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In Greek mythology, Polynices (or Polyneices) (gr. Πολυνείκης) was the son of Oedipus and Jocasta. ( (Hom. Il. iv. 377). His wife was Argea.

Oedipus (with Ismene and Antigone) condemns Polynices, 1883 , Andre-Marcel Baschet

Seven against Thebes, The Oath, Adrastus, Polynices, Capaneus, Parthenopeus , Amphiaraus, Hippomedon, Tydeus , based on Flaxman

When Oedipus stepped down as King of Thebes, he gave the kingdom to his two sons, Eteocles and Polynices, who both agreed to alternate the throne every year. However, they showed no concern for their father, who cursed them for their negligence. After the first year, Eteocles refused to step down and Polynices attacked Thebes with his supporters (the Seven Against Thebes). Both brothers died in the battle. Polynices engendered the support of Amphiaraus by offering his wife Eriphyle the necklace of Harmonia.


Eteocles and Polynices

Polynices story continues, somewhat, after his death. King Creon, who ascended to the throne of Thebes, decreed that Polynices was not to be buried. Antigone, his sister, defied the order, but was caught. Creon decreed that she was to starve to death, this in spite of her betrothal to his son Haemon. Antigone's sister, Ismene, then declared she had aided Antigone and wanted the same fate. Creon imprisoned Antigone in a sepulchre; meanwhile the gods, through the blind prophet Tiresias, expressed their disapproval of Creon's decision, which convinced him to rescind his order. He then went to bury Polynices himself, and release Antigone. However, she had already hanged herself rather than be buried alive. When Creon arrived at the tomb where she was to be interred, his son Haemon made as if to attack him and then killed himself. When Creon's wife, Eurydice, was informed of their death, she, too, took her own life.

On coming back from here you see statues of Polyneices, the son of Oedipus, and of all the chieftains who with him were killed in battle at the wall of Thebes. These men Aeschylus has reduced to the number of seven only, although there were more chiefs than this in the expedition, from Argos, from Messene, with some even from Arcadia. But the Argives have adopted the number seven from the drama of Aeschylus, and near to their statues are the statues of those who took Thebes: Aegialeus, son of Adrastus; Promachus, son of Parthenopaeus, son of Talaus; Polydorus, son of Hippomedon; Thersander; Alcmaeon and Amphilochus, the sons of Amphiaraus; Diomedes, and Sthenelus. Among their company were also Euryalus, son of Mecisteus, and Adrastus and Timeas, sons of Polyneices. Pausanias

Polynices offers Eriphyle the necklace, 5th century BC red figure Pelike

Antigone confronted with the dead Polynices (Η Αντιγόνη εμπρός στο νεκρό Πολυνείκη) Nikiforos Lytras, (1865). 100 cm x 157 cm National Gallery and Alexander Soutsos Museum , Athens Greece

Antigone and Polynices, Edmund Kanoldt


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