlemagne "


Study on the " Coronation of Charlemagne "


Study on the Madonna d' Alba


Study on the Madonna d' Alba


Study on the "Madonna d' Alba ," Madonna d' Alba


Study on the " Madonna of the Meadow "


Study on the " Madonna of the Meadow "


Study on the " Madonna of the Meadow "


Study on the " Madonna of the Meadow "


Study on the " Madonna of the Meadow "


Study on the "Madonna with the Fish "


Study on the "Madonna with the Fish "


Study on the "Madonna with the Fish ," head of the Archangel Raphael


Study on the "Madonna Tempi "


Study on the " Coronation of the Virgin "


Study on the " Coronation of the Virgin ," Apostle group


Study on the " Coronation of the Virgin "


Study on the " Coronation of the Virgin "


Study on the " Coronation of the Virgin "


Study on the " Coronation of the Virgin "


Study on the " Coronation of the Virgin "


Study on the " Coronation of the Virgin "


Study on the " Coronation of the Virgin "


Study on the " Coronation of the Virgin "


Study on the " Coronation of the Virgin "


Study on the " Coronation of the Virgin "


Study on the " Mass of Bolsena "


Study on the " Battle of Ostia "


Study of the 'beautiful gardener '


Study of the 'beautiful gardener '


Study on the " School of Athens "


Study on the " School of Athens "


Study on the " School of Athens "


Study on the " School of Athens "


Study on the " School of Athens "


Study on the " School of Athens "


Study on the " Sistine Madonna"


Study on " Transfiguration "


Study on " Transfiguration "


Study on " Transfiguration "


Study on " Transfiguration "


Study on " Transfiguration "


Study on " Transfiguration "


Study on " Transfiguration "


Study on " Transfiguration "


Study on " Transfiguration "


Study on " Transfiguration "


Study on " Transfiguration "


Study on " Transfiguration "


Study on " Transfiguration "


Study for " marriage Mary "


Study on the " Expulsion of Heliodorus "


Study on the " Expulsion of Heliodorus "


Study on the " Expulsion of Heliodorus " figure study


Study on the " Expulsion of Heliodorus "


Study on the dome of the Chigi Chapel


Study on the dome of the Chigi Chapel


Study on the dome of the Chigi Chapel


Study on the dome of the Chigi Chapel


Study on the psyche loggia


Study on the psyche loggia


Study on the psyche loggia


Study on the psyche loggia


Study on the psyche loggia


Study on the psyche loggia


Study on the psyche loggia


Study on the psyche loggia


Study on the psyche loggia


Study on the psyche loggia


Study on the psyche loggia


Study on the psyche loggia


Study on the psyche loggia


Study on the psyche loggia


Study on the psyche loggia


Study on the psyche loggia


Studies on "Madonna d' Aldobrandini ," head studies


Studies on the boy Jesus


Studies on the Fall


Studies on » Disputa "


Studies on the " Madonna of the Meadow "


Studies on the Chigi Chapel


Studies on the Chigi Chapel


Studies on the Chigi Chapel


Studies on the Chigi Chapel


Studies on the Chigi Chapel


Studies on the Chigi Chapel


Studies on the Chigi Chapel


Studies on the Chigi Chapel


Studies on the Chigi Chapel


Studies on the Chigi Chapel


Studies on the Chigi Chapel


study sheet


study sheet


study sheet


study sheet


study sheet


Storming of Perugia


Madonna with St. Nicholas of Tolentino


Dream of the Knight


Urania in view of the stars


Venus


Veiled female figure


Betrothal of St. Catherine


Four young warriors


Portico of the Pantheon in Rome


Guard and angels


Two shepherds , nudes


Two standing male nude

Τα πρώιμα έργα του χρονολογούνται στις αρχές του 16ου αιώνα και φιλοτεχνήθηκαν κατά κύριο λόγο στην Περούτζια, πριν εγκατασταθεί στη Φλωρεντία και αργότερα στη Ρώμη. Εκεί ολοκλήρωσε ορισμένα από τα σπουδαιότερα έργα του, μεταξύ των οποίων οι τοιχογραφίες στο Βατικανό. Αυτά τα έργα ακολούθησαν τη λεγόμενη «Σχολή των Αθηνών», ως έκφραση κλασικής τέχνης. Ως αρχιτέκτων προσανατολίστηκε στις επιλογές του Μπραμάντε, μετά το θάνατο του οποίου ανέλαβε τη διεύθυνση των έργων στην εκκλησία του Αγίου Πέτρου. Πέθανε απρόσμενα σε ηλικία 37 ετών στη Ρώμη. Χαρακτηρίζεται ως ένας από τους σημαντικότερους ζωγράφους της Ευρώπης, του οποίο το έργο θαυμάζεται για την καθαρότητα της φόρμας του και τη δεξιοτεχνία του.

Βιογραφία


Ο Ραφαήλ γεννήθηκε το 1483 στο δουκάτο του Ουρμπίνο, το οποίο αποτελούσε την εποχή εκείνη σημαντικό πνευματικό κέντρο, κατά την περίοδο της ηγεμονίας του Φεντερίκο ντα Μοντεφέλτρο. Ο πατέρας του, Τζοβάνι Σάντι, ήταν διακεκριμένος ζωγράφος που συχνά πρόσφερε τις υπηρεσίες του στην Αυλή του δούκα και έχαιρε επίσης ιδιαίτερης εκτίμησης ως ποιητής και χρονικογράφος. Πέθανε όταν ο Ραφαήλ ήταν μόλις στην ηλικία των έντεκα ετών και ενώ τρία χρόνια νωρίτερα είχε ήδη σημειωθεί ο θάνατος της μητέρας του ονόματι Μάγια ντι Μπατίστα Κιάρλα. Υπήρξε ο πρώτος δάσκαλος του γιου του στη ζωγραφική, ο οποίος σύμφωνα με τον Τζόρτζιο Βαζάρι μαθήτευσε αργότερα στο πλευρό του Περουτζίνο, στην Περούτζια. Ο τελευταίος αποτελούσε έναν από τους πλέον διακεκριμένους και επιτυχημένους ζωγράφους της εποχής, αναλαμβάνοντας την εκπαίδευση του Ραφαήλ ενώ βρισκόταν στην κορυφή της δόξας του. Η άφιξή του στην Περούτζια και η έναρξη της συνεργασίας του με τον Περουτζίνο δεν έχει προσδιοριστεί με ακρίβεια, ωστόσο τοποθετείται περίπου το 1495.

Η πρώτη επίσημη καταγραφή της δραστηριότητας του χρονολογείται στις 10 Δεκεμβρίου του 1500, σύμφωνα με έγγραφο που πιστοποιεί πως ανέλαβε να φιλοτεχνήσει ένα ιερό, με προθεσμία έως το Σεπτέμβριο του 1502. Ανέλαβε τις πρώτες παραγγελίες έργων του για εκκλησίες στη Τσιτά ντι Καστέλο και στην Περούτζια, πόλεις που βρίσκονταν σε μικρή απόσταση από το Ουρμπίνο, ενώ φιλοτέχνησε επίσης τα σχέδια για μία σειρά νωπογραφιών για τη Biblioteca Piccolomini της Σιένα, έργο που ανέλαβε να ολοκληρώσει ο Μπερνάρντινο Πιντουρίκιο. Η πιθανώς παλαιότερη και άθικτη μέχρι σήμερα εικόνα που φιλοτέχνησε για την εκκλησία του Αγίου Δομήνικου στη Τσιτά ντι Καστέλο, μία σύνθεση με θέμα τη σταύρωση του Χριστού (π.1502-3, Εθνική Πινακοθήκη Λονδίνου), παρουσιάζει αρκετά κοινά στοιχεία με έργα του Περουτζίνο, γεγονός που μαρτυρά την επίδραση του τελευταίου στην τεχνοτροπία του Ραφαήλ.

Ζωγράφοι

Από τη ελληνική Βικιπαίδεια http://el.wikipedia.org . Όλα τα κείμενα είναι διαθέσιμα υπό την GNU Free Documentation License