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Antiochus VII Euergetes, nicknamed Sidetes (from Sidon), reigned as king of the Seleucid Empire from 138 to 129 BC over the Seleucid Empire. He was the last Seleucid king of any stature. The brother of Demetrius II, Antiochus was elevated after Demetrius' capture by the Parthians. Antiochus married Cleopatra Thea, who was the wife of Demetrius. Their offspring was Antiochus IX, who thus became both half-brother and cousin to Seleucus V and Antiochus VIII. Sidetes defeated the usurper Tryphon and laid siege to Jerusalem. According to legend the Hasmonean king John Hyrcanus bought Antiochus off by digging up the treasures of King Solomon's grave. Sidetes then attacked the Parthians and briefly took back Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Media before being ambushed and killed by Phraates II. His brother Demetrius II had by then been released, but the Seleucid Empire was now restricted to Syria.

Antiochus VII Sidetes,

Seleucid Ruler 138–129 BC

Preceded by: Demetrius II Nicator or Diodotus Tryphon

Succeeded by: Demetrius II Nicator or Alexander II Zabinas

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