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The Third Philippic was delivered by the prominent Athenian statesman and orator, Demosthenes, in 341 BC. It constitutes the third of the four philippics.

Historical background

In 343 BC, the Macedonian arms were carried across Epirus and a year later Philip turned his military activities towards Thrace.[1] When the Macedonia army approached Chersonese, the Athenians got anxious about the future of their colony. An Athenian general, Diopeithes, ravaged the maritime district of Thrace, an offensive resulting in Philip's rage. The King sent a letter of remonstrance to Athens, demanding the immediate withdrawal of the Athenian troops from Cardia, which was occupied by the Macedonian army.[2] Because of this turbulence, ecclesia convened and Demosthenes delivered On the Chersonese, convincing the Athenians, who would not recall Diopeithes

Content of the speech

Within the same year, Demosthenes delivered the Third Philippic. Putting forth all the power of his eloquence, he demanded resolute action against Philip and called for a burst of energy from the Athenian people. Macedon and Athens were already de facto belligerent parties, since the Athenians were financing Diopeithes,[3] who was launching attacks against allied cities. Most importantly, Philip was the first who violated the terms of the Peace of Philocrates and Athens was just defending its legitimate rights.


Assessments

The Third Philippic is considered the best of Demosthenes' political orations.[4], because of its passionate and evocative style.[5] From the moment he delivered the Third Philippic, Demosthenes imposed himself as the most influential politician of Athens and the suzerain of the Athenian political arena. He takes the offensive and devitalizes the "pacific" and pro-Macedonian faction of Aeschines. In the Third Philippic, the unchallengeable and passionate leader of the anti-Macedonian faction gives the signal for the Athenian uprising against Philip.


See also

Notes

  1. ^ Demosthenes, Third Philippic, 17.
  2. ^ Demosthenes, Third Philippic, 35.
  3. ^ Demosthenes, Third Philippic, 72.
  4. ^ K. Tsatsos, Demosthenes, 245.
  5. ^ The Helios.

Demosthenes' orations

Political orations Olynthiacs 1-2-3 | First Philippic | On the Peace | Second Philippic | On the Halonnesus | On the Chersonese | Third Philippic | Fourth Philippic | Reply to Philip | Philip | On Organisation | On the Navy | For the Megalopolitans | On the Liberty of the Rhodians | On the Accession of Alexander

Judicial orations On the Crown | On the False Embassy | Against Leptines | Against Meidias | Against Androtion | Against Aristocrates | Against Timocrates | Against Aristogiton 1-2 | Against Aphobus 1-2-3 | Against Ontenor 1-2 | Against Zenothemis | Against Apatourius | Against Phormio | Against Lacritus | For Phormio | Against Pantaenetus | Against Nausimachus and Xenopeithes | Against Boeotus 1-2 | Against Spudias | Against Phaenippus | Against Macartatus | Against Leochares | Against Stephanus 1-2 | Against Evergus and Mnesibulus | Against Olympiodorus | Against Timotheus | Against Polycles | On the Trierarcic Crown | Against Callipus | Against Nicostratus | Against Conon | Against Callicles | Against Dionysodorus | Against Eubulides | Against Theocrines | Against Naeara

Epideictic orations Funeral Oration | Erotic Essay

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