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Anagnostaras (Greek: Αναγνωσταράς; 1760 in Poliani – May 8, 1825[1] in Sphacteria) was a Greek revolutionary, a leading member of the Filiki Etaireia, and later a general and War Minister of the Greek War of Independence. Anagnostaras is a nom de guerre, he was born as Christos Papageorgiou (Greek: Χρήστος Παπαγεωργίου) and signed as Anagnostis Papageorgiou (Greek: Αναγνώστης Παπαγεωργίου).

Early years

Anagnostaras was born in 1760 at the village of Poliani in Messenia; his family originated from the Leontari area of Arcadia.[3][4] In Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1792, he appeared in the Ionian Islands, together with Christoforos Perraivos and Tzanetos Grigorakis, to serve with the rank of major under the commands of the Greek-Russian general Emmanouil Papadopoulos.[5] In 1803 he moved to the island Zakynthos and starting his military service in the Imperial Russian Army until 1813, when he demobilized and moved to Odessa to ask his arrears of salary.[6][7]
Activity for the Filiki Etaireia

At Odessa in 1817, he was initiated into the Filiki Etaireia by Nikolaos Skoufas, became a "priest" and in March 1817 he was sent to Moscow to meat Athanasios Tsakalov,[8] who sent him to the islands of Hydra and Spetses to search for "neophyte" members.[9] Later in the same year went to Constantinople, were found Papaflessas and initiated him on 21 June 1818, then returned to Zakynthos and initiated Theodoros Kolokotronis on 1 December 1818.[10]

Later he was sent to the Peloponnese to continue his activity,[4] in which paradoxically he used a buzuki to sing poems of Rigas Feraios and songs of Klephts. The result of his tour was to be elected to the higher grade of "Apostle".[11] Emmanuil Xanthos gave to Anagnostaras the code number 108 for correspondence with the other members of society.[12] He was the first initiated Apostle of the Etaireia, after him were initiated Christoforos Perraivos, Yiannis Pharmakis and Elias Chrysospathis.[13]
Service in the Greek War of Independence

When the Greek War of Independence began in March 1821, Anagnostaras was present at the Liberation of Kalamata on 23 March 1821,[4] when Greek irregular revolutionary forces took control of the city after the surrender of the Ottoman garrison, without fighting, as a Major under the command of Petrobey Mavromichalis. On 30 September 1821, along with Theodoros Kolokotronis, Kyriakoulis Mavromichalis and Panagiotis Giatrakos, he signed an agreement to confirm the position of the Peloponnesian Senate's members, and they came to rupture with Alexandros Ypsilantis, who eventually retreated.[14] Anagnostaras was promoted to General and became member of the War Commission.[4]

In March 1822, Anagnostaras along with Panagiotis Kefalas and Giatrakos' family supported Georgios Kountouriotis to form a new government at Myloi.[15] In May 1822, after the reshuffles of Second National Assembly at Astros, he became War Minister of the provisional Greek Government.[16][17]

He fought in the Battle of Valtetsi (May 12, 1821),[18] the Siege of Tripolitsa (September 1821),[19] the Siege of Corinth (December 1821 – January 1822)[20] and many other battles until 8 May 1825 when he was killed in the Battle of Sphacteria.[21]

Note: Greece officially adopted the Gregorian calendar on 16 February 1923 (which became 1 March). All dates prior to that, unless specifically denoted, are Old Style.
Chrysanthopoulos (1888), p. 90.
Filimon, I. (1834), p. 185: Note (a).
Great Military and Naval Encyclopedia (1929), vol. 2, p. 130.
The History of the Greek People, vol. 11, p. 423.
The History of the Greek People (1971), vol. 12, pp. 144–145.
Chrysanthopoulos (1888), p. 92.
Flessas, C. (1842), pp. 34–35.
Flessas, C. (1842), pp. 41, 145.
The History of the Greek People (1971), vol. 12, pp. 76–77.
Filimon, I. (1834), pp. 201–202.
Flessas, C. (1842), p. 36: File of Xanthos, no. 1818/11a.
Flessas, C. (1842), p. 44: List of 12 Etairoi and 15 Apostles.
The History of the Greek People (1971), vol. 12, pp. 197–198.
The History of the Greek People (1971), vol. 12, pp. 328–329.
Chrysanthopoulos (1888), p. 91.
The History of the Greek People (1971), vol. 12, p. 299.
Autobiography of Kolokotrones (1892), p. 141.
Autobiography of Kolokotrones (1892), p. 149.
The History of the Greek People (1971), vol. 12, pp. 182, 217.

The History of the Greek People (1971), vol. 12, p. 382.


Kolokotrones, the Klepht and the Warrior, Sixty Years of Peril and Daring. An autobiography. London: T. Fisher Unwin. 1892. pp. 135–205. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
Chrysanthopoulos, Photios (1888). Vioi peloponnēsiōn andrōn kai tōn exōthen eis tēn Peloponnēson elthontōn (in Greek). Harvard University: P. D. Sakellariou. pp. 90–92. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
Filimon, Ioannis (1834). Dokimion peri tis Filikis Etairias (in Greek). Nauplio: Kondaxis-Loulakis. p. 185.
Flessas, Konstantinos (1842). History of the Sacred Struggle (PDF) (in Greek). Athens: P.A. Komnenos. pp. 34–44, 144–145. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
"Anagnostaras". Μεγάλη Στρατιωτική και Ναυτική Εγκυκλοπαιδεία. Τόμος Β′: Αλαρκόν – Γωνιόμετρον (in Greek). Athens: Έκδοσις Μεγάλης Στρατιωτικής και Ναυτικής Εγκυκλοπαιδείας. 1929. p. 130.
The History of the Greek People: The Greek Revolution (1821–1832) (in Greek). 12. Athens: Ekdotike Athenon. 1971. pp. 373–380. ISBN 960-213-097-0. OCLC 636806977. OL 18546042M.


Greek War of Independence (1821–1829)
Ottoman Greece

Armatoloi Proestoi Klephts Dionysius the Philosopher Daskalogiannis Panagiotis Benakis Konstantinos Kolokotronis Lambros Katsonis Cosmas of Aetolia Ali Pasha Maniots Phanariots Souliotes Gregory V of Constantinople


Orlov Revolt Souliote War (1803)

Greek Enlightenment

Athanasios Christopoulos Theoklitos Farmakidis Rigas Feraios Anthimos Gazis Theophilos Kairis Adamantios Korais Eugenios Voulgaris


Ellinoglosso Xenodocheio Filiki Eteria
Nikolaos Skoufas Athanasios Tsakalov Emmanuil Xanthos Panagiotis Anagnostopoulos Philomuse Society Society of the Phoenix


Adelphiki Didaskalia Asma Polemistirion Hellenic Nomarchy Pamphlet of Rigas Feraios Salpisma Polemistirion Thourios or Patriotic hymn

European intervention and
Greek involvement in
the Napoleonic Wars

Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774) Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca Greek Plan of Catherine the Great Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792) French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars
Fall of the Republic of Venice Republican French rule in the Ionian Islands Septinsular Republic Greek Legion Imperial French rule in the Ionian Islands Albanian Regiment Adriatic campaign of 1807–1814 1st Regiment Greek Light Infantry United States of the Ionian Islands


Nationalism Eastern Orthodox Christianity Liberalism Constitutionalism


Patras Salona Navarino Livadeia 1st Acropolis Tripolitsa Arta Acrocorinth Nauplia 1st Messolonghi 2nd Messolonghi 3rd Messolonghi 2nd Acropolis


Kalamata Wallachian uprising Alamana Gravia Valtetsi Doliana Lalas Vasilika Dragashani Sculeni Vasilika Trench Peta Dervenakia Karpenisi Greek civil wars Sphacteria Maniaki Lerna Mills Mani Distomo Arachova Kamatero Phaleron Chios expedition Martino Koronisia Petra


Constantinople Thessaloniki Navarino Tripolitsa Naousa Samothrace Chios Psara Kasos

Naval conflicts

Eresos Chios Nauplia Samos Andros Sphacteria Gerontas Souda Alexandria Volos Itea Navarino


Greek sloop Karteria Greek brig Aris

Greek regional councils and statutes

Messenian Senate Directorate of Achaea Peloponnesian Senate Senate of Western Continental Greece Areopagus of Eastern Continental Greece Provisional Regime of Crete Military-Political System of Samos

Greek national assemblies

First (Epidaurus) (Executive of 1822) Second (Astros) Third (Troezen) Fourth (Argos) Fifth (Nafplion)

International Conferences,
Treaties and Protocols

Congress of Laibach Congress of Verona Protocol of St. Petersburg (1826) Treaty of London Conference of Poros London Protocol of 1828 London Protocol of 1829 Treaty of Adrianople London Protocol of 1830 London Conference Treaty of Constantinople


Greek expedition to Syria (1825) Russo-Turkish War (1828-29)


Chian Committee Odysseas Androutsos Anagnostaras Markos Botsaris Laskarina Bouboulina Constantin Denis Bourbaki Hatzimichalis Dalianis Kanellos Deligiannis Athanasios Diakos Germanos III of Old Patras Dimitrios Kallergis Athanasios Kanakaris Constantine Kanaris Ioannis Kapodistrias Stamatios Kapsas Panagiotis Karatzas Georgios Karaiskakis Nikolaos Kasomoulis Ioannis Kolettis Theodoros Kolokotronis Georgios Kountouriotis Antonios Kriezis Nikolaos Kriezotis Kyprianos of Cyprus Georgios Lassanis Lykourgos Logothetis Andreas Londos Yannis Makriyannis Manto Mavrogenous Alexandros Mavrokordatos Petrobey Mavromichalis Andreas Metaxas Andreas Miaoulis Theodoros Negris Nikitaras Antonis Oikonomou Ioannis Orlandos Papaflessas Dimitrios Papanikolis Emmanouel Pappas Christoforos Perraivos Nikolaos Petimezas Panagiotis Rodios Georgios Sachtouris Georgios Sisinis Iakovos Tombazis Anastasios Tsamados Meletis Vasileiou Demetrios Ypsilantis


António Figueira d'Almeida Michail Komninos Afentoulief Joseph Balestra Lord Byron François-René de Chateaubriand Richard Church Giuseppe Chiappe Lord Cochrane Vincenzo Gallina Charles Fabvier Thomas Gordon Frank Abney Hastings Carl von Heideck Vasos Mavrovouniotis Johann Jakob Meyer
Ellinika Chronika Karl Normann Maxime Raybaud Giuseppe Rosaroll Santorre di Santa Rosa Friedrich Thiersch Auguste Hilarion Touret German Legion [el] Serbs Olivier Voutier

Moldavia and Wallachia
(Danubian Principalities)

Alexander Ypsilantis Sacred Band Nikolaos Ypsilantis Alexandros Kantakouzinos Georgios Kantakouzinos Athanasios Agrafiotis Giorgakis Olympios Yiannis Pharmakis Dimitrie Macedonski Tudor Vladimirescu Konstantinos Xenokratis Anastasios Manakis Stamatios Kleanthis

Ottoman Empire, Algeria, and Egypt

Sultan Mahmud II Hurshid Pasha Nasuhzade Ali Pasha Ismael Gibraltar Omer Vrioni Kara Mehmet Mahmud Dramali Pasha Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha Reşid Mehmed Pasha Yussuf Pasha Ibrahim Pasha Soliman Pasha al-Faransawi

Britain, France and Russia

George Canning Stratford Canning Edward Codrington Henri de Rigny Lodewijk van Heiden Alexander I of Russia Nicholas I of Russia

Financial aid

London Philhellenic Committee Ludwig I of Bavaria Jean-Gabriel Eynard Lazaros Kountouriotis Ioannis Papafis Georgios Stavros Ioannis Varvakis Rothschild & Co

Morea expedition

Nicolas Joseph Maison Antoine Simon Durrieu Antoine Virgile Schneider Auguste Regnaud de Saint-Jean d'Angély Camille Alphonse Trézel


Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent Léon-Jean-Joseph Dubois Pierre Peytier Stamatis Voulgaris Guillaume-Abel Blouet Gabriel Bibron Prosper Baccuet Eugène Emmanuel Amaury Duval Pierre-Narcisse Guérin Charles Lenormant Edgar Quinet


Dimitrios Ainian Fotis Chrysanthopoulos Ioannis Filimon George Finlay Ambrosios Frantzis Konstantinos Metaxas Panoutsos Notaras Panagiotis Papatsonis Anastasios Polyzoidis Georgios Tertsetis Spyridon Trikoupis


Eugène Delacroix Louis Dupré Peter von Hess Victor Hugo François Pouqueville Alexander Pushkin Karl Krazeisen Andreas Kalvos Dionysios Solomos Theodoros Vryzakis Hellas The Reception of Lord Byron at Missolonghi Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi Le siège de Corinthe The Massacre at Chios The Free Besieged Hymn to Liberty The Archipelago on Fire Loukis Laras The Apotheosis of Athanasios Diakos


25 March (Independence Day) Hymn to Liberty Eleftheria i thanatos Pedion tou Areos Propylaea (Munich) Garden of Heroes (Missolonghi) Royal Phalanx Evzones (Presidential Guard)


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