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Chalcis, and formed an alliance with Philip of Macedon in order to support himself against Plutarch, tyrant of Eretria, or rather with the view of extending his authority over the whole of Euboea–a design which, according to Aeschines, he covered under the disguise of a plan for uniting in one league the states of the island, and establishing a general Euboean congress at Chalcis. Plutarch accordingly applied to Athens for aid, which was granted in opposition to the advice of Demosthenes, and an army was sent into Euboea under the command of Phocion, who defeated Callias at Tamynae, 350 BC.1 After this, Callias went to the Macedonian court, where he was for some time high in the favour of the king; but, having in some way offended him, he withdrew to Thebes, in the hope of gaining her support in the furtherance of his views. Breaking, however, with the Thebans also, and fearing an attack both from them and from Philip, he applied to Athens, and through the influence of Demosthenes not only obtained alliance, and an acknowledgment of the independence of Chalcis, but even induced the Athenians to transfer to that state the annual contributions from Oreus and Eretria, Callias holding out great promises (apparently never realized) of assistance in men and money from Achaea, Megara, and Euboea. This seems to have been in 343 BC, at the time of Philip's projected attempt on Ambracia. Aeschines of course ascribes his rival's support of Callias to corruption; but Demosthenes may have thought that Euboea, united under a strong government, might serve as an effectual barrier to Philip's ambition.2 In 341 BC, the defeat by Phocion of the Macedonian party in Eretria and Oreus under Cleitarchus and Philistides gave the supremacy in the island to Callias.3 Callias seems to have been still living in 330 BC, the date of the oration on On the Crown. This can be deduced by Aeschines4, who mentions a proposal of Demosthenes to confer on him and his brother Taurosthenes the honour of Athenian citizenship.

References

Smith, William (editor); Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, "Callias (4)", Boston, (1867)

Notes

  • 1 Aeschines, Speeches, "Against Ctesiphon", 85-88, "On the Embassy", 180; Demosthenes, Speeches, "On the Peace", 5; Plutarch, Parallel Lives, "Phocion", 12
  • 2 Aeschines, "Against Ctesiphon", 89; Demosthenes, "Philippic 3", 85
  • 3 Demosthenes, "On the Crown", 86, 99, "Philippic 3", 23, 75, 79; Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca, xvi. 74; Plutarch, "Demosthenes", 17
  • 4 Aeschines, "Against Ctesiphon", 85 , 88

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This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology by William Smith (1867).

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