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Indonesia, See : Flags, Maps

Java, Across the Equator, Thomas H. Reid

Java, Facts and Fancies by Augusta de Wit

Monumental Java, by J. F. Scheltema

Indonesia (East & Southeast Asia)

Introduction ::Indonesia


The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. Free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999 after decades of repressive rule. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and home to the world's largest Muslim population. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling avian influenza. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance by the separatist Free Papua Movement.

Geography ::Indonesia


Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the
Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates:
5 00 S, 120 00 E

Map references:

Southeast Asia


total: 1,904,569 sq km country comparison to the world: 16 land: 1,811,569 sq km

water: 93,000 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:

total: 2,830 km

border countries: Timor-Leste 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km


54,716 km

Maritime claims:

measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands


mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

Natural resources:

petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use:

arable land: 11.03%

permanent crops: 7.04%

other: 81.93% (2005)

Irrigated land:

45,000 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

2,838 cu km (1999)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 82.78 cu km/yr (8%/1%/91%)

per capita: 372 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:

occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires

volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, western Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (elev. 2,968 m, 9,737 ft), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a "Decade Volcano" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, and Tambora

Environment - current issues:

deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:

archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

People ::Indonesia


242,968,342 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 4

Age structure:

0-14 years: 28.1% (male 34,337,341/female 33,162,207)

15-64 years: 66% (male 79,549,569/female 78,918,321)

65 years and over: 6% (male 6,335,208/female 7,968,876) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 27.9 years

male: 27.4 years

female: 28.4 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.097% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 115

Birth rate:

18.45 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 106

Death rate:

6.25 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 157

Net migration rate:

-1.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 163


urban population: 52% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 3.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 28.94 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 74 male: 33.76 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 23.89 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 71.05 years country comparison to the world: 135 male: 68.53 years

female: 73.69 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

2.28 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 107

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.2% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 103

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

270,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 25

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

8,700 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 36

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: high

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, dengue fever, and malaria

note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)


noun: Indonesian(s)

adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups:

Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census)


Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)


Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 90.4%

male: 94%

female: 86.8% (2004 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 13 years

male: 13 years

female: 13 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

3.5% of GDP (2007) country comparison to the world: 134

Government ::Indonesia

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia

conventional short form: Indonesia

local long form: Republik Indonesia

local short form: Indonesia

former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies

Government type:



name: Jakarta

geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E

time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

note: Indonesia is divided into three time zones

Administrative divisions:

30 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 2 special
regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1
special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*,
Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat
(West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java),
Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South
Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan
Timur (East Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung
Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku
Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa
Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West
Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan
(South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi
Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi),
Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra),
Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta*

note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services


17 August 1945 (declared); 27 December 1949 (by the Netherlands); note - in August 2005 the Netherlands announced that it had recognized de facto Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945

National holiday:

Independence Day, 17 August (1945)


August 1945; abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959; series of amendments concluded in 2002

Legal system:

based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures and election codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president and vice president elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; election last held on 8 July 2009 (next to be held in 2014)

election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president; percent of vote - Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO 60.8%, MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri 26.8%, Jusuf KALLA 12.4%

Legislative branch:

People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) is the upper house; it consists of members of the DPR and DPD and has role in inaugurating and impeaching the president and in amending the constitution but does not formulate national policy; House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (560 seats, members elected to serve five-year terms), formulates and passes legislation at the national level; House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions (132 members, four from each of Indonesia's 30 provinces, two special regions, and one special capital city district)

elections: last held on 9 April 2009 (next to be held in 2014)

election results: percent of vote by party - PD 20.9%, GOLKAR 14.5%,
PDI-P 14.0%, PKS 7.9%, PAN 6.0%, PPP 5.3%, PKB 4.9%, GERINDRA 4.5%,
HANURA 3.8%, others 18.2%; seats by party - PD 148, GOLKAR 107,
PDI-P 94, PKS 57, PAN 46, PPP 37, PKB 28, GERINDRA 26, HANURA 17

note: 29 other parties received less than 2.5% of the vote so did not obtain any seats; because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung is the final court of appeal but does not have the power of judicial review (justices are appointed by the president from a list of candidates selected by the legislature); in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility for the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (invested by the president on 16 August 2003) has the power of judicial review, jurisdiction over the results of a general election, and reviews actions to dismiss a president from office; Labor Court under supervision of Supreme Court began functioning in January 2006; the Anti-Corruption Court has jurisdiction over corruption cases brought by the independent Corruption Eradication Commission

Political parties and leaders:

Democrat Party or PD [Anas URANINGRUM]; Functional Groups Party or
GOLKAR [Aburizal BAKRIE]; Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA
[SUHARDI]; Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI
Sukarnoputri]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR];
National Mandate Party or PAN [Hatta RAJASA]; People's Conscience
Party or HANURA [WIRANTO]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Luthfi
Hasan ISHAQ]; United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma ALI]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Commission for the "Disappeared" and Victims of Violence or KontraS;
Indonesia Corruption Watch or ICW; Indonesian Forum for the
Environment or WALHI; Islamic Defenders Front or FPI; People's
Democracy Fortress or Bendera

International organization participation:

ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, FAO,
G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer),

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Dino Patti DJALAL

chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Scot A. MARCIEL

embassy: Jalan 1 Medan Merdeka Selatan 4-5, Jakarta 10110

mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520

telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 3435-9922

consulate(s) general: Surabaya

Flag description:

two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage, white represents purity

note: similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

National anthem:

name: "Indonesia Raya" (Great Indonesia)

lyrics/music: Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN

note: adopted 1945

Economy ::Indonesia

Economy - overview:

Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has weathered the global financial crisis relatively smoothly because of its heavy reliance on domestic consumption as the driver of economic growth. Although the economy slowed significantly in 2009 from the 6%-plus growth rate recorded in 2007 and 2008, by 2010 growth returned to a 6% rate. During the recession, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth. The government made economic advances under the first administration of President YUDHOYONO, introducing significant reforms in the financial sector, including tax and customs reforms, the use of Treasury bills, and capital market development and supervision. Indonesia's debt-to-GDP ratio in recent years has declined steadily because of increasingly robust GDP growth and sound fiscal stewardship. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. YUDHOYONO's reelection, with respected economist BOEDIONO as his vice president, suggests broad continuity of economic policy, although the start of their term has been marred by corruption scandals and the departure of an internationally respected finance minister. The government in 2010 faces the ongoing challenge of improving Indonesia's insufficient infrastructure to remove impediments to economic growth, while addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation needs, particularly with regard to conserving Indonesia's forests and peatlands, the focus of a potentially trailblazing $1 billion REDD+ pilot project.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$1.033 trillion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 16 $974.6 billion (2009 est.)

$932.6 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$695.1 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

6% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 39 4.5% (2009 est.)

6% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$4,300 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 156 $4,100 (2009 est.)

$3,900 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 14.9%

industry: 46.8%

services: 38.3% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

114.9 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 5

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 42.1%

industry: 18.6%

services: 39.3% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate:

7.1% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 74 8.1% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line:

13.3% (2010)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 32.3% (2006)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

39.4 (2005) country comparison to the world: 66 37 (2001)

Investment (gross fixed):

30.8% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 14

Public debt:

26.4% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 91 27.4% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

5.2% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 148 4.8% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

6.46% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 40 10.83% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

14.5% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 57 13.6% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$65.47 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 42 $49.63 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$276.8 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 31 $205.8 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$253.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 37 $192.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$178.2 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 35 $98.76 billion (31 December 2008)

$211.7 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs


petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:

4% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 85

Electricity - production:

134.4 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 27

Electricity - consumption:

119.3 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 28

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

1.023 million bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 22

Oil - consumption:

1.115 million bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 18

Oil - exports:

85,000 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 68

Oil - imports:

671,000 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 20

Oil - proved reserves:

4.05 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 28

Natural gas - production:

70 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 12

Natural gas - consumption:

36.5 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 23

Natural gas - exports:

33.5 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 7

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 173

Natural gas - proved reserves:

3.001 trillion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 14

Current account balance:

$8.532 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 25 $10.75 billion (2009 est.)


$146.3 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 30 $119.5 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber

Exports - partners:

Japan 17.28%, Singapore 11.29%, US 10.81%, China 7.62%, South Korea 5.53%, India 4.35%, Taiwan 4.11%, Malaysia 4.07% (2009)


$111.1 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 30 $84.35 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:

Singapore 24.96%, China 12.52%, Japan 8.92%, Malaysia 5.88%, South
Korea 5.64%, US 4.88%, Thailand 4.45% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$83.58 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 16 $66.12 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$155.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 30 $156.7 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$81.21 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 41 $72.84 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$33.71 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 36 $30.18 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar - 9,169.5 (2010), 10,389.9 (2009), 9,698.9 (2008), 9,143 (2007), 9,159.3 (2006)

Communications ::Indonesia

Telephones - main lines in use:

33.958 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 9

Telephones - mobile cellular:

159.248 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 6

Telephone system:

general assessment: domestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service good

domestic: coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly

international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Broadcast media:

mixture of about a dozen national television networks - 2 public broadcasters, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations operating; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations operating with more than 650 privately-operated (2008)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

1.269 million (2010) country comparison to the world: 39

Internet users:

20 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 22

Transportation ::Indonesia


684 (2010) country comparison to the world: 10

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 171

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 19

1,524 to 2,437 m: 50

914 to 1,523 m: 64

under 914 m: 34 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 513

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 25

under 914 m: 484 (2010)


64 (2010)


condensate 735 km; condensate/gas 73 km; gas 5,800 km; oil 5,721 km; oil/gas/water 12 km; refined products 1,370 km (2009)


total: 8,529 km country comparison to the world: 25 narrow gauge: 8,529 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2008)


total: 437,759 km country comparison to the world: 14 paved: 258,744 km

unpaved: 179,015 km (2008)


21,579 km (2011) country comparison to the world: 5

Merchant marine:

total: 1,244 country comparison to the world: 8 by type: bulk carrier 95, cargo 601, chemical tanker 57, container 112, liquefied gas 17, passenger 47, passenger/cargo 76, petroleum tanker 214, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 12, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 8

foreign-owned: 61 (China 1, France 1, Greece 1, Japan 7, Malaysia 1, Norway 4, Singapore 42, South Korea 1, Taiwan 1, US 2)

registered in other countries: 87 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, Hong Kong 8, Liberia 4, Mongolia 2, Panama 14, Singapore 53, unknown 2) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang,
Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok

Transportation - note:

the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift

Military ::Indonesia

Military branches:

Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army
(TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL);
includes marines, naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara
(TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara
Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2009)

Military service age and obligation:

18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2008)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 65,166,986

females age 16-49: 62,715,534 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 53,624,156

females age 16-49: 52,879,309 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 2,227,993

female: 2,156,427 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

3% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 47

Transnational Issues ::Indonesia

Disputes - international:

Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; some sections of border along Timor-Leste's Oecussi exclave and maritime boundaries with Timor-Leste remain unresolved; many refugees from Timor-Leste who left in 2003 still reside in Indonesia and refuse repatriation; a 1997 treaty between Indonesia and Australia settled some parts of their maritime boundary but outstanding issues remain; ICJ's award of Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malaysia in 2002 left the sovereignty of Unarang rock and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea in dispute; the ICJ decision has prompted Indonesia to assert claims to and to establish a presence on its smaller outer islands; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

IDPs: 200,000-350,000 (government offensives against rebels in Aceh; most IDPs in Aceh, Central Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi Provinces, and Maluku) (2007)

Illicit drugs:

illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy


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