- Art Gallery -

 

.

Italy, See : Flags, Maps

Arco

Bellagio

Como : Images

Florence : Images

Genoa : Images

Milan : Images

Naples : Images

Rome : Images

Sanremo

Turin : Images

Venice : Images

Italy, Gallery

Italy, the Magic Land, Lilian Whiting

Rambles in Rome, by S. Russell Forbes

Pagan and Christian Rome, Rodolfo Lanciani

Romance of Roman Villas, Elizabeth Williams Champney

Venice and its Story, by Thomas Okey

A Wanderer in Venice, E.V. Lucas

Florence and Northern Tuscany with Genoa , Edward Hutton

Vistas in Sicily , Arthur Stanley Riggs

The Private Life of the Romans, Harold Whetstone Johnston

The Women of the Caesars, Guglielmo Ferrero

The Story of Assisi, Lina Duff Gordon

The Memoirs of Count Carlo Gozzi; Volume 1, Count Carlo Gozzi

Lucretia Borgia, Ferdinand Gregorovius

NL

Italië in de Middeleeuwen, H. B. Cotterill

Art

Artist from Italy

Painting in the Age of Giotto: A Historical Reevaluation, Andrew Ladis, Hayden B. J. Maginnis

The drawings of Raphael: with a complete catalogue, Paul Joannides

The Cambridge companion to Raphael , Marcia B. Hall

Michelangelo - Painter, Sculptor, And Architect

Michelangelo's Medici Chapel: a new interpretation, Edith Balas

Michelangelo's Theory of Art

Lessons from Michelangelo

The Drawings of Michelangelo and His Followers in the Ashmolean Museum

Venetian Painting in America, The fifteenth Century

The Central Italian Painters of the Renaissance

North Italian Painters of the Renaissance

The Florentine Painters of the Renaissance

The Study and Criticism of Italian Art

Caravaggio: art courses. Andrea Pomella

Evolution in Italian art; with sixty-five reproductions from photographs

Sacred Possessions: Collecting Italian Religious Art, 1500-1900, Gail Feigenbaum, Sybille Ebert-Schifferer, Galina Tirnanić

The Artemisia files: Artemisia Gentileschi for feminists and other thinking people, Mieke Bal

Italian and Spanish sculpture: catalogue of the J. Paul Getty Museum collection, Peggy Fogelman, Peter Fusco, Marietta Cambareri

Italian memorial sculpture, 1820-1940: a legacy of love, Sandra Berresford, Robert W. Fichter, Robert Freidus

Giambattista Tiepolo: fifteen oil sketches, Jon L. Seydl

Tiepolo's Cleopatra, Jaynie Anderson

Domenico Tiepolo, master draftsman, Adelheid M. Gealt, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, George Knox, Indiana University, Bloomington. Art Museum

Italy (Europe)

Introduction ::Italy

Italy National Anthem

Background:

Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy is a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include sluggish economic growth, high youth and female unemployment, organized crime, corruption, and economic disparities between southern Italy and the more prosperous north.

Geography ::Italy


View Larger Map

Location:

Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central
Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia

Geographic coordinates:
42 50 N, 12 50 E

Map references:

Europe

Area:

total: 301,340 sq km country comparison to the world: 71 land: 294,140 sq km

water: 7,200 sq km

note: includes Sardinia and Sicily

Area - comparative:

slightly larger than Arizona

Land boundaries:

total: 1,899.2 km

border countries: Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 199 km, Switzerland 740 km

Coastline:

7,600 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate:

predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south

Terrain:

mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) de Courmayeur 4,748 m (a secondary peak of Mont Blanc)

Natural resources:

coal, mercury, zinc, potash, marble, barite, asbestos, pumice, fluorspar, feldspar, pyrite (sulfur), natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, arable land

Land use:

arable land: 26.41%

permanent crops: 9.09%

other: 64.5% (2005)

Irrigated land:

27,500 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

175 cu km (2005)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 41.98 cu km/yr (18%/37%/45%)

per capita: 723 cu m/yr (1998)

Natural hazards:

regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice

volcanism: Italy experiences significant volcanic activity; Etna (elev. 3,330 m, 10,925 ft), which is in eruption as of 2010, is Europe's most active volcano; flank eruptions pose a threat to nearby Sicilian villages; Etna, along with the famous Vesuvius, which remains a threat to the millions of nearby residents in the Bay of Naples area, have both been deemed "Decade Volcanoes" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Stromboli, on its namesake island, has also been continuously active with moderate volcanic activity; other historically active volcanoes include Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Larderello, Pantelleria, Vulcano, and Vulsini

Environment - current issues:

air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85,
Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources,
Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe

People ::Italy

Population:

58,090,681 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 23

Age structure:

0-14 years: 13.5% (male 4,056,156/female 3,814,070)

15-64 years: 66.3% (male 19,530,696/female 18,981,084)

65 years and over: 20.2% (male 4,903,762/female 6,840,444) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 43.7 years

male: 42.3 years

female: 45.3 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

-0.075% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 208

Birth rate:

8.01 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 220

Death rate:

10.83 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 42

Net migration rate:

2.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 41

Urbanization:

urban population: 68% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 0.4% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.066 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 5.41 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 182 male: 5.96 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 80.33 years country comparison to the world: 23 male: 77.39 years

female: 83.46 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.32 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 207

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.4% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 82

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

150,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 36

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

1,900 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 62

Nationality:

noun: Italian(s)

adjective: Italian

Ethnic groups:

Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and
Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and
Greek-Italians in the south)

Religions:

Roman Catholic 90% (approximately; about one-third practicing), other 10% (includes mature Protestant and Jewish communities and a growing Muslim immigrant community)

Languages:

Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.4%

male: 98.8%

female: 98% (2001 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 16 years

male: 16 years

female: 17 years (2007)

Education expenditures:

4.3% of GDP (2007) country comparison to the world: 99


Government :: ITALY
Country name:
conventional long form: Italian Republic
conventional short form: Italy
local long form: Repubblica Italiana
local short form: Italia
former: Kingdom of Italy
etymology: derivation is unclear, but the Latin "Italia" may come from the Oscan "Viteliu" meaning "[land] of young cattle" (the bull was a symbol of southern Italic tribes)
Government type:
parliamentary republic
Capital:
name: Rome
geographic coordinates: 41 54 N, 12 29 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
15 regions (regioni, singular - regione) and 5 autonomous regions (regioni autonome, singular - regione autonoma)
regions: Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Lazio (Latium), Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte (Piedmont), Puglia (Apulia), Toscana (Tuscany), Umbria, Veneto (Venetia)
autonomous regions: Friuli-Venezia Giulia; Sardegna (Sardinia); Sicilia (Sicily); Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-South Tyrol) or Trentino-Suedtirol (German); Valle d'Aosta (Aosta Valley) or Vallee d'Aoste (French)
Independence:
17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1871)
National holiday:
Republic Day, 2 June (1946)
Constitution:
history: previous 1848 (originally for the Kingdom of Sardinia and adopted by the Kingdom of Italy in 1861); latest enacted 22 December 1947, adopted 27 December 1947, entered into force 1 January 1948
amendments: proposed by both houses of Parliament; passage requires two successive debates and approval by absolute majority of each house on the second vote; a referendum is only required when requested by one-fifth of the members of either house, by voter petition, or by five Regional Councils (elected legislative assemblies of the 15 first-level administrative regions and 5 autonomous regions of Italy); amended many times, last in 2012; note - a referendum held on 4 December 2016 on constitutional amendments was defeated (2016)
Legal system:
civil law system; judicial review of legislation under certain conditions in Constitutional Court
International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship:
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Italy
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years for EU nationals, 5 years for refugees and specified exceptions, 10 years for all others
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Sergio MATTARELLA (since 3 February 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Paolo GENTILONI (since 12 December 2016); note - Prime Minister Matteo RENZI (since 22 February 2014) resigned 12 December 2016; the prime minister's official title is President of the Council of Ministers
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and nominated by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of Parliament and 58 regional representatives for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 31 January 2015 (next scheduled for 2020); prime minister appointed by the president, confirmed by parliament
election results: Georgio MATTARELLA (PD) elected president; electoral college vote count in fourth round - 665 out of 1,009 (505-vote threshold); Paolo GENTILONI (PD) sworn in as prime minister on 12 December 2016
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of the Senate or Senato della Repubblica (322 seats; 315 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and 7 ex-officio members appointed by the president of the Republic to serve for life) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati (630 seats; 629 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member from Valle d'Aosta elected by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - center-left coalition 123 (PD 111, SEL 7, SVP 2, other 3), center-right coalition 117 (PdL 98, LN 18, other 1), M5S 54, centrist coalition 19, other 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - center-left coalition 345 (PD 297, SEL 37, CD 6 SVP 5), center-right coalition 125 (PdL 98, LN 18, FdI 9), M5S 109, centrist coalition 47, other 3
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation or Corte Suprema di Cassazione consists of the first president (chief justice), deputy president, 54 justices presiding over 6 civil and 7 criminal divisions, and 288 judges; an additional 30 judges of lower courts serve as supporting judges; cases normally heard by 5-judge panels; more complex cases heard by 9-judge panels; Constitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale (consists of the court president and 14 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the High Council of the Judiciary, headed by the president of the republic; judges may serve for life; Constitutional Court judges - 5 appointed by the president, 5 elected by parliament, 5 elected by select higher courts; judges serve up to 9 years
subordinate courts: various lower civil and criminal courts (primary and secondary tribunals, courts, and courts of appeal)
Political parties and leaders:
Ruling left-center-right coalition:
Civic Choice or SC [Enrico ZANETTI]
Democratic Centre or CD [Bruno TABACCI]
Democratic Party or PD [Matteo RENZI]
The New Center-Right or NCD [Angelino ALFANO]
Center-right opposition:
Brothers of Italy-National Alliance or FdI-AN [Giorgia MELONI, Ignazio LA RUSSA, and Guido CROSETTO]
Forza Italia [Silvio BERLUSCONI] (formerly PdL)
Northern League or LN [Matteo SALVINI]
other minor parties
Center-left opposition:
Left Ecology Freedom [Nichi VENDOLA]
Other parties:
Civil Revolution or RC [Antonio INGROIA]
Five Star Movment or M5S [Beppe GRILLO]
South Tyrolean People's Party or SVP [Philipp ACHAMMER]
Union of the Center or UdC [Pier Fernando CASINI]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
manufacturers and merchants associations: Confcommercio
Confindustria
organized farm groups: Confcoltivatori
Confagricoltura
major trade union confederations: Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Susanna CAMUSSO] (left wing)
Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Raffaele BONANNI] (Roman Catholic centrist)
Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI] (lay centrist)
other: Roman Catholic Church
International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CDB, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Armando VARRICCHIO (since 2 March 2016)
chancery: 3000 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 612-4400
FAX: [1] (202) 518-2151
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco
consulate(s): Charlotte (NC), Cleveland (OH), Detroit (MI), Hattiesburg (MS), Honolulu (HI), New Orleans, Newark (NJ), Norfolk (VA), Pittsburgh (PA), Portland (OR), Seattle
consular agency(ies): Anchorage (AL), Charleston (SC), Worcester (MA)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John R. PHILLIPS (since 3 October 2013); note - also accredited to San Marino
embassy: Via Vittorio Veneto 121, 00187-Rome
mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100, APO AE 09624
telephone: [39] (06) 46741
FAX: [39] (06) 4674-2244
consulate(s) general: Florence, Milan, Naples
consular agency(ies): Anchorage (AK), Charleston (SC), Worcester (MA)
Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; design inspired by the French flag brought to Italy by Napoleon in 1797; colors are those of Milan (red and white) combined with the green uniform color of the Milanese civic guard
note: similar to the flag of Mexico, which is longer, uses darker shades of red and green, and has its coat of arms centered on the white band; Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green
National symbol(s):
white, five-pointed star (Stella d'Italia); national colors: red, white, green
National anthem:
name: "Il Canto degli Italiani" (The Song of the Italians)
lyrics/music: Goffredo MAMELI/Michele NOVARO
note: adopted 1946; the anthem, originally written in 1847, is also known as "L'Inno di Mameli" (Mameli's Hymn), and "Fratelli D'Italia" (Brothers of Italy)

Economy :: ITALY
Economy - overview:
Italy has a diversified economy, which is divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less-developed, highly subsidized, agricultural south, where unemployment is higher. The Italian economy is driven in large part by the manufacture of high-quality consumer goods produced by small and medium-sized enterprises, many of them family-owned. Italy also has a sizable underground economy, which by some estimates accounts for as much as 17% of GDP. These activities are most common within the agriculture, construction, and service sectors.
Italy is the third-largest economy in the euro zone, but its exceptionally high public debt and structural impediments to growth have rendered it vulnerable to scrutiny by financial markets. Public debt has increased steadily since 2007, topping 135% of GDP in 2015, but investor concerns about Italy and the broader euro-zone crisis eased in 2013, bringing down Italy's borrowing costs on sovereign government debt from euro-era records. The government still faces pressure from investors and European partners to sustain its efforts to address Italy's longstanding structural impediments to growth, such as labor market inefficiencies and tax evasion. In 2014, economic growth and labor market conditions continued to deteriorate, with overall unemployment rising to 12.7% and youth unemployment around 40%, but Italy began to recover in 2015, with marginal growth and a slight reduction in unemployment.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$2.221 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.204 trillion (2015 est.)
$2.187 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 13
GDP (official exchange rate):
$1.852 trillion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
0.8% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2015 est.)
-0.3% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$36,300 (2016 est.)
$36,300 (2015 est.)
$36,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 53
Gross national saving:
18.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
19% of GDP (2015 est.)
18.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 60.9%
government consumption: 18.8%
investment in fixed capital: 16.5%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 29.7%
imports of goods and services: -26.1% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 2.2%
industry: 23.9%
services: 73.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products:
fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; beef, dairy products; fish
Industries:
tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics
Industrial production growth rate:
0.8% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
Labor force:
25.6 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 3.9%
industry: 28.3%
services: 67.8% (2011)
Unemployment rate:
11.4% (2016 est.)
11.9% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
Population below poverty line:
29.9% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 26.8% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
31.9 (2012 est.)
27.3 (1995)
country comparison to the world: 112
Budget:
revenues: $842.5 billion
expenditures: $889.8 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
45.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-2.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
Public debt:
132.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
132.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: Italy reports its data on public debt according to guidelines set out in the Maastricht Treaty; general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the
country comparison to the world: 4
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-0.2% (2016 est.)
0.1% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Central bank discount rate:
0.25% (31 December 2013)
0.75% (31 December 2012)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
country comparison to the world: 135
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
3.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.13% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
Stock of narrow money:
$1.069 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.026 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of
country comparison to the world: 7
Stock of broad money:
$2.134 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$2.284 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Stock of domestic credit:
$2.97 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.053 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$480.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$587.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$615.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
Current account balance:
$40.23 billion (2016 est.)
$39.91 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Exports:
$436.3 billion (2016 est.)
$450.1 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Exports - commodities:
engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco; minerals, nonferrous metals
Exports - partners:
Germany 12.3%, France 10.3%, US 8.7%, UK 5.4%, Spain 4.8%, Switzerland 4.7% (2015)
Imports:
$372.2 billion (2016 est.)
$391.2 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
Imports - commodities:
engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages, tobacco
Imports - partners:
Germany 15.4%, France 8.7%, China 7.7%, Netherlands 5.6%, Spain 5%, Belgium 4.7% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$130.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$142.2 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
Debt - external:
$2.444 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$2.3 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$472.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$463.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$610.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$594.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)

Energy :: ITALY
Panel - Expanded
Electricity - production:
267 billion kWh (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
Electricity - consumption:
291 billion kWh (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Electricity - exports:
3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
Electricity - imports:
47 billion kWh (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
122 million kW (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
58.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
11.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
23.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Crude oil - production:
100,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Crude oil - exports:
24,640 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
Crude oil - imports:
1.395 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Crude oil - proved reserves:
544.5 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
country comparison to the world: 50
Refined petroleum products - production:
1.578 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
1.266 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
Refined petroleum products - exports:
533,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Refined petroleum products - imports:
261,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
Natural gas - production:
7.149 billion cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Natural gas - consumption:
61.91 billion cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Natural gas - exports:
237 million cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Natural gas - imports:
55.76 billion cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Natural gas - proved reserves:
53.72 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
country comparison to the world: 62
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
362 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19

Communications :: ITALY
Panel - Expanded
Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 20,236,305
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (July 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 92.52 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 150 (July 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
Telephone system:
general assessment: modern, well-developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services
domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks
international: country code - 39; a series of submarine cables provide links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean (2015)
Broadcast media:
two Italian media giants dominate - the publicly owned Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI) with 3 national terrestrial stations and privately owned Mediaset with 3 national terrestrial stations; a large number of private stations and Sky Italia - a satellite (2007)
Internet country code:
.it
Internet users:
total: 40.559 million
percent of population: 65.6% (July 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18

Transportation :: ITALY
Panel - Expanded
National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 9
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 382
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 26,036,010
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 945,433,732 mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
I (2016)
Airports:
129 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 45
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 98
over 3,047 m: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 31
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 29
under 914 m: 11 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 31
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 20 (2013)
Heliports:
5 (2013)
Pipelines:
gas 20,223 km; oil 1,393 km; refined products 1,574 km (2013)
Railways:
total: 20,181.7 km
standard gauge: 18,770.1 km 1.435-m gauge (12,893.6 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 122.3 km 1.000-m gauge (122.3 km electrified); 1,289.3 km 0.950-m gauge (151.3 km electrified) (2014)
country comparison to the world: 14
Roadways:
total: 487,700 km
paved: 487,700 km (includes 6,700 km of expressways) (2007)
country comparison to the world: 15
Waterways:
2,400 km (used for commercial traffic; of limited overall value compared to road and rail) (2012)
country comparison to the world: 36
Merchant marine:
total: 681
by type: bulk carrier 105, cargo 42, carrier 1, chemical tanker 164, container 21, liquefied gas 28, passenger 25, passenger/cargo 154, petroleum tanker 59, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 39, specialized tanker 9, vehicle carrier 30
foreign-owned: 90 (Denmark 4, France 2, Greece 7, Luxembourg 14, Netherlands 2, Nigeria 1, Norway 6, Singapore 1, Sweden 1, Switzerland 13, Taiwan 10, Turkey 4, UK 2, US 23)
registered in other countries: 201 (Bahamas 1, Belize 3, Cayman Islands 7, Cyprus 6, Georgia 2, Gibraltar 4, Greece 5, Liberia 47, Malta 45, Marshall Islands 1, Morocco 1, Netherlands 6, Panama 25, Portugal 12, Russia 14, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4, Singapore 5, Slovakia 2, Spain 1 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 17
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Augusta, Cagliari, Genoa, Livorno, Taranto, Trieste, Venice
oil terminals: Melilli (Santa Panagia) oil terminal, Sarroch oil terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Genoa (1,847,648), Gioia Tauro (2,264,798), La Spezia (1,307,274)
LNG terminal(s) (import): La Spezia, Panigaglia, Porto Levante

Military and Security :: ITALY
Panel - Expanded
Military branches:
Italian Armed Forces: Army (Esercito Italiano, EI), Navy (Marina Militare Italiana, MMI), Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana, AMI), Carabinieri Corps (Arma dei Carabinieri, CC), Financial Guard (Guardia di Finanza) (2015)
Military service age and obligation:
18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; women may serve in any military branch; Italian citizenship required; 1-year service obligation (2013)
Military expenditures:
1.1% of GDP (2014)
1.2% of GDP (2013)
1.3% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 52

Transnational Issues :: ITALY
Panel - Expanded
Disputes - international:
Italy's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and northern Africa
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 13,068 (Somalia); 12,203 (Afghanistan); 11,962 (Eritrea); 9,931 (Nigeria); 9,202 (Pakistan); 8,334 (Mali); 5,079 (Cote d'Ivoire) (2015)
stateless persons: 747 (2015)
note: 327,030 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals by sea (2015 - November 2016)
Illicit drugs:
important gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; money laundering by organized crime and from smuggling

World

Hellenica World

Index