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See also Painting (Zographia, Graphe)

  • Aetion
  • Agatharchos of Samos (fl. end of fifth century BC)
    A scene-painter, and by the necessities of his craft was led toward nature. Stage effect required a study of perspective, variation of light, and a knowledge of the laws of optics. The slight outline drawing of his predecessor was probably superseded by effective masses to create illusion. This was a distinct advance toward nature.
  • Alcimachus
  • Antiphilus
  • Apelles

    Apelles was probably the most important Greek painter. He studied at Ephesus and spent 12 years at Sicyon. He worked for Alexander the Great and his father Philip. None of his works survived! He painted many gods, heroes, and allegories, with much "gracefulness," as Pliny puts it. The Italian Botticelli, seventeen hundred years after him, tried to reproduce his celebrated Calumny, from Lucian's description of it. His Aphrodite Anadyomene, carried to Rome by Augustus, and the portrait of Alexander with the Thunder-bolt. Apelles used to show his pictures to the public listening to comments. A shoemaker once faulted the painter for a sandal with one loop too few, which Apelles corrected. The shoemaker, emboldened by this acceptance of his views, then criticized the subject's leg. According to Pliny Apelles replied to this that the shoemaker should not judge beyond his sandals. He is also famous for saying: “Not a day without a line”, i.e. do something every day!

    Honoré Daumier: Alexander Presenting Campaspe to Apelles , Another Painting of Campaspe, Alexander and Apelles

  • Apollodorus (fl. end of fifth century BC)
    applied the principles of Agatharchos to figures. According to Plutarch, he was the first to discover variation in the shade of colors, and, according to Pliny, the first master to paint objects as they appeared in nature. He had the title of skiagraphos (shadow-painter), and possibly gave a semi-natural background with perspective. This was an improvement, but not a perfection. It is not likely that the backgrounds were other than conventional settings for the figure. Even these were not at once accepted by the painters of the period, but were 'turned to profit in the hands of the followers. Apollodoros [1 Vase]
  • Ardices of Corinth
  • Aregon of Corinth
  • Aristarete, Painter (w)
    daughter and student of Nearchus, painted an Asclepius according to Pliny the Elder
  • Aristides of Thebes, Painter
    student (and son?) of Nikomachus painted pathetic scenes, and was perhaps as remarkable for teaching art to the celebrated Euphranor (fl. 360 BC) as for his own productions.
  • Aristolaos (c. 350 BC)
    See: Painting in Sikyon
  • Arkesilaos(c. 230 BC) Painter
    See: Painting in Sikyon
  • Asclepiodorus, mentioned by Pliny the Elder
  • Cimon of Cleonae
  • Demophilus of Himera
  • Dionysius of Colophon
  • Eirene (or Irene), Painter (w)
    daughter and student of Cratinus, Paintings: Girl at Eleusis, Calypso, Theodorus an old man , The dancer Alcisthenes
  • Ephorus of Ephesus
  • Euphranor of Corinth
  • Eupompos , Painter c. 400 BC
    SICYONIAN SCHOOL, a contemporary of Parrhasius
  • Melanthius
  • Micon
  • Neseus of Thasos
  • Pamphilus
  • Parrhasius
    In illusion Parrhasius (or Parrhasios) was better than Zeuxis. Zeuxis deceived the birds with painted grapes, but Parrhasius deceived Zeuxis with a painted curtain. There must have been knowledge of color, modelling, and relief to have produced such an illusion, but the aim was petty and unworthy of the skill. There was evidently an advance technically, but some decline in the true spirit of art. Parrhasius finally suffered defeat at the hands of Timanthes of Kythnos, by a contest between Ajax and Ulysses for the Arms of Achilles. Timanthes's famous work was the Sacrifice of Iphigenia, of which there is a supposed Pompeian copy. (Discussion of Socrates with Parrhasius)
  • Pausias
    SICYONIAN SCHOOL , student of Pamphilus, possessed some freedom of creation in genre and still-life subjects. Pliny says he had great technical skill, as shown in the foreshortening of a black ox by variations of the black tones, and he obtained some fame by a figure of Methe (Intoxication) drinking from a glass, the face being seen through the glass. Again the motives seem trifling, but again advancing technical power is shown. See: Painting in Sikyon
  • Polygnotus
  • Protogenes
  • Theon of Samos
  • Timanthes of Kythnos, The Sacrifice of Iphigenia
  • Timarete
    daughter of Micon, Artemis painting in Ephesus an very archaic painting as described by Pliny the Elder
  • Timomachus
  • Zeuxis
    Quintilian says he originated light-and-shade, an achievement credited by Plutarch to Apollodorus. It is probable that he advanced light-and-shade.

Sicyonian School

  • Eupompus (a contemporary of Parrhasios)
    • Pamphilus (Πάμφιλος), Painter, c. 375 BC, brought the SICYONIAN SCHOOL to maturity. He apparently reacted from the deception motive of Zeuxis and Parrhasios, and taught academic methods of drawing, composing, and painting. He was also credited with bringing into use the encaustic method of painting, though it was probably known before his time.
      • Apelles
        • Perseus
        • Ctesilochus
      • Melanthius
      • Pausias
        • Nicophanes
        • Aristolaus
        • Socrates

Athenian/Theban School


Stelios Lydakis, Ancient Greek Painting and Its Echoes in Later Art Publisher: Getty Publishing ISBN: 0892366834

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