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Administrative Region : North Aegean
Regional unit : Samos

Samos (Greek: Σάμος) is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by the 1.6 kilometres (0.99 mi)-wide Mycale Strait. It is also a separate regional unit of the North Aegean region, and the only municipality of the regional unit.


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In ancient times Samos was a particularly rich and powerful city-state. It is home to Pythagoreion and the Heraion of Samos, a UNESCO World Heritage Site that includes the Eupalinian aqueduct, a marvel of ancient engineering. Samos is the birthplace of the Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras, after whom the Pythagorean theorem is named, the philosopher Epicurus, and the astronomer Aristarchus of Samos, the first known individual to propose that the Earth revolves around the sun. Samian wine was well known in antiquity, and is still produced on the island.

The island was an autonomous principality from 1835 until it joined Greece in 1912.

Geography and Climate
NASA Satellite 3D view of Samos.
Psalida Beach. At the distant background Mount Kerketeas.
View of Poseidonio.

The area of the island is 478 km2 (184.6 sq mi) 43 km (27 mi) long and 13 km (8 mi) wide. It is separated from Anatolia, by the approximately 1 mile (1.6 km)-wide Mycale Strait. While largely mountainous, Samos has several relatively large and fertile plains.

A great portion of the island is covered with vineyards, from which muscat wine is made. The most important plains except the capital, Vathy, in the northeast, are that of Karlovasi, in the northwest, Pythagoreio, in the southeast, and Marathokampos in the southwest. The island's population is 33,814, which is the 9th most populous of the Greek islands. The Samian climate is typically Mediterranean, with mild rainy winters, and warm rainless summers.

Samos' relief is dominated by two large mountains, Ampelos and Kerkis (anc. Kerketeus). The Ampelos massif (colloquially referred to as "Karvounis") is the larger of the two and occupies the center of the island, rising to 1,095 metres (3,593 ft). Mt. Kerkis, though smaller in area is the taller of the two and its summit is the island's highest point, at 1,434 metres (4,705 ft). The mountains are a continuation of the Mycale range on the Anatolian mainland.

According to Strabo, the name Samos is from Phoenician meaning "rise by the shore."

Samos is one of the sunniest places in Europe with almost 3300 hours of sunshine annually or 74% of the time.

Climate data for Vathy, Samos, Greece
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 12
(54)
13
(55)
15
(59)
19
(66)
24
(75)
29
(84)
31
(88)
31
(88)
28
(82)
22
(72)
18
(64)
14
(57)
21
(70)
Average low °C (°F) 5
(41)
6
(43)
7
(45)
10
(50)
13
(55)
17
(63)
20
(68)
20
(68)
17
(63)
13
(55)
10
(50)
7
(45)
12
(54)
Precipitation mm (inches) 159
(6.26)
108
(4.25)
88
(3.46)
42
(1.65)
28
(1.1)
6
(0.24)
3
(0.12)
3
(0.12)
18
(0.71)
42
(1.65)
103
(4.06)
167
(6.57)
767
(30.2)
Avg. precipitation days 12 11 9 8 6 3 4 4 3 6 8 13 87
Sunshine hours 155 170 217 270 341 390 434 403 330 248 180 155 3,293
Source: weather2travel.com[1]


History
Early and Classical Antiquity
Further information: Ancient Greece

Kouros of Samos, the largest surviving Kouros in Greece (Archaeological Museum of Samos).

In classical antiquity the island was a center of Ionian culture and luxury, renowned for its Samian wines and its red pottery (called Samian ware by the Romans). Its most famous building, was the Ionic order archaic Temple of goddess Hera - the Heraion.

Concerning the earliest history of Samos, literary tradition is singularly defective. At the time of the great migrations it received an Ionian population which traced its origin to Epidaurus in Argolis: Samos became one of the twelve members of the Ionian League. By the 7th century BC it had become one of the leading commercial centers of Greece. This early prosperity of the Samians seems largely due to the island's position near trade-routes, which facilitated the importation of textiles from inner Asia Minor, but the Samians also developed an extensive oversea commerce. They helped to open up trade with the population that lived around the Black sea as well as with Egypt, Cyrene (Libya), Corinth, and Chalcis. This caused them to become bitter rivals with Miletus. Samos was able to become so prominent despite the growing power of the Persian empire because of the alliance they had with the Egyptians and their powerful fleet. The Samians are also credited with having been the first Greeks to reach the Straits of Gibraltar.[2]

The feud between Miletus and Samos broke out into open strife during the Lelantine War (7th century BC), with which we may connect a Samian innovation in Greek naval warfare, the use of the trireme. The result of this conflict was to confirm the supremacy of the Milesians in eastern waters for the time being; but in the 6th century the insular position of Samos preserved it from those aggressions at the hands of Asiatic kings to which Miletus was henceforth exposed. About 535 BC, when the existing oligarchy was overturned by the tyrant Polycrates, Samos reached the height of its prosperity. Its navy not only protected it from invasion, but ruled supreme in Aegean waters. The city was beautified with public works, and its school, of sculptors, metal-workers and engineers achieved high repute.

Samos, Archaeological Museum

Eupalinian aqueduct
Main article: Tunnel of Eupalinos
Inside the Eupalinian aqueduct.

In the 6th century BC Samos was ruled by the famous tyrant Polycrates. During his reign, two working groups under the lead of the engineer Eupalinos dug a tunnel through Mount Kastro to build an aqueduct to supply the ancient capital of Samos with fresh water, as this was of the utmost defensive importance (since being underground, it was not easily detected by an enemy who could otherwise cut off the supply). Eupalinos' tunnel is particularly notable because it is the second earliest tunnel in history to be dug from both ends in a methodical manner.[3] With a length of over 1 km, Eupalinos' subterranean aqueduct is today regarded as one of the masterpieces of ancient engineering. The aqueduct is now part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Pythagoreion.
Persian Wars and Persian rule

After Polycrates death Samos suffered a severe blow when the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered and partly depopulated the island. It had regained much of its power when in 499 BC it joined the general revolt of the Ionian city-states against Persia; but owing to its long-standing jealousy of Miletus it rendered indifferent service, and at the decisive battle of Lade (494 BC) part of its contingent of sixty ships was guilty of outright treachery. In 479 BC the Samians led the revolt against Persia, during the Battle of Mycale, which was part of the offensive by the Delian League (led by Cimon).


Peloponnesian War

During the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), Samos took the side of Athens against Sparta, providing their port to the Athenian fleet. In the Delian League they held a position of special privilege and remained actively loyal to Athens until 440 when a dispute with Miletus, which the Athenians had decided against them, induced them to secede. With a fleet of sixty ships they held their own for some time against a large Athenian fleet led by Pericles himself, but after a protracted siege were forced to capitulate. It was punished, but Thucydides tells us not as harshly as other states which rebelled against Athens. Most in the past had been forced to pay tribute but Samos was only told to repay the damages that the rebellion cost the Athenians: 1,300 talents, to pay back in installments of 50 talents per annum.

At the end of the Peloponnesian War, Samos appears as one of the most loyal dependencies of Athens, serving as a base for the naval war against the Peloponnesians and as a temporary home of the Athenian democracy during the revolution of the Four Hundred at Athens (411 BC), and in the last stage of the war was rewarded with the Athenian franchise. This friendly attitude towards Athens was the result of a series of political revolutions which ended in the establishment of a democracy. After the downfall of Athens, Samos was besieged by Lysander and again placed under an oligarchy.

In 394 the withdrawal of the Spartan navy induced the island to declare its independence and reestablish a democracy, but by the peace of Antalcidas (387) it fell again under Persian dominion. It was recovered by the Athenians in 366 after a siege of eleven months, and received a strong body of military settlers, the cleruchs which proved vital in the Social War (357-355 BC). After the Lamian War (322), when Athens was deprived of Samos, the vicissitudes of the island can no longer be followed.


Famous Samians of Antiquity
Panorama of Pythagoreion, the place of birth of Pythagoras.

Perhaps the most famous persons ever connected with classical Samos were the philosopher Pythagoras and Aesop. In 1955 the town of Tigani was renamed Pythagoreio in honor of the philosopher.

Other notable personalities include the philosopher Epicurus, who was of Samian birth and the astronomer Aristarchus of Samos, whom history credits with the first recorded heliocentric model of the solar system. The historian Herodotus, known by his Histories resided in Samos for a while.

There was a school of sculptors and architects that included Rhoecus, the architect of the Temple of Hera (Olympia), and the great sculptor and inventor Theodorus, who is said to have invented with Rhoecus the art of casting statues in bronze.

The vases of Samos were among the most characteristic products of Ionian pottery in the 6th century.
Hellenistic & Roman Eras

Samos, Ceramics

Main articles: Hellenistic Greece and Roman Greece

For some time (about 275-270 B.C.) Samos served as a base for the Egyptian fleet of the Ptolemies, at other periods it recognized the overlordship of Seleucid Syria. In 189 B.C. it was transferred by the Romans to their vassal, the Attalid dynasty's Hellenistic kingdom of Pergamon, in Asia Minor.

Enrolled from 133 in the Roman province of Asia Minor, Samos sided with Aristonicus (132) and Mithridates (88) against its overlord, and consequently forfeited its autonomy, which it only temporarily recovered between the reigns of Augustus and Vespasian. Nevertheless, Samos remained comparatively flourishing, and was able to contest with Smyrna and Ephesus the title first city of lonia; it was chiefly noted as a health resort and for the manufacture of pottery. Since Emperor Diocletian's Tetrarchy it became part of the Provincia Insularum, in the diocese of Asiana in the eastern empire's pretorian prefecture of Oriens.
Byzantine & Genoese Eras
Further information: Byzantine Greece and Republic of Genoa
The harbour of Pythagoreion.

As part of the Byzantine Empire, Samos became part of the namesake theme. After the 13th century it passed through much the same changes of government as Chios, and, like the latter island, became the property of the Genoese firm of Giustiniani (1346–1566; 1475 interrupted by an Ottoman period).
Ottoman Rule

Further information: Ottoman Greece

Battle of Samos, April 1660,

During the early years of the Ottoman Empire most Samians abandoned the island[CN]. Those remaining lived inland in small settlements up in the mountains, hiding from pirates and other invaders. Around the 17th century Samos was granted the status of a semi-independent state. Many Greeks of Samian descent as well as others from Greek speaking territories settled on the island. The village of Mytilinioi for example, was inhabited by people from the island of Mytilini. Other settlers followed from various provinces in mainland Greece and as far away as Albania. A substantial population came from Ipiros and therefore the accent of the Samians even till the present day resembles that of mainland Greece. Samos, (Ottoman Turkish: سيسام Sisam) belonged to the Ottoman Empire since 1533, as part of the Eyalet of Djeza'ir-i Bahr-i Sefid i.e. "of the White Sea" (Mediterranean) until the year 1821.
Greek Revolution
Flag of the Administration of Samos during the Greek War of Independence (1821-1830).

During the Greek War of Independence, Samos played a conspicuous part, setting up a revolutionary government under the following heads of local government:

18 April 1821 - April 1821 Konstantinos Lachanas
April 1821 - April 1828 Lykourgos Logothetis (1st time)
April 1828 - February 1829 Ioannis Kolettis (1st time)
February 1829 - October 1829 Dimitrios Christides
October 1829 - July 1830 Ioannis Kolettis (2nd time)
July 1830 - 1833 Lykourgos Logothetis (2nd time)

In July 1824, an Ottoman army assembled to invade the island, but Greek naval victories off Samos and at Gerontas averted the threat. The island remained free for the remainder of the war. Nevertheless, the treaties concluding the war, which established the independent Greek kingdom, again put Samos under Turkish suzerainty.


The autonomous Principality
Main article: Principality of Samos
Flag of the Principality of Samos. It is the old Greek flag with the two upper quadrants in red to symbolize Ottoman suzerainty.

In 1835, the Samians achieved self-government as a semi-independent state tributary to Ottoman Turkey, paying the annual sum of £2700.[4] It was governed by a Christian of Greek descent though nominated by the Porte, who bore the title of "Prince." The prince was assisted in his function as chief executive by a 4-member senate. These were chosen by him out of eight candidates nominated by the four districts of the island: Vathý, Khōra, Marathókampos, and Karlóvasi. The actual legislative power belonged to a chamber of 36 deputies, presided over by the Greek Orthodox Metropolitan. The seat of the government was the port of Vathý.

The modern capital of the island was, until the early 20th century, at Khora, about 2 miles (3.2 km) from the sea and from the site of the ancient city.

After reconsidering political conditions, the capital was moved to Vathý, at the head of a deep bay on the North coast. This became the residence of the prince and the seat of government.

Since then a new town has grown, with a harbour.
Modern Era
The union with the Kingdom of Greece in 1912.

The island was finally united with the Kingdom of Greece in 1912, with the outbreak of the Balkan Wars. During World War II, the island was occupied by Italian and later German troops.

On August 3, 1989, a Shorts 330 aircraft of the Olympic Airways (now Olympic Airlines) crashed near Samos Airport; thirty-one passengers died.
Government

Samos is a separate regional unit of the North Aegean region, and the only municipality of the regional unit. As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Samos was created out of part of the former Samos Prefecture. At the same reform, the current municipality Samos was created out of the 4 former municipalities: [5]

Karlovasi
Marathokampos
Pythagoreio
Vathy

Samos , Nature

Samos has a sister town called Samo, which is located in Calabria, Italy.
Economy

The Samian economy depends mainly on agriculture[CN] and the tourist industry which has been growing steadily since the early 1980s. The main agricultural products include grapes, honey, olives, olive oil, citrus fruit, dried figs and almonds, and flowers. The Muscat grape is the main crop used for wine production. Samian wine is also exported under several other appellations.
Architecture
Picture of the town of Karlovasi.
View of Marathokampos village.

The island is the location of the joint UNESCO World Heritage Sites of the Heraion of Samos and the Pythagoreion which were inscribed in UNESCO's World Heritage list in 1992.[2]
Notable people
Ancient

Aegles, athlete
Aeschrion of Samos
Aethlius (writer)
Agatharchus, painter
Agathocles (writer)
Aristarchus of Samos (3rd century BC) astronomer and mathematician
Asclepiades of Samos, epigrammist and poet
Conon of Samos, astronomer and mathematician
Creophylus of Samos, legendary singer
Epicurus (4th century BC) philosopher
Melissus of Samos, philosopher
Nicaenetus of Samos, poet
Polycrates (6th century BC) tyrant of Samos
Pythagoras (6th century BC) philosopher and religious leader
Pythagoras (sculptor)
Rhoecus (6th century BC) sculptor
Theodorus (6th century BC) sculptor and architect
Theon of Samos, painter

Modern

Nikos Stavridis (1910–1987), actor
Ion Ghica (1816–1897), Romanian revolutionary, mathematician, diplomat, prime minister of Romania, first president of the Romanian Academy, prince of Samos

Lykourgos Logothetis, Themistoklis Sofoulis,

More Images See : Samos, Gallery

See also

Pauly-Wissowa

Classical authors:

Xenophon

Municipality Samos

(Seat: Σάμος, η, Historic Seat: Πυθαγόρειο, το)
5601 32.977
Municipal unit Vathy 560101 12.517
Municipal Community Vathy 56010104 3.147
Agia Zoni (Αγία Ζώνη, η) 5601010402 128
Agia Markella (Αγία Μαρκέλλα, η) 5601010403 7
Agia Triada (Αγία Τριάδα, η) 5601010404 46
Ai Thanasis (Άη Θανάσης, ο) 5601010405 21
Vathy (Βαθύ, το) 5601010401 1.888
Varella (Βαρέλλα, η) 5601010406 106
Drosia (Δροσιά, η) 5601010407 69
Zervou (Ζερβού, η) 5601010408 34
Zoodochos Pigi (Ζωοδόχος Πηγή, η) 5601010409 6
Kamara (Καμάρα, η) 5601010410 258
Kedro (Κέδρον, το) 5601010411 109
Koumarionas (Κουμαριώνας, ο) 5601010412 112
Mesokampos (Μεσόκαμπος, ο) 5601010413 110
Moraitochori (Μωραϊτοχώρι, το) 5601010414 30
Nikola (Νικόλα, η) 5601010415 144
Panaitsa (Παναΐτσα, η) 5601010416 19
Platanos (Πλάτανος, ο) 5601010417 23
Tourkomylonas (Τουρκομυλωνάς, ο) 5601010418 16
Floka (Φλόκα, η) 5601010419 21
Municipal Community Samos 56010101 6.251
Agia Paraskevi (Αγία Παρασκευή, η) 5601010102 26
Agios Nikolaos (Άγιος Νικόλαος, ο (νησίς)) 5601010103 0
Asprochorti (Ασπροχόρτι, το) 5601010104 11
Galazio (Γαλάζιο, το) 5601010105 23
Diaporti (Διαπόρτι, το (νησίς)) 5601010106 0
Kasonisi (Κασονήσι, το (νησίς)) 5601010107 0
Makroniso (Μακρόνησο, το (νησίς)) 5601010108 0
Prasonisi (Πρασονήσιο, το (νησίς)) 5601010109 0
Samos (Σάμος, η) 5601010101 6.191
Strongylo (Στρογγυλό, το (νησίς)) 5601010110 0
Community Agios Konstantinos 56010102 369
Agios Konstantinos (Άγιος Κωνσταντίνος, ο) 5601010201 368
Valeontades (Βαλεοντάδες, οι) 5601010202 1
Community Ampelos 56010103 309
Ampelos (Άμπελος, η) 5601010301 252
Livadaki (Λιβαδάκι, το) 5601010302 28
Petalides (Πεταλίδες, οι) 5601010303 29
Community Vourliotes 56010105 501
Avlakia (Αυλάκια, τα) 5601010502 18
Vourliotes (Βουρλιώται, οι) 5601010501 376
Kampos (Κάμπος, ο) 5601010503 91
Μονή Βροντά, η 5601010504 16
Community Kokkari 56010106 1.060
Kokkari (Κοκκάριον, το) 5601010601 1.060
Community Monolates 56010107 131
Manolates (Μανολάτες, οι) 5601010701 131
Margarites (Μαργαρίτες, οι) 5601010702 0
Community Palaiokastro 56010108 707
Argyros (Αργυρός, ο) 5601010802 45
Klima (Κλήμα, το) 5601010803 26
Palaiokastro (Παλαιόκαστρον, το) 5601010801 502
Poseidonio (Ποσειδώνιον, το) 5601010804 31
Charavgi (Χαραυγή, η) 5601010805 54
Psili Ammos (Ψιλή Άμμος, η) 5601010806 49
Community Stavrinides 56010109 42
Stavrinides (Σταυρινήδες, οι) 5601010901 42
Municipal unit Karlovasi 560102 9.855
Municipal Community Karlovasi 56010201 6.869
Μονή Προφήτου Ηλιού, η 5601020102 97
Neo Karlovasi (Νέο Καρλοβάσι, το) 5601020101 6.708
Ποτάμι, το 5601020103 19
Sakkoulaiika (Σακκουλαίικα, τα) 5601020104 16
Sourides (Σουρήδες, οι) 5601020105 29
Community Agioi Theodoroi 56010202 123
Agioi Theodoroi (Άγιοι Θεόδωροι, οι) 5601020201 123
Community Drakaioi 56010203 112
Drakaioi (Δρακαίοι, οι) 5601020301 89
Όρμος Αγίου Ισιδώρου, ο 5601020302 23
Community Kastania 56010204 164
Kastania (Καστανέα, η) 5601020401 164
Community Kontaiika 56010205 350
Kontaiika (Κονταίικα, τα) 5601020501 350
Community Kontakaiika 56010206 962
Agios Dimitrios (Άγιος Δημήτριος, ο) 5601020602 240
Agios Ilias (Άγιος Ηλίας, ο) 5601020603 33
Agios Nikolaos (Άγιος Νικόλαος, ο) 5601020604 26
Vryses (Βρύσαι, αι) 5601020605 136
Kontakaiika (Κοντακαίικα, τα) 5601020601 527
Chatzistamoulides (Χατζησταμούληδες, οι) 5601020606 0
Community Kosmadaioi 56010207 91
Kosmadaioi (Κοσμαδαίοι, οι) 5601020701 80
Nikoloudes (Νικολούδες, οι) 5601020702 11
Community Leka 56010208 419
Agios Panteleimon (Άγιος Παντελεήμων, ο) 5601020802 7
Leka (Λέκα, η) 5601020801 412
Community Platanos 56010209 396
Platanos (Πλάτανος, ο) 5601020901 396
Community Ydroussa 56010210 369
Ydroussa (Υδρούσσα, η) 5601021001 369
Municipal unit Marathokampos 560103 2.609
Municipal Community Marathokampos 56010301 1.900
Agia Kyriaki (Αγία Κυριακή, η) 5601030102 43
Velanidia (Βελανιδιά, η (Δ.Κ.Μαραθοκάμπου)) 5601030103 72
Isomata (Ισώματα, τα) 5601030104 6
Kampos (Κάμπος, ο (Δ.Κ.Μαραθοκάμπου)) 5601030105 471
Limnionas (Λιμνιώνας, ο) 5601030106 29
Marathokampos (Μαραθόκαμπος, ο) 5601030101 1.069
Όρμος Μαραθοκάμπου, ο 5601030107 194
Palaiochori (Παλαιοχώρι, το) 5601030108 16
Sevastaiika (Σεβασταίικα, τα) 5601030109 0
Community Kallithea 56010302 136
Kallithea (Καλλιθέα, η) 5601030201 136
Community Koumaiika 56010303 376
Βελανιδιά, η (Τ.Κ.Κουμαιίκων) 5601030302 10
Koumaiika (Κουμαίικα, τα) 5601030301 323
Όρμος Κουμαίικων, ο 5601030303 43
Community Neochori 56010304 62
Neochori (Νεοχώρι, το) 5601030401 62
Community Skouraiika 56010305 135
Κάμπος, ο (Τ.Κ.Σκουραιίκων) 5601030502 7
Perri (Πέρρη, η) 5601030503 23
Πεύκος, ο 5601030504 13
Skouraiika (Σκουραίικα, τα) 5601030501 92
Municipal unit Pythagoreio 560104 7.996
Municipal Community Mytilinioi 56010406 2.107
Kamara (Καμάρα, η) 5601040602 3
Moni Agias Triados (Μονή Αγίας Τριάδος, η) 5601040603 19
Mytilinioi (Μυτιληνιοί, οι) 5601040601 1.982
Potami Mesokampou (Ποτάμι Μεσοκάμπου, το) 5601040604 40
Rizovrachos (Ριζοβράχος, ο) 5601040605 63
Municipal Community Pagondas 56010407 1.395
Iraio (Ηραίον, το) 5601040702 849
Kolona (Κολόνα, η) 5601040703 28
Pagondas (Παγώνδας, ο) 5601040701 518
Municipal Community Pythagoreio 56010401 1.500
Karvopoulos (Καρπόβουλος, ο) 5601040102 29
Nea Poli (Νέα Πόλη, η) 5601040103 76
Pountes (Πούντες, οι) 5601040104 123
Pythagoreio (Πυθαγόρειο, το) 5601040101 1.272
Municipal Community Chora 56010411 1.340
Potokaki (Ποτοκάκι, το) 5601041102 122
Chora (Χώρα, η) 5601041101 1.218
Community Koumaradaioi 56010402 130
Koumaradaioi (Κουμαραδαίοι, οι) 5601040201 123
Μονή Μεγάλης Παναγίας, η 5601040202 7
Community Mavratzaioi 56010403 301
Gionides (Γιώνιδες, οι) 5601040302 49
Mavratzaioi (Μαυρατζαίοι, οι) 5601040301 249
Μονή Τιμίου Σταυρού, η 5601040303 3
Community Mesogeio 56010404 109
Mesogeio (Μεσόγειον, το) 5601040401 109
Community Myloi 56010405 248
Myloi (Μύλοι, οι) 5601040501 248
Community Pandroso 56010408 110
Pandroso (Πάνδροσον, το) 5601040801 110
Community Pyrgos 56010409 419
Pyrgos (Πύργος, ο) 5601040901 419
Community Spatharaioi 56010410 337
Avanti (Αβάντι, το) 5601041002 16
Apostolos Pavlos (Απόστολος Παύλος, ο) 5601041003 8
Vergi (Βεργή, η) 5601041004 13
Kalogeriko (Καλογερικό, το) 5601041005 9
Kyrgianni (Κύργιαννη, η) 5601041006 25
Limnonaki (Λιμνονάκι, το) 5601041007 14
Metochi (Μετόχι, το) 5601041008 0
Samiopoula (Σαμιοπούλα, η (νησίς)) 5601041009 4
Spatharaioi (Σπαθαραίοι, οι) 5601041001 236
Sykia (Συκιά, η) 5601041010 12

References

^ "Samos Climate Guide" - weather2travel.com
^ [1]
^ Hezekiah's Tunnel was first
^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "Samos". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
^ Kallikratis reform law textPDF

External material

Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (in German)
World Statesmen - Greece
Herodotus, especially book iii.
Pauly-Wissowa (in German, on Antiquity)
Strabo xiv. pp. 636–639
Thucydides, especially books i. and viii.
Xenophon, Hellenica, books i. ii.

Further reading

A. Agelarakis, "Anthropologic Results: The Geometric Period Necropolis at Pythagoreion". Archival Report. Samos Island Antiquities Authority, Greece, (2003).
J. P. Barron, The Silver Coins of Samos (London, 1966).
J. Boehlau, Aus ionischen and italischen Nekropolen (Leipzig, 1898). (E. H. B.; M. 0. B. C.; E. Ga.).
C. Curtius, Urkunden zur Geschichte von Samos (Wesel, 1873).
P. Gardner, Samos and Samian Coins (London, 1882).
V. Guérin, Description de l'île de Patmos et de l'île de Samos (Paris, 1856).
K. Hallof and A. P. Matthaiou (eds), Inscriptiones Chii et Sami cum Corassiis Icariaque (Inscriptiones Graecae, xii. 6. 1–2). 2 vols. (Berolini–Novi Eboraci: de Gruyter, 2000; 2004).
B. V. Head, Historia Numorum (Oxford, 1887), pp. 515–518.
L. E. Hicks and G. F. Hill, Greek Historical Inscriptions (Oxford, 1901), No. 81.
H. Kyrieleis, Führer durch das Heraion von Samos (Athen, 1981).
T. Panofka, Res Samiorum (Berlin, 1822).
T. J. Quinn, Athens and Samos, Chios and Lesbos (Manchester, 1981).
G. Shipley, A History of Samos 800–188 BC (Oxford, 1987).
R. Tölle-Kastenbein, Herodot und Samos (Bochum, 1976).
H. F. Tozer, Islands of the Aegean (London, 1890).
K. Tsakos, Samos: A Guide to the History and Archaeology (Athens, 2003).
H. Walter, Das Heraion von Samos (München, 1976).

Volumes of the Samos series of archaeological reports published by the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut.
1. V. Milojčić, Die prähistorische Siedlung unter dem Heraion (Bonn, 1961).
2. R. C. S. Felsch, Das Kastro Tigani (Bonn, 1988).
3. A. E. Furtwängler, Der Nordbau im Heraion von Samos (Bonn, 1989).
4. H. P. Isler, Das archaische Nordtor und seine Umgebung im Heraion von Samos (Bonn, 1978).
5. H. Walter, Frühe samische Gefäße (Bonn, 1968).
6.1. E. Walter-Karydi, Samische Gefäße des 6. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. (Bonn, 1973).
7. G. Schmidt, Kyprische Bildwerke aus dem Heraion von Samos (Bonn, 1968).
8. U. Jantzen, Ägyptische und orientalische Bronzen aus dem Heraion von Samos (Bonn, 1972).
9. U. Gehrikg, with G. Schneider, Die Greifenprotomen aus dem Heraion von Samos (Bonn, 2004).
10. H. Kyrieleis, Der große Kuros von Samos (Bonn, 1996).
11. B. Freyer-Schauenburg, Bildwerke der archaischen Zeit und des strengen Stils (Bonn, 1974).
12. R. Horn, Hellenistische Bildwerke auf Samos (Bonn, 1972).
14. R. Tölle-Kastenbein, Das Kastro Tigani (Bonn, 1974).
15. H. J. Kienast, Die Stadtmauer von Samos (Bonn, 1978).
16. W. Martini, Das Gymnasium von Samos (Bonn, 1984).
17. W. Martini and C. Streckner, Das Gymnasium von Samos: das frühbyzantinische Klostergut (Bonn, 1993).
18. V. Jarosch, Samische Tonfiguren aus dem Heraion von Samos (Bonn, 1994).
19. H. J. Kienast, Die Wasserleitung des Eupalinos auf Samos (Bonn, 1995).
20. U. Jantzen with W. Hautumm, W.-R. Megow, M. Weber, and H. J. Kienast, Die Wasserleitung des Eupalinos: die Funde (Bonn, 2004).
22. B. Kreuzer, Die attisch schwarzfigurige Keramik aus dem Heraion von Samos (Bonn, 1998).
24.1. T. Schulz with H. J. Kienast, Die römischen Tempel im Heraion von Samos: die Prostyloi (Bonn, 2002).
25. C. Hendrich, Die Säulenordnung des ersten Dipteros von Samos (Bonn, 2007).

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